A Computable General Equilibrium Model of the City with

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A Computable General Equilibrium Model of the City with Optimization of its Transportation Network: Impacts of Changes in Technology, Preferences, and Policy

DISSERTATION

Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University By Craig Thomas Olwert Graduate Program in City and Regional Planning

The Ohio State University 2010

Dissertation Committee: Jean-Michel Guldmann, Advisor Philip Viton Burkhard von Rabenau

Copyright by Craig Thomas Olwert 2010

Abstract This computable general equilibrium model determines the interactions of profitmaximizing firms from three different industries with each other and with utilitymaximizing residents. Using a fixed-point equilibrium methodology, the size and tolls for the transportation system are determined to minimize total transportation costs, including land costs, tolls, and the value of residential travel time. Three industries are modeled: manufacturing, retail, and services. Their interactions are determined by parameters derived from U.S. Input-Output data. Because the model includes multiple industries and the retail industry, three modes of traffic travel are evaluated: commuting traffic, shopping traffic, and freight traffic. Two technological changes are analyzed: smart transportation and changes in firms’ production functions. The model finds that smart transportation systems do save significant transportation costs, but provide only a slight increase in utility. As firms continue to use more services, the deficit dividend declines and the loss in utility levels is minimized. Resident preferences also change over time. The most beneficial change, in terms of decreasing deficit dividend and increasing utility levels, is an increased preference for leisure time. A desire for larger lots leads to population decentralization.

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Two policies are also reviewed: the closing of the trade deficit and zoning. When the trade deficit is closed, the manufacturing sector increases in size and industrial production decentralizes. Zoning can be modeled with only one restricted industry or multiple restricted industries, an extension in the literature. Residential-only zoning with a minimum land rent above zero creates a city with vacant land. Asymmetric zoning is found to have more negative effects on residents than symmetric zoning.

Keywords: computable general equilibrium model; input-output data; zoning; urban economics

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Dedicated to my parents, Ronald and Alexis Olwert

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Acknowledgments I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Jean-Michel Guldmann, for encouraging me to persevere, for providing advice on how to overcome hurdles, and for the great time and effort spent editing to perfect this dissertation. I would also like to thank Dr. Philip Viton and Dr. Burkhard von Rabenau for being on my committee and adding great insights and understanding to the model. I would like to thank the City and Regional Planning Section for insightful and interesting classes, for funding me as an intern, and for providing me the opportunity to teach in the section. I would like to thank the Department of Mathematics for many years of funding and for allowing me to develop my teaching skills. I would especially like to thank Cindy Bernlohr for being so flexible and for obtaining more funding than I expected. I would like to thank Ann Logan for her encouragement and good humor. I would like to thank my parents, Ronald and Alexis Olwert, my brother and sister-in-law, Eric and Jill Olwert, and my sister and brother-in-law, Jerron and Adrienne Schmoll. Their constant encouragement and comfort through some very challenging times is appreciated.

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Finally, I would like to thank some very dear friends: Paul and Edna Clark, Matthew and Sarah Kocher, Daniel Tyers, PhD, Jason and Jennifer Haugh, Jason Baker, and Jo Lyn Spillane. You have all taught me about life, have encouraged me, and have made the process a worthy endeavor.

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Vita September 1994 .............................................B.S. Chemical Engineering (summa cum laude), The Ohio State University 1994 to 2001 ..................................................Chemical Engineer and Internal Auditor, ExxonMobil June 2008 .......................................................M.C.R.P., The Ohio State University 2001 to 2003 ..................................................Intern, Public Utilities Commission of Ohio 2003 to present ...............................................Graduate Teaching Associate, Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University Summers 2002 to present ...............................Wilderness Ranger, U.S. Forest Service, Gardiner, Montana Spring 2009 ....................................................Graduate Instructor, City & Regional Planning, The Ohio State University

Fields of Study Major Field: City and Regional Planning Minor Fields: Urban Economics Mathematical Modeling vii

Table of Contents Abstract ............................................................................................................................... ii  Acknowledgments............................................................................................................... v  Vita .................................................................................................................................... vii  Table of Contents ............................................................................................................. viii  List of Tables ................................................................................................................... xiii  List of Figures ................................................................................................................... xx  CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 1  CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................... 6  2.1. POLYCENTRIC CITIES AND AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES ................... 6  2.2. URBAN PLANNING ISSUES AND URBAN ECONOMIC MODELS.............. 14  2.3. CLASSIFICATIONS OF URBAN ECONOMIC MODELS ................................ 21  2.4. URBAN MODELING DECISIONS...................................................................... 26  2.4.1. City Form......................................................................................................... 26  2.4.2. Open and Closed Cities ................................................................................... 32 

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2.4.3. Firms and Production Functions ...................................................................... 33  2.4.4. Retail Industry ................................................................................................. 39  2.4.5. Residents and Utility ....................................................................................... 43  2.4.6. Transportation System ..................................................................................... 47  2.5. SUMMARY AND SHORTCOMINGS ................................................................. 49  CHAPTER 3: CONCEPTUAL MODEL FRAMEWORK.............................................. 53  3.1. MODEL OVERVIEW ........................................................................................... 53  3.2. CITY PHYSICAL FORM ...................................................................................... 58  3.3. RESIDENTS .......................................................................................................... 59  3.4. FIRMS .................................................................................................................... 63  3.5. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS .................................................................................. 65  3.6. TRANSPORTATION ............................................................................................ 67  3.7. RENT AND DEFICIT DIVIDENDS..................................................................... 71  3.8. LAND AND LABOR AVAILABILITY ............................................................... 73  CHAPTER 4: MODEL FORMULATION ...................................................................... 74  4.1. INDICES ................................................................................................................ 74  4.2. RESIDENTS .......................................................................................................... 76  4.3. FIRMS .................................................................................................................... 88  4.4. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS .................................................................................. 97  ix

4.5. TRANSPORTATION ............................................................................................ 99  4.6. RENT AND DEFICIT DIVIDENDS................................................................... 104  4.7. LAND AND LABOR AVAILABILITY ............................................................. 105  4.8. ZERO FLOWS ..................................................................................................... 105  4.9. INDICES, PARAMETERS, AND VARIABLES................................................ 106  4.9.1. Indices............................................................................................................ 106  4.9.2. Parameters ..................................................................................................... 106  4.9.3. Variables ........................................................................................................ 107  4.10. VARIABLES AND EQUATIONS .................................................................... 108  CHAPTER 5: MODEL IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................. 112  5.1. GENERAL COMPUTATION PROCEDURE .................................................... 112  5.2. MODELING METHODOLOGY CONSIDERATIONS ..................................... 115  5.3. GAMS CODING .................................................................................................. 116  CHAPTER 6: DATA AND INPUTS ............................................................................ 124  6.1. LITERATURE SOURCES .................................................................................. 124  6.2. APPROXIMATION AND TESTING ................................................................. 126  6.3. INPUT-OUTPUT TABLE ................................................................................... 127  6.3.1. Sector Classification ...................................................................................... 128  6.3.2. Table Simplification ...................................................................................... 128  x

6.3.3. Production Function Factors.......................................................................... 141  CHAPTER 7: MODEL RESULTS................................................................................ 143  7.1. BASE CASE SCENARIO ................................................................................... 143  7.1.1. Parameter Inputs ............................................................................................ 143  7.1.2. General City Structure ................................................................................... 146  7.1.3. Resident Equilibrium ..................................................................................... 148  7.1.4. Firm Equilibrium ........................................................................................... 152  7.1.5. Imports/Exports ............................................................................................. 156  7.1.6. Transportation................................................................................................ 159  7.2. SENSITIVITY ANALYSES................................................................................ 165  7.2.1. Technological Changes.................................................................................. 165  7.2.2. Resident Preferences...................................................................................... 190  7.2.3. Public Policy Impacts .................................................................................... 202  CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................... 214  BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................... 219  APPENDIX A: GAMS CODING.................................................................................. 227  A.1. SIMPLIFIED GAMS CODING .......................................................................... 227  A.2. COMPLETE GAMS CODING ........................................................................... 237 

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APPENDIX B: DETAILED MODEL OUTPUT AND EQUATION VERIFICATION............................................................................................................. 271 

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List of Tables Table 2.1. Use of Open and Closed Cities in the Modeling Literature .............................34 Table 2.2. How Different Models Account for the Retail Industry ..................................41 Table 4.1. Variables and Number of Permutations .........................................................109 Table 4.2. Equation Used and Number of Permutations ................................................110 Table 6.1. Bureau of Economic Analysis Commodity Codes and Labels ......................129 Table 6.2. Aggregated Input-Output Data (Billions of Dollars) .....................................130 Table 6.3. Input-Output Table with Farms and Mining Inputs Redefined as Exports (Billions of Dollars) ....................................................................................133 Table 6.4. Input-Output with Farms and Mining Inputs Redefined as Imports (Billions of Dollars) .......................................................................................................135 Table 6.5. Input-Output with Farms and Mining Personal Consumption Re-classified to Retail (Billions of Dollars)..........................................................................135 Table 6.6. Input-Output with Farms and Mining Removed (Billions of Dollars) ..........136 Table 6.7. Input-Output with Farms and Mining GDP Adjustment (Billions of Dollars) ....................................................................................138

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Table 6.8. Input-Output with Part of the Land Industry Reclassified as Services (Billions of Dollars) ...................................................................................................140 Table 6.9. Final Input-Output Table (Billions of Dollars) ..............................................140 Table 6.10. Cobb-Douglas Production and Utility Factors.............................................141 Table 6.11. Final Cobb-Douglas Production and Utility Factors ...................................142 Table 7.1. Active Zone (AZlx,l) Indicators in the Base Case Scenario ............................144 Table 7.2. Cobb-Douglas Coefficients for Industries and Workers in the Base Case Scenario.......................................................................................................144 Table 7.3. Remaining Parameters for the Base Case Scenario .......................................145 Table 7.4. Land Use and Rent for the Base Case Scenario.............................................146 Table 7.5. Employees and Land Use per Employee in the Base Case Scenario.............147 Table 7.6. Utility, Leisure Time, and Work Hours by Employee Type .........................150 Table 7.7. Lot Size, Population, and Actual Income by Employee Type .......................151 Table 7.8. Price of Goods in Each Zone by Industry (MU) ............................................156 Table 7.9. Values of Imported Goods .............................................................................156 Table 7.10. Value of Exported Goods ............................................................................158 Table 7.11. Interzonal Traffic Flows (car equivalents/rush hour) ..................................159 Table 7.12. U.S. Department of Transportation 2009 Traffic Flow Data for the State of Ohio.............................................................................................................163 xiv

Table 7.13. Transportation System Statistics ..................................................................163 Table 7.14. Interzonal Travel Times and Tolls ...............................................................164 Table 7.15. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for a 50% Increase in ζ ................................................................................................167 Table 7.16. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for an Increase in λ from 0.8 to 1.0 ......................................................................................168 Table 7.17. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for a Decrease in r from 4 to 3 ............................................................................................170 Table 7.18. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for a Decrease in b from 0.15 to 0.10..................................................................................172 Table 7.19. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for truck Decreasing from 3 to 2 ................................................................................174 Table 7.20. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for tunit Increasing from 5 to 7 .................................................................................176 Table 7.21. C-D Exponents with a 10% Increase in Manufactured Goods Exponents....................................................................................................177 Table 7.22. Effects on Residents and Firms of an Increase of 10% in the Manufactured Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents .............................................178 Table 7.23. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of an Increase of 10% in the Manufactured Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents ...179 xv

Table 7.24. C-D Exponents with a 10% Increase in Retail Goods Exponents ...............180 Table 7.25. Effects on Residents and Firms of an Increase of 10% in the Retail Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents ........................................................181 Table 7.26. Effects on the Transportation System and Import/Exports of an Increase of 10% in the Retail Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents ................182 Table 7.27. C-D Exponents with a 10% Increase in Service Goods Exponents .............183 Table 7.28. Effects on Residents and Firms of an Increase of 10% in the Service Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents ........................................................184 Table 7.29. Effects on the Transportation System and Import/Exports of an Increase of 10% in the Service Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents ..............185 Table 7.30. C-D Exponents with a 10% Increase in Labor Exponents...........................186 Table 7.31. Effects on Residents and Firms of an Increase of 10% in the Labor C-D Production Functions Exponents ................................................................187 Table 7.32. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of an Increase of 10% in the Labor C-D Production Functions Exponents............................188 Table 7.33. Effects of Transportation Technology Changes ..........................................189 Table 7.34. Effects of Firms’ Technology Changes on the Economy ............................190 Table 7.35. C-D Utility Exponents with Changes in Resident Preferences....................191 Table 7.36. Effects on Residents and Firms of a 10% Increase in Residents Preference for Leisure ...................................................................................................192 xvi

Table 7.37. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Leisure ..............................................................193 Table 7.38. Effects on Residents and Firms of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Lot Size .......................................................................................................194 Table 7.39. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Lot Size ............................................................195 Table 7.40. Effects on Residents and Firms of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Retail Goods................................................................................................197 Table 7.41. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Retail Goods .....................................................198 Table 7.42. Effects on Residents and Firms of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Service Goods .............................................................................................199 Table 7.43. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Service Goods ..................................................200 Table 7.44. Effect on City Form and Economy with Change in Resident Preferences ..201 Table 7.45. Import and Export Factors for a Zero Trade Deficit Scenario .....................203 Table 7.46. Effects on Residents and Firms of a Zero Trade Deficit .............................204 Table 7.47. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a Zero Trade Deficit .........................................................................................................205 Table 7.48. Zoning Policy Effects on Land Use and Rents ............................................207 Table 7.49. Zoning Effects on Residents ........................................................................210

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Table B.1. Utility Calculations, Eq. (4.1) .......................................................................280 Table B.2. Verification of Total Income, Eq. (4.27).......................................................282 Table B.3. Verification of Lotsize, Eq. (4.29) ................................................................283 Table B.4. Verification of Leisure Time, Eq. (4.30).......................................................285 Table B.5. Residential Shopping, Eq. (4.31) ..................................................................287 Table B.6. Length of Work Day, Eq. (4.32) ...................................................................312 Table B.7. Utility Eq. (4.38) ...........................................................................................313 Table B.8. Population Assignment, Eq. (4.41) ...............................................................316 Table B.9. Goods Purchased by Workers, Eq. (4.42) .....................................................318 Table B.10. Production by Firms, Eq. (4.46) ..................................................................320 Table B.11. Verification of Landused by Firms, Eq. (4.59) ...........................................321 Table B.12. Verification of Labor Used by Firms, Eq. (4.60) ........................................322 Table B.13. Input of Goods to Firms, Eq. (4.67) ............................................................323 Table B.14. Firm Prices, Eq. (4.73) ............................................................................... 330 Table B.15. Export Volumes, Eq. (4.77) ....................................................................... 332 Table B.16. Total Exports, Eq. (4.78) ............................................................................ 333 Table B.17. Import Balance, Eq. (4.79) ......................................................................... 334 Table B.18. Interzonal Flows Origination, Eq. (4.80) ................................................... 335 Table B.19. Total Flow, Eqs. (4.84) and (4.85) ............................................................. 342 Table B.20. Capacity Verification, Eq. (4.86) ............................................................... 343 Table B.21. Travel Time across Zones, Eq. (4.87) ........................................................ 343 Table B.22. Calculation of Travel Time between Zones, Eqs. (4.88) and (4.89) .......... 344 xviii

Table B.23. Tolls between Zones, Eqs. (4.90) and (4.91) ............................................. 345 Table B.24. Total Toll Revenue, Eq. (4.92)................................................................... 346 Table B.25. Total Transportation Cost Calculations, Eq. (4.94) ................................... 346 Table B.26. Rent Dividend, Eq. (4.95) .......................................................................... 372 Table B.27. Deficit Dividend, Eq. (4.96)....................................................................... 373 Table B.28. Total Land Use, Eq. (4.97) ......................................................................... 375 Table B.29. Labor Balance for Each Firm, Eq. (4.98) ................................................... 376 Table B.30. Zero Flow Equations, Eqs. (4.99 – 4.102) ................................................. 377

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List of Figures

Figure 2.1. City Forms ......................................................................................................27 Figure 2.2. Zhang and Sasaki’s (1997) Modified Linear City ..........................................28 Figure 3.1. Flows of Goods...............................................................................................55 Figure 3.2. Flows of People ..............................................................................................56 Figure 3.3. Flows of Money..............................................................................................57 Figure 3.4. Flows of Time.................................................................................................58 Figure 3.5. City Layout and Hypothetical Land Uses in Each Zone ................................59 Figure 4.1. Representation of Zone Indices ......................................................................74 Figure 4.2. Possible Traffic Flows Affecting Zone 3 .....................................................101 Figure 5.1. Model Calculation Process ...........................................................................113 Figure 5.2. Transportation Cost “While Loop” GAMS Coding .....................................117 Figure 5.3. Land, Labor, and Import Balance “While Loop” GAMS Coding ................118 Figure 5.4. Wage Rate Adjustment “Loop” GAMS Coding ..........................................120 Figure 5.5. Land Rent Adjustment “Loop” GAMS Coding ...........................................121 Figure 5.6. Import Price Adjustment “Loop” GAMS Coding ........................................122 xx

Figure 7.1. Land Use by Zone in the Base Case Scenario ..............................................146 Figure 7.2. Income and Expenditures per Employee ......................................................148 Figure 7.3. Zonal Income and Expenditures per Employee............................................149 Figure 7.4. Average Zonal Revenues and Input Expenditures by Industry ....................153 Figure 7.5. Average Zonal Input Shares by Industry ......................................................153 Figure 7.6. Manufacturing Inputs by Firm Location ......................................................154 Figure 7.7. Retail Inputs by Firm Location.....................................................................154 Figure 7.8. Service Firm Inputs by Firm Location .........................................................155 Figure 7.9. Disposition of Imported Goods to Industries and Zones within the City .....157 Figure 7.10. Zonal Sources of Exported Goods to Each Port (1 and 7) by Good Type .159 Figure 7.11. Zonal Traffic Flow by Source ....................................................................160 Figure 7.12. Zonal Traffic Flow by Traffic Type ...........................................................161 Figure 7.13. Zonal Traffic Flow by Source and Traffic Type ........................................161 Figure 7.14. Zonal Traffic Flow Composition ................................................................162 Figure 7.15. Land Use with Scenario A (Manufacturing Restriction in Zones 3 and 5).............................................................................................208 Figure 7.16. Land Use with Scenario B (Residential-Only Zoning in Zones 3 and 5) .. 208 Figure 7.17. Land Use with Scenario C (Residential-Only Zoning in Zones 2 and 3) .. 209 xxi

Figure 7.18. Zonal Traffic Flows with Scenario A (Manufacturing Restrictions in Zones 3 and 5) ...................................................................................................... 212 Figure 7.19. Zonal Traffic Flows with Scenario B (Resident-Only Restrictions in Zones 3 and 5) ...................................................................................................... 212 Figure 7.20. Zonal Traffic Flows with Scenario C (Resident-Only Restrictions in Zones 2 and 3) ...................................................................................................... 213

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Cities are complex organizations that have evolved to improve the living conditions of residents. Residents and firms are the main agents that interact amongst themselves and with a government that creates and maintains transportation and other infrastructures, and various public services. As the number of agents increases, so do the number of interactions and the complexity of the system. Economists have developed many different models to explain city formation and the interactions between agents. Partial equilibrium models are more common, due to their simplifying assumptions (Anas, 1987). They may model commuting patterns of residents with firm locations fixed at the Central Business District (CBD) (Pines and Sadka, 1986) or at the CBD and Suburban Business District (SBD) (Henderson and Mitra, 1996; Zhang and Sasaki, 1997), or they model firms’ freight movements without consideration of employee locations and travel (Solow and Vickrey, 1971). General equilibrium models are more comprehensive, as they allow for interactions between both residents and firms, and therefore better represent the complexities of the city. The difficult issue is then the computation of these interactions. Because of these multiple interactions, it is not usually possible to derive explicit formulas that represent the 1

behavior of the city, as is the case with partial equilibrium models. A computational approach is therefore frequently taken to deal with general equilibrium models, whereby the equilibrium structure of the city is calculated via computer modeling. Residents and firms are the two main agents whose behaviors are modeled. Modelers typically assume that residents are price-takers and maximize their utility. The components of resident utility vary, but typical variables include lot size, good purchases, and leisure time. In the model proposed in this research, good purchases include both retail and service goods. Residents usually incur transportation costs, which determine their willingness to pay for land and goods. Most models limit the number of industries to one (Anas and Rhee, 2006; Anas and Xu, 1999; Fujita and Ogawa, 1982; Sasaki and Mun, 1996), and sometimes just to one firm. This simplification greatly simplifies the interactions within the city. Anas and Kim (1996) derived a model that could use multiple industries, but finally developed a computable model that had only one industry. Hartwick and Hartwick (1974) did successfully model three unspecified industries, but in an allocation optimization framework rather than a general equilibrium one. The proposed model specifies three industries (manufacturing, retail, and services) whose interaction parameters are derived from U.S. Input-Output data. One interesting feature of the model is the inclusion of an explicit retail sector. Most general equilibrium models do not explicitly account for shopping, and those that do only allow purchases from the one industry, essentially from the factory. There is another modeling literature stream on the retail industry, but these models focus on the interactions between consumers and retailers, and do not include the 2

behavior of residents as workers (Konishi, 2005; Konishi and Sandfort, 2003; Oppenheim, 1991). A major advantage of including all three industries is that the model accounts for freight flows, as goods are shipped between firms, which cannot be modeled with only one industry. A major responsibility of the government is to develop an appropriate-size transportation network. As is typical in many models, governments choose to minimize transportation costs, which includes land costs, travel tolls, and the cost of commuting and shopping travel time. Unlike most earlier models, and because of the inclusion of multiple industries, freight, commuting and shopping travel flows can all be simultaneously determined and used in sizing the network. Because of the greater complexity of this model, the effects of changes in technology, preferences, and policy can be better explained. The changes in technology include the development of a smart transportation system and the effects of change in firms’ production functions. Smart transportation systems use computer technology to allow vehicles to travel with smaller spacing between vehicles, effectively increasing the capacity of the existing road network. The model is capable of determining both the cost savings associated with the implementation of such a system and the effects on resident utility levels. As for firms’ production functions, they have changed over time with the changing economy. Services have become a larger component of inputs to all industries, and this trend is likely to continue. Changes in the preferences of residents impact their work behavior, shopping patterns, and choices of housing locations. In the past decade, there has been a trend for 3

residents to move back downtown, where they can maximize the value of their time due to saved transportation costs. The model can mimic the behavior whereby residents desire more leisure time. Finally, policy changes, including closing the trade deficit and zoning, can be modeled. The literature does not explicitly account for a money balance when looking at the city economy, and as a result has not considered the effects of a trade deficit on city form. This model had included the effects of the trade deficit, and uses Input-Output data to model deficit levels. As a result, the model can also determine the effects on city form of closing the trade deficit. While policy changes would most likely be dealt with at a national level, the effects will still be experienced locally. The other policy, zoning, is a policy tool for local planners. Earlier models have not usually accounted for the effect of zoning, although Sullivan (1986) did include the effects of limiting maximum commercial development in the CBD and having minimum lot size requirements in the suburban areas. This model can explicitly model zoning in a single zone, and its impacts on the rest of the city. With multiple industries, the model can selectively zone out specific industries. The remainder of this dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter 2 is a literature review of the various urban phenomena identified by researchers and the urban economic models used to explain them. Chapter 3 outlines the assumptions and basic equations used in the model. Chapter 4 presents the detailed derivations and equations of the model. Chapter 5 outlines the computational procedure to numerically solve the model, as implemented in GAMS. Chapter 6 explains how the data inputs to the model 4

were derived, either from the literature or from the U.S. input-output transactions table. Chapter 7 presents model results and policy analyses. Chapter 8 concludes and outlines areas for future research.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW There is a very large literature on theoretical and empirical urban economic models that attempt to explain city form, including static general equilibrium, dynamic, microsimulation, rule-based, and New Economic Geography (NEG) models. The empirical evidence for polycentric cities and agglomeration economies is first discussed. Next, the different urban planning issues accounted for in urban economic models are reviewed. The different types of urban economic models, including the Spatial Impossibility Theorem of Starrett, and different methods used to achieve spatial equilibrium are then discussed. The various decisions that modelers make to design urban economic models are next analyzed, and, finally, the literature is summarized with a particular focus on its gaps and deficiencies.

2.1. POLYCENTRIC CITIES AND AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES Cities have been considered monocentric up to the mid-twentieth century, with their market, port (or train station), and all (or most) employment opportunities located downtown. The classic von Thunen theoretical model for delineating agricultural land uses has been used in the Alonso-Mills-Muth models to describe the internal structure of 6

the city (Alonso, 1964; Mills, 1967; Muth 1969). These models assume that transportation costs are the driving force for changes in land costs and for density of land use. Land rent at the edge of the city equals the agricultural land rent, whereas, at the center of the city, it equals the agricultural land rent plus the transportation costs saved by not commuting. Therefore, the larger the radius of the city, the higher the central land rent. Many of the basic model assumptions have been modified, providing a sufficient understanding of city structure until the mid-twentieth century. After World War II, as the interstate highway system started reducing transport costs and federal tax support for single family homeownership did the same for housing costs, metropolitan areas started expanding; it became desirable for retailers to relocate closer to their customers. Des Rosiers et al. (2005) find that wealthier neighborhoods purchase more goods, allowing higher retail rents and inducing retail development in or near these neighborhoods. Similarly, industrial and office employment moved out of central business districts (CBDs) to suburban areas. Manufacturers modified their production practices, and, with greater automation, needed single-story factories rather than the multi-story factories and warehouses of the past. This led to greater land demand, and, with cheaper truck transportation costs, it became advantageous for manufacturers to move to the city’s edge rather than remain in the CBD. Dietz’s (1998) empirical analysis of intra-urban population and employment shifts in Boston, between 1980 and 1990, shows that employers locate near their employees, but that the reverse is not true. As suburban areas grew, employers moved closer to their employees.

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Researchers recognize that the monocentric city model may no longer be applicable due to the above changes. Odland (1978) analyzes the difference between the actual population density and the density predicted by the best-fit monocentric model, to determine if the monocentric description is still adequate. Using 1960 and 1970 Census data for Indianapolis (Indiana), Columbus (Ohio), Dayton (Ohio), and Fort Wayne (Indiana), he concludes that only Dayton can be described as a monocentric city in 1960. More recent empirical research has focused on identifying subcenters that would support the polycentric hypothesis. A major difficulty is in the definition of a subcenter. Craig and Ng (2001) use quintile smoothing splines of employment density to identify the distances from the CBD where the density increases rather than decreases, as expected with a monocentric city. They then identify subcenters as the densest employment zones at those distances. Data for Houston, Texas, shows that the overall employment density is still highest in the CBD. Giuliano and Small (1991), using transportation analysis zones (TAZ) data for Los Angeles, define subcenters by using both employment density and total employment: this definition requires a minimum density of 10 employees per acre and a contiguous zone with at least 10,000 employees (except for surrounding counties, where the total employment threshold is set at 7,000). They find that these subcenters can be classified by their functions, but that the distance from downtown Los Angeles still has a large effect on overall employment density. McMillen and McDonald (1998), in studying Chicago, use the same subcenter definition as Giuliano and Small, but increase the minimum required density to 20 employees per acres in the O’Hare Airport and Evanston areas, because the high employment densities in these areas would 8

otherwise lead to one contiguous subcenter. Gordon et al. (1986) identify subcenters in Los Angeles using a two-stage process. First, a density map is used to identify possible subcenters. Second, density gradients are estimated with nonlinear least squares regression. Centers with very steep density gradients are removed, leaving only subcenters that have a far-reaching effect on overall city form. The polycentric model is found to provide a better explanation of employment and population distribution than the monocentric one. Dunphy (1982) defines subcenters (regional employment centers) as having a minimum of 5,000 jobs over a maximum of 700 acres, as long as there are multiple region-serving employers. This definition is expanded to include areas with only one employer when there are over 10,000 employees. Heikkila et al. (1989), using a hedonic regression model of housing prices, identify subcenters based on whether the distance to subcenters is statistically significant using stepwise regression. They delineate 8 important subcenters and find that distance to the CBD is not a significant determinant of housing prices. All the above studies suggest that cities are best described as polycentric, but the CBD is still the densest and most expensive area. The polycentric assumption leads to the question of whether residents choose their housing locations to minimize their transportation costs. Gordon et al. (1986) find that intra-county trips to subcenters are much shorter than to the CBD, but that intercountry trips are much longer for surrounding counties, resulting in an overall higher average trip length for surrounding counties. This result suggests that residents do not choose their housing locations only to minimize transport costs.

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As discussed earlier,

Dietz (1998) finds that employers follow employees, which would mean that transport cost minimization is not pursued by individual households. While the literature suggests a consensus towards a polycentric model, the reasons for that city structure are not fully understood. Agglomeration economies are presented as the main reason. As people and firms achieve closer proximity to one another, better employment matching, increasing skill and technology spillovers, and better inputs to production become available. The initial location of a city is frequently due to a natural advantage, for instance, access to a natural resource or a good transportation location (e.g., ports and harbors). However, the continued growth of the city is fueled by agglomeration economies. Some economies of scale are internal to the firm, so that each firm develops a larger, more complex, and more profitable factory. These large factories lead to the growth of the city, but cannot adequately explain the growth of large metropolises. External economies of scale are usually identified as either localization or urbanization economies. Localization economies help an industry become more efficient by pooling similar firms that use specialized labor and inputs. A specialized labor force makes it easier to hire workers who have the necessary skills, and there is less risk for the employee of not finding a replacement job. Specialized inputs are beneficial, because a company can make a unique input for an industry, and, with enough customers in the area, can mass produce it and increase profitability while reducing costs. These two forces allow a city to become specialized in one or two industries, but still grow and achieve a large size. Urbanization economies occur when there is a large market: a large customer base, a variety of goods (and culture), and information spillovers. A company 10

located in an urban area automatically has a large market with minimal transportation costs. If a product is particularly expensive to ship, being close to customers is advantageous, and economies of scale will only be realized in a large city. For the consumer, a large city provides a greater variety of goods, as there are more specialized retailers, who could not be supported by a small city. A large city has enough people interested in supporting museums and sports facilities, increasing cultural and recreational goods, whereas a small city may not have the necessary critical mass. Lastly, information spillovers occur in large cities. As friends and neighbors from different fields meet, they talk about their lives and their livelihoods. These discussions help spread useful ideas across industries. These flows are more likely to occur in a large city, increasing the productivity and profitability of all the city’s companies. While reasonable causes for agglomeration economies are easy to hypothesize, it is difficult to show empirically that they indeed do occur. Andersson et al. (2007) demonstrate that better labor matching in urban areas (in contrast to rural areas) does increase urban productivity and confirm the hypothesis that a specialized labor force affects localization economies. These economies are found in all major industries, except wholesale trade. California and Florida counties are used as units of analysis. Fu (2007) finds that external economies of scale lead to an increase in wages, using 1990 Census data for Boston, Massachusetts. The human capital depth, proxied by the share of college-degreed workers, has a positive effect on wages, but this effect quickly declines beyond three miles from the work site. A specialized labor force, proxied by the percentages of occupational and industrial specialization, has a positive effect on wages, 11

but this effect quickly declines beyond 1.5 miles for occupational specialization, and beyond 6 miles for industrial specialization. Information spillovers, proxied by an industrial diversity index, have a positive effect on wages, but this effect quickly declines beyond 6 miles. The occupation diversity becomes significant only at a distance of 9 miles, suggesting that the diversity of the greater city does influence the wages of a given zone. However, these wages are not influenced by the diversity of closer zones. The diversity index is calculated as one minus the Herfindahl index, which is the sum of the squared shares of occupation or industry. It has a value of 1 if there is only one occupation or industry in a given zone. The thickness of a labor market, proxied by employment density of occupation and industry, has a positive effect on wages, but that effect quickly declines beyond 1.5 miles for occupational employment density and beyond 3 miles for industrial density. Hanink (2006), using regression analysis with income as the dependent variable, finds that urbanization economies, proxied by total population, and localization economies, proxied by the location quotients of industries, do not spill over to neighboring counties in the New England region. Each industry within a county experiences increasing returns to scale due to urbanization economies, but only the Financial, Insurance and Real Estate (FIRE) industry experiences increasing returns to scale due to localization economies. This study suggests that distances for spillover effects are not very large (basically within a county). Using fixed effects, LaFountain (2005) regresses residential land prices on three key variables: productivity (as measured by the Bureau of Labor Statistics across the 12

nation by industry), employment share for each county of each industry studied, and diversity of employment, using the Herfindahl index. The research objective is to determine if companies in seventeen different industries chose their location because of natural advantage (proximity to inputs), market access (proximity to outputs), localization economies (proximity to similar firms), or urbanization economies (proximity to diverse employment mix). Most firms choose their location based on natural advantage. Market access influences the food, primary metals, fabricated metals, and transportation equipment industries. The apparel, furniture and fixtures, and miscellaneous manufacturing industries benefit from urbanization economies. The methodology is interesting, but does not include important urban industries, such as retail, wholesale, services, and FIRE. Therefore this model provides an incomplete description of how agglomeration factors affect city formation. Van Soest et al. (2006) evaluate employment growth and formation of new firms over a 10-year period in South Holland, The Netherlands. The geographical units of analysis are zip codes (average of 6 km2). The results indicate that industrial diversity and the presence of many small firms within a zip code increase employment growth and new firm formation in that zip code. Industrial concentration increases the birth of new firms within a zip code, but is also correlated to birth of firms outside that zip code. This study suggests that agglomeration effects do exist, but impact only a small area (within a zip code). The above analyses suggest that agglomeration economies have a limited reach (a couple of miles at most), and support the hypothesis that subcenters will form and will be 13

specialized to attain agglomeration economies within a large metropolitan area. Giuliano and Small (1991), in their analysis of subcenters in Los Angeles, identified five types of subcenters: specialized manufacturing, mixed industrial, mixed service, specialized entertainment, and specialized service. While this study does not identify the causes for subcenter formation, the classification suggests that subcenters have specialized labor forces and industrial concentrations. Because subcenters are geographically small, this study implies that agglomeration economies affect only local areas in a metropolis. Similarly, McMillen and McDonald (1998) group subcenters into six categories: old satellite cities, old industrial suburbs, post World War II industrial suburbs, new industrial/retail suburbs, Edge Cities, and service and retail centers. The fact that Chicago has twenty identified subcenters implies that the agglomeration economies instrumental in forming subcenters only affect a small area (the subcenter) and do not benefit the rest of the city. Subcenters should be expected in geographically large metropolitan areas.

2.2. URBAN PLANNING ISSUES AND URBAN ECONOMIC MODELS Urban economic models use insights from empirical research to (1) provide explanations of observed city growth patterns and (2) help determine the effects of different policies. One major question studied is: Why do cities form? The modeling literature focuses on agglomeration economies and the minimization of transport costs. Not only has city development and growth been modeled, but sprawl, Edge Cities, formation of satellite cities, and leapfrogging have also been studied. Policies to limit 14

sprawl, such as Urban Growth Boundaries, have also been modeled. Other modeling topics include gentrification and housing affordability. The reasons why a city forms are important in order to understand what will happen in the future. Natural advantage is the main reason a city forms where it does. A common example: cities form at natural harbors and ports. However, most urban economic models assume von Thunen’s flat featureless plain, and therefore do not model natural advantages. Berliant and Konishi (2000) do model natural advantage by allowing for exogenous variations in development costs for markets and mass transit between markets. In their model, people, endowed with land and labor, maximize their consumption. Residents choose their home location and the market location where they will sell their goods, considering costly transport. Residents also pay for the setup of the markets and transport system. By varying the setup costs of market and transit between markets, the population distribution, land rents, and number of marketplaces will vary. Increased transportation costs increase population density. This model shows that natural advantage can be economically modeled and explains why cities form in certain locations. Another main reason for the formation of cities is that agglomeration creates economies of scales that increase resident well-being. Two different types of agglomeration economies have been considered for the monocentric city: monopolistic competition and external economies of production. The monopolistic competition model requires two industries: one producing the final export good and represented by a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) function, and a service industry producing the 15

input for the export good industry, and represented by a linear increasing-returns-to-scale production function

(2.1) where qi is the quantity produced by firm i; Li is the amount of labor used by firm i; f is a fixed labor requirement; and c is the marginal labor requirement. The external economies model has an export good produced by many firms enjoying agglomeration benefits due to the additional firms. The external economies model achieves an optimal city size without subsidies, whereas the monopolistic competition model requires subsidies to firms and residents in order to achieve the highest utility and optimal city size (AbdelRahman and Fujita, 1990). However, agglomeration economies may not be sufficient for all employment to be centralized, and subcenters may form, as Chen (1996) shows with a dynamic model with both agglomeration economies and diseconomies of scale. Suedekum (2006) recognizes that Krugman’s New Economic Geography (NEG) model reduces the cost of living in cities because of increased variety (monopolistic competition), which is in conflict with the observed higher costs of living in large cities. He modifies the model by including an immobile manufacturing sector into the standard model of immobile agricultural and mobile agglomerative manufacturing sectors, allowing for the occurrence of higher costs of living in the city. While there are agglomerative economies that benefit the entire economy and the city in general, the immobile manufacturing sector experiences a fall in real wages.

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The realization that cities are polycentric has led modelers to assess how and why these subcenters form. In a model that does not account for land used by industry, Zhang and Sasaki (1997) find that utility levels increase and land rent decreases the farther the suburban business district is from the CBD. Sasaki (1990) models agglomeration economies by requiring business communications with a local trading floor (the CBD and the suburban center) and a global trading floor (the CBD only), and finds that the city’s utility and area increase when a suburban subcenter is formed. Using trading floor agglomeration or just agglomeration based on the total number of firms in the city, Sasaki and Mun (1996) find that subcenter formation and resident dispersion depend on commuting costs, lot sizes, and inter-firm communication costs. The trading floor model is needed to have residents commute through the suburban center to the CBD. Fujita and Ogawa (1982) use agglomeration economies, based on a firm locational potential, to model monocentric, duocentric and tricentric linear cities. As the parameters change, the city undergoes catastrophic changes instead of a gradual transition. Development may suddenly stop in one location and start in another. Areas that were thriving may be abandoned as the city form quickly changes. The timing of subcenter or satellite city formation is analyzed by Anas and Xiong (2005), who determine what type of subcenter will form: diversified or specialized in manufacturing or services. Specialized subcenters form without a developer, whereas diversified subcenters require developer (or planner) intervention. All these models assume that the market has many land owners and developers who compete. However, as the Edge Cities literature suggests, an Edge City often has one developer, and is a subcenter. 17

When Edge Cities are modeled with one developer, the problem turns into an optimization for the developer. Henderson and Mitra (1996) model both the size and location of the optimal edge city that will compete with the passive central city. The Edge City is built by one developer maximizing profit, whereas the central city is owned by many land holders. Agglomeration economies are based on the distance between and the sizes of the central city and the Edge City. The model suggests strategies to defend against another Edge City being built by another developer. Instead of an Edge City, sometimes an entirely new city forms. With the shift to a service economy, increased specialization, and reduced communication costs, some cities specialize while others continue to grow and diversify. With companies dividing into distinct headquarters and manufacturing facilities, and with decreasing transportation costs, cities specialize into large, multi-sector headquarter cities, or into small single-sector manufacturing cities, largely due to the higher agglomeration economies of business services in contrast to manufacturing (Duranton and Puga, 2005). However, Abdel-Rahman (1990), using a modified monocentric model, shows that a two-city system has a larger specialized city (producing one good) as compared to a diversified city, unless one good has decreasing returns in production. In this model, a city produces one or two goods, with one good being the input to the production of the urbanization good. This model also analyzes how developer behavior affects the two-city system. In a different monocentric city model of two cities, consumer variety increasing the utility of residents and increasing returns to scale for producers (with the only input being labor) can generate growth, but do not necessarily 18

lead to one of the two cities losing all its population to the other, because of the eventual overwhelming diseconomies of congestion (Abdel-Rahman, 1988). So, multiple city systems do develop and can lead to contradictory results. The models show that cities with larger areas have higher utility levels, consistent with the observation of sprawl in American cities. Brasington (2001) develops a dynamic model with leapfrogging in quickly growing cities with small independent land owners, but without leapfrogging in slowly growing cities. However, Capozza and Helsley (1990) are unable to simulate leapfrogging in their dynamic model, and demonstrate that uncertainty in resident income delays conversion of land from agricultural to urban use, reduces expected city size, and imparts an option value to agricultural land. Creating uncertainty in resident income may reduce sprawl, but this does not seem like a desirable policy. A standard policy for controlling sprawl is an Urban Growth Boundary (UGB). Anas and Rhee (2007) find that UGBs are inefficient when compared to congestion tolls, which generally increase the overall city radius. Their model allows for crosscommuting between the city/suburb zones instead of having a standard monocentric model with all residents commuting to the city center, in which case the UGB is efficient. Anas and Rhee (2006) find UGBs to be ineffective, compared to a congestion toll established to eliminate excess sprawl. Their model is a spatial equilibrium one, where land is allowed to be used for transportation, housing, and production. Travel tolls cause firms to leave the central city because of the resulting higher wages required for their employees, but this migration is offset by residents wanting to be closer to shopping and 19

workplaces. Anas and Xu (1999) find that the centralizing effect of residents dominates, providing an overall efficiency gain of 3% of average income. Their model suggests that UGBs are not a desirable policy to contain sprawl. Another policy implemented to preserve city character is building height restrictions and minimum residential lot sizes. Sullivan (1986) finds that building height restrictions decrease CBD employment, reduce land prices in all areas except suburban manufacturing centers, and decrease wages city-wide. His results are mostly due to a loss of agglomeration economies for the CBD office sector. Sullivan (1986) also finds that suburban residential zoning restrictions decrease total city population, increase density in non-zoned areas, increase the area of the city, decrease suburban manufacturing employment, and decrease aggregate land rent. Preservation of neighborhood character is often discussed when focusing on gentrification and housing redevelopment.

Braid’s (2001) dynamic model finds that

developers with perfect foresight create denser cities with more durable housing than developers with static expectations. Reducing the overall uncertainty of the city should decrease sprawl. Anas and Arnott (1994) develop the Chicago Prototype Housing Market Model (CPHMM) and compare the effects of two different housing policies: a demand side policy, a housing allowance to low-income households, and a supply side policy, a construction subsidy for large suburban single-family units with filtering expected to benefit the poor. The model indicates that housing allowances provide more benefits to low-income groups and are more cost effective than the supply side policy.

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2.3. CLASSIFICATIONS OF URBAN ECONOMIC MODELS Many different types of models have been developed to assess planning policies, as discussed in the previous section. Static partial and general equilibrium models are the most common, but dynamic models have also been developed to explain changes over time. Microsimulation and rule-based models have been applied to actual cities. Finally, there is the family of models derived from Krugman’s NEG model. Cities constantly change, and so are dynamic. Chen (1996) believes that all models should be dynamic. However, if equilibrium is achieved quickly, a static model can be used. Waddell et al. (2003) suggest that different equilibria are established over different spans of time. Short-term equilibrium is related to traffic flows that achieve steady-state in days or maybe weeks, as people explore and determine patterns of travel (Waddell et al., 2003; Wilson and Bennett, 1985). Mid-term equilibria are related to business and residential relocations, formations, and terminations. Prices of goods can adjust within two years if there are no external price shocks (Anas, 1987). In fact, the retail sector adjusts to the entry of a Wal-Mart within 5 years (Basker, 2005a). Residential location choice also equilibrates over time. Expensive relocation costs and imperfect market information prevents immediate equilibration (Anas, 1982; Waddell et al., 2003). Examples of long-term equilibria are decisions by speculators and land developers in the land market (Waddell et al., 2003). Both Kain and Apgar (1985) and Wegener (1985) argue that even if an equilibrium can be established in principle, there are too many ongoing changes for that to actually happen. However, this is not a universal belief. In an empirical study, Thurston and Yezer (1994) use a small time 21

interval (annual) to determine whether jobs follow population or population follows jobs, because equilibrium would already have established itself in a 5 or 10-year period. Static models depict the final equilibrium of the city, and therefore describe the final policy results, rather than the incomplete incremental change generated by a dynamic model. The land rent in a static model is essentially the present value of the land, which can be estimated as long as the interest rates and rents are steady (Anas, 1982). Static models involve partial or general equilibrium, but mostly partial equilibrium. “The nature of the existing literature is partial rather than general equilibrium in the sense that either the locations of consumers or firms are fixed” (Berliant and Zenou, 1997). In fact, many of the models focus only on residents and not on firms. Firms are assumed to locate in the CBD, where they frequently occupy no space. These models use different methods to determine residential location: some maximize the utility of residents (Anas and Rhee, 2007; Jara et al., 2006; Pines and Sadka, 1986; Polinsky and Shavell, 1976; Zhang and Sasaki, 1997), others focus on probabilistic housing choice (Bayer and Timmons, 2005; Martinez, 1992), and yet others minimize travel costs (Borukhov and Hochman, 1977). For the smaller subset of models focusing on both residents and firms, the standard method is to maximize resident utility and firm profitability (Abdel-Rahman, 1988). This is extended into models with two cities (Abdel-Rahman, 1990; Duranton and Puga, 2005) or with a developer maximizing the profit of an Edge City (Henderson and Mitra, 1996). In the two-city models, firms are only in the business districts, and therefore firm location is relatively fixed.

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The two-city static partial equilibrium models shift into static general equilibrium models, starting with models where a CBD and SBD occupy space and where boundaries are allowed to shift (Sasaki, 1990; Sullivan, 1986). However, several models allow both firms and residents to locate at any location within the city (Anas and Kim, 1996; Anas and Rhee, 2006; Anas and Xu, 1999; Berliant and Zenou, 1997; and Fujita and Ogawa, 1982). These models allow for city and business district formations as a result of an economic advantage, instead of occurring just by definition. Dynamic models can be used to determine how a city changes over time. Determining the static equilibrium and then allowing for only a percentage of the change (Chen, 1996) is one method to model dynamics. Sasaki and Mun (1996) calculate a series of equilibria to determine city changes. Brasington (2001), Braid (2001), and Anas and Arnott (1994) use perfect foresight to determine stages of development within a city where actors look at the long-run potential for the land to determine development choices. Instead of assuming perfect foresight, Capozza and Helsley (1990) assume a stochastic growth of household income and a conversion value for agricultural land, and find that increased uncertainty delays land conversion, reduces the expected city size, and imparts an option value to agricultural land. Dynamic models are complex and most of them only focus on residential location and land development. If they include firms that occupy space, these firms are located in predetermined CBD and SBD that only vary in width. Microsimulation and rule-based models use less economic theory and more empirical data to predict city growth. They mimic each person’s decisions based on 23

probabilistic expectations, and are complex because they consider all parcels of land. UrbanSim (Waddell, 2002; Waddell and Nourzad, 2002; and Waddell et al., 2003) predicts changes in city form and land use based on economic foresight. These models are dynamic in nature and demonstrate how neighborhoods change. Tiglao and Tsutsumi (2005) apply microsimulation to the Philippines, where available data is less complete than in the U.S. Clarke and Holm (1987) also use microsimulation to predict city growth. Rule-based models create a seriatim of choices and the most preferred choice is taken (the choice with the maximum utility or maximum profit) based on a set of rules (Landis, 1994; Landis and Zhang, 1998a; Landis and Zhang, 1998b). There is no probabilistic decision making as in the case of microsimulation, as every choice is listed from highest to lowest return. Krugman’s New Economic Geography (NEG) has led to the creation of a new set of urban economic models. One basic assumption is the use of Dixit-Stiglitz monopolistic competition, allowing for utility increasing with variety (Dixit and Stiglitz, 1977). Krugman’s core-periphery model dichotomizes a large area into a core (city), with agglomeration economies that increase with overall population, and a periphery (rural areas), with agricultural production (Krugman, 1991). Suedekum (2006) updates this model to allow for non-mobile local market producers in the city. However this model does not account for actual land consumption within the city. Abdel-Rahman’s (1988) model is not a NEG model, but uses Dixit-Stiglitz monopolistic competition to determine (1) the formation of a city with residents consuming land (and firms just using labor), and (2) the optimal city size and the conditions when a second city forms. Abdel24

Rahman and Fujita (1990) extend the model to include a manufacturing industry represented by a CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production function with a variety of service goods used as inputs along with labor. However, the service goods that manufacturing consumes are produced by using only labor. Anas and Xiong (2005) create a model focusing on the formation of a second specialized city with service and manufacturing industries, where manufacturers have Dixit-Stiglitz monopolistic competition production functions (consuming labor and services), and the service industry consumes only labor to produce goods. This is essentially the opposite of the Abdel-Rahman and Fujita’s (1990) model in terms of who experiences a preference variety. Firms do not consume land in either model, but rather locate in the CBD of either one or both cities. Finally, it is critical to understand the conditions that allow for an equilibrium to exist. Based on Starrett’s seminal paper (1978), Berliant and Zenou (1997) summarize the Spatial Impossibility Theorem as follows: “there is no spatial equilibrium with agglomeration if the following conditions are met: (i) no relocation cost, (ii) consumers’ preferences and firms’ technologies are independent of location, (iii) the economy is closed, (iv) each location has complete competitive markets.” p. 2. With no relocation costs, residents move whenever they can achieve a slight increase in utility. However, they do not move if they incur relocation costs. No static equilibrium or dynamic models account for relocation costs: in the case of static models, because they must first establish where residents and firms locate; in the case of dynamic models, because of the added complexity in determining land use changes. The second condition is for consumer preference and firm technology to be independent of location. 25

Most models have production functions that are independent of location. Two studies with location dependency are by Fujita and Ogawa (1982), who use an agglomerative production with locational potential, and Berliant and Konishi (2000), who include marketplace setup costs. The third condition of a closed economy means that no money enters or leaves the city, and therefore no area of the city is a preferable place to agglomerate firms. An open economy with imports and exports allows firms to cluster at the ports. Hartwick and Hartwick (1974) and Chen (1996) both have models allowing exports. The fourth condition is that each location has complete competitive markets. Any model that uses the Dixit-Stiglitz monopolistic competition violates this condition (Anas and Xiong, 2005; Fujita and Thisse, 2000; and Abdel-Rahman and Fujita, 1990).

2.4. URBAN MODELING DECISIONS A review of how urban models have handled (1) city form, (2) a closed and open economy, (3) firms, (4) the retail industry, (5) residents, and (6) the transportation system, is presented below.

2.4.1. City Form The geographic form of the city greatly influences model development. Certain forms are simpler for calculations, but may be too unrealistic to accurately portray the city. The four main forms are the linear city, the wedge-shaped city, the strip city, and the zonal city, as illustrated in Figure 2.1. The linear city is the classic form used in urban modeling. It assumes that there is a Thunen plain (flat and featureless) and that the CBD contains all the jobs and yet

26

Figure 2.1. City Forms

occupies no space (Anas, 1982; Zhang and Sasaki, 1997; Braid, 2001; Capozza and Helsley, 1990). Therefore, all the land in the city is used by residents, forming a circular

27

monocentric city. For modeling purposes, circular symmetry is assumed: whatever happens at any radius happens throughout the city as the radius rotates. The advantage of this city form is that it makes it easy to establish model equations and relations, and then to perform comparative static analyses (Anas, 1987). Models using this city form have been modified to allow for (1) a suburban business district (SBD) that occupies no space at a given distance (Anas and Rhee, 2007) and (2) a circular city form with a cone on top (Zhang and Sasaki, 1997) as illustrated in Figure 2.2. All traffic must travel either radially towards the CBD or circumferentially. The distance traveled will not exceed the general CBD radius, resulting in the cone shape, because there is no radial travel centered on the SBD. The linear city has also been modified to give the CBD space and allow industry to occupy space. Finally, this model can be used for a port city, but only as a half circle, with the rest of the circle being ocean (Henderson and Mitra, 1996; Gordon et al., 1986).

Figure 2.2. Zhang and Sasaki’s (1997) Modified Linear City

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The wedge-shaped city is a hybrid between the linear city and the strip city, and has been used by Brasington (2001), Anas and Xu (1999), Anas and Rhee (2007), and Anas and Rhee (2006). The wedge-shaped city is two-dimensional and allows for landuse balances (the amount of land used cannot exceed the amount of land in the section) and mixed land uses. The wedge is made by taking several radians from the linear city, with the center of the circle being the CBD. There are sections/zones at regular intervals along the pie-shaped piece. The big advantage of this form is that zonal areas increase with distance from the CBD, which is more realistic than a strip city (Anas and Xu, 1999). Because there are discrete zones, it is easy to model mixed land uses, normally including residential, industrial and transportation uses. A linear city does not permit land uses to be mixed at a given radius, and allows only annular rings of single use. The strip city form involves an equal width strip of land with zones of equal lengths along the strip. It is a modified version of the linear model, allowing for multiple land uses (residential, industrial, and transportation are common), while ensuring that the amount of land demanded in each zone does not exceed the amount of land available. This form can be used to create models with multi-centric city patterns (Anas and Kim, 1996). One disadvantage of the strip form is that it does not well represent a circular monocentric city. A series of rotated strips around the center zone will significantly overlap, whereas a series of rotated wedges (from the wedge-shaped city) will produce a circle with no overlaps. One advantage of the strip city is that the zones can be squares, allowing for the city form to be extended into a two-dimensional grid representing the entire city. 29

The zonal city is composed of zones and allows for two-dimensional traffic. The zones can be of irregular shapes determined by such considerations as Census tracts or municipal boundaries, or a regular grid (rectangular or even hexagonal). A concern with using zones is the modifiable areal unit problem, which states that different scales, aggregations and modifiable units will yield different results because zones have different characteristics. The scale problem is related to the size of the zones used. With a larger zone, more people are averaged and the results are less realistic. However, individual behavior is not predictable, so a small scale can also create large variances. The preferred scale is the one that contains a homogenous population. Aggregation issues are related to how the shapes are made or grouped. If areas with similar characteristics are grouped into one zone, the results will probably be reasonable; however, if dissimilar groups are joined, the results will have larger errors. Modifiable units occur when both scale and groupings are changeable, which increases potential errors (Wilson and Bennett, 1985). One of the advantages of using zones is that it is easier to attach restrictions to a particular zone than to an entire city (Hackworth and Smith, 2001). Irregularly shaped zones are frequently used because data is available in predetermined zones. Census tracts and Transportation Area Zones (TAZ) are the most commonly used because of data availability (Putnam, 1983). However, other available datasets have resulted in the use of different zone types, from squares of varying size (1/4 mile to 1 square mile) to regions that hold from 40,000 to 400,000 people (Anas, 1987; Anas, 1982; Wegener, 1985). One advantage of using TAZs is that they are used by regional planning authorities to develop transportation models, which can then be directly 30

imported into an urban growth model. Not all irregular zones are defined by governmental agencies. The California Urban Futures (CUF) model uses geographic information systems (GIS) to create developable land units (DLU). The DLUs are intersections of city boundaries, spheres of influence of the cities, slope categories, highway buffers, urban buffers, earthquake fault zones, agricultural land type zones, sewer access zones, and marshes and wetlands (Landis, 1994). Obviously, this creates many very small zones, which can complicate calculations. Another model uses land parcels as the irregular zones and Delaunay triangulation of building centroids to determine “neighbors”. This approach was used in a neighborhood gentrification study but not for an entire city (O’Sullivan, 2002). However, too many zones may render a model infeasible. Another form of zones involves a regular lattice overlaid on the city. Usually a square pattern is used, with a size varying from 100m x 100m to ½ mile by ½ mile (Landis and Zhang, 1998a; Waddell et al., 2003; Waddell and Nourzad, 2002; Waddell, 2002). Another model does not attach measurable distances, but just uses dimensions of 1 “urban unit” (Hartwick and Hartwick, 1974). Chen (1996) uses a triangular lattice of points, which creates a hexagonal system of zones. A regular grid is advantageous with the increased computational power of GIS (Landis and Zhang, 1998a). Grids allow for the easy development of a transportation network (especially a Manhattan grid) and for the quick identification of adjacent sites (Landis and Zhang, 1998b). A GIS has the ability to assign values to grid cells even from irregularly shaped source files (such as land use, slope, city boundaries, and wetlands), 31

and there is no significant data loss in shifting from irregularly shaped to regularly shaped zones (Waddell, 2002; Landis and Zhang, 1998a). In some studies, data is prepared in a grid form, as was the case for existing and historical land uses prepared by the Association of Bay Area Governments (Landis and Zhang, 1998a).

2.4.2. Open and Closed Cities The literature is vague on what defines open and closed cities. This definition may be related to population, money, and goods. In general, a closed city is one in which nothing enters or leaves the city. The population of an open city is endogenous, with utility fixed at a national level. Whether residents locate in the city depends on whether the utility level of the city is more or less than the national utility level. Abdel-Rahman (1988), Abdel-Rahman (1990), Adbel-Rahman and Fujita (1990), Anas (1982), Braid (2001), Brasington (2001), Capozza and Helsley (1990), Henderson and Mitra (1996), and Sullivan (1986) model open cities with regards to population. However, several models use closed cities for population, and utility maximization becomes the goal of these models (Anas and Rhee, 2004; Anas and Rhee, 2007; Anas and Xu, 1999; Berliant and Konishi, 2000; Berliant and Zenou, 1997; Borukhov and Hochman, 1977; Braid, 2001; Fujita and Ogawa, 1982; Jara et al., 2006; Martinez, 1992; Pines and Sadka, 1986; Sasaki, 1990; Sasaki and Mun, 1996; Zhang and Sasaki, 1997). In a closed city, money cannot leave the city. One form of money is land rent, which can either be redistributed on a per head basis to residents of the city, or can go to an absentee landlord, in which case the money leaves the city. An absentee landlord is reasonable if rents go to out-of-town corporations. However, redistributing rents to 32

residents is logical, as residents realize capital gains on their houses, either through selling their homes or through refinancing their homes and taking out home equity. For the typical American city, where most homes are owned, it is probably more reasonable to redistribute land rents. Another way money enters or leaves the city is through goods: imports and exports. A closed city will not buy or sell abroad, whereas an open city will. Exports add money to the local economy. A net importing city has money leaving the local economy. A deficit dividend can be created to ensure a money balance, and is equivalent to foreign countries purchasing national, local, and personal debt. The money leaving the system because of an absentee landlord can be offset by exports. Table 2.1 outlines studies that have absentee landlords, imports, and exports. If there is an absentee landlord, there is also some mechanism of exports, either explicitly or implicitly through specified wage rates or national pricing levels. If there is rent distribution, then there is no need for an export system, as money does not leave the city.

2.4.3. Firms and Production Functions Firms provide residents employment and income, compete with residents for land, and produce goods for consumption. Model treatment of firms varies with regard to number of firms, whether firms own land, and how they produce goods. The simplest models have no employment: residents alone bid for land (Borukhov and Hochman, 1977). It is more realistic to have firms in a model, and the next step is to have employment in one generalized industry located in the CBD and occupying no land, as assumed by Anas and Xiong (2005) and Berliant and Konishi (2000). These are the 33

Authors/Papers Abdel-Rahman (1988) Abdel-Rahman (1990) Abdel-Rahman and Fujita (1990) Anas and Rhee (2006) Anas and Rhee (2007) Anas and Xu (2009) Berliant and Konishi (2000) Berliant and Zenou (1997) Borukhov and Hochman (1977) Braid (2001)

34

Brasington (2001) Capozza and Helsley (1990) Chen (1996) Fujita and Ogawa (1982) Henderson and Mitra (1996)

Population Absentee Rent Exports Imports Open Landlord Dividend X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X

X

X

X

X

X

Jara et al. (2006)

X

Martinez (1992) Pines and Sadka (1986) Sasaki (1990) Sasaki and Mun (1996) Sullivan (1986) Zhang and Sasaki (1997)

X

X X X

X

X

X

X

X

X X

X X

Table 2.1. Use of Open and Closed Cities in the Modeling Literature

Notes Not explicit import/exports. Uses a national price for goods produced. Not explicit import/exports. Uses a national price for goods produced. Not explicit import/exports. Uses a national price for goods produced. Closed Exogenous wage rate Closed Closed city; no population or money enters or leaves the system Absentee landlords consume goods Income is assumed and rents are paid without redistribution. Landowners develop land and do not purchase goods; Exogenous wage rate Both open and closed population modeled. Export demand function Exogenous income Wage of central city is the marginal product of city firms, allowing exports; Developer maximizes profit but does not spend it within the city Nothing explicitly happens to rents and consumption equilibrium prevents exports Exogenous income implies exports Closed Exogenous price for good produced Land rent maximized by city but not redistributed; no required balance of produced goods Land rent not redistributed; no produced goods balance

minimal cases. On the other side, having too many industries may make partial and general equilibrium models intractable. Most studies use two industries, usually basic and non-basic. The basic industry makes goods for export and the non-basic industry provides goods for local consumption (e.g., retail and service jobs). Chen (1996) split employment along export and service industries. Anas and Xiong (2005) and AbdelRahman and Fujita (1990) have services used as inputs to manufacturers, who then sell their goods to city residents. Suedekum (2006) adds an immobile city manufacturing industry to the standard NEG core-periphery model, which usually has only immobile agricultural workers and mobile manufacturing workers. This model shows that not everyone in the city (the newly added sector) benefits from a population increase. However, the more sectors involved, the more realistic the model. UrbanSim, a microsimulation model, uses 14 employment sectors based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes (Waddell, 2002). This is one of the most comprehensive models. The inputs to the production of goods vary among models, and so do the functions used to represent production. Most models use labor and land as inputs, providing income for residents and creating land demand. Some models (Brasington, 2001; Hartwick and Hartwick, 1974) include capital, which is money invested in buildings and machinery to produce goods. Other models include natural resources or other industries’ products (Anas and Kim, 1996). If other industries’ goods are used as inputs, a methodology to model the upstream and downstream industries must be developed. Most of these models have one industry explicitly providing goods to the second industry. 35

Weissbourd and Berry (2004) stress the importance of natural resources, technology, and knowledge, and believe that knowledge is now a very important input. However, it is difficult to put knowledge production or use into an economic model. Increasing the number of inputs increases model complexity and decreases the likelihood of a feasible computable equilibrium. Production functions establish relationships between inputs and outputs, and can be represented as simple fixed ratios (input-output model), or by a traditional CobbDouglas or Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) functions. Different models use different functions. Using fixed ratios (e.g., one unit of good made per unit of land consumed) is the simplest approach. Both Brasington (2001) and Hartwick and Hartwick (1974) use fixed ratios for land and capital, while Sasaki and Mun (1996) and Fujita and Ogawa (1982) use fixed ratios of land and labor. In Krugman’s NEG model, all firms have the same production function (See equation 2.1). This function is of a fixed ratio type, except when f is different from zero, leading to decreasing returns (Suedekum, 2006). This model assumes that all firms produce the same quantity of goods and earn zero profit. The number of firms is then equal to the number of employees in the city divided by the amount of labor per firm (Fujita and Ogawa, 1982; Sasaki, 1990). A fixed ratio is an unrealistic assumption if agglomeration economies take place, because production per employee should increase with the total number of employees (Odland, 1978). The standard is the Cobb-Douglas (C-D) production function:

36

(2.2) where X is the amount produced in zone i, B a constant, M the amount of labor, and Q the amount of land. The two exponents are required to sum up to 1, implying constant returns to scale (Anas and Xu, 1999). The C-D production function implies decreasing returns with respect to labor: the additional production of a new employee continuously declines. If production is permitted to occur in multiple zones, the decreasing return to labor becomes a reason for dispersion: it is better to have one person working per zone than to have all people working in one zone, unless the amount of land used in the one zone can total the amount used across all the zones, in which case there is no difference in production. This is so because the overall equation has constant returns to scale. The C-D production function is frequently used when doing comparative statics (Berliant and Zenou, 1997). As discussed earlier, models are not always restricted to the simple case of just land and labor as inputs to production. Anas and Kim (1996) include multiple inputs with their production function:

(2.3) The subscripts in Equation 2.3 are as follows: j indicates the zone where the good is produced; n is the zone from where the input comes; r is the good that is being produced; and s is the input good. X is the amount of good produced; M the amount of labor; Q the amount of land; and Y the amount of input. The coefficients must sum up to 1 ( 37



1). The disadvantage of this particular equation is that φsn is indexed by both

zone and industry, so empirical application becomes difficult because data to estimate this parameter is unlikely to be found. Constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production functions are essentially modified Cobb-Douglas functions. A classic example is in Fujita and Thisse (2000):

(2.4)

where x is the amount of good produced; zo the amount of the homogenous good used to produce the good; and z(ω) the amount of non-homogenous goods used to make the good. The non-homogenous goods are summed up over all the possible sources (n). The desire for variety depends on the value of ρ. With a small ρ (around 0), there is a desire for absolute variety regardless of price, creating even consumption amongst zones; with a large ρ (around 1), there is no desire for variety and the firm simply minimizes costs of inputs. Anas and Xiong (2005) use a similar equation:

(2.5)

The indices i and j refers to the city and the service produced, respectively. The exponents u and (1-u) are the Cobb-Douglas characteristic of the CES functions. The exponent, (σ − 1) σ , is the same as ρ in the previous equation. Hx is the amount of labor used to make the good X, and zdij the amount of the j-th service demanded from city i. In 38

this form of the equation, there are no homogenous goods. The advantage of using the CES function is that it provides an explanation of why agglomeration occurs: increasing different types of inputs increases production.

2.4.4. Retail Industry The retail sector is the modern marketplace. Where a marketplace is, a city will form (Berliant and Konishi, 2000). The retail sector has become a large portion of the U.S. economy, and most efficiency gains in the 1990s were due to improved retail distribution, particularly by Wal-Mart (McKinsey Global Institute, 2001). The effect of Wal-Mart is large, and has been shown to lower average retail prices by 7% to 13% over time (Basker, 2005b). Historically, the retail center was the downtown shopping district, but over the last 40 years shopping has moved to shopping centers, which are classified along a hierarchy. The lower-order centers provide basic goods, such as groceries, while higher-order centers add specialized stores, of which there may be only two or three per city, (e.g., electronic stores). Dispersed shopping centers affect traffic patterns, as small shopping centers are generally used by local neighbors, whereas larger ones are used by non-neighbors (Eppli and Benjamin, 1994). Trip chaining also changes traffic patterns, wherein a consumer stops at several stores in one trip rather than making separate trips to each store. Trip chaining provides cost and time savings, and reduces traffic flows. Eppli and Benjamin (1994) and Arentze et al. (2005) cite a study in Hamilton, Ontario, where 63% of grocery trips and 74% of non-grocery trips use trip chaining. Eppli and Benjamin (1994) also cite a study in Upsala, Sweden, where 61% of all shopping trips

39

used trip chaining. In the Netherlands, a study indicates that 28.2% of interviewees purchased more than one category of good (Arentze et al., 2005). With consumers making multiple stops per trip, the reduced transportation costs create an agglomeration force favoring larger shopping centers (Fujita and Thisse, 2000). In fact, people are willing to travel farther to shop in an area with similar stores for comparison shopping (Eppli and Benjamin, 1994). In order for there to be multiple stores, products must be differentiated, in either quality or design (dePalma et al., 1985). In larger shopping centers, anchor stores generate customer traffic for the center. As a result, land developers provide rent discounts to anchor stores, and charge non-anchor, non-traffic-generating specialty stores full rents. Konishi and Sandfort (2003) theorize that consumers are more likely to make a shopping trip if anchor stores are present, because consumers know the price of goods available through anchor stores’ advertising. If the consumer is willing to commit to the trip, then once at the shopping center, the consumer will price shop at the specialty stores as well. Shopping centers that have larger floor areas and have a diverse mix of stores receive higher rents (Des Rosiers et al., 2005). So the larger shopping centers benefit from agglomeration because consumers can save on transportation costs, price comparisons, and product variety. In terms of the effect on city form, as the population grows and spreads out, service and retail jobs follow the population (Thurston and Yezer, 1994). Retail agglomeration can create new employment centers with jobs in other industries. This in turn can create a new round of population decentralization that causes the city to spread even more (Goffette-Nagot, 2000). 40

Author/Paper Anas and Rhee (2006) Anas and Xu (1999) Chen (1996) Konishi (2005)

41

Konishi and Sandfort (2003) Oppenheim (1991) Oppenheim (1993) Pines and Sadka (1986)

Resident Location Probabilistic; Based on maximizing utility Probabilistic; Based on maximizing utility Probabilistic; Based on maximizing utility Predetermined; Equal distribution across area Market reach Market reach

How is Shopping Location Determined? Dixit-Stiglitz desire for variety

No; Consumers purchase goods from producers

Is the Traffic System Predetermined? No; Capacity calculated within model

Dixit-Stiglitz desire for variety

No; Consumers purchase goods from producers

No; Capacity calculated within model

Not Specified

No; Consumers purchase goods from service industry (vs. export industry) No

No; Not specified

2-Stage: (1) Whether to shop (2) Whether to purchase

Is Retail Industry Modeled?

No

No

Predetermined

Probabilistic

No

Predetermined

Probabilistic

No; Warehouse (producer) to retail

Predetermined

CBD only

No; Producers Only

Table 2.2. How Different Models Account for the Retail Industry

Yes; Radial travel with no congestion Yes; Radial travel with no congestion Yes; layout, links, and capacity Yes; layout, links, and capacity Yes; CBD in Center of City

Some retail models analyze market share and profitability of developments (Konishi, 2005; Konishi and Sandfort, 2003), while others analyze city form resulting from customers shopping. Oppenheim (1991, 1993) analyzes traffic flows and the price of goods resulting from customers shopping while using a pre-established traffic network. However traffic is not only generated by consumers and retailers, and these models do not determine where consumers are employed or the resulting commuter traffic. There is no urban economic model that specifically models the retail sector, although Anas and Rhee (2006), Anas and Xu (1999), Chen (1996), and Pines and Sadka (1986) allow for goods to be purchased directly from producers. The models of Anas and Kim (1996), Anas and Rhee (2006), and Anas and Xu (1999) endogenously determine where the goods are purchased. The lack of urban economic models with a distinct retail industry raises the question on how to model the retail industry. As the retail industry does not really produce a product, but rather resells products, the question is whether to model the reselling of goods with an additional “shopping experience” or to assume that an entirely new good is created when goods are sold. This modeling difficulty is reflected in the literature. Reardon and Vida (1998) comment that retail productivity is normally measured as the ratio of outputs to inputs, and suggest that the output can be measured using a Cobb-Douglas production function that uses capital and labor as inputs. Capital can either be measured as square footage or rent; labor can be measured as number of employees, hours worked, or payroll.

42

2.4.5. Residents and Utility Each city resident is unique. However, it is not possible to model each individual, except possibly with microsimulations (Clarke and Holm, 1987). Therefore, simplifications and generalizations must be made. This section focuses on how the literature deals with resident groups and their utility. Most models assume that all residents are the same (Abdel-Rahman, 1990; Abdel-Rahman, 1988; Abdel-Rahman and Fujita, 1990; Anas and Xiong, 2005; Brasington, 2001; Capozza and Helsley, 1990; Dixit and Stiglitz, 1977; Fujita and Ogawa, 1982; Hartwick and Hartwick, 1974; Henderson and Mitra, 1996; Pines and Sadka, 1986; Polinsky and Shavell, 1976; Sasaki, 1990; Sasaki and Mun, 1996; Starrett, 1978; Sullivan, 1986; Zhang and Sasaki, 1997). A few models group people into a number of classes defined by income levels (Putnam, 1983; Anas, 1987), to allow for neighborhood incomes to vary. Anas and Kim (1996), Anas and Rhee (2006), and Anas and Xu (1999) have individuals living and working in eleven different zones, resulting in 121 resident groups. Anas and Rhee (2007) similarly have individuals living and working in two different zones, with only 4 resident groups. Chen (1996) has individuals living and working in 49 different zones, resulting in 2,401 resident groups. Suedekum (2006) uses three resident groups based on their employment industry (agricultural, manufacturing, and nontradable manufactured goods), and modifies the NEG model, which does not normally have a third sector. Several papers develop models that are not numerically solved, and therefore can have an infinite number of resident groups: Berliant and Zenou (1997) have h employment industries resulting in h resident groups; Duranton and Puga (2005) have a multi-city system with 43

residents in i cities and employed by h industries, resulting in ih resident groups; and Jara et al. (2006) and Martinez (1992) have an unspecified number of resident groups. Tiglao and Tsutsumi (2005) use multinomial regressions to determine probabilities for occupations (professional, administrative, clerical, sales, services, agriculture, and production) and employment sectors (agriculture, manufacturing, wholesale and retail, transportation, financing, and community services) in their microsimulation model. Residents are assigned using Monte-Carlo simulation. UrbanSim has 9 income classes, 7 age classes for the head of household, 5 classes based on size of the household, 3 classes based on the number of workers, and 2 classes based on the presence of children (Waddell, 2002). Wegener (1985) sorts population into 30 groups based on nationality, age, income and household size. Again, it is much easier to have more detailed classifications with microsimulations than with general equilibrium models. General equilibrium models usually try to maximize utility, which is generally evaluated as a Cobb-Douglas utility function. A typical Cobb-Douglas equation is:

(2.6) The log form of the equation is also frequently used: ln

ln

44

(2.7)

U is the utility of an individual, z a numeraire good, q the size of the property, and u the random utility component. The exponents, α and β, sum up to one. The utility function is maximized and subject to a budget constraint:

(2.8) where y is the income of the individual, T the commuting cost, and R the land rent for the property. Many models use such equations, including Abdel-Rahman and Fujita (1990), Anas and Kim (1996), Anas and Rhee (2007), Anas and Xiong (2005), Berliant and Konishi (2000), Braid (2001), and Polinsky and Shavell (1976). Because the log form of the Cobb-Douglas (C-D) function is linear, it is easier to model than the non-linear C-D form or a C-D function including a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) component. The Cobb-Douglas form does not account for the desire for variety, as does the CES form. The CES form actually increases utility as variety increase, so that monopolistic competition works (Dixit and Stiglitz, 1977). “Diversity and variety in consumer goods or in producer inputs can yield external scale economies, even though all individual competitors and firms earn normal profits” (Quigley, 1998, p133). Fujita and Thisse (2000) show that using this utility form uncovers the economic mechanism for pecuniary externalities. Anas and Xu (1999) use a Cobb-Douglas equation with a CES form:

ln

ln

45

ln

(2.9)

The budget constraint is:

2

The exponents are constrained by:

2

(2.10)

1. Uij is the utility of a person living in

zone i and working in zone j; Zijk is the amount of goods bought from zone k by a person living in zone i and working in zone j (each zone is assumed to make a different good); qij is the lot size for a person living in zone i and working in zone j; Lij is the amount of leisure time for a person living in zone i and working in zone j; uij is the random utility; pk is the price of goods at shopping zone k; tik is the toll to travel from zone i to shopping zone k; ri is the land rent in zone i; v is the number of workdays per time period; tij is the toll to travel between living zone i and work zone j; wj is the wage rate for working in zone j; H is the maximum number of working hours in a time period; Tij is the commuting time between living zone i and work zone j; D is the rent dividend. The Cobb-Douglas coefficients, α, β, and γ, are constrained to sum up to one. The budget constraint forces the cost of goods, land, and commuting to be equal to the sum of wages and the rent dividend. The amount of time worked is the total time available minus commuting and leisure time. The Dixit-Stiglitz part is inside the log: ∑



,

where η is another constant that specifies preferences. If η = 1 then consumers do not care for variety, and if η = 0 they want complete variety. Many models use this form, including Abdel-Rahman (1988), Anas and Rhee (2006), Fujita and Thisse (2000), and Suedekum (2006). 46

Both utility forms have a random utility component (uij). This component covers deterministic variations across households; stochastic variation within households; or ex ante perception: the utility experienced instead of the utility expected before the purchase (Anas, 1982). However, in the actual models, the random feature is dropped, and none of these variations are considered.

2.4.6. Transportation System The city is significantly shaped by its transportation system. People and goods must move around the city. The major mode of travel across the U.S. is the automobile (and truck for freight). Trucks became a major transporter of freight after World War I (Quigley, 1998). Because of the pre-eminence of automobiles and trucks, a congested network increases the cost of living and creates a negative externality. It is estimated that the cost of congestion was $87.2 billion in 2007 (Schrank and Lomax, 2009). With the development of the interstate highway network, people have been able to travel farther and faster, allowing cities to sprawl. However, sprawl has not been entirely beneficial. Weissbourd and Berry (2004) find that income growth in a city declines as sprawl increases. Conversely, they find that increased public transit use and a higher Smart Growth Index, indicative of a non-sprawling city, increase income growth. So, increased sprawl, which an automobile-oriented transportation system promotes, retards income growth in the city. Gordon et al. (1986) find that dispersed jobs in the Los Angeles area decrease intracounty commute trip lengths, but increase intercounty commute lengths. The net result is that the overall average commute for remote counties is higher than for central L.A. counties. Given the costs of congestion, automobiles, and fuel, it is not 47

surprising that 18% of income is spent on transportation (Weissbourd and Berry, 2004). The transportation system certainly affects city form. Most linear models do not specifically account for the transportation network, because travel is generally assumed to be radial, non-congestible, and occupying no space. However, note that Mills and de Ferranti’s (1971) linear model allocates radians of land to transportation while allowing for a congestible transportation network. Models with a strip or wedge form allocate land to the road network. Modeling commuter auto usage is the simplest (Anas and Rhee, 2007; Chen 1996), although some models include both commuting and shopping traffic (Anas and Kim, 1996; Anas and Rhee, 2006; Anas and Xu, 1999; Oppenheim, 1991). Solow and Vickrey (1971) model only freight traffic. Some models account for commuter, shopping, and freight transportation on the traffic network (Hartwick and Hartwick, 1974; Oppenheim, 1993). Anas and Kim (1996) develop equations to calculate freight traffic, together with commuter and shopping traffic, but run simulations with only one industry, so that there are no freight shipments. The UrbanSim microsimulation model allows for more choice of travel modes, including walking and mass transit (Waddell and Nourzad, 2002). When the amount of land used for transportation is being calculated, there is frequently the need to calculate how congested the network is. With slight variations, the standard equation is the Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) equation (Bureau of Public Roads, 1964):

1

(2.11) 48

where gi is the time to travel through zone i; ai a constant for the zone; b a congestion constant; Fi the traffic flow in zone i; Ki the capacity of zone i; and c a constant. This form of the equation is used by Anas and Kim (1996), but similar forms are used by Anas (1987), Anas and Rhee (2007), Anas and Rhee (2006), Anas and Xu (1999), Oppenheim (1991) and Putnam (1983). The values of b and c are typically 0.15 and 4 for urban travel (Highway Research Board, 1965), and are used by Anas and Kim (1996), Oppenheim (1991), and Putnam (1983). Anas and Rhee (2006) use b=50 and c=2; Anas and Rhee (2007) use b= 100 and c=1.5; Anas and Xu (1999) use b=500 and c= 4.0.

2.5. SUMMARY AND SHORTCOMINGS Urban economists have created models to explain city growth patterns as well as to answer specific policy questions. The empirical literature about city form recognizes that cities are not the monocentric cities of the early 20th century, but polycentric. As a result of this change, urban modelers shifted from using a linear city to space-occupying zonal cities. By accounting for space, mixed land use is more accurately modeled. However, only one model (Sullivan, 1986) explicitly accounts for zoning effects on the city, allowing for a maximum commercial development height in the CBD and for minimum lot sizes in residential areas outside predefined suburban business districts. Few models allow the connection to the outside world to take place at any other location but the CBD (Sullivan, 1986; Hartwick and Hartwick, 1974). Modelers must choose between having an open or closed city. This is usually defined across two aspects: population and money. In an open city, population changes 49

until the utility level of the city equals the national utility level; in a closed city, the population is fixed and the residents maximize their utility. Modelers do not favor either an open or closed population, but choose the form that makes the model tractable. In an open city, money can freely enter and leave the system, whereas in a closed system money stays within the city. Most cities have an open monetary system, with money leaving the city through land rents to absentee landlords and for the purchase of imports, and with money entering the system through the sale of exports (or implicitly through a fixed wage rate). However, no model explicitly models the import/export balance of a city and the effects of the trade deficit or surplus on a city. Empirical studies have evaluated the agglomeration forces and their effects on the city. Urbanization and localization agglomerations have been found to exist, but only in a small range. Different industries have been found to be affected by different agglomeration forces. To account for these forces, urban modelers have modified standard Cobb-Douglas production functions to have either an explicit agglomeration constant or a CES factor. Few models have included multiple industries; most models have just one industry. However, agglomeration effects are harder to model without multiple industries. The retail industry has seen large increases in productivity and is also a large portion of the modern economy, but it is not typically included in urban economic models. There is a literature on retail location choices, but no urban economic model explicitly includes the retail industry, shopping traffic, and freight flows with the more typical residential location choices and resulting commuter flows. 50

Residents drastically affect city form by how they use land and the transportation system. One empirical study suggests that residents’ location choices affect employer location decisions (Dietz, 1998). The number of resident types is normally simplified to be just one. As the number of resident types increases, the models are more realistic but less tractable. Most models assume that residents are trying to maximize their utility, and use a Cobb-Douglas utility function. Some extend the agglomeration forces to residents by including a CES factor in the utility function to approximate the added utility from a variety of goods. The transportation system in the U.S. is mostly individually driven automobiles, so the modeling literature assumes all residential flows are via the automobile. Most models assume that residents minimize their travel costs to increase their utility. However, some empirical studies have shown that this behavior does not actually occur (Giuliano and Small, 1991). The main sources of traffic are commuting, shopping, and freight. Typically only commuting is modeled; others model only freight and shopping traffic. No model includes all three modes. Finally, modelers have made the choice of using a static or dynamic model. Static models are simpler to solve, but are arguably not the most realistic. However, many dynamic models are essentially static models. Frequently, modelers assess the static equilibrium and then allow a partial step from the original condition to the equilibrium condition during one time step. This is the simplest method to create a dynamic model.

51

Leapfrogging is an issue with sprawl and has only been successfully modeled with a dynamic model (Brasington, 2001; Capozza and Helsley, 1990). Static models rarely allow for undeveloped land.

52

CHAPTER 3 CONCEPTUAL MODEL FRAMEWORK This chapter provides a brief review of the basic assumptions and equations used in developing the model. After an overview of the model, the physical form of the city is presented. Residents’ and firms’ decision-making processes are outlined and the remaining sections discuss imports and exports, the transportation network, the rent and deficit dividends, and the land and labor availability.

3.1. MODEL OVERVIEW A strip city form is proposed, where the road runs down the central axis, and the narrow width of the zones keeps all land uses close to the road. The two end zones are landless ports. The goal of the planners of this city is to determine the road network that minimizes total transportation costs, equal to the sum of the land rents and the value of residential travel time. This optimization is subject to the individual optimizing behavior of both residents and firms, leading to an optimal equilibrium city. This approach is structurally similar to the optimal transportation network design problem subject to users’ equilibrium conditions (Davis, 1994). In this approach, network links are selected for inclusion and/or expansion, so that the total construction and operating costs are minimized while each network user (i.e., traveler) minimizes his/her own costs by selecting the minimum cost origin-destination path. In contrast, Anas and Kim (1996), 53

Anas and Rhee (2006) and Anas and Xu (1999) determine an equilibrium transportation system instead of an optimized system, because they introduce pricing equations to determine toll rates as the marginal cost of congestion. Residents can live in any zone, and work in any other zone for one of three industries: manufacturing, retail, or services. Residents maximize their utility by choosing where they live and work, the industry they work for, their residential lot size, the amount of their leisure, and the goods they purchase. It is assumed residents prefer a variety of goods, and therefore will not always purchase the least expensive goods. Residents have budget and time constraints, live in a single-person household, use only automobiles for transport, buy only one good per shopping trip, consider time spent shopping as leisure, and consider time spent driving to shopping locations as a loss of leisure time. Random effects are generated by variables not included in the model, making it appropriate to probabilistically assign the population to resident types defined by living and work locations and by employment industry. Firms generate zero profits while operating in a monopolistically competitive economy, with no market entry costs. Firms maximize their profits subject to production constraints, and use labor, land, and inputs from other firms and industries to produce their goods. Goods may be imported and exported through ports. Firms purchase imports used in production, and sell exports to the outside world. The model determines the volumes and prices of imports and exports. Transportation has three components: freight, commuter traffic, and shopping traffic. All transportation network users are charged tolls to cover the transportation land 54

rent. The total transportation costs, traffic tolls and value of travel time, are minimized to determine the equilibrium transportation network. Figures 3.1 to 3.4 illustrate the flows of goods, people, money, and time considered in the model. Figure 3.1 presents the flow of goods, assumed to be transported by trucks. All three types of goods (manufacturing, retail, and services) can be imported. Based on input-output data, manufactured goods that are imported or domestically produced are only purchased by the retail industry or exporters. Retail goods are both imported and locally produced; they are consumed by the manufacturing and service industries, as well as exported. The flow of goods to residents is not represented because retail goods are purchased by shoppers, creating a people flow instead of a freight flow. Similarly, services can be imported and produced locally. Services are used by all three industries, and can be exported. All freight flows through

Figure 3.1. Flows of Goods

55

the transportation sector, but there is no loss of goods in the transportation process. Figure 3.2 illustrates the flow of people, who travel only by automobile, either commuting to work at any of the three industries or shopping at a retail or service store. All the connectors are double-headed because the people always make a round-trip and do not trip chain. Figure 3.3 illustrates the flow of money in the model. Residents receive income from the industries (wage), from the land sector (land rent dividend), and from the outside world/exporters (deficit dividend). The land sector receives land rent from the industries, the transportation system, and the residents, and returns all that money as a land rent dividend to the residents, who are assumed to own the land. If the city is a net importer, money leaves the system, and the city (i.e., its residents) borrows money from the outside world to close the trade deficit. This is the deficit dividend, also distributed

Figure 3.2. Flows of People 56

Figure 3.3. Flows of Money on a per capita basis. The transportation sector similarly collects travel tolls from all the freight, commuting, and shopping traffic. Freight is paid by the purchasing firm; commuting and shopping travel costs are paid for by the individual residents. The collected tolls pay the land rent for transportation land. The industries receive income by selling their products to residents, exporters, and to each other (not explicitly shown). They spend their income on imported goods, freight costs, wages, and land rent. Finally, Figure 3.4 illustrates the flow of time. Residents have an allotted amount of time and spend their time traveling (both for shopping and commuting), working, and in leisure.

57

Figure 3.4. Flows of Time

3.2. CITY PHYSICAL FORM The city is assumed to be a strip city with seven zones, allowing mixed uses throughout the city. The end zones are ports that occupy no actual space. Each zone has an area of 64 acres (1/10 square miles), one mile long by one-tenth of a mile wide. A central axial road approximates the entire transportation system. A hypothetical layout is illustrated in Figure 3.5. Port zones allow entry and exit of goods, and it is assumed that all freight occurs via trucks. These port zones can be viewed as the interstate system that brings goods to and from the city. The middle zones (2 to 6) can have multiple land uses: residents live there, firms conduct business there, and roads provide transportation.

58

100% Land Area Composition

90% 80% 70% 60%

Residential

50% 40%

Industry

30%

Road

20%

Port

10% 0% 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Zone

Figure 3.5. City Layout and Hypothetical Land Uses in Each Zone

3.3. RESIDENTS It is assumed that (1) residents maximize their utility, (2) there is one worker and person per household, (3) each resident works at only one job and commutes directly to and from work, (4) residents purchase retail goods from different zones, purchasing only one good per shopping trip, and (5) residents consider shopping a leisure activity, but do not consider driving to the store leisure. The model allows residents to choose to live in any city zone, and their utility is represented by a Cobb-Douglas function with a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) for goods purchased. The CES portion effectively increases residents’ interest in purchasing goods from different zones instead of getting them from just one location. The utility function is:

59

(3.1)

where U is the utility of a given individual (specified by residential zone, work zone, and employment industry); A a scaling constant; z the amount of a good purchased from a given shopping zone; l the resident’s lot size; and t the amount of leisure time. The exponents α, β, and ω are the Cobb-Douglas exponents, which sum to 1. Their values will be estimated from input-output data. δ is the CES exponent that affects how residents value goods from different zones, and can vary from 0 to infinity. A value less than 1 means that, when residents purchase goods from more zones, their utility increases. A value larger than 1 means that utility increases as more goods are purchased from one zone, leading to concentrated purchases. Residents can purchase two types of goods: retail and service goods. Shopping occurs in all city zones (2 to 6), unless there is a zoning restriction. The goods in any given zone are considered identical by the shopper. Therefore, a larger retail complex in one zone produces more of the same retail good, but a retailer in a neighboring zone produces a different retail good. This perception of difference can be as simple as visiting two fast food restaurants from the same chain. Shoppers gain more enjoyment visiting different locations rather than repeating a visit to the same restaurant as long as the price differential is not too large. This is the rationale for having the CES exponent less than 1. Residents face a budget constraint that limits their utility. They do not explicitly save or borrow money; they spend what they earn. Therefore:

60

2

2

 

(3.2)

where w is the hourly wage rate; υ the number of working days per month; h the endogenous number of hours worked per day; RntDiv the rent dividend (the rent paid in the entire city evenly distributed to all residents); DeficitDiv the deficit dividend (the amount of money borrowed from sources outside of the city to account for the deficit), with a positive value when there is a deficit; p the price of a good in a specific zone; Itoll the toll rate for interzonal travel; z the amount of a good purchased from a particular industry and zone; ρ the land rent; and l the residential lot size. The first term is the monthly income from working; the second term the implied value of residential investing; the third term the amount of money borrowed; the fourth term the amount of money spent to purchase goods, including the cost to drive to shopping locations; the fifth term the land rent cost; and the sixth term the cost of commuting to work. Residents cannot explicitly save money. However, if there is an overall deficit in the system, each resident will borrow money from outside sources, with the deficit dividend behaving as income. The long-term instability caused by a deficit is not modeled in this static model which finds the equilibrium under current conditions. However, the model can determine the equilibrium city form if the deficit is reduced or eliminated, allowing for a comparison with the current equilibrium. In addition to a budget constraint, residents have a time constraint:

61

2

2  

(3.3)

where t is the number of leisure hours in a month; Itime the interzonal travel time; and H the total number of waking hours per month. The second term is the number of hours spent at work; the third term the time spent commuting; and the fourth term the time spent driving to shopping locations. The model assumes that time spent shopping is leisure time (included in t), but time driving to shopping locations is not leisure. To maximize resident utility, a LaGrangian function is formed with Eqs. (3.1) to (3.3), and results in Marshallian equilibrium demands for goods, land, leisure, and length of work day. Also the equilibrium utility level is determined by residential location, work location, and employment industry. These features characterize a resident type. The total population exceeds the number of resident types, and each individual must be assigned to a resident type. A resident may have many reasons for choosing a home location, work location, and employment industry, based on observable variables (amount of goods purchased, lot size, and leisure time) or non-observable variables (proximity to family, proximity to schools, proximity to parks, personal and religious values). Because of these non-observable variables, assigning residents based on the utility represented by Eq. (3.1), which only accounts for the observable variables, would not reflect actual choices. The selected approach reflects the results of empirical studies showing that most residents do not choose to live and work in the same zone, and do not just minimize their costs. It may occur that a resident buys a house and then obtains a new job in the city, but does not choose to relocate to a new house because of relocation 62

costs. A dynamic model that accounts for relocation costs would be necessary to model such decisions. For a static model, a random assignment, using a multinomial logit equation, allows for non-optimal choices while including the observable utility level as the main reason for the choice, with:

Ψ

(3.4)



As λ approaches zero, the population becomes evenly distributed throughout the city; if λ approaches infinity, the population concentrates in the highest utility zone. Given the total population N for the city, the population of each zone is then:

Ψ

(3.5)



The last required equation is an accounting one, determining the total sales to residents by each firm. The amount of goods purchased by an individual from a specific firm is represented by the variable z. To compute the total amount purchased by residents in each shopping zone, the amounts purchased by an individual must be multiplied by the appropriate number of individuals (Nzone) and then summed over all resident types. The detailed equation is shown as Eq. (4.42) in Chapter 4.

3.4. FIRMS Each firm maximizes profit subject to a production function constraint. A firm can choose to locate in any city zone (2 to 6). It is assumed that there is only one firm per industry and zone. An assumption of free market entry implies that firms’ profits equal 63

zero. Three industries are modeled: manufacturing, retail, and services. Manufacturing produces the wholesale goods that are used in the economy. Retail includes both actual retail and wholesale industries, purchases all manufacturing goods, and resells them to both residents and other firms. The retail industry sells a “retail good” that represents the re-selling and re-packaging of manufactured goods. The service industry produces a “service good” that represents professional and trade services. The profit equation is represented in Eq. (3.6):

2  

 

(3.6)

 

where π is the profit of the firm; Q the production level; truck the number of cars that a truck is equivalent to in affecting traffic; tunit the number of goods a truck holds; and M the total number of labor hours the firms uses in a month. The profit is equal to the monthly revenue of the firm minus the costs of inputs purchased from other industries (including shipping costs), labor costs, and land rent. The production structure of the firm is represented by a typical Cobb-Douglas production function, with a CES component for the input goods:

(3.7)  

 

 

where A is an exogenous scaling factor; α , ω, and γ the Cobb-Douglas exponents (that sum to 1); and δ the CES exponent. Equation (3.7) is similar to Eq. (3.1). δ is the CES 64

coefficient that affects how much firms value having specialized inputs from different zones (and firms), and can vary between 0 and infinity. A value smaller than 1 means that less production is derived from the input from a single zone, and purchasing specialized inputs from more zones (more variety) increases production. A value larger than 1 means that production increases with more inputs purchased from one zone, and purchases are then concentrated. Profit maximization is constrained by a goods balance requiring that all goods produced by a firm be sold to other firms and consumers or be exported. Equation (3.8) establishes this constraint:

 

(3.8)

 

Equations (3.6) to (3.8) are used to form a LaGrangian function that is maximized to determine the Marshallian demands for land, labor and goods by each firm as well as the Marshallian equilibrium price for the good produced.

3.5. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS The model allows for imports and exports. The port zones are the edge zones, occupy no space, and have no related transportation costs. Exporters are assumed to purchase goods probabilistically; a multinomial logit (MNL) equation accounting for the total price for a good (sale price at the zone plus cost of transport to the port) is used, with:

65

(3.9)

Ψ ∑

where Ψ is the probability that the exporter purchases a good from a particular zone, and λ the exponent coefficient that characterizes the preference for goods. A value of zero for λ leads to an even distribution of goods and an infinite value implies that only the cheapest goods are purchased. As most prices are similar, each zone exports some goods. The exporter responds to the total cost (price of the good at the sales zone plus shipping costs), and not just to the price at the production zone. The probabilities determined in Eq. (3.9) are multiplied by the total amount of exports the port would purchase, Xexp , to determine the amounts of goods x exported by each zone, with: Ψ

(3.10)

The total amount of exports demanded by the world is derived from the following balance:

(3.11)  

 

where the left side represents the value of exported goods, and the right side the value of the same goods as produced in the economy. τ is a constant determined from input-

66

output data, and represents the value of the exports as a percentage of the value of local production. Imports also need to be modeled. Industries demand imports based on the import price. To create a pricing mechanism and to account for trade imbalances, the following condition must be met:

(3.12)  

 

The left side of Eq. (3.12) represents the value of the imports to all importing zones and from all ports, which must be equal to θ times the value of local production. θ is estimated using input-output data. By calculating an import price, the cost of imports can be estimated. These prices can be compared to the prices of the domestic good to help determine the competitiveness of the goods produced in the city. An advantage of calculating the price of imported goods is that it is difficult to determine an empirical value because the goods are aggregated.

3.6. TRANSPORTATION The transportation component of the model determines the flows of goods and people. Once the flows are known, then the interzonal travel times can be determined. Two conditions must be met to achieve equilibrium. First, the sum of the collected tolls must be equal to the transportation land rent. Second, the total cost of transportation, equal to the sum of collected tolls and the value of commuters’ travel time, must be minimized until time savings no longer offset the increased cost of land. 67

The flow between zones is the sum of the freight traffic between industries, individuals shopping, and individuals commuting, with: 1

·

1

·  

·

   

(3.13)

where Finterzonal is the interzonal flow between two zones, and N the number of individuals living in a given zone. The first summation in Eq. (3.13) represents the freight traffic generated by industries purchasing goods and transporting them via trucks. Because the amount transported is measured on a monthly basis, the total flow must be divided by the number of days in the month to get the daily flow. The return trip is not accounted for because the maximum flow takes place during one rush hour and the return trip is assumed not to occur during the same rush hour. The second summation is the amount of traffic generated by shoppers. Again, z is the amount of goods purchased monthly, and the flows must be converted to a daily basis by using the number of work days. In both the first and second summations, it is assumed that industry traffic and shopping are completed on work days (week days). The last summation is the traffic generated by commuters. It is assumed that all workers drive their own vehicles, and that no public transportation is available. Finterzonal calculates the one-way traffic flow.

68

A city zone can be an origin, a destination, or a transshipment point. The flow going through any zone, Fzone, is the sum of the traffic that starts or ends in that zone plus the flow passing through the zone, with:

F

2  

 

(3.14)

The flow, Finterzonal, is multiplied by two to account for total daily traffic (the round trip). The traffic capacity of a zone is calculated based on the amount of land dedicated to transportation, with: (3.15) where K is the flow capacity of the zone; S the amount of land dedicated to transportation in the zone; and ζ and λ constants. This is a standard traffic capacity equation. Once the capacity and traffic flow are determined, the travel time, Ztime, in the zone can be calculated, with:

(3.16)

1

The Bureau of Public Roads equation is used (Bureau of Public Roads, 1964). Because ports have no land and just represent nodes where goods travel in and out of the city, the travel time through a port zone is set to zero. If the trip is interzonal, the interzonal time, Itime, is equal to half the time to pass through the origin and destination zones, plus the total time to pass through all the in69

between zones. The origin and destination are halved because is it assumed that all traffic starts or ends in the center of a zone, with: 1 2

 

 

(3.17)

In addition to the travel time, the tolls for zone crossing must be determined. Itoll is the toll that residents and firms pay to transport themselves or their goods. The resulting equations are essentially similar to those used to calculate interzonal travel times. If the trip is interzonal, the equation is: 1 2

 

 

(3.18)

where Ztoll is the toll for a given zone. The toll balance ensures the tolls collected from the drivers (both for commercial goods and residents shopping and commuting) are equal to the land rent paid for land dedicated to transportation. This requirement applies to every zone in the city, with: F

(3.19)

The flows are multiplied by the work days per month in order to determine the monthly toll revenue and to equate it with the monthly land rent.

70

The goal of the transport system is to minimize the overall transport costs by increasing the amount of land used for transportation until the reduced cost, due to less travel time, is offset by the increased cost of more transportation land. For each zone the total transport costs include the value of time spent commuting and shopping plus the cost of tolls for commuters, shoppers, and firms, with:

2

2

 

1 2

(3.20) 2

2

 

where TC is the total cost to travel within the zone. The first term represents the total tolls collected over a month, and the remaining terms represent the value of the time spent commuting and shopping, priced at workers’ wage rates.

3.7. RENT AND DEFICIT DIVIDENDS To achieve city equilibrium, goods, land use, traffic flows, work hours, worker time, and money flows must be balanced. Dividends are created to balance money flows. By having a rent dividend, the residents become the land owners and money does not leave the system. Similarly, a deficit dividend offsets dollars that purchase imported goods. The deficit dividend represents foreign countries purchasing private and national (city) debt.

71

A rent dividend returns all rents collected for residential, industrial, and transportation use to each person on a per capita basis, and becomes additional residential income, as shown in Eq. (3.21), with: ∑





(3.21)

 

N is the population of the city. The first term in the numerator represents the rents collected from residents, the second term the rents collected from industry, and the third the tolls collected (the amount needed to pay for transportation land). The deficit dividend is the difference between the value of imports and the value of exports (the system deficit), divided by the population of the city, with: ∑



(3.22)

The first summation is the value of all imports and is less the second summation, the value of all exports. The summations are simplified and are shown in more detail in Chapter 4. If the city is a net importer, the value is positive, and the citizens borrow money from outside the system. If the city is a net exporter, the deficit dividend would be negative implying residents are investing outside of the city economy.

72

3.8. LAND AND LABOR AVAILABILITY Two more conditions must be met to solve the model. The amount of land used in a zone cannot exceed the amount land in that zone. It is assumed that each zone has 64 acres, so the land balance equation becomes:

64  

(3.23)

If less than 64 acres are used, then there will be vacant land in that zone. Also the amount of labor that each firm uses as input must equal the number of hours worked by the employees of that firm, which is represented as:

(3.24)

73

CHAPTER 4 MODEL FORMULATION Chapter 3 outlined the conceptual framework of the model, which is complemented in this chapter by the detailed derivations of the model equations. Indices are first defined, followed by the derivations of resident and firm decision-making equations. Import and export, transportation, rent and deficit dividends, land and labor availability, and zero flow equations are next derived. Finally, a list of all the indices, parameters, and variables is presented, followed by a summary of the model’s variables and equations.

4.1. INDICES In order to track all the movements of residents and goods, indices are used for most variables. An index with an “x” refers to a zone. As seen in Figure 4.1, the indices hx, ix, jx, and kx are non-port city zones, with values from 2 to 6. The indices lx, mx, nx,

Figure 4.1. Representation of Zone Indices

74

and ox are both city and port zones, used in conjunction with goods going to both the city and the ports. The indices px and qx refer to port zones only, and are used in the import and export equations. The indices that represent the industries are i, j, and k. Although only three industry types are explicitly modeled (manufacturing, retail and services), the equations are general enough to allow for the inclusion of more than three industries. “W” is used to represent the “labor” industry, that is, the provision of labor by workers. Some equations have purchases by both industries and workers, and rather than including two terms in an equation, one indexed by i and another by w, the indices l and m are introduced, representing both industries and workers. The indices l and m are most frequently used in equations accounting for goods purchased by both industries and workers. To illustrate the above, consider the following two examples of variables with their indices. The variable xix,i,lx,j represents the amount of good i leaving city zone ix and being purchased by industry j in zone lx. Note that the use of lx means that the good can go both to port and city zones. The variable Uix,w,jx,j represents the utility of a worker living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx. The location indices, ix and jx, are city zones because residents cannot live or work outside the city. The model allows for zoning: preventing a specific industry or residents from occupying a given zone or preventing any activity in a specific zone (e.g., inactive port or park within the city). A dummy variable AZlx,l is used to indicate whether zone lx is an

75

active zone (=1) for sector l (industry or residents). This variable will be used to establish zoning constraints.

4.2. RESIDENTS Residents maximize their utility by choosing their home location, work location, employment industry, lot size, length of work day, amount of leisure time, shopping locations and amount of goods purchased. Equation (3.1) in Chapter 3 is expanded to include all relevant indices: ,

, ,

,

, , , , ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

,

(4.1)

,

where Uix,w,jx,j is the utility of a worker (resident) living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx; Aw a scaling factor for worker utility; zkx,k,ix,w,jx,j the amount of good k purchased from zone kx by a resident living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx; lix,w,jx,j the lot size for a worker/resident living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx; tix,w,jx,j the amount of leisure time of a resident living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx; and αk,w, ωw, and β the C-D exponents for goods, land, and leisure time, respectively. α is indexed because multiple goods k can be purchased by workers. The C-D exponents will sum to 1: ∑

,

1. δw is the CES

exponent that can increase a resident’s desire for variety. The product in Eq. (4.1) is limited to the types of goods k actually purchased, and this restriction is represented as:

76

0 . Goods can only be purchased if there is an active firm in the shopping

,

zone, and so the restriction

,

1 is used on the summation.

The budget constraint (3.2) in Chapter 3 is restated as:

,

, ,

,

 

, ,

2

,

, , , ,

,

, ,

,

2

,

,

 

,

(4.2) where wjx,j is the hourly wage rate paid by industry j in zone jx; υ the number of workdays per month; hix,w,jx,j the length of the work day for residents of zone ix working for industry j in zone jx; RntDiv the rent dividend paid to each resident through redistribution of all the rents collected; DeficitDiv the total amount borrowed by the economy to fund the deficit and equally distributed to each resident; pkx,k the price of good k purchased from zone kx; Itollkx,ix the transport toll to travel between zones kx and ix; and ρix the land rent in zone ix. Residents are subject to a time constraint. Equation (3.3) in Chapter 3 is restated as:

, ,

,

, ,

,

2

2

, ,

,

, , , ,

,

, ,

where Itimeix,jx is the travel time between zones ix and jx, and H the total number of waking hours per week that can be spent working, driving, or on leisure.

77

(4.3)

In order to maximize the utility of the individual (ix,w,jx,j) subject to budget and time constraints, the following LaGrangian ℑ ix , w , jx , j function is used:

,

, ,

,

, , , , ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

,

,

, ,

,

,

, ,

 

, ,

,

2

,

, , , ,

,

, ,

,

2

,

,

 

,

,

,

, ,

2 ,

,

, ,

,

,

2

, , , ,

,

,

,

 

,

(4.4) where ηix,w,jx,j and μix,w,jx,j are the LaGrangian multipliers for the budget and time constraints, Eqs. (4.2) and (4.3), respectively. The first-order condition are taken with respect to the following resident decision variables: lot size, lix,w,jx,j; leisure time, tix,w,jx,j; length of the work day, hix,w,jx,j; and amount of goods purchased, zkx,k,ix,w,jx,j. The first-order condition with respect to lot size is: 78

, , , ,

, ,

, ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

0

,

(4.5)

and solving for lix,w,jx,j gives:

, , , ,

,

(4.6)

,

The first-order condition with respect to leisure time is:

, ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

, ,

,

,

,

,

0

(4.7)

and solving for tix,w,jx,j:

, ,

, ,

,

,

(4.8)

, ,

The first-order condition with respect to the length of the workday is:

, ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

,

,

,

,

0

(4.9)

Solving Eq. (4.9) for μix,jx,j yields:

,

,

, ,

μix,jx,j can now be substituted into Eq. (4.8), with:

79

,

,

(4.10)

, ,

, ,

,

, ,

(4.11)

,

,

,

Finally, the first order condition with respect to goods z is:

, ,

,

, , , ,

, , , ,

, ,

, , , ,

, ,

,



,

, , , , ,

,

2

,

,

,

, ,

,

,

2

,

(4.12) 0

,

Substituting Eq. (4.10) into Eq. (4.12) results in:

, , , ,

, , , , ,



,

, , , , ,

,

, ,

,

2

,

, ,

,

,

, ,

,

,

2

,

0

,

(4.13) Factoring out ηix,w,jx,j from the second and third terms of Eq. (4.13) results in:

, , , ,

, , , , ,

,



, , , , ,

,

, ,

,

,

, ,

,

2

,

,

(4.14) ,

2

,

0

To get an explicit solution for zkx,k,ix,w,jx,j, the term zmx,k,ix,w,jx,j must be eliminated. Because Eq. (4.14) is true for any shopping zone, the equation can be divided by itself evaluated at a different zone, hx instead of kx, resulting in:

80

, , , , ,

,



,



, , , , ,

, , , ,

,

,

, , , , ,

, , , ,

,

, , , ,

,

,

, ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

,

,

2

,

,

2

,

, ,

,

,

2

,

,

2

,

(4.15) Many terms cancel out, and Eq. (4.15) simplifies to:

, , , ,

,

,

, , , ,

,

,

2 2

,

,

,

,

2 2

,

(4.16)

,

Solving for zhx,k,ix,w,jx,j results in:

, , , ,

2 2

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

2 2

,

, , , ,

,

,

(4.17)

Substituting the solution for zhx,k,ix,w,jx,j into zmx,k,ix,w,jx,j in Eq. (4.14) allows for the explicit solution for zkx,k,ix,w,jx,j to be found:

, , , ,

, , , , ,

,



1

, ,

,

, ,

2 2

,

,

,

,

,

2 2

,

,

2

,

,

2

,

, ,

, ,

, , , ,

,

,

0

(4.18) Terms not indexed with mx can be factored out of the summation in Eq. (4.18), with:

81

, , , , ,

2

,

, , , ,

,

,

,

, ,

∑ 2

, , ,

,

1

,

2

,

2

,

,

2

,

,

,

,

2

,

,

0

,

(4.19) which then simplifies to:

, , , ,

,

, , ,

, ,

,



,

2

,

,

2

,

,

,

2

,

,

2

,

,

(4.20) Finally, the amount of work hours, hix,w,jx,j can be calculated with the solutions from Eqs. (4.11) and (4.20) substituted into the time constraint (4.3), with:

, , , ,

,

,

, ,

,

2 ,

2

,

,

,

,

 

,

, ,

, ,

,



,

2

,

,

2

,

,

,

2

,

,

,

2

,

,

(4.21) Solving explicitly for hix,w,jx,j gives: 1 , ,

, ,

,

, ,

2 ,

,

 

,

,

,

2

,

,

,

, , ,

,



, ,

,

2

,

,

,

1

,

2

, ,

2

, ,

2

,

(4.22) 82

Substituting the results of Eqs. (4.6), (4.20), and (4.22) into the budget constraint (4.2) allows for an explicit solution of ηix,w,jx,j to be found:

1

, ,

,

, ,

,

,

2 ,

2

,

,

,

,

 

,

, ,

, ,

,



,

2

,

,

2

,

,

2

,

,

,

2

,

,

,

 

2

, ,

,

,

,

 

, ,

, ,



,

,

2

,

,

2

,

,

,

2

,

,

,

2

,

,

, , , ,

,

2

,

,

(4.23) which simplifies to:

,

2

,

,

 

2

, ,

,

2

,

,

 

,

,

· , ,

,

, ,



,

, , , ,

2

,

,

,

, ,

,

, , , ,

, ,

2

,

,

2

,

2

, ,

2

,

,

(4.24) By simplifying the summation and factoring out common terms, Eq. (4.24) becomes: 83

,

2

,

,



,

,

, ,

, ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

,

, ,

, ,

2

,

(4.25) Because the C-D exponents sum to one, the explicit solution for ηix,w,jx,j is:

, ,

,

, ,

,

2

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

(4.26)

To simplify, the denominator in Eq. (4.26) is noted: Ω

, ,

2

,

(4.27)

Ωix,jx,j represents all incomes (wages, rent and deficit dividends) less the cost of commuting (both tolls and the value of travel time left). Equation (4.26) becomes:

, ,

,

, ,



,

, ,

(4.28)

The Marshallian equilibrium values of lot size (lix,w,jx,j), leisure time (tix,w,jx,j), amount of goods purchased (zkx,k,ix,w,jx,j), and length of the workday (hix,w,jx,j) can now be calculated. The lot size is obtained by substituting Eq. (4.28) into Eq. (4.6): Ω , ,

,

, ,

The leisure time is obtained by substituting Eq. (4.28) into Eq. (4.11):

84

(4.29)

Ω , ,

,

(4.30)

, , ,

The amount of goods purchased is obtained by substituting Eq. (4.28) into Eq. (4.20):

, , , ,



,

,



, ,

2

,

,

2

,

,

, ,

2 ,

,

(4.31)

2

,

The length of the workday is obtained by substituting Eq. (4.28) into Eq. (4.22): 1 , ,

,



 

, ,

2 ,

,

,

,





,

 

2

,

, ,

2

,

2

,

,

,

2

, ,

,

,

2

,

,

(4.32) Finally, the Marshallian equilibrium utility can be calculated by substituting the Marshallian solutions, Eqs. (4.29), (4.30) and (4.32), into the utility equation (4.1): ,

, ,

,

, ,

·



,



, ,

·





, , ,

2

,

1

,

,

2

, ,

2

, ,

2

,

, , ,

(4.33) Eliminating the square brackets gives:

85

,

, ,



,

, ,

·



,



, ,



·

, ,

2

,

2

,

,

,

,

,

,

2

,

2

,

, , ,

(4.34) Removing any term that does not include kx from the summation over kx and the set of braces, results in:

, ,



,

,

,

,

, ,

, ,



2

,

,

,

,

2

,

,

·

,

2

,

,

2



·

,

, ,

·



, , ,

,

(4.35) The two summations in the braces, one over kx and the other over mx, are summations related to the purchase of good j across the city. Therefore, kx can be substituted for mx in Eq. (4.36):

, ,

,

,

,



, ,

, ,

,



,

,

2

,

,

2

,

,

·

,

2

,

,

2

,

,

·



, ,

·



, , ,

(4.36)

86

The term Ωix,jx,j can be factored out of the three terms because the sum of the C-D exponents is one, and Eq. (4.36) becomes:

,

, ,

,



, ,

,

,

,

,

2

,

,

2

,

,

·

·

,

(4.37) Rearranging the terms, the final utility level is determined:

Ω , ,

, ,



,

,

,

,

,





,

,

,

2

,

,

2

,

,

(4.38) In summary, the maximum utility, the consumptions of goods and land, and the amounts of leisure and work time are calculated using Eqs. (4.27), (4.29) to (4.32), and (4.38). The total population is assigned to each resident category using a multinomial logit function based on achieved utility levels. Several studies have shown that most residents do not choose the least expensive location, and the random assignment represented by Eq. (4.39) restates Eq. (3.4) in Chapter 3: e , ,

,



,

,

, ,

,

,

,

e

, ,

,

The population of each zone, based on the total population N for the city, is:

87

(4.39)

, ,

,

,

, ,

,

(4.40)

,

where Nix,w,jx,j is the number of workers living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx. Combining Eqs. (4.39) and (4.40) yields: e , ,

,

,

 

 





,

,

,

,

,

 

,

,

,

, ,

e

 

,

e

,

, ,

,

(4.41)

, ,

,

, ,

,

Once the distribution of residents is determined, firms can maximize profits. However, firms need to know the total residential demand from each zone. The amount purchased by an individual must be multiplied by the corresponding number of individuals, with:

, , ,

,

, ,

,

,

,

, , , ,

,

(4.42)

,

where xkx,k,ix,w is the amount of good k sold at location kx to all the workers who live in zone ix. This amount is the product, summed over all employment industries and work locations, of the number of people living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx , by the amount of goods each purchases (z).

4.3. FIRMS Firms maximize their profit, and each zone can only have one firm from each industry. Firms only locate in city zones. Equation (3.6) in Chapter 3 is restated as:

88

,

,

 

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

(4.43)

2

,

,

, , ,

,

where πix,i is the profit of firm i located in zone ix; Qix,i the quantity of good i produced in zone ix; and Mix,i the total number of labor hours used by industry i in zone ix; Lix,i the amount of land used by industry i in zone ix; and tunitj the number of units of good j that can fit in a truck. The costs of the inputs are summed up over lx, to include imports from port zones. The sum is conditional to AZlx,j = 1, indicating an active zone lx for good j. AZlx,j = 0 means that the zone does not have an industry or that the port is closed. The other condition on the sum requires that good j actually be an input for industry i. If not, αj,i = 0. The C-D production function with a CES factor for input goods, Eq. (3.7) in Chapter 3, is restated as: ,

,

, , ,

, ,

,

,

(4.44)

,

1

,

(4.45)

where αj,i is the C-D exponent for good j used as input by industry i; γi is the C-D exponent for the labor (workers) input used by industry i; ωi is the C-D exponent for land input to industry i. The C-D exponent values are determined from input-output data, as 89

discussed in Chapter 6. δi is the CES exponent that represents increased productivity due to product variety. The summation in Eq. (4.44) is over all possible purchase zones, including ports, and therefore the index lx is used instead of ix. This summation is limited only to active zones (AZlx,j = 1) for industry j. The product of the inputs is then calculated with the condition αj,i ≠ 0 ensuring that only actually used inputs are included. The profit is constrained by a goods balance. Equation (3.18) in Chapter 3 is restated as:

,

 

,

,, ,

,

,

,,

,

,

(4.46)

,

Equation (4.46) assumes that there is never a shortage or an inventory buildup of the product. Note that a good can be shipped to different industries and/or the same industry. Goods can also be used as input by the firm that produces them. Exports are shipped to the same industry. In order to maximize profit subject to the production function and goods balance constraints, the following LaGrangian function is formulated from Eqs. (4.43), (4.44), and (4.46): ,

 

,

,

,

,

,

2

, ,

 

,

 

,

, , ,

, ,

,

,

, , ,

, ,

,

,

,

 

,, ,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,,

,

,

(4.47) 90

where ηix,i and μix,i are the LaGrangian multipliers for the production and goods balance constraints, respectively. The first-order conditions are obtained by taking the derivatives of the LaGrangian with respect to outputs (xix,i,jx,l), exports (xix,i,px,i), production (Qix,i), inputs(xlx,j,ix,i), land (Lix,i), and labor (Mix,i). The first-order condition with respect to outputs is:

,,

0

,

, ,

,

2

,

,

,

,

,, ,

,, ,



,

,, ,

,

,

0



,

,

,

 

,

0

(4.48) The top line of Eq. (4.48) applies when the firm does not use its own goods as input, thus ,

0, and the goods balance constraint (4.46) is not necessary to find the maximum

profit. The second line accounts for output used as input. The first-order condition with respect to exports is:

, ,,

0

,

,

(4.49)

Equation (4.49) produces the same result as the top line of Eq. (4.48), because exports are outputs. The result,

,

0, is used to simplify forthcoming equations.

The first-order condition with respect to production is:

, ,

Substituting

,

,

,

,

0 into Eq. (4.50) implies that

is modified as follows: 91

(4.50)

0

,

,

. Equation (4.48)

,,

0

,

, ,

2

,

,

,

,

,

,, ,

,, ,



0

,

,, ,

,



,

,

,

 

0

,

(4.51) The first-order condition with respect to inputs is:

2

,

,

,

,

, , ,

, , , , ,

2

,

, , ,



,

,

,, ,

,, ,



,

, , ,

,

0

,

, , ,

,

, 0

,

0

,

,

 , 0 

,



,

 

 ,

(4.52) Substituting

,

,

and

0 into Eq. (4.52) yields:

,

, , , ,

,

,

2

,

2

,

,

,

,

, , ,

, , ,



, , ,

,

,

,, ,

,, ,



, , ,

,

,

0

,

0

,

,

,



 

 , 0

,

,

 



 

 ,

(4.53) The two lines of Eq. (4.53) are equivalent, and therefore can be combined into one line. Note that the second line of Eq. (4.53), when outputs are used as inputs (lx = ix and j=i) is the same as the second line of Eq. (4.51). Therefore, Eqs. (4.51) and (4.53) can be combined into one equation:

, , , ,

,

2

,

,

, , , ,

, , ,



,

, , ,

,

0

, ,

,

1

(4.54) The first-order condition with respect to land is:

92

,

,

,

Substituting

,

,

,

,

0

(4.55)

,

0

(4.56)

yields:

,

,

,

,

Finally, the first-order condition with respect to labor is:

,

,

,

Again,

,

,

,

,

,

0

(4.57)

,

0

(4.58)

is substituted into Eq. (4.57), with:

,

,

,

,

,

To determine the Marshallian demands, the first-order conditions must be solved for the relevant input to the production function. The Marshallian demand for land is obtained by solving Eq. (4.56) for Lix,i , with:

,

,

,

(4.59)

The Marshallian demand for labor is obtained by solving Eq. (4.58) for Mix,i , with:

,

,

, ,

93

(4.60)

The Marshallian demand for goods inputs is more difficult to solve, because the denominator has goods from multiple locations. It is first necessary to solve Eq. (4.54) for price plus tolls with: ,

2

,

,

,

,

, , ,



, , ,

, , ,

,

(4.61)

The two terms of this equation are next divided by the same terms for the price of the same good from another location (nx), with:

,

2

,

2

, ,

  ,

,

,

, , , ,

,

, , ,



,

, , ,

, , ,

,

(4.62)

, , ,



, , ,

,

which simplifies as:

,

2

,

2

,

, , ,

(4.63)

, , ,

,

Next, solving for xnx,j,ix,i yields:

, , , , ,

2

, , , ,

2

,

Substituting Eq. (4.64) into Eq. (4.61) yields:

94

(4.64)

2

,

,

 

,

,

,

, , ,

, , ,



,

2

,

2

,

, , , , ,

(4.65) Factoring the constants out of the summation term gives:

,

2

,

 

,

,

,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,



2

,

2

,

,

,

,

(4.66) Solving Eq. (4.66) for xlx,j,ix,i yields:

,

 

, , ,

,



,

2

,

2

,

,

,

(4.67) ,

which is the Marshallian demand for inputs. To determine the Marshallian price for the goods produced, the Marshallian equilibrium demands (4.59, 4.60, and 4.67) are substituted into the production function Eq. (4.44), with:

,

,

 

, ,

,



,

,

,

2

,

,

,

,

,

,

, ,

2

,

(4.68) First, the term δi is distributed into the inner square bracket, with: 95

,

,

 

, ,

,

,

2

,

,

,

,

,

, ,

,



,

,

2

,

(4.69) Then any term that does not have an lx in it can be factored out of the summation over lx:

, ,

,

,

,

,

,

, ,

,



,

,

,

·

,

·

2

 

,

2

,

,

,

,

·

, ,

(4.70) Because the C-D exponents sum to one, pix,i and Qix,i can be factored out of the product and the land and labor terms, while the summation over nx can be changed to the summation over lx as both summations sum over the entire city: ,

∑ ,

,

,

,

,

,

2

,

,

,

,



,

,

2

·

·

,

,

(4.71) Qix,i is eliminated from both sides of the equation and the division of the summations is changed into one summation:

96

,

1

,

 

,

, ,

,

2

·

,

·

,

,

(4.72) Finally, an algebraic expression for pix,i is explicitly determined:

,





,

,

,

 

2

,



,

,

,

,

,

(4.73) The demand for land, labor, goods, and the product prices are now determined.

4.4. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS Exporters purchase goods probabilistically, and a MNL equation using the total price for a good (sale price at the zone plus cost to transport the good to the port) is used, with Eq. (3.9) restated as:

,

e ,,

,

,



,

(4.74) ,

e

,

,

where Ψix,i,px,i is the probability that the exporter at zone px will purchase good i from zone ix; and λexp the exponent coefficient that characterizes the preference for goods. The restriction AZpx,i = 1 applies and means that goods can only be exported through active ports. 97

Once the above distribution is known, the amount of goods sent from each city zone to the port can be computed as:

,,

,

,,

,

(4.75)

,

,

where Xpx,iexp is the total amount of good i exported through port px. It is assumed that each port exports the same amount of goods. The total exports of good i, Xiexp, is calculated by multiplying the amount of good i sent out from each port by the dummy activity variable, with:

(4.76)

,

Equations (4.74) – (4.76) are combined into:

,,

1

 

,



,

,

e

· ,

,

,

(4.77)



The export balance, Eq. (3.11) in Chapter 3, is restated as:

,, ,

,

 

,

,

,

,

,

(4.78)

,

The left hand side of Eq. (4.78) represents the value of exports from active zones (AZix,i =1) to active ports (AZpx,i = 1), and the right hand side the value of the locally produced

98

goods. τi is determined from input-output data, and represents the value of the exports as a percentage of the value of local production. The demands by industries for inputs, including imports, were determined in Section 4.3. Industries demand imports based on import prices. In order to create a pricing mechanism that satisfies the input-output table conditions for imports, the price of imports is determined using Eq. (3.12) in Chapter 3, which is restated as:

,, ,

,

 

,

 

,

,

  ,

,

,

(4.79)

,

,

θi is the percentage of good i imported based on input-output data. The left side represents the value of the imports across active purchasing zones (AZjx,j=1), active ports from which goods are imported (

,

=1), and importing industries (

,

0).

The right hand side calculates the value of imports as a percentage (θi) of the value of domestic production of the same good. Given the volume of exports and imports, and the results of Sections 4.2 and 4.3, all goods and people movements have been determined. It is now possible to model the transportation network.

4.5. TRANSPORTATION The transportation system connects firms and residents, and the equations developed in this section determine the optimal network for the city. The transportation network is a central road whose width (and capacity) can vary across zones. The only cost is the rent to reserve land for transportation use (no construction or maintenance 99

costs). The transportation equations calculate the total traffic flows of people and goods, the travel times and tolls, and the total overall transportation cost. The model assumes a congestible transportation network. Equation (3.13) in Chapter 3 is restated as: 1 , ,

·

1

·

,,

, , ,

,

·

, ,

,

, , , ,

,

, ,

,

,

(4.80) where Fix,jx is the flow between zones ix and jx. Only goods move to/from the ports. Equations (4.81) to (4.83) calculate these flows as: 1 , ,

·

·

,,

,

(4.81)

,

1 ,

,

·

·

,,

,

0

(4.82)

(4.83)

where Fpx,jx is the flow of imports from port px to city zone jx, and Fix,px the flow of exports from city zone ix to port px. The restriction on the summation in Eq. (4.81), ,

,

0 , ensures that only goods i used by industry j are imported. Exports are

only sent to the same industry, so only industry i is notated in Eq. (4.82). Equation (4.83) ensures that no goods are transported between ports.

100

Equations (4.80) – (4.83) define all the traffic flows between zones. Next, the flow in each zone must be determined. Figure 4.2 shows all possible flows related to zone 3. Imports can be delivered to zone 3, pass through zone 3, or never reach zone 3. Similarly, exports can originate from zone 3, pass through zone 3, or never cross zone 3. Finally, the other flows are internal city flows (commuters, goods, and shoppers) that can arrive in zone 3, originate from zone 3, pass through zone 3, not affect zone 3, or be internal to zone 3. Internal traffic that starts and ends in zone 3 is assumed to travel only half the length of the zone. Ports can only be an origin or destination. There is no through-flow. Equation

Figure 4.2. Possible Traffic Flows Affecting Zone 3 101

(4.84) represents the amount of traffic in ports:

,

(4.84)

,

A city zone can be an origin, destination, or transshipment zone. Equation (4.85) computes the traffic in city zones, restating Eq. (3.14) of Chapter 3 as:

,

,

2

,

,

,

(4.85)

The traffic capacity equation (3.15) in Chapter 3 is restated as: (4.86) where Kix is the traffic capacity of zone ix; and Six the amount of land dedicated to the transportation system in zone ix. The next step is to calculate the travel time across a zone, with:

1

(4.87) 0

where Ztimelx is the travel time and Flx the traffic flow in zone lx. The travel time through a port is zero.

102

The travel time for each trip can now be calculated. If the trip originates and terminates in the same zone, it is assumed that the average trip is half the length of the zone, with:

,

1 2

(4.88)

If the trip is interzonal, Eq. (3.17) in Chapter 3 is restated as: 1 2

,

 

 

 

(4.89)

Zone tolls, Ztollix, are endogenous variables used to determine the tolls that are paid for each trip, Itolllx,mx. If the trip originates and terminates in the same zone lx, the toll is:

,

1 2

(4.90)

If the trip is interzonal, then:

,

1 2

 

 

 

(4.91)

The toll balance ensures that the tolls collected from the drivers (both for freight and residential traffic) in each zone are equal to the rent paid for land dedicated to transportation use in that zone, and is used to determine the zone toll, with:

103

F

(4.92) 0

(4.93)

where Ztollix is the toll to pass through zone ix. Because there is no land in the ports, Ztollpx equals zero. The total transport costs, Eq. (3.20) in Chapter 3, is restated as:

,  

1 2

,

2

,

,

 

,    

,

,

2

, ,

,

,

,

,

,

   

,

,

2

,

2

, ,

,

,

,

   

 

(4.94) Note that the value of freight travel time for firms is not included, because firms’ profit and production functions are not affected by this travel time.

4.6. RENT AND DEFICIT DIVIDENDS The rent dividend, Eq. (3.21) in Chapter 3, is restated as:

, , , ,

, , ,

, ,

The deficit dividend, Eq. (3.22) in Chapter 3, is restated as:

104

(4.95)

,, , ,, ,

0

,

,,

,

, ,

,

1

,

,

(4.96)

4.7. LAND AND LABOR AVAILABILITY Each city zone accommodates residential, industrial, and transportation activities, subject to land availability. Each city zone has 64 acres and the land balance equation, restating Eq. (3.23) in Chapter 3, is:

,

,

, ,

,

64

,

,

(4.97)

The first summation calculates the total residential land, and the second one the total industrial land. Similarly, there is a labor balance for every firm. Equation (3.24) in Chapter 3 is restated as:

,

,

,

,

,

(4.98)

4.8. ZERO FLOWS The following equations force specific flows of goods to be equal to zero, as the model does not allow these flows to occur. Equation (4.99) prevents any flow of goods from port to port (including to the same port). Equation (4.100) prevents goods from being imported by workers (imported goods must go to firms). Equation (4.101) prevents goods from being exported to a different industry (goods must go to the same industry). 105

Finally, Equation (4.102) prevents goods from being sent from the city to workers in ports (workers are not allowed to live in port zones).

,,

,

,, ,

,,

,

,,

,

0

,

(4.99)

0

,

(4.100)

0

, ,

(4.101)

0

,

(4.102)

4.9. INDICES, PARAMETERS, AND VARIABLES This section lists the indices and their ranges as used in this chapter, the parameters, and the variables. The model provides numerical solutions for the variables for a given set of parameter values.

4.9.1. Indices hx, ix, jx, kx lx, mx, nx, ox px, qx i, j, k l, m w

city zones (2 to 6) city and port zones (1 to 7) port zones (1 and 7) industries (manufacturing, retail, services) industries and workers (manufacturing, retail, services, workers) workers only (1)

4.9.2. Parameters Ai Aw aix

scaling factor for firms’ production functions scaling factor for utility function Inverse speed of traffic in zone ix

106

αj,i

Cobb-Douglas production function exponent for the amount of good j used by industry i αk,w Cobb-Douglas utility function exponent for good k used by workers Dummy parameter indicating whether zone lx is open to industry l AZlx,l b and r Constants in the Bureau of Public Roads equation β Cobb-Douglas utility function exponent for leisure time γi Cobb-Douglas production function exponent of labor used by industry i δw CES exponent indicating a resident’s desire for variety CES exponent modeling increased productivity due to product variety δi ηix,i LaGrangian multiplier for the production balance constraint ζ and λ road capacity constants H total number of waking hours per month. λpop exponent for the distribution of population exponent indicating the preference for goods λexp μix,i LaGrangian multiplier for the goods balance constraint N total population of the city Cobb-Douglas production function exponent for the amount of land used ωi by industry i ωw Cobb-Douglas utility function exponent for the amount of land used by workers/residents τi value of exports as a percentage of the value of local production percentage of good i imported θi truck number of car equivalents per truck tunitj number of units of good j per truck υ number of workdays per month

4.9.3. Variables DeficitDiv Fix,jx Fix hix,w,jx,j Itimeix,jx Itollkx,ix Kix lix,w,jx,j Lix,i Mix,i Nix,jx,j

per-resident amount of money borrowed by the economy to fund the deficit interzonal flow between zones ix and jx flow through zone ix length of the work day for residents of zone ix working for industry j in zone jx amount of time to travel between zones ix and jx transport toll to travel between zones kx and ix traffic capacity of zone ix lot size for a worker living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx land used by industry i in zone ix total labor hours used by industry i in zone ix number of residents living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx 107

Ωix,jx,j plx,k πix,i Ψix,i,px,i Ψix,w,jx,j Qix,i ρix RntDiv Six tix,w,jx,j TCix Uix,w,jx,j wjx,j xlx,i,mx,l Xiexp zkx,k,ix,w,jx,j Ztimelx Ztollix

total possible income less commuting cost for a resident living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx price of good k purchased from zone lx profit of firm i located in zone ix probability for exporter in zone px to purchase good i from zone ix probability for a worker to live in zone ix and work for industry j in zone jx quantity of good i produced in zone ix land rent in zone ix per-resident rent dividend amount of land used for roads in zone ix amount of leisure time (in hours per month) for a resident living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx total cost to travel within zone ix utility of a worker living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx hourly wage rate paid by industry j in zone jx amount of good i sold at location lx to all firms and workers, l, at zone mx total amount of good i exported to the world amount of good k purchased from zone kx by a resident living in zone ix and working for industry j in zone jx time to travel across zone lx toll to pass through zone ix

4.10. VARIABLES AND EQUATIONS The basic model variables are listed in Table 4.1, with the number of permutations for each variable. The variables πix,i , Ψix,i,px,i , and Ψix,w,jx,j are not listed because they are not explicitly solved for in the numerical solution procedure described in Chapter 5. Table 4.2 lists the equations and their number of permutations. When comparing Table 4.1 and 4.2, there are 2,437 variables and 2,432 equations, so there are 5 missing equations. This is due to the fact that the total travel cost, ∑ is minimized by changing Six: as the cost is minimized the last 5 variables are assigned values. 108

,

Variable DeficitDiv Flx.mx Flx hix,w,jx,j

Indices None

 

Itimelx,mx Itolllx,mx Kix lix,w,jx,j Lix,i Mix,i Nix,jx,j Ωix,jx,j plx,k Qix,i ρix RntDiv Six tix,w,jx,j

 

wjx,j xlx,i,mx,l

7, 7 6,

1 1 2 2

7 ,  7 ,  6 6,

2 2 2

6, 6, 6,

2

2

6,

2

1 2 2

7, 6, 6

2 2

6 6,

 

1,

2 2

6 6,

1,

 

2 6, 1 7, 1 7,

Xiexp zkx,k,ix,w,jx,j Ztimelx Ztolllx Total

1

7

1,

, 1 1

2

,

6,

7 7

1, ,

2 ,

6, , ,

6,

, ,

, ,

,

6,

, , ,

, ,

None

TCix Uix,w,jx,j

1 1 2

2 2

6, 6,

1 1

7 7

, ,

2 2

, ,

6, 6, , ,

, , 1, ,

, ,

, , 2 ,

(4.96) (4.80) – (4.83) (4.84), (4.85)

Number of Permutations 1 49 7

(4.32)

75

(4.88), (4.89) (4.90), (4.91) (4.86)

49 49 5

(4.29)

75

(4.59) (4.60)

15 15

(4.41)

75

(4.27)

75

(4.73), (4.79) (4.46) (4.97) (4.95)

21 15 5 1 5

(4.30)

75

(4.94)

5

(4.38)

75

(4.98) (4.42), (4.67), (4.77), (4.99) – (4.102) (4.78)

15 588

(4.31)

1,125

(4.87) (4.92), (4.93)

7 7 2,437

Equations

,

, 6,

,

,

Table 4.1. Variables and Number of Permutations

109

3

,

Equation

Number of Permutations

Indices Residents

(4.27) (4.29) (4.30)

2

6,

2

2

6,

2

2

6,

2

, ,

6, 6,

75

,

75

,

6, ,

75

,

2 2

6, 6,

2

6,

2

6,

2

6,

2 1

6,

2 2 2 1 2 2

6 6 6 7 6 6

(4.77) (4.78) (4.79)

2

6,

(4.80) (4.81) (4.82) (4.83) (4.84) (4.85) (4.86) (4.87) (4.88), (4.89) (4.90), (4.91) (4.92) (4.93)

2 1,7 2 1,7 1,7 2 2 1

6, , 6, ,

1

7,

1

7

49

1

7,

1

7

49

(4.31) (4.32) (4.38) (4.41) (4.42) (4.46) (4.59) (4.60) (4.67) (4.73)

, 2 1, , , 2 6, , , 1, 2 , , 2 6, , ,

75 6,

75 75 ,

Firms , , , , , , , , , , , , Imports and Exports , , , , , Transportation

, , , , , ,

, 1,7

, 1,125

,

2

,

6,

6

,

2

6,

75 15 15 15

,

315 15

,

1,7

30 3 6 25 10 10 4 2 5 5 7

2

6 1,7 1,7

6 6 7

2 6 1,7

5 2

Table 4.2. Equation Used and Number of Permutations 110

continued

Table 4.2 continued 2

(4.94)

6

5 Rent and Deficit Dividends

(4.95) (4.96)

None None

1 1 Land and Labor Availability

2 2

(4.97) (4.98) (4.99) (4.100) (4.101) (4.102)

 

6 6,

1,7 , 1,7 , 1,7 , 2 6, 2 6, 1,7 , 2 6, 1,7 ,

1

, , Zero Flows , , , , , , ,

1

5 15

,

,

, ,

Total

,

48

, , ,

30 , ,

60 30 2,432

111

CHAPTER 5 MODEL IMPLEMENTATION The detailed equations used in the model have been presented in Chapter 4. This chapter outlines the computation procedure used to solve the model, explains the various decision steps used in this procedure, and presents some of the GAMS coding. The GAMS coding is presented in Appendix A, with Section A.1 having the simplified GAMS code (omitting put statements and output calculations), and Section A.2 the complete GAMS code.

5.1. GENERAL COMPUTATION PROCEDURE The model determines an equilibrium city for a given initial transportation system, feeds back to modify the transportation system to minimize transportation costs, re-computes the equilibrium city resulting from the transportation system changes, and repeats these steps until the lowest transportation costs are achieved. The flow chart presented in Figure 5.1 outlines the computation procedure used to solve the model. Initial values are assigned to the following variables: wix,i, plx,k, ρix, TCix, TColdix ,Six, Flx, Ztolllx, Nix,jx,j, xlx,i,mx,l, Lix,i, Mix,i, Ztimelx, lix,jx,j, hix,jx,j, and Qix,i. The initial transportation system, measured by the land variables Six, is assigned small values to create an initially congested system, which the model can improve by increasing these land values. TCix is 112

Figure 5.1. Model Calculation Process 113

the newly computed travel cost within zone ix, and TColdix is the previous travel cost value. These variables are assigned large initial values, with TColdix greater than TCix, to force the model to start the procedure and decrease transport costs. Because the initial TCix values decrease in all zones, the transportation land is increased in each zone by a programmed increment (0.1 acres). Increasing transportation land increases the tolls that must be collected and decreases traffic congestion costs. Because transportation land has increased, land balance requirements may no longer be met. The model then simultaneously checks whether the labor, land, and import balance conditions [Eqs. (4.97), (4.98), and (4.79)] are satisfied. If not, wages, land rents, and port prices are adjusted. The model then calculates the tolls and travel times between zones, establishes zero flow requirements, determines consumptions and utility of residents, optimizes firms profits by computing goods, land, and labor inputs, and determines the amount of goods exported. Based on these calculations, flows, tolls, and total transportation costs are recalculated, as are rent and deficit dividends. The model then feeds back to check if the labor, land, and import balance requirements are satisfied. If they are not, more adjustments to the wage rates, land rents, and import prices are made, and the calculations are repeated; if they are, then the equilibrium city form for the given transportation system has been calculated. The model checks to see if transportation costs have decreased in this system as compared to the previous one. If there are no transportation cost decreases in any of the zones, the model calculations have been completed and the optimal city has been determined. 114

5.2. MODELING METHODOLOGY CONSIDERATIONS Several decisions underlie the creation of a successfully solvable model. Because of the complex and highly non-linear nature of the model equations, direct optimization of transportation costs turned out to be unsuccessful. Alex Anas has provided us the GAMS coding of the model he developed (Anas and Rhee, 2006). This coding was instrumental in the reformulation of the model into its current form, which is essentially a modified fixed-point method. Some models use population as an endogenous variable, the value of which is adjusted to achieve a specified national utility level. In this model, the total population is exogenous. Each resident type maximizes her/her utility, and the MNL equation (4.41) is applied to assign the population to appropriate resident types. By increasing the value of λpop, the MNL equation becomes very sensitive to changes in utility levels, with a convergence of utility levels across resident types. Therefore the original goal of having an endogenous population could be achieved by having a large value for λpop and adjusting the exogenous population until a desired national utility level is reached. Another modeling decision is related to the purchasing of export goods. Obviously, pricing is the main driver, but exporters want different types of goods, and therefore goods from all locations. To achieve purchases from all zones, a MNL equation (4.74) was used. Figure 5.1 also displays a variable named “count”, which is set equal to zero during the transportation land increase step. In order for the next decision to be made, not only must the land, labor, and import balance requirements be met, but the count must 115

also not be equal to 0. The count requirement was added for the following reason. During the stage where the transportation land is increased, none of the other variables are re-evaluated, and therefore only the land balance may change. If less than 64 acres are used, the increase in transportation land does not violate the land balance, and the model computation would terminate without re-evaluating the system. With the count requirement, as soon as the transportation land is increased, the second loop must be entered. “count” is increased by 1 with every iteration of the second loop, so that when the feedback step of the loop occurs, “count” is no longer equal to zero and no longer the controlling requirement for repeating the loop. The model will then exit the second loop when the labor, land, and import balance requirements are met. The model does not calculate the equations in the same order as they are presented in Chapter 4 because, by re-arranging the equations, a smaller number of initial conditions are required.

5.3. GAMS CODING Most of the GAMS modeling is fairly straightforward. The critical parts of the model are the decisions boxes: “Have Transport Costs Decreased?” and “Are Labor, Land and Imports Balanced?” The adjustments of transportation land, wages rates, land rents and import prices are discussed below, and the related coding is presented. The first “while” loop corresponds to the minimization question: Have Transport Costs Decreased? The corresponding GAMS coding is presented in Figure 5.2. The “while” statement continues until the conditions, sum(ix$(TC(ix) < TCold(ix)*(1-epsilonTC)),

116

count = 0; while(sum(ix$(TC(ix) < TCold(ix)*(1-epsilonTC)), 1) gt 0 and count lt 2000, * Loop increases transport land for each zone that saw reduced total cost loop(hx, if (TC(hx) < TCold(hx)*(1-epsilonTC), S(hx) = Sold(hx) + 0.1; else S(hx) = Sold(hx););); * End of loop, but not of the while statement * Reset the old total cost and transport land variable for next pass through * while loop TCold(ix) = TC(ix); Sold(ix) = S(ix); count = 0; Figure 5.2. Transportation Cost “While Loop” GAMS Coding

1) > 0 and count < 2000, are satisfied. The $ sign is a conditional indicator in GAMS. The conditional requirement is that the current transport cost (TC) of a zone ix is less than the old transport cost (TCold). The multiplier (1-epsilonTC) determines the requirement margin. With epsilonTC = 0.001, TC must be less than 99.9% of TCold to be considered a drop in costs. A value of 1 is assigned to every zone ix where this condition is fulfilled. These values are then summed up over all zones. To exit the “while” loop, transport costs must increase in every zone, in which case the sum would be equal to 0 because all TCix would be greater than TColdix. A limit of 2000 for the count variable prevents too many iterations. The loop allows the amount of transportation land to be increased in every zone with a decrease in transport costs, and is repeated for all city zones hx. If the current transport costs are less than 99.9% of the old transport costs, the amount of transport land

117

in that zone S(hx) is increased by 0.1 acres. If the transport costs did not decrease, the amount of transport land remains the same. Finally, the old transport costs and old transport land values are reset to the current values for the next iteration. count is also reset to zero. The GAMS coding for the labor, land and import balances is presented in Figure 5.3. The “while” statement checks whether the amount of labor demanded by every firm (labor(jx,j)) is equal to the amount supplied by all the residents of the city (upsilon*sum(ix, zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j))) within a certain margin of tolerance (1 + epsilonlabor). If the amount is too much (or too little) for any one firm, the loop will be entered. Similarly, the total amount of land used in each zone (sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) + sum(i, landused(ix,i)) + S(ix)), should be close to 64 acres (within a margin of tolerance epsilonland). If more than 64 acres are used, the loop is entered so that the land rent can be increased. If the

while((sum((jx,j)$(labor(jx,j) > (1+epsilonlabor)*(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)))),1) + sum((jx,j)$(labor(jx,j) < (1-epsilonlabor)*(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)))),1)) + (sum(ix$(sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(ix,i)) +S(ix) > 64 + epsilonland), 1) +sum(ix$((sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(ix,i)) +S(ix) < 64 - epsilonland) and rho(ix) > rhomin(ix)), 1)) + (sum(i$(sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i)) > (1+epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), 1) +sum(i$(sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i)) < (1-epsilonimport)* theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), 1)) gt 0 and count lt 2000 or count eq 0, count = count + 1; Ztollold(ix) = Ztoll(ix); Figure 5.3. Land, Labor, and Import Balance “While Loop” GAMS Coding 118

amount of land used is less than 64 acres and the land rent is the minimum land rent, then there is unoccupied land, which is acceptable and meets the condition: zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(ix,i)) +S(ix) < 64 - epsilonland) and rho(ix) > rhomin(ix)). If less than 64 acres are used and the land rent is above the minimum, then that loop must be entered to lower the land rent, so that the previous condition looks both at the amount of land used and the land rent. The amount of goods imported, sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i)), must be equal to the amount of goods to be imported, theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i)), within the margin of tolerance, (1+epsilonimport). Also, count cannot exceed 2000. Finally the “or” statement requires the loop to be entered if count equals zero. This condition is needed because, when the transportation land (S(ix)) is changed, it may not cause the land and labor balances to be violated, as no new calculations are made. This guarantees the loop is entered and that a new equilibrium is found. count is then increased by a value of one, so that the loop will not be re-entered based on this condition. If the labor demand is not balanced, wages need to be adjusted, as shown in the GAMS coding on Figure 5.4. Higher wages decrease the firm’s demand for labor and increase the worker’s desire to work. However, the wage rate is not explicit in the labor balance equation (4.98), and therefore its value cannot be explicitly determined, but must be iterated. If more labor is demanded than supplied, wages are raised; if less labor is demanded than supplied, wages are reduced. The ratio of labor demanded to labor supplied, labor(hx,j)/(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,hx,j)*h(ix,hx,j)), has an optimal value of 1. 119

* This while loop adjusts the wage rates to ensure that labor supply equals labor * demand. Uses Eq. (4.98) wold(jx,j) = w(jx,j) loop((hx,j), if(labor(hx,j)>(1+epsilonlabor)*(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,hx,j)*h(ix,hx,j))), w(hx,j) =(1 + 0.02*(labor(hx,j)/(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,hx,j) *h(ix,hx,j)))-1))*wold(hx,j); elseif(labor(hx,j) (64 + epsilonland), rho(hx) = (1 + 0.2*(((sum((jx,j),zpop(hx,jx,j)*lotsize(hx,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(hx,i))+S(hx)))/64 - 1))*rhoold(hx); elseif(((sum((jx,j),zpop(hx,jx,j)*lotsize(hx,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(hx,i))+S(hx))) < (64 - epsilonland)), rho(hx) = max((1 - 0.2*(1-(((sum((jx,j),zpop(hx,jx,j)*lotsize(hx,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(hx,i))+S(hx)))/64))) * rhoold(hx), rhomin(hx)); else rho(hx) = rhoold(hx););); Figure 5.5. Land Rent Adjustment “Loop” GAMS Coding

multiplied by the old land rent, resulting in the new land rent. If the calculated land rent goes below the minimum land rent, the minimum land rent is used for that zone. A value of 20% was found to provide a quickly converging solution. Finally, the import prices are adjusted so that the import balance requirement is met. The GAMS coding is displayed in Figure 5.6. There are two equations prior to entering the loop. One is the setting of the old port prices, pold(px,i). The other is the calculation of thetacalc(i), which is the value of theta observed in the system and which can be compared with the theta required by the input-output data. It is a direct solution of Eq. (4.79). The loop “if” statements are similar to earlier statements, checking whether the amount imported is greater or lesser than the amount that is supposed to be imported based on local production (within a margins of tolerance epsilonimport). If the value of goods imported is too high, the port prices are increased. The increased prices reduce

121

* This loop adjusts the import prices to ensure the value of imports is * within a tolerance of the value of city production for that good. * Uses Eq. (4.79) pold(px,i) = p(px,i); thetacalc(i) =sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i))/ sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i)); loop(i, if((sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*pold(px,i)) > (1 + epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), p(px,i) = (1+0.2*(thetacalc(i)-theta(i))/theta(i))*pold(px,i); elseif(sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*pold(px,i)) < (1 - epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), p(px,i) = (1-0.2*(theta(i)-thetacalc(i))/theta(i))*pold(px,i); else p(px,i) = pold(px,i) );); Figure 5.6. Import Price Adjustment “Loop” GAMS Coding

demand of the imported goods by the city firms [Eq. (4.67)], so that the import values actually decline. Conversely, if the value of goods imported is too low, the port prices are decreased. This increases the demand for the imported goods by the city firms, increasing the value of the goods imported. If the price is adjusted, it is calculated as 20% of the difference between thetacalc and theta, weighted by theta. This value is added to or subtracted from 1, and multiplied by the old price. If the import balance is verified, then no changes are made. The import balance loop is not necessary because an explicit value for the import price can be derived from Eq. (4.79). However, when the model is run with this explicit

122

equation, the solution quickly diverges and the model does not solve. By creating a loop and allowing for smaller adjustments to the price, a solution is derived and the conditions are met.

123

CHAPTER 6 DATA AND INPUTS The values of the parameter inputs to the model described in Chapter 4 are derived from the literature, from approximation and testing, and from the U.S. inputoutput table that characterizes interactions between industries, residents, imports, and exports. This chapter describes the determination of these data inputs.

6.1. LITERATURE SOURCES Each zone has 64 acres of available land: one mile long and a tenth of a mile wide (528 ft). This geometry allows the central road running through the city to be close to all industries and residents. Anas and Kim (2006) use the same size for the zones in their model. Sasaki and Mun (1996), Fujita and Ogawa (1982), and Solow and Vickrey (1971) also use a strip city form. Equation (4.2), the budget constraint, is the first equation to use the constant υ, the number of workdays per month. Following Anas and Kim (1996), a value of 22 is selected. Anas and Xu (1999) and Anas and Rhee (2006) use 250 workdays per year, or 20.8 workdays per month. Anas and Kim’s value is reasonable, because, in a 30-day month, there are 22 workdays and 8 days off over four weekends.

124

In Eq. (4.3), the time constraint, the constant H represents the total number of waking hours per month. A value of 480 is used, assuming 16 waking hours over 30 days. Anas and Kim (1996) also use this value. Equation (4.86), the traffic capacity, uses two constants, ζ and λ. The exponent λ measures returns to scale from transportation land. A value of one implies constant returns to scale, a lesser value decreasing returns, and a greater value increasing returns. Anas and Rhee (2005), Anas and Rhee (2006), and Anas and Xu (1999) use a value of one. Anas and Kim (1996) assume decreasing returns and use a value of 0.8. The present model also uses 0.8. While more land increases road width and the number of lanes, it also increases road intersections and merging requirements, thus producing decreasing returns. ζ is a scaling factor that is estimated based on the resulting road network. If too much transportation land is used in the resulting road network, the value of ζ can be increased, and if too little land is used, its value can be decreased. Anas and Xu (1999) used a value of one, Anas and Rhee (2006) a value of 1.1, Anas and Rhee (2005) values over the range [11.56 – 13.49], and Anas and Kim (1996) a value of 70. A value of 70 is selected for this model. Equation (4.87), the time-flow function of the Bureau of Public Roads, has three constants: a, b and r. Anas and Rhee (2006) use b = 50 and r = 2; Anas and Rhee (2005) 100

200 and r = 1.5; and Anas and Xu (1999) b = 500 and r = 4.0. In this

model, the constants b and r are assigned values of 0.15 and 4, respectively, which is consistent with the Highway Research Board (1964), Anas and Kim (1996), Oppenheim (1991), and Putnam (1983). Anas and Kim (1996) set a = 0.016667 (equivalent to 60 125

mph); Anas and Xu (1999) use a = 0.0222 (equivalent to 45 mph). The model uses a = 0.0222 because the road network is expected to be a 2 to 4-lane road, and not an interstate system, hence the slower design speed.

6.2. APPROXIMATION AND TESTING Equation (4.1), the utility function, has five constants: Aw, the scaling factor; αk,w, ωw, and β, the Cobb-Douglas (C-D) exponents for goods, land, and leisure time, respectively; and δw, the CES exponent that reflects the desire for variety. The scaling factor is set equal to one. Anas and Rhee (2006) and Anas and Xu (1999) use a value of 0.6 for δw. δw is assigned a value of 0.8 to provide some desire for variety. The C-D exponents for goods and land are derived from input-output data, as discussed in Section 6.3. The C-D exponent for leisure time, β, is subjected to sensitivity analysis, and the value of 0.5 is selected as the value needed to achieve approximately an 8-hour workday. Equation (4.39), the multinomial logit probability, has a constant λpop that is subjected to sensitivity testing and the value of 0.4 is selected. A high value reduces the randomness of the results, implying fewer unaccounted variables in residential choices. With a high value, the utility becomes the primary choice factor. A low value means that people choose more randomly. Population is exogenous and constant, and is first introduced in Eq. (4.40). Because the city is closed, its population is fixed, but utility levels vary. A base value of 180 provides approximately 36 people per zone, or a density of 360 people per square mile, which is quite low. However the population considered consists only of employees who work full-time, and does not consider the unemployed population (i.e., children and 126

retirees). Therefore, the actual city population would be greater than the base 180 employees. Equation (4.43), the profit equation for firms, introduces two constants: truck and tunitj, the number of car-equivalents per truck and the number of units of good j per truck, respectively. Both constants are subjected to sensitivity testing because no values could be identified in the literature. Truck is set equal to 3, assuming that a truck is equivalent to 3 cars in terms of traffic volume. This value accounts for both the length of a truck and the slower truck acceleration and deceleration, which requires larger spacing between vehicles. A value for tunitj is chosen to be equal to 5, making it advantageous to ship goods by truck rather than by automobile. Note that when tunitj equals truck, freight transportation becomes equivalent to using automobiles. Equation (4.44), the production function of firms, has a CES exponent, δi, and C-D exponents, αj,i, ωi, and γi. The C-D exponents are derived from input-output data (see Section 6.3). The CES exponent is assigned a base value of 0.8, as no values could be identified in the literature. The constant λexp appears in Eq. (4.74), which calculates the probability exporters will purchase a good from a specific zone. This constant is set equal to 0.1. A value of zero equalizes goods purchases across all sites, whereas a high value implies that goods are purchased only from the lowest-priced zone.

6.3. INPUT-OUTPUT TABLE A methodology is proposed to use the United States Input-Output table to derive several parameters of the model. First, industries are aggregated into fewer categories, to 127

be consistent with the model. Second, those industries that are not explicitly in the model are re-assigned. Third, the C-D production function exponents in Eqs. (4.1) and (4.44), and the percentages of exports and imports, τi and θi in Eqs. (4.78) and (4.79), are determined from the simplified table.

6.3.1. Sector Classification The Current Industry Analysis Division of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) creates an annual input-output table, available on-line at www.bea.gov/industry/ io_annual.htm. The data are disaggregated using the 1997 North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS). The 2005 Use table is used, as it depicts the commodity inputs to each industrial sector. Table 6.1 lists the commodity codes and labels used in the BEA analysis, and their assignment to the aggregate categories used in the model: Farms, Mining, Manufacturing, Retail, Services, Land, and Other.

6.3.2. Table Simplification Based on the reclassifications of industries presented in Table 6.1, the aggregated input-output data are presented in Table 6.2. The sectors in Table 6.2 are: •

Manufacturing: produces goods used by firms, residents, and for exports.



Retail: includes retail, wholesale, and warehousing. Accounts for intermediary trade within and between industries and sales to final consumers.



Services: a mix of industries typically found in CBDs and suburban subcenters, including banking, insurance, publishing, broadcasting, legal and professional services, hospitals, nursing, performing arts, recreation, and accommodations. 128

Commodity Code 111CA 113FF 211 212

129

Farms Forestry, fishing, and related activities Oil and gas extraction Mining, except oil and gas

Model Farms Farms Mining Mining

Commodity Code 511 512 513 514

213 22 23 311FT 313TT 315AL 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 331 332 333

Support activities for mining Utilities Construction Food and beverage and tobacco products Textile mills and textile product mills Apparel and leather and allied products Wood products Paper products Printing and related support activities Petroleum and coal products Chemical products Plastics and rubber products Nonmetallic mineral products Primary metals Fabricated metal products Machinery

Mining Manuf Other Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf

521CI 523 524 525 531 532RL 5411 5412OP 5415 55 561 562 61 621 622HO 624

334 335 3361MV 3364OT 337 339 42 44RT 481 482 483 484 485 486 487OS 493

Computer and electronic products Electrical equipment, appliances, and components Motor vehicles, bodies and trailers, and parts Other transportation equipment Furniture and related products Miscellaneous manufacturing Wholesale trade Retail trade Air transportation Rail transportation Water transportation Truck transportation Transit and ground passenger transportation Pipeline transportation Other transportation and support activities Warehousing and storage

Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Other Other Other Other Other Other Other Retail

711AS 713 721 722 81 GFE GFG GSLE GSLG S001 S002 S003 S004 V001 V002 V003

Commodity Label

Commodity Label Publishing industries (includes software) Motion picture and sound recording industries Broadcasting and telecommunications Information and data processing services Federal Reserve banks, credit intermediation, and related activities Securities, commodity contracts, and investments Insurance carriers and related activities Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles Real estate Rental and leasing services and lessors of intangible assets Legal services Miscellaneous professional, scientific and technical services Computer systems design and related services Management of companies and enterprises Administrative and support services Waste management and remediation services Educational services Ambulatory health care services Hospitals and nursing and residential care facilities Social assistance Performing arts, spectator sports, museums, and related activities Amusements, gambling, and recreation industries Accommodation Food services and drinking places Other services, except government Federal government enterprises Federal general government State and local government enterprises State and local general government Noncomparable imports Scrap, used and secondhand goods Rest of the world adjustment Inventory valuation adjustment Compensation of employees Taxes on production and imports, less subsidies Gross operating surplus

Table 6.1. Bureau of Economic Analysis Commodity Codes and Labels

Model Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Land Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Services Other Other Other Other Other Other Other Other Labor Value Added Value Added

Manufacturing Retail Services Land Farms Mining Other Intermediate Total Labor Value Added Total Value Added Total Output

Manuf 1,604 305 592 20 175 413 225 3,334 988 745

Retail 162 63 426 100 3 0 63 816 873 698

Services 595 120 2,310 387 17 0 226 3,656 3,069 1,740

Land 140 24 298 92 2 2 43 601 74 1,387

Farms 62 13 16 12 76 0 7 187 40 89

Mining 38 6 52 1 0 60 9 168 50 175

Other 702 163 722 51 3 30 263 1,936 1,941 563

Inter. Total 3,304 694 4,417 663 276 506 837 10,698 7,036 5,398

1,733 5,068

1,571 2,387

4,809 8,465

1,461 2,063

129 316

226 394

2,504 4,440

12,434 23,132

Table 6.2. Aggregated Input-Output Data (Billions of Dollars)

Personal Consumption Expenditures 1,758 1,327 4,105 1,234 48 0 236 -

Exports 630 85 221 1 26 9 201 -

-

-

Imports (1,374) 25 (55) (31) (226) (225) -

Other Final Uses 805 155 278 112 (1) 85 3,007 -

GDP 1,818 1,592 4,548 1,347 42 (132) 3,219 -

Commodity Output 5,123 2,286 8,965 2,009 319 374 4,056 -

-

-

12,434 -

23,132

130



Land: includes only the Real Estate sector. The BEA treats owner-occupied homes as businesses that create income distributed on an annual basis, the “land rent” of the model.



Farms: agriculture and forest products used by the economy. A city does not have this industry, although city residents and industries consume these goods.



Mining: extraction of raw materials (oil and metals). The city does not have this industry, which tends to be land intensive and to take place in remote areas.



Other: all other economic sectors not previously categorized, including government, transportation, and construction. These sectors are not included in the model, and do not logically fit into the manufacturing, retail, service, or land industries of the model. Transportation tolls are endogenously calculated by the model, but are not a model industry. Construction is not explicitly modeled because the input-output data represents annual construction transactions, whereas the static model assumes that the entire city is built instantly, with no further construction.



Labor: the amount paid by each industry to their employees (i.e., wages).



Value added: total taxes and gross operating surplus (or loss) of the industries. Because there is no government and profit is zero in the model, this category is not used.



Personal Consumption Expenditures: residents’ consumption.



Exports: used to determine the market share of exports from the economy.

131



Imports: used to determine the market share of imports into the economy.



Other Final Uses: includes several categories, such as investment, changes in inventory, and government expenditures. These categories are not modeled.

Conceptually, the Intermediate Total column and the Intermediate Total row always sum up to the same value (10,698). Similarly, the Total Value Added must equal the GDP (12,434), and the Total Output/Intermediate Total must be equal to the Total Output/Commodity Output (23,132). In order to develop the final input-output table, adjustments are made to retain these equalities, as described below. In Table 6.2, the inputs the farm and mining industries use from city industries (manufacturing, retail, services, land, and other) are re-categorized as exports because farm and mining industries are not part of the city or model. The change is shown in Table 6.3, where manufacturing exports increase from 630 to 731, offsetting the decrease to zero of manufactured inputs used by farm and mining industries. Retail exports increase from 85 to 104; service exports from 221 to 289; land exports from 1 to 14; and other exports from 201 to 217. All these export increases offset the decrease to zero of the corresponding inputs to the farm and mining industries. The highlighted cells in Table 6.3 are the values of farm and mining commodities used by city industries. Because farms and mining are not part of the city economy, these intermediate goods are imports to city industries. As a result, the farm and mining inputs to the manufacturing industry are decreased by 588, and the imports of manufactured goods are increased by 588 (from -1,374 to -1,962). Note that an increase in imports 132

Manufacturing Retail Services Land Farms Mining Other Intermediate Total Labor Value Added Total Value Added Total Output

Manuf 1,604 305 592 20 175 413 225 3,334 988 745 1,733 5,068

Retail 162 63 426 100 3 0 63 816 873 698 1,571 2,387

Services 595 120 2,310 387 17 0 226 3,656 3,069 1,740 4,809 8,465

Land 140 24 298 92 2 2 43 601 74 1,387 1,461 2,063

Farms 76 0 77 40 89 129 206

Mining 0 60 61 50 175 226 286

Other 702 163 722 51 3 30 263 1,936 1,941 563 2,504 4,440

Inter. Total 3,204 675 4,349 649 276 506 821 10,480 7,036 5,398 12,434 22,914

Personal consumption expenditures 1,758 1,327 4,105 1,234 48 0 236 -

Exports 731 104 289 14 26 9 217 -

Imports (1,374) 25 (55) (31) (226) (225) -

Other Final Uses 805 155 278 112 (1) 85 3,007 -

Table 6.3. Input-Output Table with Farms and Mining Inputs Redefined as Exports (Billions of Dollars)

GDP 1,919 1,611 4,616 1,360 42 (132) 3,235 12,652 -

Commodity Output 5,123 2,286 8,965 2,009 319 374 4,056 23,132

133

implies a larger negative value, effectively decreasing the commodity output. The decline in manufacturing input decreases the manufacturing commodity production. Similarly, retail imports increase from 25 to 23 to offset the decrease of 3 in farm and mining goods inputs to the retail industry. The original BEA data show that the wholesale trade imports are +25, which is essentially an export. Farm and mining inputs to the service industry decrease by 17, and the imports of service goods are increased from -55 to -73. Finally, farm and mining inputs to other industries decrease by 33, and the imports of other goods are increased from -225 to -259. Minor differences are due to rounding errors. All these changes appear in Table 6.4. Similarly, personal consumption expenditures of goods from farms and mining industries take place through the retail industry. The personal expenditures of 48 spent on farms and mining goods are decreased to zero, the amount of personal consumption of retail goods is increased to 1,376, and the imports by retailers increased from 23 to -26. These changes appear in Table 6.5. Farm and mining own-use consumptions, value-added, exports, imports and other final uses are irrelevant to the model, and their values are set equal to zero. With the reclassification of personal consumption, the remaining own-use consumption of farming and mining is not relevant to the city economy. The value-added, exports, imports and other final uses are also irrelevant. These values are all set equal to zero, as shown in Table 6.6. With the farm and mining industries eliminated, the Total Value Added (12,079) is less than the GDP (12,096) and, similarly, the Total Output (21,777) is less

134

Manufacturing Retail Services Land Farms Mining Other Intermediate Total Labor Value Added Total Value Added Total Output

Personal consumption expenditures 1,758 1,327 4,105 1,234 48 0 236

Exports 731 104 289 14 26 9 217

Imports (1,962) 23 (73) (4) (31) (226) (259)

Other Final Uses 805 155 278 112 (1) 85 3,007

GDP 1,331 1,609 4,599 1,356 42 (132) 3,202

Commodity Output 4,535 2,283 8,948 2,005 119 (71) 4,022 -

Manuf 1,604 305 592 20 225

Retail 162 63 426 100 63

Services 595 120 2,310 387 226

Land 140 24 298 92 43

Farms 76 0 -

Mining 0 60 -

Other 702 163 722 51 263

Inter. Total 3,204 675 4,349 649 76 61 821

2,747 988 745

813 873 698

3,638 3,069 1,740

597 74 1,387

77 40 89

61 50 175

1,903 1,941 563

9,835 7,036 5,398

-

-

-

-

-

1,733 4,480

1,571 2,385

4,809 8,448

1,461 2,058

129 206

226 286

2,504 4,407

12,434 22,269

-

-

-

-

12,007 -

21,841

GDP 1,331 1,609 4,599 1,356 (6) (132) 3,202

Commodity Output 4,535 2,283 8,948 2,005 70 (71) 4,022 -

Table 6.4. Input-Output with Farms and Mining Inputs Redefined as Imports (Billions of Dollars) 135 Manufacturing Retail Services Land Farms Mining Other Intermediate Total Labor Value Added Total Value Added Total Output

Personal consumption expenditures 1,758 1,376 4,105 1,234 236

Exports 731 104 289 14 26 9 217

Imports (1,962) (26) (73) (4) (31) (226) (259)

Other Final Uses 805 155 278 112 (1) 85 3,007

Manuf 1,604 305 592 20 225

Retail 162 63 426 100 63

Services 595 120 2,310 387 226

Land 140 24 298 92 43

Farms 76 0 -

Mining 0 60 -

Other 702 163 722 51 263

Inter. Total 3,204 675 4,349 649 76 61 821

2,747 988 745

813 873 698

3,638 3,069 1,740

597 74 1,387

77 40 89

61 50 175

1,903 1,941 563

9,835 7,036 5,398

-

-

-

-

-

1,733 4,480

1,571 2,385

4,809 8,448

1,461 2,058

129 206

226 286

2,504 4,407

12,434 22,269

-

-

-

-

11,958 -

Table 6.5. Input-Output with Farms and Mining Personal Consumption Re-classified to Retail (Billions of Dollars)

21,793

Manufacturing Retail Services Land Farms Mining Other Intermediate Total Labor Value Added Total Value Added Total Output

Personal consumption expenditures 1,758 1,376 4,105 1,234 236

Exports 731 104 289 14 217

Imports (1,962) (26) (73) (4) (259)

Other Final Uses 805 155 278 112 3,007

GDP 1,331 1,609 4,599 1,356 3,202

Commodity Output 4,535 2,283 8,948 2,005 4,022 -

Manuf 1,604 305 592 20 225

Retail 162 63 426 100 63

Services 595 120 2,310 387 226

Land 140 24 298 92 43

Farms -

Mining -

Other 702 163 722 51 263

Inter. Total 3,204 675 4,349 649 821

2,747 988 745

813 873 698

3,638 3,069 1,740

597 74 1,387

-

-

1,903 1,941 563

9,698 6,946 5,134

-

-

-

-

-

1,733 4,480

1,571 2,385

4,809 8,448

1,461 2,058

-

-

2,504 4,407

12,079 21,777

-

-

-

-

12,096 -

Table 6.6. Input-Output with Farms and Mining Removed (Billions of Dollars)

21,794

136

than the Commodity Output (21,794), both by $17 billion. With the removal of these two industries, the economy shrinks and less is spent on final uses: personal consumption, exports, imports, and other final uses. The reduction in the economy size is distributed on a weighted basis to the original cell values. In the case of manufacturing, personal expenditures decrease from 1,758 to 1,755; exports from 731 to 730; imports from -1,962 to -1,959; and other final uses from 805 to 804. Note that the value of imports actually increases because, with a smaller economy, fewer goods need to be imported. Similar changes are made for the retail, services, land and other industries, until the net changes total 17. The results are shown in Table 6.7, where the GDP now equals the Total Value Added (12,079) and the Total Output equals the Commodity Output (21,777). The land industry is composed of both imputed rent from owner-occupied homes (the value added) and the output of the real estate industry (use of manufacturing, retail, services, land, and other inputs and labor). In the model, the imputed rent from owneroccupied homes is essentially the rent dividend. The model assumes that the remaining inputs and labor are part of the real estate industry, which is re-classified as a service. As a result, the input of manufactured goods decreases by 140 for the land industry and increases from 595 to 736 for the service industry. The retail input decreases by 24 for the land industry and increases from 120 to 143 for the service industry. The service input decreases by 298 for the land industry and increases from 2,310 to 2,608 for the service industry. The other input decreases by 43 for the land industry and increases from 226 to 270 for the service industry. The labor input decreases by 74 for the land 137

Manufacturing Retail Services Land Farms Mining Other Intermediate Total Labor Value Added Total Value Added Total Output

Personal consumption expenditures 1,755 1,374 4,099 1,232 236

Exports 730 104 289 14 217

Imports (1,959) (26) (73) (4) (258)

Other Final Uses 804 155 277 112 3,003

GDP 1,330 1,606 4,592 1,354 3,197

Commodity Output 4,533 2,281 8,941 2,003 4,018 -

Manuf 1,604 305 592 20 225

Retail 162 63 426 100 63

Services 595 120 2,310 387 226

Land 140 24 298 92 43

Farms -

Mining -

Other 702 163 722 51 263

Inter. Total 3,204 675 4,349 649 821

2,747 988 745

813 873 698

3,638 3,069 1,740

597 74 1,387

-

-

1,903 1,941 563

9,698 6,946 5,134

-

-

-

-

-

1,733 4,480

1,571 2,385

4,809 8,448

1,461 2,058

-

-

2,504 4,407

12,079 21,777

-

-

-

-

12,079 -

Table 6.7. Input-Output with Farms and Mining GDP Adjustment (Billions of Dollars)

21,777

138

industry and increases from 3,069 to 3,143 for the service industry. These results are shown in Table 6.8. Finally, the retail sector also includes the wholesale industry. In the model, the retail sector produces a unique product that is different from its manufacturing input. In other words, the retail (or wholesale good) sold is not just the original manufactured good, but is modeled as having been modified. In the BEA data, the retail sector data only represents the margin from selling goods, and does not include the value of the sold goods (Horowitz and Planting, 2006). For example, the inputs are only what the retail industry needs to operate: store displays, computers, and accounting services. To have the input-output data be consistent with the model, all manufactured goods used by the residents and manufacturing and service industries are included in the value of the retail inputs. This means that all manufactured goods, except exports, are sold to the retail sector. Also, final use by consumers must be re-classified from manufacturing to retail as consumers purchase goods from retailers. As a result, the manufacturing input to the manufacturing industry decreases by 1,604, and the manufacturing input to the retail industry increases by 1,604; the manufacturing input to the service industry decreases by 736 and increases by 736 for the retail industry; and the manufacturing goods personal consumption by residents decreases by 1,755, which increases the manufacturing input to the retail industry by 1,755. The net result is that the manufacturing input to the retail industry increases from 162 to 4,257. The personal consumption of retail goods increases by 1,755, from 1,374 to 3,129. These changes are presented in Table 6.9 and make up the final input-output table. The data presented in Table 6.9 are used to develop the C-D 139

Manufacturing Retail Services Land Farms Mining Other Intermediate Total Labor Value Added Total Value Added Total Output

Personal consumption expenditures 1,755 1,374 4,099 1,232 236

Exports 730 104 289 14 217

Imports (1,959) (26) (73) (4) (258)

Other Final Uses 804 155 277 112 3,003

Manuf 1,604 305 592 20 225

Retail 162 63 426 100 63

Services 736 143 2,608 478 270

Land -

Farms -

Mining -

Other 702 163 722 51 263

Inter. Total 3,204 675 4,349 649 821

2,747 988 745

813 873 698

4,235 3,143 1,740

1,387

-

-

1,903 1,941 563

9,698 6,946 5,134

-

-

-

-

1,733 4,480

1,571 2,385

4,884 9,119

1,387 1,387

-

-

2,504 4,407

12,079 21,777

-

-

-

-

GDP 1,330 1,606 4,592 1,354 3,197 -

Commodity Output 4,533 2,281 8,941 2,003 4,018 -

12,079 -

21,777

Table 6.8. Input-Output with Part of the Land Industry Reclassified as Services (Billions of Dollars)

140 Manufacturing Retail Services Land Farms Mining Other Intermediate Total Labor Value Added Total Value Added Total Output

Personal consumption expenditures 3,129 4,099 1,232 236

Exports 730 104 289 14 217

Imports (1,959) (26) (73) (4) (258)

Other Final Uses 804 155 277 112 3,003

GDP (1,406) 3,362 4,592 1,354 3,197

Commodity Output 4,533 6,376 8,941 2,003 4,018

-

-

Manuf 1,909 592 20 225

Retail 4,257 63 426 100 63

Services 879 2,608 478 270

Land -

Farms -

Mining -

Other 702 163 722 51 263

Inter. Total 4,959 3,014 4,349 649 821

2,747 988 745

4,908 873 698

4,235 3,143 1,740

1,387

-

-

1,903 1,941 563

13,793 6,946 5,134

-

-

-

-

1,733 4,480

1,571 6,480

4,884 9,119

1,387 1,387

-

-

2,504 4,407

12,079 25,872

-

-

-

-

Table 6.9. Final Input-Output Table (Billions of Dollars)

12,079 -

25,872

production and utility function parameters. Note that the intermediate totals are equal (13,793), the total value added equals the GDP (12,079), and the total output equals the total commodities (25,852). The necessary balances have been retained after these transformations.

6.3.3. Production Function Factors The C-D production factors represent the profit-maximizing revenues spent on inputs. Table 6.10 represents the percentages of inputs in each industry, so that each column’s values sum up to one. For example, the retail input for manufacturing is calculated by dividing 1,909 by the sum of 1,909, 592, 20, and 988 (= 0.54). The model requires the percentage of exports (or imports) of a good relative to the amount produced by the local economy [see Eqs. (4.78) and (4.79) in Chapter 4]. To calculate these percentages, the value of exports (or imports) is divided by the Total Output for that industry (the amount of that good locally produced). For instance, the export percentage of manufactured goods is calculated by dividing 730 by 4,480 (= 0.163). The results in Table 6.10 are reasonable, except for the land input to the manufacturing, retail, and service industries. The service industry spends the most on

Manufacturing Retail Services Land Labor Total

Manufacturing

Retail

Services

Personal Consumption

0.54 0.17 0.01 0.28 1.00

0.67 0.01 0.09 0.02 0.19 1.00

0.12 0.37 0.07 0.44 1.00

0.37 0.48 0.15 1.00

Table 6.10. Cobb-Douglas Production and Utility Factors 141

Exports

Imports

0.163 0.016 0.032

(0.437) (0.004) (0.008)

Manufacturing Retail Services Land Labor Total

Manufacturing 0.53 0.16 0.04 0.27 1.00

Retail 0.67 0.09 0.05 0.19 1.00

Services 0.11 0.36 0.10 0.43 1.00

Personal Consumption 0.37 0.48 0.15 1.00

Exports 0.163 0.016 0.032

Imports (0.437) (0.004) (0.008)

Table 6.11. Final Cobb-Douglas Production and Utility Factors

land, which is reasonable because it is more likely to be located in the high demand CBD and suburban subcenters, where land is very expensive. On the other hand, retailers want slightly cheaper land, and manufacturers want to pay the least (they have the lowest percentage). However, the overall percentages of land consumption for these three industries are low, and these shares are increased by 0.03 by shifting an input share of 0.01 from the retail, services, and labor inputs. This change results in retailers not purchasing any retail goods. The final results are presented in Table 6.11 and are used in the model.

142

CHAPTER 7 MODEL RESULTS This chapter presents first the model results for the base case scenario, and next sensitivity analyses over parameters that characterize technological changes, resident preferences, and public policies.

7.1. BASE CASE SCENARIO The parameter values used to calculate the base case scenario are first presented. The general structure of the equilibrium city is next described, followed by a detailed analysis of residents, firms, and imports and exports. Finally, the optimal transportation system and its related flows are discussed. Appendix B contains tables verifying that each equation of the model is satisfied.

7.1.1. Parameter Inputs The first required parameter is AZlx,l, which indicates whether zone lx is allowed to host (as a zoning decision) industry l. By using l as the indicator for industry, residents can also be prevented from living in zone lx. In the base case, all zones are open to all industries and residents, except the ports (zones 1 and 7), as shown in Table 7.1. The values assigned to the parameters of the Cobb-Douglas production and utility functions are presented in Table 7.2, and are consistent with the data in Table 6.11, 143

Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Manufacturing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Retail 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Service 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Worker 0 1 1 1 1 1 0

Table 7.1. Active Zone (AZlx,l) Indicators in the Base Case Scenario

except for the workers, for whom the parameters for goods and land (α and ω) were halved to account for leisure time, to which a value of 0.500 is assigned to allow for an approximate 8-hour workday. Note that the coefficients sum to 1 for each industry and labor. The remaining parameters are presented in Table 7.3. The production coefficient, Ai¸ is set equal to 1. The agglomeration factor, δl, is set equal to 0.8, allowing for some variety preference by both firms and residents. The percentage of goods exported and imported (τi and θi) are consistent with the values presented in Table 6.11, indicating that

α α α γ ω β

Input Manufacturing Retail Service Labor Land Leisure Total

Manufacturing 0.53 0.16 0.27 0.04 1.00

Retail 0.67 0.09 0.19 0.05 1.00

Service 0.11 0.36 0.43 0.10 1.00

Worker 0.182 0.240 0.078 0.500 1.000

Table 7.2. Cobb-Douglas Coefficients for Industries and Workers in the Base Case Scenario

144

A δ τ θ tunit λpop λexp H N υ Zone a

Manufacturing Retail Service 1 1 1 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.163 0.016 0.032 0.437 0.004 0.008 5 5 5 0.4 truck 0.1 ζ 480 λ 180 b 22 r 2 3 4 5 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.022

Worker 1 0.8 1 3 70 0.8 0.15 4 6 0.022

Table 7.3. Remaining Parameters for the Base Case Scenario

the city is an overall importing economy. The number of units of goods transported per truck, tunitj, is set equal to 5. The population and export exponents, λpop and λexp, are set equal to 0.4 and 0.1, respectively. Larger values indicate a preference for (1) the highest utility areas by residents, and (2) the lowest-priced goods by export purchasers. The total number of waking hours per month, H, is set equal to 480. The population, N, is set equal to 180. There are 22 workdays per month (υ). A truck is considered to have the same traffic effect (truck) as 3 cars. The road capacity constants, ζ and λ, and Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) constants, b and r, are consistent with the values discussed in Chapter 6. The BPR constant aix is set equal to 0.022, corresponding to a design speed of 45 mph.

145

7.1.2. General City Structure The city has a symmetrical structure, with both ports active and all zones open to all forms of development. The amount of land used in each zone by industries, residents, and transportation is presented in Table 7.4 and Figure 7.1. Because of the symmetry, the largest amount of transportation land is used in the middle zone 4 (5 acres), and the

Sector (acres) Manufacturing (acres) Retail (acres) Service (acres) Residents (acres) Transportation (acres) Total Land (MU/month) Land Rent

2 2.87 6.85 19.97 32.65 1.70 64.04 1,138

3 2.75 6.57 19.10 31.44 4.20 64.06 1,196

Zone 4 2.71 6.48 18.81 31.05 5.00 64.05 1,217

5 2.75 6.57 19.10 31.44 4.20 64.06 1,196

6 2.87 6.85 19.97 32.65 1.70 64.04 1,138

Table 7.4. Land Use and Rent for the Base Case Scenario

70 60

Land (acres)

50 Transportation

40

Residents

30

Service

20

Retail

10

Manufacturing

0 2

3

4

5

Zone

Figure 7.1. Land Use by Zone in the Base Case Scenario 146

6

smallest amount at the edges zones 2 and 6 (1.7 acres). Residents use the largest amount of land, from 31.1 acres at the center to 32.7 acres at the edges. The economic sectors, use the rest of the land, with services having the highest share, which is consistent with a higher ω value. (See Table 7.2.) Table 7.5 present the numbers of employees and land inputs per employee. The service industry uses the largest amount of land per employee closely followed by the retail industry, while manufacturing uses almost 50% less. In all three industries, there is a similar 7% increase in the land input per employee when moving from the center to the edge zone. The reduction in land used in the center by residents and industries is due to the higher land rents in the center zone, incentivizing purchasers to use less land. The land rent in the center zone is 7% higher than in the edge zone and is measure in monetary units (MU).

Sector

2

3 Employees (#)

Zones 4

5

6

Manufacturing Retail Service

6.4 6.5 6.5 8.1 8.2 8.2 21.3 21.5 21.6 Land per Employee (acres)

6.5 8.2 21.5

6.4 8.1 21.3

Manufacturing Retail Service

0.45 0.85 0.94

0.43 0.80 0.89

0.45 0.85 0.94

0.43 0.80 0.89

0.42 0.79 0.87

Table 7.5. Employees and Land Use per Employee in the Base Case Scenario

147

7.1.3. Resident Equilibrium There are 75 resident types (5 living zones, 5 work zones, and 3 employment industries). The income per employee in the service industry is highest (7,090 MU/month), followed by retail (6,180 MU/month), and manufacturing (5,960 MU/month). The expenditure distributions of these incomes are illustrated in Figure 7.2. The expenditure shares are essentially the same, because all residents have the same C-D utility exponents. However, the percentage of income spent on commuting varies from 0.8% for manufacturing residents to 0.7% for service residents, because more service residents choose to live and work in the same location. Figure 7.3 indicates that, on a zonal basis, incomes per employee are very similar, with the central zone having a 0.3% higher overall income. The distribution of expenditures is also similar across zones.

8,000.00 7,000.00 Expenditures (MU)

6,000.00 Lot Value

5,000.00

Commuting Travel

4,000.00

Shopping Travel 3,000.00

Service Goods

2,000.00

Retail Goods

1,000.00 0.00 Manufacturing

Retail

Service

Figure 7.2. Income and Expenditures per Employee

148

8,000.00

Expenditures (MU)

7,000.00 6,000.00 5,000.00

Lot Value

4,000.00

Commuting Travel

3,000.00

Shopping Travel

2,000.00

Service Goods

1,000.00

Retail Goods

0.00 2

3

4

5

6

Zone

Figure 7.3. Zonal Income and Expenditures per Employee

Tables 7.6 and 7.7 present the equilibrium values of utility, leisure time, work hours, lot size, population, and income. Utility levels vary from a low of 43.22 to a high of 46.78. These differences in utility levels are prime determinants of residents’ choices of work and residence locations. Service industry employees have the highest utility levels, which explains why the largest number of people work for this industry. Residents who live and work in the same zone have the highest utility level, which explains why the population tends to prefer to live and work in the same zone. In terms of leisure time, manufacturing employees have the most leisure time and service employees the least. Manufacturing employees trade-off lower wages for increased leisure time and, of course, shorter work days. It is interesting to note that while the leisure time of a resident in zone 2 decreases as he/she works further from home (because of increased commuting travel time), the corresponding work hours 149

150

Residence Zone

Zonal Average

2.M

3.M

4.M

5.M

2 3 4 5 6

45.56 45.58 45.58 45.58 45.56

44.04 43.82 43.55 43.35 43.22

43.84 43.84 43.69 43.48 43.36

43.57 43.70 43.78 43.70 43.57

43.36 43.48 43.69 43.84 43.84

2 3 4 5 6

292.8 293.5 293.7 293.5 292.8

302.7 301.9 300.3 298.6 297.1

302.3 303.0 302.2 300.6 299.0

300.8 302.3 303.1 302.3 300.8

299.0 300.6 302.2 303.0 302.3

2 3 4 5 6

8.27 8.30 8.31 8.30 8.27

7.94 7.96 7.97 7.96 7.93

7.92 7.94 7.95 7.94 7.92

7.91 7.94 7.95 7.94 7.91

7.92 7.94 7.95 7.94 7.92

Employment Zone and Sector 2.R 3.R 4.R 5.R Utility 43.22 44.62 44.42 44.16 43.95 43.35 44.41 44.43 44.28 44.07 43.55 44.14 44.28 44.37 44.28 43.82 43.93 44.07 44.28 44.43 44.04 43.81 43.95 44.16 44.42 Leisure Time (hrs/month) 297.1 299.9 299.5 298.0 296.3 298.6 299.1 300.2 299.5 297.8 300.3 297.5 299.4 300.3 299.4 301.9 295.9 297.8 299.5 300.2 302.7 294.5 296.3 298.0 299.5 Work Hours (hrs/day) 7.93 8.06 8.04 8.04 8.04 7.96 8.08 8.07 8.06 8.07 7.97 8.09 8.08 8.07 8.08 7.96 8.08 8.07 8.06 8.07 7.94 8.05 8.04 8.04 8.04 6.M

Table 7.6. Utility, Leisure Time, and Work Hours by Employee Type

6.R

2.S

3.S

4.S

5.S

6.S

43.81 43.93 44.14 44.41 44.62

47.05 46.84 46.57 46.36 46.23

46.84 46.85 46.70 46.49 46.36

46.57 46.70 46.78 46.70 46.57

46.36 46.49 46.70 46.85 46.84

46.23 46.36 46.57 46.84 47.05

294.5 295.9 297.5 299.1 299.9

290.4 289.7 288.2 286.7 285.3

290.0 290.6 289.9 288.4 287.0

288.6 290.0 290.7 290.0 288.6

287.0 288.4 289.9 290.6 290.0

285.3 286.7 288.2 289.7 290.4

8.05 8.08 8.09 8.08 8.06

8.48 8.50 8.50 8.49 8.45

8.46 8.50 8.50 8.48 8.45

8.45 8.49 8.50 8.49 8.45

8.45 8.48 8.50 8.50 8.46

8.45 8.49 8.50 8.50 8.48

151

Residence Zone

Zonal Average

2.M

3.M

4.M

5.M

2 3 4 5 6

0.91 0.87 0.86 0.87 0.91

0.82 0.78 0.76 0.77 0.81

0.82 0.78 0.76 0.77 0.81

0.81 0.78 0.76 0.79 0.81

0.81 0.77 0.76 0.78 0.82

2 3 4 5 6

35.77 36.11 36.24 36.11 35.77

1.51 1.38 1.24 1.15 1.09

1.39 1.40 1.31 1.21 1.15

1.25 1.32 1.36 1.32 1.25

1.15 1.21 1.31 1.40 1.39

2 3 4 5 6

6,670 6,685 6,690 6,685 6,670

5,974 5,983 5,986 5,982 5,971

5,943 5,954 5,957 5,953 5,942

5,933 5,944 5,948 5,944 5,933

5,942 5,953 5,957 5,954 5,943

Employment Zone and Sector 6.M 2.R 3.R 4.R 5.R 6.R Lot Size (acres) 0.81 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.77 0.81 0.81 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.76 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.81 0.82 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.85 0.85 Population 1.09 1.91 1.76 1.58 1.46 1.38 1.15 1.75 1.77 1.66 1.53 1.45 1.24 1.57 1.66 1.72 1.66 1.57 1.38 1.45 1.53 1.66 1.77 1.75 1.51 1.38 1.46 1.58 1.76 1.91 Actual Income (MU/month) 5,971 6,190 6,159 6,148 6,157 6,185 5,982 6,200 6,171 6,161 6,169 6,197 5,986 6,202 6,174 6,165 6,174 6,202 5,983 6,197 6,169 6,161 6,171 6,200 5,974 6,185 6,157 6,148 6,159 6,190

Table 7.7. Lot Size, Population, and Actual Income by Employee Type

2.S

3.S

4.S

5.S

6.S

0.98 0.93 0.91 0.92 0.96

0.97 0.93 0.91 0.92 0.96

0.97 0.92 0.91 0.92 0.97

0.96 0.92 0.91 0.93 0.97

0.96 0.92 0.91 0.93 0.98

5.04 4.63 4.15 3.82 3.63

4.63 4.65 4.37 4.03 3.83

4.16 4.38 4.53 4.38 4.16

3.83 4.03 4.37 4.65 4.63

3.63 3.82 4.15 4.63 5.04

7,106 7,119 7,119 7,110 7,090

7,069 7,086 7,089 7,080 7,060

7,053 7,073 7,079 7,073 7,053

7,060 7,080 7,089 7,086 7,069

7,090 7,110 7,119 7,119 7,106

decrease to the middle zone (4) and then increase. This is reflected in the actual income (wage income plus rent and dividend incomes), that declines from zone 2 to 4 and then increases in zone 5 and 6. Lot sizes are largest for the highest income workers (service industry), over 0.9 acres, compared to under 0.8 acres for manufacturing workers. The largest lots characterize the edge zones, where land rents are lowest, and the smallest lots in the middle zone. Most residents live in zone 4. The rent dividend is 2,100 MU and the deficit dividend 400 MU for each resident, making up 37% of residents’ actual income.

7.1.4. Firm Equilibrium At equilibrium, service firms have revenues almost three times larger than manufacturing firms, and 50% larger than retail firms. Figure 7.4 depicts both the average zonal revenues and input expense distribution by industry. The expected zeroprofit condition is satisfied (subject to the tolerance margin of the computational procedure). In Figure 7.4 the multiple sub-blocks for a given input (same color) indicate the zonal origin of the inputs, with zone 1 as the lowest block and zone 7 as the highest block. (The cells are not labeled to simplify the figure). Figure 7.5 presents the same data in percentage terms. These shares are consistent with the C-D coefficients listed in Table 7.2. Figures 7.6 – 7.8 display the input structure of each sector by zone. For all industries, the largest firms are located in the center zone (4). However, the distribution of inputs does not change across zones. While this is not apparent on the figures, the closer the source of goods to the firm, the larger the value of goods purchased from a 152

250,000.00

Expenses (MU)

200,000.00 Labor

150,000.00

Land Service

100,000.00

Retail Manufacturing

50,000.00

0.00 Manufacturing

Retail

Service

Figure 7.4. Average Zonal Revenues and Input Expenditures by Industry

100% 90% Percentage of Expenses 

80% 70% Labor

60%

Land

50%

Service

40%

Retail

30%

Manufacturing

20% 10% 0% Manufacturing

Retail

Service

Figure 7.5. Average Zonal Input Shares by Industry 153

90,000.00 80,000.00

Expenses (MU)

70,000.00 60,000.00 Labor

50,000.00

Land

40,000.00

Service

30,000.00

Retail

20,000.00

Manufacturing

10,000.00 0.00 2

3

4

5

6

Zone

Figure 7.6. Manufacturing Inputs by Firm Location

180,000.00 160,000.00

Expense (MU)

140,000.00 120,000.00 Labor

100,000.00

Land

80,000.00

Service

60,000.00

Retail

40,000.00

Manufacturing

20,000.00 0.00 2

3

4

5

Zone

Figure 7.7. Retail Inputs by Firm Location

154

6

250,000.00

Expenses (MU)

200,000.00

150,000.00

Labor Land

100,000.00

Service Retail Manufacturing

50,000.00

0.00 2

3

4

5

6

Zone

Figure 7.8. Service Firm Inputs by Firm Location

zone. For instance, the service firm in zone 2 uses 16,400 MU worth of service goods from zone 2, but the service firm in zone 6 uses only 15,900 MU worth of service goods from zone 2. The prices of the goods are such that each firm makes a zero profit. Table 7.8 presents the prices charged by each firm and also the prices of the imported goods. The manufacturing and retail goods are the most expensive, at around 450 – 460 MU, and service goods are produced at a price around 360 MU. Note that locally produced manufactured goods are cheapest in the center zone, where retail and service goods are most expensive. These conflicting trends are probably due to the fact that manufactured

155

Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Average

Manufacturing 423.1 453.3 453.1 453.0 453.1 453.3 423.1 442.4

Retail 1,184.0 460.7 461.0 461.2 461.0 460.7 1,184.0 463.5

Service 799.9 362.3 363.0 363.2 363.0 362.3 799.9 365.9

Average 437.5 408.2 408.8 409.0 408.8 408.2 437.5 406.8

Table 7.8. Price of Goods in Each Zone by Industry (MU)

goods are net imported, whereas retail and service goods are net exported. The port prices, which are significantly higher, are discussed next in the imports/exports section.

7.1.5. Imports/Exports The import balances are met, as shown in Table 7.9. The value of imports is equivalent to theta times the city firms’ total revenues. The model adjusts the port prices to satisfy the import conditions. Because manufacturing goods are imported, the prices had to be lowered so that retailers would purchase enough goods to raise the imported value high enough. As shown in Table 7.8, manufactured import prices are around 423 MU, whereas local production prices are around 453 MU. This indicates that local manufacturers would need to reduce their prices by 7% to create a more export-based

Import Value City Firms' Revenue Theta Calculated Theta Actual

(MU) (MU)

Manufacturing 179,474.40 410,677.28 0.437 0.437

Table 7.9. Values of Imported Goods 156

Retail 3,135.13 783,751.10 0.004 0.004

Services 9,122.32 1,140,466.76 0.008 0.008

economy. However, few retail or service goods are imported, at prices significantly higher than local prices: 1,200 MU for imported retail goods vs. around 460 MU for local retail goods, and 800 MU for imported services vs. 360 MU for locally produced services. This pricing pattern indicates a significant local economic advantage for these industries over the rest of the world. Figure 7.9 indicates the zonal destination of the imported goods. To simplify the figure, the zone numbers are not shown, but for each color (good), the lowest box represents zone 2 and the highest one zone 6. Each column corresponds to a good imported from either port 1 or port 7. For instance, service goods imported from port 1 (fifth column from the left) go to all three industries in all city zones. With port prices being the same in zones 1 and 7, it would be expected that each firm imports the same amount from each port. However, because of transportation costs, each firm purchases 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Service

50%

Retail

40%

Manufacturing

30% 20% 10% 0% 1.M

7.M

1.R

7.R

1.S

7.S

Figure 7.9. Disposition of Imported Goods to Industries and Zones within the City

157

more from the closer port. This is best demonstrated by the amount of manufacturing goods imported by the retail firm in zone 2. The lowest left hand box is the amount of manufactured goods imported from port 1, whose value is greater than the lowest box in the 7.M column. Note that the city economy imports an equal amount of goods from zones 1 and 7, so more manufactured goods are imported by zone 2 from zone 1 than from zone 7. Table 7.10 shows that the value of the exported goods also satisfies the conditions of the input-output table. Note that there is a net export of retail and service goods, but this is more than offset by the large amount of imported manufactured goods. Figure 7.10 shows that exporters choose to purchase more goods from closer zones than farther zones because the effective price is lower (due to lower transportation costs). So Port 1 exporters purchases 23% to 24% of the goods from zone 2, but only 16% to 17% of the goods from zone 6 (the other end of the city).

Export Value City Firms' Revenue Tau Calculated Tau Actual

(MU) (MU)

Manufacturing 66,940.64 410,677.28 0.163 0.163

Table 7.10. Value of Exported Goods

158

Retail 12,540.53 783,751.10 0.016 0.016

Services 36,493.68 1,140,466.76 0.032 0.032

100% 90% 80% 70% Zone 6

60%

Zone 5

50%

Zone 4

40%

Zone 3

30%

Zone 2

20% 10% 0% 1.M

7.M

1.R

7.R

1.S

7.S

Figure 7.10. Zonal Sources of Exported Goods to Each Port (1 and 7) by Good Type

7.1.6. Transportation The equilibrium resident and firm results are used to create an origin/destination flows matrix, as shown in Table 7.11. Zones 1 and 7 are the ports, and only freight traffic can enter or leave from them, and therefore these zones have the smallest traffic flows.

Destination Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 0 1.21 1.21 1.20 1.19 1.17 0

2 0.89 16.56 15.75 14.74 13.97 13.47 0.64

Origin Zone 3 4 0.81 0.74 15.71 14.69 15.83 15.24 15.26 15.61 14.46 15.24 13.94 14.69 0.68 0.74

5 0.68 13.94 14.46 15.26 15.83 15.71 0.81

Table 7.11. Interzonal Traffic Flows (car equivalents/rush hour) 159

6 0.64 13.47 13.97 14.74 15.75 16.56 0.89

7 0 1.17 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.21 0

The highest traffic volumes occur where origin and destination are the same, thus minimizing transportation costs. The data in Table 7.11 are next used to generate the flows through each zone. Figure 7.11 illustrates these flows and the traffic type that generates them. Figure 7.12 distinguishes among internal traffic (within the zone), traffic that starts or ends in the zone, and through-haul traffic. Figure 7.13 combines the classifications of Figure 7.11 and 7.12. Zone 4 has the highest traffic due to resident commuting and shopping. Figure 7.12 indicates that the high level of traffic at the center is due to through-haul traffic. The amount of internal traffic and originating/ending traffic is almost constant across city zones. The ports have only import/export-related freight traffic, hence zones 1 and 7

Traffic Flow (car‐equivalents/rush hour)

400 350 300 250

Commuting

200

Shopping

150

Freight‐Service Freight‐Retail

100

Freight‐Manufacturing 50 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

Zone

Figure 7.11. Zonal Traffic Flow by Source 160

7

Traffic Flow (car equivalents/ rush hour)

400 350 300 250 200

Thru‐Haul

150

Orig/Dest Within

100 50 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Zone

Figure 7.12. Zonal Traffic Flow by Traffic Type

Traffic Flow (car‐equivalents/rush hour)

400

Commuting‐Thru Commuting‐Orig/Dest

350

Commuting‐Within

300

Shopping‐Thru

250

Shopping‐Orig/Dest Shopping‐Within

200

Freight‐Service‐Thru

150

Freight‐Service‐Orig/Dest Freight‐Service‐Within

100

Freight‐Retail‐Thru Freight‐Retail‐Orig/Dest

50

Freight‐Retail‐Within

0

Freight‐Manuf‐Thru

1

2

3

4

5

6

Zone

7

Freight‐Manuf‐Orig/Dest Freight‐Manuf‐Within

Figure 7.13. Zonal Traffic Flow by Source and Traffic Type 161

have the lowest traffic volumes. Zones 2 and 6 have only freight through-haul traffic (see Figure 7.13), because residents cannot flow through these zones and leave the city. The share of freight-equivalent traffic varies from 32% in zones 2 and 6 to 26% in zone 4 (see Figure 7.14). These shares compare reasonably well with actual 2009 traffic counts for the state of Ohio, where between 30% and 34% of urban interstate, freeway and arterial traffic is freight-related (Federal Highway Administration, Office of Highway Policy Information, 2009). See Table 7.12. To determine these percentages, the amount of freight traffic is multiplied by 3 (the value of truck) to obtain a car-equivalent percentage. Table 7.13 presents the zonal inputs of transportation land, the actual zonal flows (as illustrated in Figures 7.11 to 7.13), the zonal traffic capacity, the zone tolls needed to

100% 90%

Traffic Flow Composition

80% 70% 60%

Commuting

50%

Shopping

40%

Freight‐Service

30%

Freight‐Retail Freight‐Manufacturing

20% 10% 0% 1

2

3

4

5

6

Zone

Figure 7.14. Zonal Traffic Flow Composition 162

7

Function Class FHWA Vehicle Class Motorcycles Passenger Cars Single Unit Trucks: 2-axle, 4-tire Buses Single Unit Trucks: 2-axle, 6-tire Single Unit Trucks: 3 axle Single Unit Trucks: 4 axles, or more Single Trailer Trucks: 4-axles or less Single Trailer Trucks: 5-axle Single Trailer Trucks: 6-axle, or more Multi-Trailer Trucks: 5-axle, or less Multi-Trailer Trucks: 6-axle Multi-Trailer Trucks: 7-axle, or more Passenger Trucks Truck - Car Equivalents Resident Freight

Interstate (%) 0.03 85.87 5.64 0.06 1.45 0.22 0.03 2.94 3.47 0.05 0.16 0.06 0.02 Vehicle Counts (%) 85.9 14.1 42.3 Re-weighted (%) 67.0 33.0

Other Freeways (%) 0.06 87.18 8.07 0.06 1.20 0.37 0.03 1.15 1.67 0.10 0.03 0.01 0.06

Other Arterial (%) 0.05 85.18 9.77 0.05 1.24 0.24 0.08 1.53 1.81 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00

87.2 12.8 38.3

85.2 14.8 44.3

69.5 30.5

65.8 34.2

Table 7.12. U.S. Department of Transportation 2009 Traffic Flow Data for the State of Ohio

Transportation Component Land Flow Capacity Zonal Toll Zonal Travel Time Total Transportation Costs -Value of Time -Tolls

3 4.2

Zone 4 5

5 4.2

6 1.7

7

0

2 1.7

10

151

322

377

322

151

10

0 0 0 0 0 0

107 0.581 0.036 3,783 1,848 1,935

221 0.709 0.037 9,441 4,416 5,024

254 0.733 0.039 11,472 5,389 6,083

221 0.709 0.037 9,441 4,417 5,024

107 0.581 0.036 3,783 1,848 1,935

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 (acres) (car equiv. /rush hour) (car equiv. /rush hour) (MU) (hrs) (MU) (MU) (MU)

Table 7.13. Transportation System Statistics

163

0

pay for the land rent, the time to cross each zone, and the total transportation costs that are being minimized, including its two components, the value of time based on wages and the tolls. The flows and capacities are highest at the center, and so are the travel tolls and travel times. The center zone has almost 3 times the amount of land in zone 2, 2.5 times its flow, and 2.4 times its capacity. However, the center zone tolls are only 26% greater and the travel time is only 8% larger than those for zone 2. The toll component represents 51% to 53% of the total transportation cost. Knowledge of the zonal travel times and tolls allows for the determination of interzonal travel times and tolls, as presented in Table 7.14. As expected, the results are symmetrical, with the lowest values for travel within a zone. Traveling from zone 1 to zone 7 incurs the highest toll and the longest time. The maximum toll is around 3, which

Travel Time (hrs) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Travel Tolls (MU) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 0 0.018 0.054 0.092 0.130 0.166 0.184 1 0 0.290 0.935 1.657 2.378 3.023 3.313

2 0.018 0.018 0.036 0.074 0.112 0.149 0.166 2 0.290 0.290 0.645 1.366 2.087 2.732 3.023

3 0.054 0.036 0.019 0.038 0.076 0.112 0.130 3 0.935 0.645 0.355 0.721 1.442 2.087 2.378

Table 7.14. Interzonal Travel Times and Tolls 164

4 0.092 0.074 0.038 0.019 0.038 0.074 0.092 4 1.657 1.366 0.721 0.366 0.721 1.366 1.657

5 0.130 0.112 0.076 0.038 0.019 0.036 0.054 5 2.378 2.087 1.442 0.721 0.355 0.645 0.935

6 0.166 0.149 0.112 0.074 0.036 0.018 0.018 6 3.023 2.732 2.087 1.366 0.645 0.290 0.290

7 0.184 0.166 0.130 0.092 0.054 0.018 0 7 3.313 3.023 2.378 1.657 0.935 0.290 0

is low when compared to prices of goods and wages. The travel time approaches 0.2 hours, or 12 minutes, to travel over 6 miles, or an average speed of 30 miles/hour, which is reasonable for urban traffic.

7.2. SENSITIVITY ANALYSES The impacts on the optimized equilibrium city of various departures from the base case scenario are analyzed, including the effects of technological changes, the impact of changing preferences, and the impacts of public policy.

7.2.1. Technological Changes Technology is constantly changing daily life. Technological changes are here represented by improvements in the transportation system and changes in firms’ production functions. 7.2.1.1. Transportation Changes With the introduction of intelligent transportation technologies, the capacity of a given roadway could be increased. Other technological changes include better utilization of freight trucks. 7.2.1.1.1. Capacity Factor ζ The road capacity constant, ζ, implies a linear relationship between road capacity and the land function [Eq. (4.86)]. An intelligent transportation system would effectively increase this capacity by allowing for closer distances between vehicles. To analyze this effect, the value of ζ is increased from 70 to 105 (a 50% increase).

165

The new equilibrium city is described in Table 7.15. The transportation land input decreases by 24% to 31%, across the five zones, the zonal travel times by 14% to 19%, and the zonal travel tolls by 24% to 33%. The corresponding interzonal travel times and tolls decrease by similar amounts (not reported in Table 7.15). Total transportation costs decrease by 21% to 23%. As a result of the lower costs, traffic flows increase by 0.8% to 1.5%, with the largest increase in the center zone, as people and firms are willing to purchase goods from further zones. While the zonal populations do not change, residents commute further. The reduced amount of transportation land does not offset the increase in ζ, and the overall road capacity increases by 12% to 21%. With less land allocated to the transportation system, all the other land users benefit, with manufacturing incurring the largest increases and residents the smallest ones. The overall lesser demand for land leads to a decrease in the land rents: 1.8% in the center zone and 0.2% in the edge zones. The overall effect for city residents is an increase in utility of about 0.4%. 7.2.1.1.2. Capacity Factor λ The road capacity factor λ is the exponent on the amount of land, Six, used to calculate road capacity. A base case value of 0.8 is used, to reflect a non-linear relationship. An increase in capacity requires an increase in the number of lanes, and therefore in the number of merges, hence the non-linearity. However, an intelligent transportation system may be able to optimize merging in traffic systems, and therefore λ could approach a value of 1. Table 7.16 presents the results for λ = 1, and the comparison with the base case of 0.8. 166

Zone Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land

(acres) (hours) (MU) (MU) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (MU/acre)

2 1.3 0.029 0.440

3 2.9 0.032 0.476

4 3.6 0.032 0.510

5 2.9 0.032 0.476

6 1.3 0.029 0.440

2978.7

7322.9

8855.5

7322.9

2978.7

152.7

326.1

382.9

326.1

152.7

129.5 246.1 292.6 246.1 129.5 1135.92 1177.66 1194.20 1177.66 1135.92 45.73 45.75 45.76 45.75 45.73 (acres) 32.78 32.08 31.73 32.08 32.78 (acres) 2.90 2.82 2.79 2.82 2.90 (acres) 6.91 6.72 6.64 6.72 6.91 (acres) 20.16 19.54 19.30 19.54 20.16 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) -23.5 -19.4 -24.3

-31.0 -13.5 -32.9

-28.0 -18.0 -30.4

-31.0 -13.5 -32.9

-23.5 -19.4 -24.3

-21.3 0.8 21.0 -0.2 0.4 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.0

-22.4 1.3 11.5 -1.6 0.4 2.0 2.4 2.3 2.3

-22.8 1.5 15.3 -1.8 0.4 2.2 2.6 2.5 2.6

-22.4 1.3 11.5 -1.6 0.4 2.0 2.4 2.3 2.3

-21.3 0.8 21.0 -0.2 0.4 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.0

Table 7.15. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for a 50% Increase in ζ

167

Zone Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land

2

3

4

5

6

1.8 0.029 0.615

3.5 0.032 0.583

4.2 0.032 0.604

3.5 0.032 0.583

1.8 0.029 0.615

3579.68

8037.59

9536.86

8037.59

3579.68

152.0

324.4

381.0

324.4

152.0

126.0 245.0 294.0 1141.01 1187.89 1205.45 45.66 45.69 45.69 (acres) 32.53 31.80 31.45 (acres) 2.88 2.79 2.75 (acres) 6.86 6.65 6.57 (acres) 20.00 19.33 19.08 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 5.9 -16.7 -16.0 -19.4 -13.5 -18.0 5.8 -17.8 -17.7

245.0 1187.89 45.69 31.80 2.79 6.65 19.33

126.0 1141.01 45.66 32.53 2.88 6.86 20.00

-16.7 -13.5 -17.8

5.9 -19.4 5.8

-14.9 0.8 11.0 -0.7 0.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

-5.4 0.3 17.7 0.2 0.2 -0.4 0.1 0.2 0.1

(acres) (hours) (MU) (MU) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (MU/acre)

-5.4 0.3 17.7 0.2 0.2 -0.4 0.1 0.2 0.1

-14.9 0.8 11.0 -0.7 0.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

-16.9 1.0 15.9 -0.9 0.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4

Table 7.16. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for an Increase in λ from 0.8 to 1.0

168

The transportation land input decreases in the center zones by 16% to 17%, and increases in the end zones by 6%. Thus, more efficient traffic merges make it advantageous to increase the transportation land in the end zones, and the efficiency gained in the center zones is large enough to reduce the necessary land. Zonal travel times decrease by 14% to 19%, and total transportation costs also decrease by 5% to 17%. However, travel tolls increase in the end zones by 6%, and decrease by 18% in the remaining zones. This is due to the greater amount of transportation land use in the end zones. Land rents increase by 0.2% in the ends zones, but decrease by 0.7% to 0.9% in the center zones. The overall capacity increases by 11% to 18%, and traffic flows increase by 0.3% to 1.0%. Residential commuting, shopping, and freight traffic all increase, as more goods are moved from further zones under the reduced transportation costs. The zones using less transportation land are characterized by an increase of land used by all other users. However, in the end zones where more transportation land is used, residential land actually decreases by 0.4%, whereas firms increase their use by 0.1% to 0.2%. The net effect on utility is an increase of 0.2% to 0.3%. 7.2.1.1.3. Capacity Factor r The exponent r in the BRP Eq. (4.87) is likely to decrease with a smart transportation network, because larger flows, Flx, should be accommodated by the capacity of the system, Klx. Table 7.17 displays the results obtained when the value of r is decreased from 4 to 3.

169

Zone Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land

2

3

4

5

6

1.5 0.035 0.510

3.5 0.038 0.584

4.3 0.038 0.621

3.5 0.038 0.584

1.5 0.035 0.510

8729.30 10563.69

8729.30

3529.32

379.3

323.3

151.8

96.8 190.7 224.8 1135.43 1186.07 1205.51 45.61 45.64 45.64 (acres) 32.70 31.80 31.41 (acres) 2.89 2.79 2.75 (acres) 6.88 6.64 6.55 (acres) 20.07 19.32 19.04 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) -11.8 -16.7 -14.0 -2.8 2.7 -2.6 -12.3 -17.7 -15.3

190.7 1186.07 45.64 31.80 2.79 6.64 19.32

96.8 1135.43 45.61 32.70 2.89 6.88 20.07

-16.7 2.7 -17.7

-11.8 -2.8 -12.3

-7.5 0.4 -13.6 -0.9 0.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2

-6.7 0.2 -9.5 -0.3 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.5

(acres) (hours) (MU) (MU) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (MU/acre)

3529.32 151.8

323.3

-6.7 0.2 -9.5 -0.3 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.5

-7.5 0.4 -13.6 -0.9 0.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2

-7.9 0.5 -11.4 -0.9 0.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

Table 7.17. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for a Decrease in r from 4 to 3

170

The resulting changes are similar to those for ζ and λ. The transportation land input decreases by 12% to 17% and the tolls drop by 12% to 18%. However, travel time decreases by about 3% in all zones, except zones 3 and 5, where there is an increase of 3%. The savings from reduced tolls due to lower land rents offset the longer travel times. The overall transportation costs decrease by 7% to 8%. Zonal traffic flows increase by 0.2% to 0.5%, while traffic capacity drops by 10% to 14%. Zones 3 and 5 are characterized by the largest decreases in capacity (and also the largest decreases in transportation land), and it is therefore not surprising that they are also the zones with increases in travel time. Land rents decrease by 0.4% to 1.0%, and all land users increase their land consumption. 7.2.1.1.4. Capacity Factor b The constant b in the BPR Eq. (4.87) is likely to decrease with smart transportation. The importance of congestion is reduced because the system can optimize to reduce negative congestion effects. To model this effect, the value of b has been reduced from 0.15 to 0.10, and the results are presented in Table 7.18. Less transportation land is used in the central zones (8% to 10%), but there is no change in the edge zones. However, zonal travel times decrease most in the edge zones (14%) and less in the central zone (3% to 5%). The net result is a decrease in transportation costs of about 6 to 7% in all the zones. The savings in the edge zones is mostly due to reduced travel times, whereas the savings in the central zones are due to reduced travel tolls (9% to 10%). As with all the other smart transportation changes, total

171

Zone Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land

(acres) (hours) (MU) (MU) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (MU/acre)

2

3

4

5

6

1.7 0.031 0.580

3.8 0.036 0.637

4.6 0.037 0.668

3.8 0.036 0.637

1.7 0.031 0.580

3560.31 8839.44 10722.69 8839.44 3560.31 151.7

323.1

379.0

323.1

151.7

107.0 203.7 237.3 203.7 107.0 1139.21 1190.92 1210.53 1190.92 1139.21 45.61 45.63 45.63 45.63 45.61 (acres) 32.62 31.64 31.24 31.64 32.62 (acres) 2.88 2.77 2.73 2.77 2.88 (acres) 6.86 6.61 6.52 6.61 6.86 (acres) 20.00 19.23 18.95 19.23 20.00 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 0.0 -9.5 -8.0 -9.5 0.0 -13.9 -2.7 -5.1 -2.7 -13.9 -0.2 -10.2 -8.9 -10.2 -0.2 -5.9 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

-6.4 0.4 -7.7 -0.5 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

-6.5 0.4 -6.5 -0.5 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7

-6.4 0.4 -7.7 -0.5 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

Table 7.18. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for a Decrease in b from 0.15 to 0.10

172

-5.9 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

traffic flows do increase, from 0.2% to 0.4%. However, capacity only decreases in zones with reduced transportation land (7% to 8%). Land rents decrease when less transportation land is used (0.5%) and increase in the edge zones by 0.1%. Land used by firms increases by 0.1% to 0.7% in all zones. Residential land increases by 0.7% in the central zones, but decreases by 0.1% in the edge zones. The overall utility levels increase by 0.1% in all zones. 7.2.1.1.5. Truck Congestion Effect A smart transportation system should be able to account for the slower acceleration and deceleration of trucks and optimize spacing between vehicles, allowing for an effective decrease in the value of truck, the number of car-equivalents per truck. Table 7.19 displays the results obtained when truck is reduced from 3 to 2. Zonal traffic flows decrease by 8% to 10%, because less traffic is generated per truck. There is no significant new shopping or commuting traffic induced by this decrease. As a result, the transportation land input decreases by 6% to 10%, with the largest declines in zones 3 and 5. Because of that, zones 3 and 5 are the only zones with no decrease in travel time. Tolls increase by 5% in the edge zones, decrease by 1% in zones 3 and 5, and do not change in the center zone 4. However, the net result is a transportation cost reduction of 6% to 7% in all zones. Because less land is used for transportation, land used by residents and firms increases, except in the edge zones, where residential land slightly decreases by 0.04%. Overall, utility levels increase by about 0.1%.

173

Zone Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land

2

3

4

5

6

1.6 0.033 0.610

3.8 0.037 0.700

4.6 0.037 0.733

3.8 0.037 0.700

1.6 0.033 0.610

8888.89 10798.32

8888.89

3522.20

345.6

294.0

135.7

102.0 203.67 237.3 1138.31 1192.03 1212.00 45.61 45.63 45.63 (acres) 32.64 31.64 31.26 (acres) 2.89 2.77 2.73 (acres) 6.87 6.61 6.52 (acres) 20.05 19.22 18.94 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) -5.9 -9.5 -8.0 -8.3 0.0 -5.1 5.1 -1.2 0.1

203.7 1192.03 45.63 31.64 2.77 6.61 19.22

101.9 1138.31 45.61 32.64 2.89 6.87 20.05

-9.5 0.0 -1.2

-5.9 -8.3 5.1

-5.9 -8.7 -7.7 -0.4 0.1 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7

-6.9 -10.4 -4.7 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.4 0.4

(acres) (hours) (MU) (MU) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (MU/acre)

3522.20 135.7

294.0

-6.9 -10.4 -4.7 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.4 0.4

-5.9 -8.7 -7.7 -0.4 0.1 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7

-5.9 -8.4 -6.5 -0.4 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

Table 7.19. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for truck Decreasing from 3 to 2

174

7.2.1.1.6. Truck Capacity Effect Truck holding capacity can be increased, either through improved utilization (better packing and utilizing underused trucks) or through more effective packaging that uses less space. Some cities may allow larger trucks access to dense city areas (Morris et al., 1998). It is assumed that tunit increases from 5 to 7 for all three industries. Model results are presented in Table 7.20. With more goods carried per truck, traffic flows decrease by 7% to 9% and the resulting transportation costs decrease by 5% to 6%. In the three central zones, the transportation land input declines by 6% or 7%, but this input does not change in the edge zones. Travel time decreases in all zones by 3% to 14%, with the largest change in the edge zones, where the transportation land remains unchanged. Tolls increase in all zones by 0.1% to 9.8%, with the largest increases in the edge zones. Land rents decrease in the central zone (0.2%) and increase in the edge zones (0.1%). Land use increases in all industries in all zones. For resident, land use increases in the central zones by 0.5% but decreases in the edge zones by 0.2%. Utility levels increase by 0.1%. 7.2.1.2. Industry Production Changes Technology changes induce changes in the production functions. In the following, different scenarios pertaining to changes in the exponents of the CobbDouglas (C-D) production functions are considered, and their impacts are analyzed.

175

Zone Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land Transportation Land Zone Travel Time Zone Travel Toll Total Transportation Costs Zonal Traffic Flow Traffic Capacity Land Rent Utility Residential Land Manufacturing Land Retail Land Service Land

2

3

4

5

6

1.7 0.031 0.638

3.9 0.036 0.71

4.7 0.037 0.741

3.9 0.036 0.71

1.7 0.031 0.638

8962.37 10890.39

8962.37

3571.72

298.0

137.9

107.0 207.9 241.4 207.9 1139.54 1193.59 1213.68 1193.59 45.60 45.62 45.63 45.62 (acres) 32.61 31.59 31.20 31.59 (acres) 2.88 2.77 2.73 2.77 (acres) 6.86 6.60 6.51 6.60 (acres) 20.01 19.19 18.91 19.19 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 0.0 -7.1 -6.0 -7.1 -13.9 -2.7 -5.1 -2.7 9.8 0.1 1.1 0.1

107.0 1139.54 45.60 32.61 2.88 6.86 20.01

(acres) (hours) (MU) (MU) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (car-equiv. /rush hour) (MU/acre)

3571.72 137.9

298.0

-5.6 -8.9 0.0 0.1 0.1 -0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

-5.1 -7.4 -5.8 -0.2 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5

350.2

-5.1 -7.2 -4.8 -0.2 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5

-5.1 -7.4 -5.8 -0.2 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5

Table 7.20. Equilibrium Solution and Changes from Base Case Scenario for tunit Increasing from 5 to 7

176

0.0 -13.9 9.8 -5.6 -8.9 0.0 0.1 0.1 -0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

7.2.1.2.1. Manufacturing Input Change A 10% increase in the C-D exponents for manufactured inputs is considered. As manufactured goods are only consumed by the retail industry, only retail coefficients are changed, with all other C-D coefficients scaled down so that they all sum up to 1. The resulting coefficients are presented in Table 7.21 and can be compared to the base case scenario coefficients in Table 7.2. The results are displayed in Tables 7.22 and 7.23. Zones 5 and 6 are omitted in Table 7.22, as their values are symmetrical to those of zones 3 and 2, respectively. Retailers purchase more manufactured goods from an expanded local manufacturing industry (19% production increase) and from more manufacturing imports (19% increase). The increased imports increase the value of the deficit dividend (26.2%), allowing people to work shorter days while still consuming more goods. The result is an increase in utility levels by 2.1%. With less demand for labor in the retail industry, workers shift mostly to the manufacturing sector and a few to the service sector. However the population distribution across zones does not change. More consumption of retail (7.1%) and

Manufacturing Retail Service Workers Land Leisure

Manufacturing 0 0.53 0.16 0.27 0.04 0

Retail 0.74 0 0.07 0.15 0.04 0

Service 0 0.11 0.36 0.43 0.10 0

Workers 0 0.182 0.240 0 0.078 0.500

Table 7.21. C-D Exponents with a 10% Increase in Manufactured Goods Exponents 177

Leisure Time Work Day Lot Size Retail Goods Service Goods Utility Population Rent Dividend Deficit Dividend Leisure Time Work Day Lot Size Retail Goods Service Goods Utility Population Rent Dividend Deficit Dividend Labor Land Used Manufacturing Inputs Retail Inputs Service Inputs Production Wages Price Labor Land Used Manufacturing Inputs Retail Inputs Service Inputs Production Wages Price

Industry Zone Manufacturing Retail Services 2 3 4 Residents (hours/month) 301.8 302.2 290.7 294.7 295.5 295.7 (hours/day) 7.9 7.9 8.4 8.2 8.2 8.2 (acres) 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 (units/month) 5.1 5.1 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.6 (units/month) 8.1 8.0 9.4 8.8 8.9 8.9 44.9 44.8 47.6 46.5 46.5 46.5 36.5 35.3 108.3 35.8 36.1 36.2 (MU/person) 2146.0 (MU/person) 531.1 Change from Base Scenario (%) 0.2 1.3 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 -0.4 -2.2 -1.0 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1 3.0 -1.1 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.9 9.3 4.9 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 3.8 -0.4 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.9 1.3 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 13.3 -13.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 26.2 Firms (hours/month) 1269.0 1226.0 4002.1 2147.9 2174.1 2184.4 (acres) 3.2 5.6 19.5 29.2 27.9 27.5 (units/month) 0.00 201.0 0.00 279.5 282.4 283.5 (units/month) 82.4 0.0 41.1 86.0 86.6 86.9 (units/month) 29.9 22.6 176.0 99.3 100.0 100.3 (units/month) 215.7 379.2 636.3 1226.3 1233.4 1236.4 (MU/hr) 20.8 20.7 25.3 23.6 23.5 23.4 (Mu/unit) 442.5 447.8 372.6 411.1 411.7 411.9 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 12.9 -15.0 0.0 -1.1 -1.1 -1.0 16.0 -15.9 0.5 -1.8 -1.8 -1.8 0.0 19.0 0.0 18.9 19.1 19.1 23.1 0.0 6.6 17.1 17.1 17.1 16.9 -17.7 1.2 0.6 0.6 0.7 19.0 11.5 1.2 7.0 7.1 7.1 5.4 0.1 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 0.0 -3.4 1.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

Table 7.22. Effects on Residents and Firms of an Increase of 10% in the Manufactured Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents

178

Zone

2 3 Transportation Land Rent (MU/acre) 1166.94 1226.83 Transportation Land (acres) 1.9 4.4 Transportation Costs (MU) 4032.52 10015.13 Flow (car equiv./rush hour) 158.7 334.5 Zone Travel Toll (MU) 0.64 0.73 Zone Travel Time (hours) 0.033 0.037 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Land Rent 2.5 2.6 Transportation Land 11.8 4.8 Transportation Costs 6.6 6.1 Flow 4.8 3.9 Zone Travel Toll 9.3 3.4 Zone Travel Time -8.3 0.0 Industry Manufacturing Retail Imports/Exports Import Prices (MU) 423.13 1158.41 Import Volumes (units/ month) 504.8 2.9 Export Volumes (units/ month) 175.8 30.3 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Import Prices 0.0 -2.2 Import Volumes 19.0 10.2 Export Volumes 19.0 11.5

4 1247.98 5.2 12169.88 391.7 0.75 0.039 2.6 4.0 6.1 3.8 2.7 0.0 Services 813.27 11.6 101.8 1.7 1.4 1.2

Table 7.23. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of an Increase of 10% in the Manufactured Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents

service (1.7%) goods increases freight flows, and, as a result, transportation land and costs. Zonal tolls increase in the center zones (2.7% to 3.4%), and even more so at the end zones (9.3%). Travel times decrease at the end zones, but are stable in the rest of the city. The manufacturing goods import prices are kept at the same level as in the base case scenario, because the world is indifferent to changes in this city. Local manufacturing prices do not change, but retail goods prices decrease by 3.4% and service goods prices increase by 1.8%. The land rent increases by 2.5% because of increased residential consumption (1.0%). All wages increase: 5.4% for manufacturing 179

employees, 0.1% for retail employees, and 3.0% for service employees. Manufacturing employees experience the largest increase because of the extra demand for their goods. 7.2.1.2.2. Retail Input Change A 10% increase in the C-D exponents for retail inputs is considered and applied to the manufacturing and service industries, resulting in the C-D exponents in Table 7.24. Model results for this scenario are presented in Tables 7.25 and 7.26. With an increased use of retail inputs by manufacturing and service firms, the overall production of goods in all industries decreases, and prices decrease by 0% to 2%. The import prices and the import volumes also decrease. Manufacturing and service firms use less labor, and retail firms use more. These effects are reflected in the wage rates: retail employees experience the smallest decrease (7.3%) and manufacturing employees the largest (9.1%). Not only do residents see a decline in wages, but also a decline in the rent dividend (6.8%) and no change in the deficit dividend. With lower overall incomes, residents purchase less goods and less land (1.0%) and incur a 2.5% decrease in their utility. The only utility component that increases is leisure time (0.5%). More residents

Manufacturing Retail Service Workers Land Leisure

Manufacturing 0 0.58 0.14 0.24 0.04 0

Retail 0.67 0 0.09 0.19 0.05 0

Service 0 0.12 0.36 0.42 0.10 0

Table 7.24. C-D Exponents with a 10% Increase in Retail Goods Exponents 180

Workers 0 0.182 0.240 0 0.078 0.500

Industry Manufacturing Retail Services Residents Leisure Time (hours/ month) 303.5 299.4 290.2 Work Day (hours/ day) 7.8 8.0 8.4 Lot Size (acres) 0.77 0.82 0.93 Retail Goods (units/ month) 4.34 4.57 5.21 Service Goods (units/ month) 7.18 7.56 8.63 Utility 42.4 43.2 45.5 Population 31.2 43.1 105.7 Rent Dividend (MU/ person) 1950.6 Deficit Dividend (MU/ person) 420.7 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Leisure Time 0.8 0.4 0.4 Work Day -1.2 -0.5 -0.6 Lot Size -1.8 -0.1 -0.7 Retail Goods -6.6 -5.1 -5.7 Service Goods -7.5 -6.0 -6.6 Utility -2.8 -2.3 -2.5 Population -3.1 6.1 -1.4 Rent Dividend -6.8 Deficit Dividend 0.0 Firms Labor (hours/ month) 1076.5 1523.3 3922.3 Land Used (acres) 2.94 7.00 19.22 Manufacturing Inputs (units/ month) 0.00 165.49 0.00 Retail Inputs (units/ month) 73.08 0.00 39.61 Service Inputs (units/ month) 22.09 27.10 162.21 Production (units/ month) 177.5 339.4 586.2 Wages (MU/hr) 17.94 19.15 22.57 Price (Mu/unit) 442.39 454.76 362.67 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Labor -4.2 5.6 -2.0 Land Used 5.1 5.1 -0.9 Manufacturing Inputs 0.0 -2.1 0.0 Retail Inputs 9.3 0.0 2.8 Service Inputs -13.5 -1.2 -6.8 Production -2.1 -0.2 -6.8 Wages -9.1 -7.3 -7.9 Price 0.0 -1.9 -0.9

2

Zone 3

4

294.3 8.2 0.90 4.89 8.09 44.4 35.8

295.0 8.2 0.86 4.92 8.14 44.4 36.1

295.2 8.2 0.85 4.93 8.16 44.4 36.2

0.5 -0.7 -1.1 -5.8 -6.7 -2.5 0.0

0.5 -0.7 -0.8 -5.8 -6.7 -2.5 0.0

0.5 -0.7 -0.8 -5.8 -6.7 -2.5 0.0

2157.2 29.97 230.41 78.53 92.00 1099.6 21.09 406.69

2182.1 28.75 232.32 79.05 92.58 1104.7 20.96 407.29

2191.6 28.34 233.00 79.25 92.81 1106.8 20.92 407.48

-0.6 0.9 -2.0 6.9 -6.8 -4.1 -8.1 -0.4

-0.7 1.2 -2.1 6.9 -6.9 -4.1 -8.0 -0.4

-0.7 1.2 -2.1 6.8 -6.9 -4.1 -8.1 -0.4

Table 7.25. Effects on Residents and Firms of an Increase of 10% in the Retail Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents

181

Zone

2 Transportation Land Rent (MU/acre) 1062.9 Transportation Land (acres) 1.8 Transportation Costs (MU) 3418.0 Flow (car equiv./ rush hour) 147.8 Zone Travel Toll (MU) 0.59 Zone Travel Time (hours) 0.032 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Land Rent -6.6 Transportation Land 5.9 Transportation Costs -9.7 Flow -2.4 Zone Travel Toll 1.3 Zone Travel Time -11.1 Industry Manufacturing Imports/Exports Import Prices (MU) 423.13 Import Volumes (units/ month) 415.5 Export Volumes (units/ month) 144.7 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Import Prices 0.0 Import Volumes -2.0 Export Volumes -2.1

3

4 1113.9 4.1 8503.9 314.4 0.66 0.037

1132.6 4.9 10329.8 368.7 0.68 0.038

-6.9 -2.4 -9.9 -2.3 -6.9 0.0

-6.9 -2.0 -10.0 -2.3 -6.6 -2.6 Services

1182.12 2.6 27.2

792.58 10.6 93.8

-0.2 -1.9 -0.2

-0.9 -6.7 -6.8

Retail

Table 7.26. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of an Increase of 10% in the Retail Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents

choose to work for the retail industry, as they respond to the higher wages. Because of reduced purchases by residents and firms, overall traffic volumes decrease by 2.3%, as do transportation costs (by 9.7% to 10.0%). However, the edge zones are characterized by an increase in transportation land (5.9%) and travel tolls (1.3%), and therefore the savings are obtained from reduced travel times (11.1%). The central zones have a large enough decrease in flows (2.3%) that the decrease in transportation land (2%) does not result in higher tolls.

182

7.2.1.2.3. Service Input Change A 10% increase in the C-D exponent for service input is considered and applied to all sectors, resulting in the C-D exponents in Table 7.27. Model results for this scenario are presented in Tables 7.28 and 7.29. As the economy is a net exporter of services, it is expected that the deficit will decline with the increased use of services, and this is indeed observed, as the deficit dividend declines by 14%. However, utility levels also decline by 2%. Residents work longer work days, and purchase less retail (7%) and service (2%) goods. More of the population shifts to employment in the service industry. Lots size increases for residents working in services (1.1%) and in retail (0.2%), but decreases for manufacturing employees (0.5%). Production of manufacturing and retail goods declines by 10% and 8%, respectively, and service production increases by 7%, which is to be expected with a demand for more service goods. Service inputs are up by 7% for manufacturing and retail firms and by 18% for service firms. All three industries use less land (0.6% to 2.0%) and less manufacturing and retail inputs (7.5% to 10.9%). The service industry

Manufacturing Manufacturing Retail Service Workers Land Leisure

0 0.52 0.18 0.26 0.04 0

Retail 0.66 0 0.10 0.19 0.05 0

Service 0 0.10 0.40 0.41 0.09 0

Table 7.27. C-D Exponents with a 10% Increase in Service Goods Exponents 183

Workers 0 0.182 0.240 0 0.078 0.5

Industry Manufacturing Retail Services Residents Leisure Time (hours/ month) 300.7 297.4 287.7 Work Day (hours/ day) 8.0 8.1 8.5 Lot Size (acres) 0.78 0.82 0.95 Retail Goods (units/ month) 4.29 4.47 5.18 Service Goods (units/ month) 7.52 7.85 9.08 Utility 42.6 43.3 45.9 Population 30.3 39.9 109.8 Rent Dividend (MU/ person) 1927.4 Deficit Dividend (MU/ person) 362.5 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Leisure Time -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 Work Day 0.4 0.7 0.8 Lot Size -0.5 0.2 1.1 Retail Goods -7.7 -7.1 -6.3 Service Goods -3.2 -2.5 -1.7 Utility -2.3 -2.1 -1.7 Population -5.8 -1.8 2.4 Rent Dividend -7.9 Deficit Dividend -13.9 Firms Labor (hours/ month) 1063.7 1426.2 4128.5 Land Used (acres) 2.74 6.62 19.17 Manufacturing Inputs (units/ month) 0.00 152.45 0.00 Retail Inputs (units/ month) 59.57 0.00 35.67 Service Inputs (units/ month) 27.40 29.48 204.88 Production (units/ month) 163.5 313.3 671.6 Wages (MU/hr) 18.12 19.12 22.91 Price (Mu/unit) 442.39 460.79 346.33 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Labor -5.4 -1.1 3.2 Land Used -2.0 -0.6 -1.2 Manufacturing Inputs 0.0 -9.8 0.0 Retail Inputs -10.9 0.0 -7.5 Service Inputs 7.3 7.5 17.8 Production -9.8 -7.9 6.8 Wages -8.2 -7.4 -6.5 Price 0.0 -0.6 -5.4

Zone 3

2 291.5 8.3 0.92 4.86 8.51 44.7 35.8

292.3 8.4 0.88 4.88 8.56 44.8 36.1

292.5 8.4 0.87 4.89 8.58 44.8 36.2

-0.4 0.8 0.8 -6.5 -1.8 -1.8 0.0

-0.4 0.7 0.9 -6.5 -1.9 -1.8 0.0

-0.4 0.7 0.9 -6.5 -1.9 -1.8 0.0

2188.1 29.33 212.25 66.33 114.42 1144.3 21.41 390.87

2214.8 28.12 214.01 66.82 115.26 1150.5 21.28 391.42

2224.9 27.72 214.65 67.01 115.59 1153.0 21.24 391.59

0.8 -1.2 -9.7 -9.7 15.9 -0.2 -6.7 -4.2

0.8 -1.0 -9.8 -9.7 15.9 -0.1 -6.6 -4.3

0.8 -1.0 -9.8 -9.7 16.0 -0.1 -6.6 -4.3

Table 7.28. Effects on Residents and Firms of an Increase of 10% in the Service Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents

184

4

Zone

2 Transportation Land Rent (MU/acre) 1049.3 Transportation Land (acres) 1.8 Transportation Costs (MU) 3457.6 Flow (car equiv./ rush hour) 149.6 Zone Travel Toll (MU) 0.57 Zone Travel Time (hours) 0.033 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Land Rent -7.8 Transportation Land 5.9 Transportation Costs -8.6 Flow -1.2 Zone Travel Toll -1.3 Zone Travel Time -8.3 Industry Manufacturing Imports/Exports Import Prices (MU) 423.13 Import Volumes (units/ month) 382.7 Export Volumes (units/ month) 133.3 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Import Prices 0.0 Import Volumes -9.8 Export Volumes -9.8

3

4 1101.2 4.2 8647.6 319.6 0.66 0.037

1119.9 5 10512.3 375.0 0.68 0.038

-7.9 0.0 -8.4 -0.7 -7.2 0.0

-8.0 0.0 -8.4 -0.6 -7.4 -2.6

Retail

Services

1170.93 2.5 25.1

773.32 11.9 107.5

-1.1 -7.4 -7.9

-3.3 4.6 6.8

Table 7.29. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of an Increase of 10% in the Service Goods C-D Production Functions Exponents

uses 3% more labor, outcompeting retail and manufacturing firms which use 1% and 5% less labor, respectively. Consistent with employment changes, wages decline by 8.2% in manufacturing, 7.4% in retail, and 6.5% in services. The residents work more hours to offset the decreased wages. Because less goods are purchased overall, traffic flows are reduced by 1.2% in the edge zones and 0.6% in the center zone. Transportation costs decline by 8.4% to 8.6%. The center zones experience most of the decrease due to lower land rents inducing a 7% decrease in the travel tolls. The edge zones actually increase the amount of transportation

185

land by 6%, and therefore most of the transportation costs decreases are due to reduced travel times (8%). 7.2.1.2.3. Labor Input Change A 10% increase in the C-D exponents for labor inputs is considered and applied to all sectors, resulting in the C-D exponents in Table 7.30. Model results for this scenario are presented in Tables 7.31 and 7.32. Residents experience a 10% increase in utility and the deficit dividend increases by 11%. The length of work days increases by about 2%, and wages increase by 24% to 26%. The land rent increases by 16% to 17% with the largest increase in the center zones. Lot size increases by 5% to 6%, with the smallest increases in the center of the city. Retail and service goods consumption increases by 20% and 33%, respectively, with higher consumption occurring in the center of the city. More of the population chooses to work for the service industry and moves to the edge of the city. Output prices are unchanged for manufacturing firms, increase by 2.2% for retail firms, and decrease by 7.6% for service firms. Production of goods increases in all

Manufacturing Retail Service Workers Land Leisure

Manufacturing 0 0.51 0.15 0.30 0.04 0

Retail 0.65 0 0.09 0.21 0.05 0

Service 0 0.10 0.33 0.48 0.09 0

Table 7.30. C-D Exponents with a 10% Increase in Labor Exponents 186

Workers 0 0.182 0.240 0 0.078 0.500

Industry Manufacturing Retail Services Residents Leisure Time (hours/ month) 295.9 293.4 285.6 Work Day (hours/ day) 8.2 8.3 8.6 Lot Size (acres) 0.84 0.87 0.99 Retail Goods (units/ month) 5.61 5.82 6.60 Service Goods (units/ month) 10.36 10.73 12.17 Utility 48.2 48.9 51.4 Population 30.9 40.2 109.0 Rent Dividend (MU/ person) 2434.7 Deficit Dividend (MU/ person) 465.4 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Leisure Time -1.7 -1.7 -1.2 Work Day 2.8 2.6 1.6 Lot Size 6.3 6.4 5.1 Retail Goods 20.9 20.8 19.4 Service Goods 33.5 33.4 31.8 Utility 10.5 10.5 10.1 Population -4.0 -1.2 1.7 Rent Dividend 16.3 Deficit Dividend 10.6 Firms Labor (hours/ month) 1110.0 1463.7 4133.8 Land Used (acres) 2.69 6.61 17.17 Manufacturing Inputs (units/ month) 0.00 189.03 0.00 Retail Inputs (units/ month) 70.42 0.00 39.22 Service Inputs (units/ month) 28.97 34.22 198.82 Production (units/ month) 202.7 384.3 779.3 Wages (MU/hr) 24.84 25.96 30.32 Price (Mu/unit) 442.53 473.80 338.06 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Labor -1.2 1.5 3.3 Land Used -3.8 -0.8 -11.4 Manufacturing Inputs 0.0 11.9 0.0 Retail Inputs 5.3 0.0 1.7 Service Inputs 13.4 24.8 14.3 Production 11.9 13.0 24.0 Wages 25.9 25.8 23.7 Price 0.0 2.2 -7.6

2

Zone 3

4

288.7 8.4 0.97 6.23 11.48 50.3 35.8

289.3 8.5 0.92 6.27 11.57 50.3 36.1

289.6 8.5 0.90 6.28 11.60 50.3 36.2

-1.4 2.1 6.1 20.0 32.5 10.3 0.2

-1.4 2.1 5.4 20.1 32.6 10.3 -0.1

-1.4 2.2 5.1 20.1 32.7 10.3 -0.1

2213.7 27.31 262.73 76.27 113.11 1358.9 28.56 394.05

2246.5 26.04 265.57 76.97 114.35 1369.8 28.41 394.79

2259.0 25.65 266.64 77.25 114.85 1374.3 28.36 395.01

2.0 -8.0 11.7 3.9 14.6 18.6 24.5 -3.5

2.2 -8.4 11.9 4.0 15.0 18.9 24.6 -3.4

2.3 -8.4 12.0 4.1 15.2 19.1 24.6 -3.4

Table 7.31. Effects on Residents and Firms of an Increase of 10% in the Labor C-D Production Functions Exponents

187

Zone Land Rent Transportation Land Transportation Costs Flow Zone Travel Toll Zone Travel Time Land Rent Transportation Land Transportation Costs Flow Zone Travel Toll Zone Travel Time Import Prices Import Volumes Export Volumes Import Prices Import Volumes Export Volumes

2 Transportation

(MU/acre) 1317.9 (acres) 2.0 (MU) 5091.9 (car equiv./ rush hour) 168.3 (MU) 0.71 (hours) 0.034 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 15.8 17.6 34.6 11.1 22.6 -5.6 Manufacturing Imports/Exports (MU) 423.13 (units/ month) 474.7 (units/ month) 165.2 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 0.0 11.9 11.9

3

4

1395.0 4.9 12707.1 356.4 0.87 0.036

1422.0 5.8 15440.4 417.5 0.90 0.037

16.6 16.7 34.6 10.7 23.0 -2.7

16.9 16.0 34.6 10.6 22.6 -5.1 Services

1185.12 3.1 30.7

725 14.4 124.7

0.1 15.3 13.0

-9.4 26.3 24.0

Retail

Table 7.32. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of an Increase of 10% in the Labor C-D Production Functions Exponents

sectors, with the largest increases in the center of the city, despite a strong decrease in the use of land. Manufacturing, retail, and service inputs increase by 12%, 4%, and 15%, respectively. Each industry input experiences a larger gain in the center zone than in the edge zones. While the service industry has the largest increase in labor usage (3.3%), it also has the largest decrease in land consumption (11%) and the smallest increases in retail (1.7%) and service (14.3%) inputs. The retail industry has the second largest increases in labor usage (1.5%) and has the smallest reduction in land use (0.8%), while having the largest increase in service inputs (24.8%). Manufacturers use less labor (1.2%), less land (3.8%) but more retail (5.3%) and service (13.4%) inputs. 188

Transportation land increases in each zone by 16% to 18% because of increased freight shipments. This increase more than offsets the increased flows of 11%, leading to a reduction in travel times. Tolls increase because of increases in land use and land rents. Overall, transportation costs increase by about 35%. Import prices for manufactured and retail goods are relatively unchanged, but decrease by 9.4% for service goods. The volumes of imported goods increase in parallel to the amount of production increases, but are larger for retail and service goods by 2%. 7.2.1.3. Technology Change Summary The effects of change in technologies on the city economy have been modeled as transportation changes and changes in firms’ inputs. Table 7.33 presents summary data for transportation technology changes, which reduce transportation costs and slightly increase utility. The transportation costs savings with a smart transportation system (modeled by changes in ζ, λ, r, and b) induce an increase in traffic flows, while changes in truck and tunit, lead to a significant freight decrease with overall traffic flows

Variable

Change in Variable

ζ λ r b truck tunit

+50% +25% -25% -33% -33% +40%

Changes in Transportation Costs -21 to 23% -5 to 17% -7 to 8% -6 to 7% -6 to 7% -5 to 6%

Changes in Traffic Flows +0.8 to 1.5% +0.3 to 1.0% +0.2 to 0.5% +0.2 to 0.4% -8.4 to 10.4% -7.2 to 8.9%

Table 7.33. Effects of Transportation Technology Changes

189

Change in Utility +0.4% +0.2% +0.1% +0.1% +0.1% +0.1%

Input Increase Manufacturing Retail Services Labor

Effect on Utility +2% -3% -2% +10%

Effect on Deficit Dividend +26% 0% -14% +11%

Population Unchanged Unchanged Unchanged Decentralizes

Production Centralizes Unchanged Centralizes Centralizes

Table 7.34. Effects of Firms’ Technology Changes on the Economy

decreasing. Planners need to understand that transportation improvements, while cost justified, may still not generate a large increase in resident utility. The effects of changes in firms’ production functions are summarized in Table 7.34. If there is a 10% increase in the retail and services inputs needed, the deficit dividend declines, leading to a smaller trade deficit and, as a result, lower utility levels. Similarly, if more manufactured goods are required, more such goods are imported, and both the deficit dividend and resident utility increase. Increased labor usage results in increased purchases by consumers, leading to more goods being imported and a resulting increase in the deficit dividend. Greater labor utilization increases the utility levels (10%). However, increased labor usage produces a change in the distribution of residents, with population decentralization. Production is centralized in all situations, as firms try to be close to one another, except when the retail industry usage increases.

7.2.2. Resident Preferences Resident preferences may change over time as residents may want more leisure time, larger lots, or to consume more retail or service goods. An increase of 10% in the C-D exponents of each of these four items is considered, with the other exponents scaled

190

Leisure Lot Size Retail Goods Service Goods

Base Case Scenario 0.500 0.078 0.182 0.240

10% Increase Lot Size Retail 0.496 0.489 0.086 0.076 0.180 0.200 0.238 0.235

Leisure 0.550 0.070 0.164 0.216

Service 0.484 0.076 0.176 0.264

Table 7.35. C-D Utility Exponents with Changes in Resident Preferences

down so that all exponents always sum to 1. The resulting set of exponents is presented in Table 7.35. 7.2.2.1. Leisure Increase Model results are presented in Tables 7.36 and 7.37. When more leisure is desired, residents’ utility increases by 21%, and their work days decrease by 12%. More residents work for services, shifting away from manufacturing and retail. Residents consume 10% less retail and service goods. The deficit and rent dividends both decrease by 10% and 11%, respectively. Overall, the resident population slightly centralizes. Firms reduce production by 10% and, correspondingly, import 10% less goods. The labor input is reduced by 12%, while land use slightly increases (0.4%). Wages increase by 3% in manufacturing, 2% in retail, and 1% in services, in order to attract more labor. Prices also slightly decrease, by about 0.6%, to incentivize purchases. With less demand for goods, freight flows decrease, and so do the overall flows, by 6%. Transportation land decreases by 2% in the central zones but not in the edge zones. Travel tolls decrease by 5% to 7% and travel times by 5% to 8%. The overall transportation costs decrease by 11%. Import prices follow the same changes as the 191

Leisure Time Work Day Lot Size Retail Goods Service Goods Utility Population Rent Dividend Deficit Dividend Leisure Time Work Day Lot Size Retail Goods Service Goods Utility Population Rent Dividend Deficit Dividend Labor Land Used Manufacturing Inputs Retail Inputs Service Inputs Production Wages Price Labor Land Used Manufacturing Inputs Retail Inputs Service Inputs Production Wages Price

Industry Manufacturing Retail Services Residents (hours/ month) 322.4 320.0 311.5 (hours/ day) 7.0 7.1 7.5 (acres) 0.79 0.82 0.94 (units/ month) 4.20 4.34 4.96 (units/ month) 7.06 7.31 8.34 53.0 53.6 56.1 31.9 40.4 107.7 (MU/ person) 1870.0 (MU/ person) 377.8 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 7.1 7.2 7.8 -11.9 -11.9 -11.8 0.4 0.2 -0.4 -9.6 -9.8 -10.4 -9.0 -9.2 -9.8 21.5 21.2 20.2 -0.9 -0.6 0.5 -10.6 -10.2 Firms (hours/ month) 981.3 1263.6 3544.2 (acres) 2.80 6.69 19.45 (units/ month) 0.00 151.60 0.00 (units/ month) 60.15 0.00 34.64 (units/ month) 23.16 24.85 157.57 (units/ month) 162.6 305.7 569.4 (MU/hr) 20.28 21.14 24.80 (MU/unit) 442.37 462.47 362.16 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) -12.7 -12.4 -11.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.0 -10.3 0.0 -10.1 0.0 -10.1 -9.3 -9.4 -9.4 -10.3 -10.1 -9.4 2.8 2.4 1.2 0.0 -0.2 -1.0

2

Zone 3

4

314.9 7.3 0.91 4.67 7.85 55.0 35.7

315.6 7.3 0.87 4.69 7.90 55.0 36.1

315.8 7.3 0.86 4.70 7.91 55.0 36.3

7.5 -11.8 -0.1 -10.1 -9.5 20.6 -0.1

7.5 -11.9 -0.1 -10.1 -9.5 20.6 0.1

7.5 -11.9 -0.1 -10.1 -9.5 20.6 0.1

1913.2 29.78 211.01 66.00 89.44 1034.0 23.34 405.84

1937.9 28.52 212.83 66.53 90.07 1039.6 23.18 406.41

1946.2 28.10 213.49 66.70 90.29 1041.5 23.13 406.63

-11.9 0.3 -10.3 -10.1 -9.4 -9.8 1.7 -0.6

-11.8 0.4 -10.3 -10.1 -9.4 -9.8 1.7 -0.6

-11.8 0.3 -10.3 -10.1 -9.4 -9.8 1.7 -0.6

Table 7.36. Effects on Residents and Firms of a 10% Increase in Residents Preference for Leisure

192

Zone

2

3

4

Transportation Land Rent Transportation Land Transportation Costs Flow Zone Travel Toll Zone Travel Time

(MU/acre) 1017.4 (acres) 1.7 (MU) 3387.3 (car equiv./ rush hour) 142.5 (MU) 0.55 (hours) 0.033 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Land Rent -10.6 Transportation Land 0.0 Transportation Costs -10.5 Flow -5.9 Zone Travel Toll -5.1 Zone Travel Time -8.3 Industry Manufacturing Imports/Exports Import Prices (MU) 423.13 Import Volumes (units/ month) 380.6 Export Volumes (units/ month) 132.5 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Import Prices 0.0 Import Volumes -10.3 Export Volumes -10.3

1068.8 4.1 8419.9 303.3 0.66 0.035

1087.0 4.9 10207.1 355.4 0.68 0.036

-10.7 -2.4 -10.8 -5.8 -7.3 -5.4 Retail

-10.7 -2.0 -11.0 -5.8 -7.0 -7.7 Services

1181.19 2.4 24.5

791.75 10.3 91.1

-0.2 -10.0 -10.1

-1.0 -9.4 -9.4

Table 7.37. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Leisure

prices of locally produced goods. Import and export volumes also decrease by about the same percentages as local production. The population does slightly centralize, but the effect is small. 7.2.2.2. Lot Size Increase Tables 7.38 and 7.39 present model results. When more land is desired, residents’ utility levels decrease by 3% despite lot size increases of about 5%. Leisure time and work day lengths are little changed, while consumption of retail and service goods declines by about 1%. More residents choose to work in manufacturing and retail, and

193

Leisure Time Work Day Lot Size Retail Goods Service Goods Utility Population Rent Dividend Deficit Dividend Leisure Time Work Day Lot Size Retail Goods Service Goods Utility Population Rent Dividend Deficit Dividend Labor Land Used Manufacturing Inputs Retail Inputs Service Inputs Production Wages Price Labor Land Used Manufacturing Inputs Retail Inputs Service Inputs Production Wages Price

Industry Manufacturing Retail Services Residents (hours/ month) 302.0 299.0 288.9 (hours/ day) 7.9 8.0 8.5 (acres) 0.83 0.86 0.99 (units/ month) 4.58 4.75 5.48 (units/ month) 7.65 7.93 9.14 42.2 42.8 45.2 32.4 40.8 106.8 (MU/ person) 2198.4 (MU/ person) 416.5 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 0.3 0.2 0.0 -0.5 -0.3 0.1 4.8 4.9 5.3 -1.4 -1.3 -0.9 -1.5 -1.4 -1.0 -3.3 -3.3 -3.2 0.7 0.4 -0.4 5.0 -1.0 Firms (hours/ month) 1126.9 1444.2 3987.9 (acres) 2.63 6.28 18.31 (units/ month) 0.00 167.29 0.00 (units/ month) 66.15 0.00 38.20 (units/ month) 25.16 27.02 171.73 (units/ month) 179.5 336.5 620.8 (MU/hr) 19.49 20.42 24.40 (MU/unit) 442.43 464.01 367.71 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 0.3 0.1 -0.3 -5.8 -5.7 -5.6 0.0 -1.0 0.0 -1.1 0.0 -0.9 -1.5 -1.5 -1.3 -1.0 -1.1 -1.3 -1.2 -1.1 -0.5 0.0 0.1 0.5

2

Zone 3

4

293.1 8.3 0.96 5.13 8.56 44.1 35.9

293.8 8.3 0.92 5.16 8.62 44.1 36.1

294.0 8.3 0.90 5.17 8.64 44.1 36.1

0.1 -0.1 4.9 -1.1 -1.2 -3.2 0.3

0.1 -0.1 5.1 -1.1 -1.2 -3.3 -0.1

0.1 -0.1 5.1 -1.1 -1.2 -3.3 -0.3

2167.1 27.98 232.69 72.63 97.35 1131.9 22.78 409.34

2195.8 26.85 234.94 73.24 98.12 1139.0 22.63 409.92

2205.9 26.48 235.77 73.47 98.41 1141.6 22.59 410.11

-0.2 -5.8 -1.0 -1.1 -1.4 -1.2 -0.7 0.3

-0.1 -5.5 -1.0 -1.0 -1.3 -1.1 -0.7 0.3

-0.1 -5.5 -0.9 -1.0 -1.3 -1.1 -0.7 0.3

Table 7.38. Effects on Residents and Firms of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Lot Size

194

Zone

2

3

4

Transportation Land Rent Transportation Land Transportation Costs Flow Zone Travel Toll Zone Travel Time

(MU/acre) 1197.0 (acres) 1.7 (MU) 3846.9 (car equiv./ rush hour) 150.6 (MU) 0.61 (hours) 0.035 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Land Rent 5.2 Transportation Land 0.0 Transportation Costs 1.7 Flow -0.6 Zone Travel Toll 5.8 Zone Travel Time -2.8 Industry Manufacturing Imports/Exports Import Prices (MU) 423.13 Import Volumes (units/ month) 420.0 Export Volumes (units/ month) 146.3 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Import Prices 0.0 Import Volumes -1.0 Export Volumes -1.0

1256.1 4.2 9601.1 320.0 0.75 0.037

1276.8 5 11657.0 375.1 0.77 0.038

5.0 0.0 1.7 -0.6 5.7 0.0

4.9 0.0 1.6 -0.6 5.5 -2.6 Services

1185.45 2.6 26.9

803.81 11.3 99.3

0.1 -1.1 -1.1

0.5 -1.3 -1.3

Retail

Table 7.39. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Lot Size

leave services. This is probably because the service firms have the largest demand for land (based on its C-D exponent), and manufacturing the smallest. All firms use less land, by about 6%, and also less goods inputs, by about 1%. Overall, labor input is little changed, although it shifts from services to manufacturing and retail. Production and wages decrease by 1%. The transportation system experiences a 0.6% reduction in flows, due to less freight shipments. The amount of transportation land does not change, but land rents increase by 5%, travel tolls increase by 6%, and travel times are either stable or decrease

195

by 3%. The net result is that transportation costs increase by 2%. Port prices and import/export volumes all change consistently with city prices and production changes. 7.2.2.3. Retail Consumption Increase Model results are presented in Tables 7.40 and 7.41. When residents prefer more retail goods, utility levels decline by 3% despite an increased consumption of retail goods by 10%. The deficit dividend also increases by 10%. Residents trade the increase in retail goods for 2% less leisure time, 3% smaller lots, and 2% less consumption of service goods. With the increased demand for retail goods, retail employment increases by 4%, as does manufacturing employment (necessary to produce retail inputs). Employment in services declines by 3%. The resident population also slightly centralizes. Because residents work longer days, all industries witness an increase in the number of labor hours, including services (0.3%), despite fewer employees. Manufacturing and retail witness an increase of 7% in total labor hours worked, as well as an increase in all of their inputs and output by 7% to 8%. The retail industry remains relatively unchanged. Wages increase by 0.3% in manufacturing and retail, but decrease by 1% in services. Manufacturing and retail prices remain unchanged, but service prices decline by 0.5% to attract more purchases. With more goods being produced and purchased, traffic flows increase by 2%. Land rents drop by 0.2% and transportation land increases by 2% to 6%. Travel tolls increase in the edge zones by 3% and decline by 0.3% in the center zone. Travel times decline by 6% in the edge zones while remaining unchanged in the central zones. Overall, transportation costs increase by 1.5%. 196

Industry Manufacturing Retail Services Residents Leisure Time (hours/ month) 295.3 292.5 283.7 Work Day (hours/ day) 8.2 8.3 8.7 Lot Size (acres) 0.77 0.80 0.92 Retail Goods (units/ month) 5.13 5.32 6.06 Service Goods (units/ month) 7.68 7.96 9.06 Utility 42.2 42.8 45.1 Population 33.3 42.2 104.5 Rent Dividend (MU/ person) 2087.7 Deficit Dividend (MU/ person) 464.1 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Leisure Time -2.0 -2.0 -1.8 Work Day 3.3 3.3 2.8 Lot Size -1.8 -1.8 -2.6 Retail Goods 10.5 10.5 9.6 Service Goods -1.1 -1.1 -1.9 Utility -3.3 -3.2 -3.4 Population 3.6 3.7 -2.5 Rent Dividend -0.2 Deficit Dividend 10.3 Firms Labor (hours/ month) 1203.9 1544.9 4010.9 Land Used (acres) 3.01 7.18 19.36 Manufacturing Inputs (units/ month) 0.00 181.51 0.00 Retail Inputs (units/ month) 71.83 0.00 38.39 Service Inputs (units/ month) 27.57 29.60 174.10 Production (units/ month) 194.7 365.3 629.2 Wages (MU/hr) 19.79 20.71 24.36 Price (MU/unit) 442.42 463.64 364.17 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Labor 7.1 7.1 0.3 Land Used 7.7 7.7 -0.1 Manufacturing Inputs 0.0 7.4 0.0 Retail Inputs 7.4 0.0 -0.4 Service Inputs 7.9 8.0 0.1 Production 7.4 7.4 0.1 Wages 0.3 0.3 -0.6 Price 0.0 0.0 -0.5

Zone 3

2

4

287.4 8.5 0.89 5.69 8.51 44.0 35.7

288.1 8.5 0.85 5.73 8.57 44.0 36.1

288.4 8.6 0.84 5.74 8.59 44.0 36.3

-1.8 2.9 -2.5 9.7 -1.8 -3.4 -0.1

-1.8 2.9 -2.5 9.7 -1.8 -3.4 0.0

-1.8 2.9 -2.6 9.7 -1.8 -3.4 0.1

2235.4 30.43 252.61 76.79 100.77 1185.4 22.81 408.23

2261.9 29.10 254.83 77.33 101.43 1191.1 22.66 408.90

2271.5 28.67 255.66 77.54 101.68 1193.3 22.62 409.12

3.0 2.5 7.4 4.6 2.1 3.4 -0.6 0.0

2.9 2.4 7.4 4.5 2.0 3.4 -0.6 0.0

2.9 2.4 7.4 4.5 2.0 3.4 -0.6 0.0

Table 7.40. Effects on Residents and Firms of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Retail Goods

197

Zone

2 Transportation

Land Rent Transportation Land Transportation Costs Flow Zone Travel Toll Zone Travel Time

(MU/acre) 1135.0 (acres) 1.8 (MU) 3836.7 (car equiv./ rush hour) 154.9 (MU) 0.60 (hours) 0.034 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Land Rent -0.3 Transportation Land 5.9 Transportation Costs 1.4 Flow 2.3 Zone Travel Toll 3.2 Zone Travel Time -5.6 Industry Manufacturing Imports/Exports Import Prices (MU) 423.13 Import Volumes (units/ month) 455.7 Export Volumes (units/ month) 158.7 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Import Prices 0.0 Import Volumes 7.4 Export Volumes 7.4

3

4 1193.6 4.3 9581.8 328.4 0.71 0.037

1214.2 5.1 11650.3 385.0 0.73 0.039

-0.2 2.4 1.5 2.0 0.2 0.0

-0.2 2.0 1.6 2.0 -0.3 0.0

Retail

Services

1176.07 2.9 29.2

800.17 11.4 100.7

-0.7 8.2 7.4

0.0 -0.4 0.1

Table 7.41. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Retail Goods

Port prices remain unchanged for manufacturing and service goods, and drop by 0.7% for retail goods. Export volumes increase at the same rates as city production. Imports of retail goods increase more than production, reflecting the higher demand for retail goods. 7.2.2.4. Service Consumption Increase Model results are presented in Tables 7.42 and 7.43. When residents prefer more services, utility levels drop by 4%, the deficit dividend by 3%, leisure time by 3%, lot size by 4%, and retail goods consumption by 3%. Employment increases by 3% in services and declines by 4% in manufacturing and retail. 198

Industry Manufacturing Retail Services Residents Leisure Time (hours/ month) 292.4 289.7 279.9 Work Day (hours/ day) 8.3 8.5 8.9 Lot Size (acres) 0.75 0.78 0.91 Retail Goods (units/ month) 4.47 4.64 5.38 Service Goods (units/ month) 8.45 8.76 10.16 Utility 41.7 42.3 44.9 Population 30.8 38.9 110.3 Rent Dividend (MU/ person) 2129.3 Deficit Dividend (MU/ person) 406.4 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Leisure Time -2.9 -2.9 -3.2 Work Day 4.9 4.8 4.8 Lot Size -4.6 -4.7 -3.6 Retail Goods -3.7 -3.7 -2.7 Service Goods 8.9 8.9 9.9 Utility -4.5 -4.4 -3.8 Population -4.3 -4.3 2.9 Rent Dividend 1.7 Deficit Dividend -3.4 Firms Labor (hours/ month) 1128.5 1448.2 4316.1 Land Used (acres) 2.74 6.53 20.67 Manufacturing Inputs (units/ month) 0.00 168.46 0.00 Retail Inputs (units/ month) 66.68 0.00 41.80 Service Inputs (units/ month) 25.30 27.16 187.46 Production (units/ month) 180.7 339.0 677.7 Wages (MU/hr) 19.59 20.51 24.65 Price (MU/unit) 442.43 463.58 368.31 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Labor 0.4 0.4 7.9 Land Used -2.0 -2.0 6.6 Manufacturing Inputs 0.0 -0.3 0.0 Retail Inputs -0.3 0.0 8.4 Service Inputs -0.9 -0.9 7.8 Production -0.3 -0.3 7.8 Wages -0.7 -0.7 0.5 Price 0.0 0.0 0.7

Zone 3

2

4

283.7 8.7 0.88 5.04 9.52 43.8 35.7

284.4 8.7 0.84 5.07 9.58 43.8 36.1

284.6 8.7 0.82 5.08 9.61 43.8 36.3

-3.1 5.0 -3.7 -2.9 9.9 -3.9 -0.1

-3.1 5.0 -3.8 -2.8 9.9 -3.9 0.1

-3.1 5.0 -3.9 -2.8 9.9 -3.9 0.1

2279.7 30.85 234.47 75.58 104.28 1193.7 23.05 408.42

2306.4 29.48 236.50 76.11 104.95 1199.1 22.90 409.13

2316.0 29.04 237.26 76.30 105.21 1201.3 22.86 409.36

5.0 3.9 -0.3 2.9 5.6 4.2 0.5 0.1

4.9 3.7 -0.3 2.9 5.6 4.1 0.5 0.1

4.9 3.7 -0.3 2.9 5.6 4.1 0.5 0.1

Table 7.42. Effects on Residents and Firms of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Service Goods

199

Zone Land Rent Transportation Land Transportation Costs

2 Transportation 1157.4 1.8 3910.7

(MU/acre) (acres) (MU) (car equiv./ rush Flow hour) 154.7 Zone Travel Toll (MU) 0.61 Zone Travel Time (hours) 0.034 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Land Rent 1.7 Transportation Land 5.9 Transportation Costs 3.4 Flow 2.1 Zone Travel Toll 5.3 Zone Travel Time -5.6 Industry Manufacturing Imports/Exports Import Prices (MU) 423.13 Import Volumes (units/ month) 423.0 Export Volumes (units/ month) 147.3 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Import Prices 0.0 Import Volumes -0.3 Export Volumes -0.3

3

4 1217.6 4.3 9796.6

1238.7 5.1 11919.2

329.3 0.72 0.038

386.2 0.74 0.039

1.8 2.4 3.8 2.3 1.9 2.7

1.8 2.0 3.9 2.3 1.4 0.0

Retail

Services

1193.79 2.6 27.1

800.92 12.4 108.4

0.8 -1.0 -0.3

0.1 8.4 7.8

Table 7.43. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a 10% Increase in Resident Preference for Service Goods

Because of the longer work days, labor usage increases by 0.4% in manufacturing and retail and by 8% in services. Manufacturing and retail experience declines of 2% for land use, 0.3% for manufacturing and retail goods, 0.9% for service goods, 0.3% for production, 0.7% for wages, and no change for their prices. Services use 6.6% more land, 8.4% more retail inputs, 7.8% more service inputs, and produce 7.8% more goods. This results in wages increasing by 0.5% and prices by 0.7% in the services. The large increase in service production (7.8%), with services being the largest economic sector, more than offsets declines in manufacturing and retail production, resulting in increased overall freight flows. Zonal flows increase by about 2%. The new 200

optimal city has 6% more transportation land in the edge zones and 2% more in the central zones. Travel tolls all increase, with the largest increases in the edge zones. Travel times decrease by 6% in the edge zones, increase by 3% in zones 3 and 5, and do not change in the central zone. Land rents increase by 2%. As a result, transportation costs increase by 3.4% to 3.9% throughout the city. Import prices are unchanged for manufactured goods, and increase 0.8% for retail goods and 0.1% for service goods, because less retail goods are needed but more service goods are required. Export volumes change at the same rates as local production, imports of retail goods decrease at higher rates than local production, and imports of service goods increase at higher rates than local production. 7.2.2.5. Resident Preference Summary It is reasonable to expect that an increase in any of the exponents would increase the utility of city residents. However, this is not always the case, as shown in Table 7.44. Only an increase in the exponent for leisure time leads to an increase (21%) in utility. The other changes lead to utility reductions of 3% to 4%. The trade deficit, represented by the deficit dividend, declines significantly (10%) when more leisure is desired, because residents trade-off leisure time for goods and land,

Increased Desire in Leisure Lot Size Retail Goods Service Goods

Utility +21% -3% -3% -4%

Deficit Dividend -10% -1% +10% -3%

Population Centralizes Decentralizes Centralizes Centralizes

Table 7.44. Effect on City Form and Economy with Change in Resident Preferences 201

decreasing the amount of goods that must be imported and requiring less land, which makes local firms more productive. The trade deficit declines with an increased desire for service goods because residents demand locally produced goods that the local economy has an advantage in producing. An increased desire for land slightly reduces the deficit dividend because of the reduced desire for goods. Conversely, the deficit dividend significantly increases (10%) with an increased preference for retail goods, which are largely the product of imported manufactured goods. In terms of the city form, the population centralizes when leisure time, retail goods, or services are increasingly preferred. First, there is less demand for land, so the smaller lots in the center of the city are not as much at a disadvantage. Second, the proximity to work, retailers, and service providers increases the desirability of the city center. When larger lot sizes are preferred, the population decentralizes to the cheaper edge zones. In this model, the total amount of land is fixed, as it would be with an Urban Growth Boundary. The results suggest that if resident preference for land increases, utility decreases, because the economics sectors are crowded out of the city and produce fewer goods, and thus decrease the labor demanded by the city economy. The standard expectation of increased land rents is also verified.

7.2.3. Public Policy Impacts The impacts of two public policy impacts are analyzed: closing of the trade deficit and zoning restrictions.

202

7.2.3.1. Trade Deficit The trade deficit can be reduced by encouraging local consumption. However, it is more likely that trade deficit changes will occur at the national level, where the deficit is reduced either through tariffs or by currency devaluation. Regardless of which of these three scenarios actually occurs, a change in city form takes place under balanced trade. The original and modified import and export parameters are shown in Table 7.45. Model results are presented in Tables 7.46 and 7.47. The overall result is a 3.6% decrease in utility, and a 100% decrease in the deficit dividend. Residents’ work days are 5% longer, their lots 3% smaller, and they purchase 6% less retail goods and 3% less services. There is a 20% increase in manufacturing employment, offsetting a 0.5% decrease in retail employment and a 6% decrease in service employment. As a result of both changes in numbers of employees and overall longer work days, manufacturing firms use 30% more labor, retail firms 6% more, and service firms 2% less. Production levels change in a similar fashion, with manufacturing producing 33% more goods, retail 4% more, and services 2% less. Overall, wages decline by 7%: service wages decrease by 8%, retail wages decrease by 6%, and manufacturing wages decrease by 3%. Manufacturing goods prices decrease by 3%, retail goods prices

tau theta

Base Case Scenario Manuf Retail Services 0.163 0.016 0.032 0.437 0.004 0.008

Zero Trade Deficit Scenario Manuf Retail Services 0.300 0.010 0.020 0.300 0.010 0.020

Table 7.45. Import and Export Factors for a Zero Trade Deficit Scenario

203

Industry Manufacturing Retail Services Residents Leisure Time (hours/ month) 288.1 287.7 280.7 Work Day (hours/ day) 8.5 8.6 8.9 Lot Size (acres) 0.79 0.80 0.91 Retail Goods (units/ month) 4.53 4.56 5.19 Service Goods (units/ month) 7.81 7.86 8.94 Utility 42.6 42.7 45.0 Population 38.7 40.4 100.8 Rent Dividend (MU/ person) 1944.1 Deficit Dividend (MU/ person) 0.1 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Leisure Time -4.3 -3.6 -2.9 Work Day 7.5 6.1 4.5 Lot Size 0.3 -2.7 -3.6 Retail Goods -2.5 -5.3 -6.2 Service Goods 0.7 -2.3 -3.2 Utility -2.5 -3.5 -3.6 Population 20.4 -0.5 -5.9 Rent Dividend -7.1 Deficit Dividend -100.0 Firms Labor (hours/ month) 1455.7 1522.4 3933.6 Land Used (acres) 3.79 7.10 18.91 Manufacturing Inputs (units/ month) 0.00 172.49 0.00 Retail Inputs (units/ month) 87.86 0.00 36.39 Service Inputs (units/ month) 34.53 29.09 163.86 Production (units/ month) 240.1 352.3 615.9 Wages (MU/hr) 19.20 19.35 22.59 Price (MU/unit) 428.77 444.81 341.10 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Labor 29.5 5.5 -1.7 Land Used 35.7 6.5 -2.5 Manufacturing Inputs 0.0 2.1 0.0 Retail Inputs 31.4 0.0 -5.6 Service Inputs 35.2 6.1 -5.8 Production 32.5 3.6 -2.0 Wages -2.7 -6.3 -7.9 Price -3.1 -4.0 -6.8

Zone 3

2 283.4 8.7 0.88 4.88 8.42 43.9 35.8

284.1 8.7 0.84 4.91 8.48 43.9 36.1

284.4 8.7 0.83 4.92 8.50 43.9 36.3

-3.2 5.2 -3.3 -5.9 -2.9 -3.6 0.0

-3.2 5.2 -3.3 -5.9 -2.9 -3.6 0.0

-3.2 5.2 -3.4 -5.9 -2.8 -3.6 0.0

2285.7 30.68 240.15 86.57 101.58 1204.4 21.25 387.40

2312.8 29.35 242.12 87.17 102.28 1210.2 21.12 388.03

2322.5 28.92 242.86 87.39 102.55 1212.5 21.08 388.24

5.3 3.3 2.1 17.9 2.9 5.1 -7.4 -5.1

5.2 3.3 2.1 17.8 2.9 5.0 -7.4 -5.1

5.2 3.2 2.0 17.8 2.9 5.0 -7.4 -5.1

Table 7.46. Effects on Residents and Firms of a Zero Trade Deficit

204

4

Zone

Land Rent Transportation Land Transportation Costs Flow Zone Travel Toll Zone Travel Time Land Rent Transportation Land Transportation Costs Flow Zone Travel Toll Zone Travel Time Import Prices Import Volumes Export Volumes Import Prices Import Volumes Export Volumes

2 Transportation (MU/acre) 1057.2 (acres) 1.8 (MU) 3544.3 (car equiv./ rush hour) 155.7 (MU) 0.56 (hours) 0.035 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) -7.1 5.9 -6.6 2.8 -4.3 -2.8 Industry Manufacturing Imports/Exports (MU) 423.13 (units/ month) 367.1 (units/ month) 360.1 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) 0.0 -13.5 143.8

3

4

1111.5 4.3 8783.9 326.8 0.66 0.037

1130.5 5.1 10661.3 382.5 0.69 0.038

-7.1 2.4 -7.0 1.5 -6.2 0.0

-7.1 2.0 -7.1 1.3 -6.5 -2.6 Services

926.69 8.4 17.6

592.82 34.9 61.6

-21.7 216.1 -35.3

-25.9 205.6 -38.8

Retail

Table 7.47. Effects on the Transportation System and Imports/Exports of a Zero Trade Deficit decrease by 4%, and service goods prices decrease by 7%. These impacts are all consistent with an expanded manufacturing sector resulting from a zero trade deficit. Traffic flows increase by 3% in the edge zones and by 1% in the center. The decrease in land rents (7%) offsets the effects of greater transportation land input (2% to 6%), resulting in lower tolls throughout the city (4% to 7%). Total transportation costs drop by up to 6% –7%, mostly because of the lower tolls. Import and export volumes change significantly as the trade deficit is eliminated. The prices of imported manufacturing goods are unchanged, resulting in a price of 423 MU versus 429 MU for locally produced goods. The import prices of retail goods decrease by 22%, to 927 MU, which is closer to the local price of 445 MU. Similarly, the 205

import prices of service goods decline by 26%, to 593 MU, closer to the 341 MU local service price. Even with a zero trade deficit, the local economy demonstrates a competitive advantage for retail goods and services. 7.2.3.2. Zoning Zoning restrictions are one of the main planning tools. Municipalities prevent (or allow) certain forms of development, depending upon its benefits for their residents. In the model, any type of development, or any combination thereof, can be restricted in any zone: manufacturing, retail, services, and residents. Three zoning scenarios are considered and compared with the base case scenario: (1) Scenario A: no manufacturing in zones 3 and 5; (2) Scenario B: no manufacturing, retail, and service industries (and therefore only residential development) in zones 3 and 5, and a minimum land rent of 800 MU; and (3) Scenario C: no manufacturing, retail, and service industries (and therefore only residential development) in zones 2 and 3, and a minimum land rent of 800 MU. Scenario A models a common zoning restriction, and is more comparable to traditional land use models in that it develops a traditional symmetrical pattern. Scenario B represents bedroom communities and, with the minimum land rent, results in leapfrogging, of both the economic sectors and residential development. Scenario C determines the effects of a bedroom community on just one side of town, and, by having two zones, is comparable to Scenario B. Land use effects vary, depending on the scenario, as shown in Table 7.48 and Figures 7.15 to 7.17. When only manufacturing is restricted, large increases in manufacturing land use occur in the remaining zones. Such increases are not observed 206

Scenario

Base Case

A

B

C

Zone Sector 2 3 4 5 6 Manufacturing (acres) 2.87 2.75 2.71 2.75 2.87 Retail (acres) 6.85 6.57 6.48 6.57 6.85 Services (acres) 19.97 19.10 18.81 19.10 19.97 Residents (acres) 32.65 31.44 31.05 31.44 32.65 Transportation (acres) 1.70 4.20 5.00 4.20 1.70 Total Land (acres) 64.04 64.06 64.05 64.06 64.04 Land Rent (MU/month) 1,138 1,196 1,217 1,196 1,138 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Manufacturing 64.4 -100.0 64.8 -100.0 64.4 Retail -1.8 3.3 -1.7 3.3 -1.8 Services -2.3 3.7 -2.0 3.7 -2.3 Residents -3.9 6.1 -3.8 6.1 -3.9 Transportation 0.0 -2.4 -2.0 -2.4 0.0 Total Land 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Land Rent -19.1 -22.5 -19.3 -22.5 -19.1 Manufacturing 34.6 -100.0 37.3 -100.0 34.6 Retail 34.7 -100.0 36.9 -100.0 34.7 Services 34.3 -100.0 37.1 -100.0 34.3 Residents -32.2 37.9 -31.2 37.9 -32.2 Transportation 17.6 -7.1 -14.0 -7.1 17.6 Total Land 0.0 -26.2 0.0 -26.2 0.0 Land Rent -16.5 -33.2 -18.0 -33.2 -16.5 Manufacturing -100.0 -100.0 32.8 28.7 26.9 Retail -100.0 -100.0 32.3 28.5 27.1 Services -100.0 -100.0 32.9 28.3 26.5 Residents -5.9 9.5 -26.7 -25.7 -25.1 Transportation -41.2 -42.9 -18.0 0.0 17.6 Total Land -50.5 -42.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 Land Rent -29.8 -33.2 -17.0 -14.8 -13.8

Scenario A: No manufacturing in Zones 3 and 5 Scenario B: Only residential development in Zones 3 and 5 Scenario C: Only residential development in Zones 2 and 3

Table 7.48. Zoning Policy Effects on Land Use and Rents

207

70 60

Land (acres)

50 Transportation

40

Residents

30

Services

20

Retail Manufacturing

10 0 2

3

4

5

6

Zone

Figure 7.15. Land Use with Scenario A (Manufacturing Restriction in Zones 3 and 5)

70 60

Land (acres)

50 Transportation

40

Residents

30

Services

20

Retail Manufacturing

10 0 2

3

4

5

6

Zone

Figure 7.16. Land Use with Scenario B (Residential-Only Zoning in Zones 3 and 5)

208

70 60

Land (acres)

50 Transportation

40

Residents

30

Services

20

Retail Manufacturing

10 0 2

3

4

5

6

Zone

Figure 7.17. Land Use with Scenario C (Residential-Only Zoning in Zones 2 and 3)

when zones 3 and 5 are restricted to residents, because the retail and service industries are competing with manufacturing for the remaining land. Under Scenario A, when manufacturing only is restricted, all other uses (except transportation) increase in the restricted zones and decrease in the remaining zones, with the largest effects for residential land. Under Scenarios B and C, when all economic sectors are restricted in zones 3 and 5 (or 2 and 3), residential land use strongly increases in zones that neighbor multiple use zones. However, in Scenario C, the residential land actually declines in zone 2, which is not near a multiple use zone. With a minimum land rent of 800 MU/month, the land is not fully used, leading to leapfrogging in Scenarios B and C. Zoning effects on residents are presented in Table 7.49. In the residential-only scenarios B and C, where land is not fully used, utility levels predictably drop across the 209

city. With less land used, less goods are produced and smaller lots are required for a given population. However, even in Scenario A, where only manufacturing is restricted, net utility levels decrease. This implies that, in all cases, zoning actually reduces the utility levels of residents. However, it is important to remember that the model does not explicitly account for positive and negative externalities which zoning is, in principle, designed to enhance or alleviate. Perhaps more interestingly, utility levels decline less in zones with restrictions, most likely because of the resulting larger lot sizes in these zones. The overall city rents decline (as expressed by the lower rent dividends). Residents move to the restricted zones due to the lower land rents, with a 1% to 16% increase in population in resident-only zones. The restrictions also affect the transportation system and traffic flows. Resident-only zones have no internal flows, as residents do not travel to other residents in this model. The resulting traffic flows are illustrated in Figures 7.18 to 7.20, broken down by type of traffic (within, origin/destination, or through-haul). The base case scenario is illustrated in Figure 7.12.

Scenario Base Case

A B C

Zone 2 3 Rent Dividend (MU) 2093 Utility 45.56 45.58 Deficit Dividend (MU) 421 Lot Size (acres) 0.91 0.87 Population 35.8 36.1 Change from Base Case Scenario (%) Rent Dividend -20.5 Utility -3.2 -2.9 Deficit Dividend -20.2 Lot Size -1.8 2.6 Population -2.2 3.4 Rent Dividend -33.9 Utility -16.1 -14.7 Deficit Dividend -34.1 Lot Size -21.2 -1.6 Population -10.4 15.5 Rent Dividend -34.3 Utility -15.8 -15.2 Deficit Dividend -34.0 Lot Size -7.1 -2.1 Population 1.2 11.8

Table 7.49. Zoning Effects on Residents 210

4 45.58 0.86 36.2

5 45.58 0.87 36.1

6 45.56 0.91 35.8

-3.2 -1.5 -2.4 -16.1 -20.0 -10.4 -16.2 -21.0 -7.2

-2.9 2.6 3.4 -14.7 -1.6 15.5 -16.0 -22.8 -3.8

-3.2 -1.8 -2.2 -16.1 -21.2 -10.4 -16.0 -23.5 -2.0

In all cases, zones with zoning restrictions incur a decline in origin and destination traffic and an increase in through-traffic. However, overall consumption is decreased in all cases, as represented by the 20% to 34% deficit dividend decline. Less consumption reduces traffic flows. With scenario A (manufacturing restriction), transportation land decreases by 2% in the central zones, as shown in Table 7.48. With scenario B (symmetrical resident-only restriction applied to zones 3 and 5), zones 3 and 5 experience a 7% decrease in transportation land, zone 4 a 14% decrease, and the edge zones (2 and 6) an 18% increase. With scenario C (asymmetrical resident-only restriction applied to zones 2 and 3), zones 4 uses 18% less transportation land, restricted zones 2 and 3 uses 41% and 43% less, zone 5 does not change its use of transportation land, and zones 6 incurs a 18% increase in transportation land. Zoning restrictions have an overall negative impact on the city (as represented by reduced utility levels), but least harm the zones with the restrictions.

211

Traffic Flow (car equivalents/ rush hour)

400 350 300 250 200

Thru‐Haul

150

Orig/Dest

100

Within

50 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Zone

Traffic Flow (car equivalents/ rush hour)

Figure 7.18. Zonal Traffic Flows with Scenario A (Manufacturing Restrictions in Zones 3 and 5)

400 350 300 250 200

Thru‐Haul

150

Orig/Dest

100

Within

50 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Zone

Figure 7.19. Zonal Traffic Flows with Scenario B (Resident-Only Restrictions in Zones 3 and 5) 212

Traffic Flow (car equivalents/ rush hour)

400 350 300 250 200

Thru‐Haul

150

Orig/Dest Within

100 50 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Zone

Figure 7.20. Zonal Traffic Flows with Scenario C (Resident-Only Restrictions in Zones 2 and 3)

213

CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS The computable general equilibrium model of the city presented in this research uses a modified fixed-point methodology to minimize transport costs of the residents. It has three industries – manufacturing, retail, and services – that interact with each other and with residents. The retail industry and shopping are explicitly modeled. Industry interactions allow for freight movements, and their resulting impacts on the transportation network, to be estimated. The model explicitly includes the effect of the trade deficit, modeled as a deficit dividend. Thus, the model can determine the relative advantage or disadvantage a local industry has compared to the global economy. A computable general equilibrium model is a useful tool for scenario analyses. The scenario analyses performed with this model include the effects of changes in technology (smart transportation systems and changes in firms’ production functions), changes in consumer preferences, and changes due to policy impacts (eliminating the trade deficit and zoning). Smart transportation – the use of computers to better integrate and control car movements – effectively increases the capacity of a given system and reduces overall transportation costs. The savings are significant, up to 15%; however, the utility level

214

increases are minor (0.1% to 0.3%). This suggests that transportation planning should include the utility effects of transportation improvements as well as cost optimization to effectively determine the actual benefits to the city. A general equilibrium model is necessary to determine changes in utility levels. The model determines port (global) prices for imported goods. Net-imported goods (manufacturing goods) have a lower price than the local prices. Net-exported goods (retail and service goods) have a higher price than local prices. This indicates an economic advantage in producing retail and service goods. Technology changes in firms’ production functions have occurred throughout the economy, with a shift towards more services over the last 50 years. While it is not always clear how production functions will change, general trends can be estimated. As more retail or service goods are used in the production functions of all industries, the deficit dividend and utility levels decrease. Less manufacturing goods are purchased to produce goods, so the value of imports decreases and the deficit dividend decreases. Unfortunately, the decreased deficit dividend lowers residential income, so residents purchase less goods and their utility levels drop. Conversely, when more manufactured goods (net imports) are used in firms’ production, the deficit dividend increases and the resulting utility levels do so as well. If firms use more labor in producing goods, both the deficit dividend and utility levels increase. Firms pay higher wages to entice additional labor, providing residents with higher incomes (more hours at higher wages). Residents purchase more goods and their utility levels increase. However, in order for the local economy to produce more 215

goods for the residents, more manufactured goods are imported and the trade deficit increases. An advantage of an urban economic model that accounts for land is that the effects of these changes on city form can be analyzed. In general, an increased use of manufacturing goods, service goods, or labor by firms causes production to centralize, as firms need less land and are willing to pay higher rents in the central zones, which have better access to suppliers and customers. Retail goods increases do not change production distribution because firms use more land and remain distributed across the city. Population distribution does not change, except when firms use more labor. With more labor demand, the large increase in residential income increases residential land demand, and, as a result, residents purchase the cheaper land at the edge zones. Economic developers should promote the increased use of services by firms, which causes the largest decrease in the deficit dividend, centralizes production and has the least negative effect on utility levels. Resident preferences change over time. Of the items that compose utility (retail goods, service goods, lot size, and leisure time), the model indicates that only an increased desire for leisure time increases utility. The deficit dividend declines when desire for any component, except retail goods, increases. Increased retail good desire increases the demand by retail firms for net imported manufacturing goods. An increase desire for any other component causes a declining demand for retail goods and reduces the deficit dividend. The population centralizes with increased demand for any utility component, except lot size. With increased desire for larger lot size, residents move to 216

edge zones where land rents are lower. Production distribution is relatively unaffected by resident preference changes. Planners should promote policies that increase residents’ desire for leisure: utility levels increase, the deficit dividend decreases, and the population centralizes. The big issue for planners is to determine the impacts of proposed policies on residents and firms. If the trade deficit declines to zero, probably due to policy changes at the national level, the overall utility levels decline, largely due to the lower resident incomes because the deficit dividend is now zero. Employment and production increase in the manufacturing sector and decrease in the retail and service industries. The larger manufacturing sector increases traffic flows and the amount of transportation land. Production decentralizes, but the population distribution is unaffected. Because of the explicit modeling of money flows, this model is able to estimate the effects of changes on the trade balance. With zoning, one of the strongest planning tools, it is possible to exclude enough activities from a zone so that land remains undeveloped (assuming a minimum land rent greater than zero). In all zoning scenarios, utility levels decline as economic activity decreases with less available land for excluded firms. Residents living in restricted zones experience smaller declines in utility levels than the remaining residents due to the lower land rents in restricted zones. Scenario analysis suggests that symmetric zoning, which provided closer access to unrestricted employment zones, is more beneficial than asymmetric zoning. The model does not explicitly account for the positive externalities received when zoning is enacted, and this will be addressed in model extensions. 217

The model framework can be readily extended. Including the effects of externalities would provide a more realistic explanation of city form and the effects of zoning. Externalities affect utility functions: desire to be near higher-income areas, desire for green space, desire to be away from manufacturing (and to lesser extents services and retail), and desire to be in a low-traffic area (for air and noise pollution). Similar changes in the production functions could model agglomeration effects on different industries. Modifying the city form to make it a two-dimensional grid would allow for a more asymmetrical system. More realistic zoning restrictions can be modeled and would more closely reflect actual cities. Further extending the model to include multiple cities in a region could help determine the effects of competition between cities and overall effects on regional residents. The model uses only land, and does not account explicitly for the cost of building on the land. Modifying the model to have both land and building components may allow for more concentrated land use. This might cause a greater centralization of the services industry (using little land but much building space) as compared to the manufacturing industry. All these extensions would provide further insights to the forms of cities and help planners predict future city patterns and impacts of policies. General equilibrium models have the advantage of including complex interactions of city agents, and can predict future city forms not necessarily identifiable through empirical research and simpler models. 218

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APPENDIX A GAMS CODING Appendix A has two sections. Section A.1 includes the simplified form of the model; the put statements and output calculations have been removed, and only the core model calculations are shown. Section A.2 is the full model, including all the put statements and output calculations used to analyze the model results.

A.1. SIMPLIFIED GAMS CODING * Fixed-Point Optimization of Transportation System with General Equilibrium * Solution to Each Transportation System Checked * Craig T. Olwert * Final Dissertation Version, 2/14/2010. *############################################################################# * This section defines sets, parameters, and variables, corresponding to the Data Input Stage * of Figure 5.1. *############################################################################# * The SETS are the indices used throughout the model as described in Chapter 4. set lx "All Zones" /1 * 7/ ix(lx) "City Zones" /2 * 6/ px(lx) "Port Zones" /1, 7/ l "Employment and Labor Industry" /Manuf, Retail, Service, Worker/ i(l) "Employment Industry" /Manuf, Retail, Service/; alias (hx,ix,jx,kx); alias (lx,mx,nx,ox); alias (px,qx,rx,sx); alias (i,j,k); alias (l,m,n,o); 227

* PARAMETERS for the model: includes scalars, tables and parameters. scalar beta "Leisure Time factor for Utility" TotHours "Number of Waking Hours per Month" upsilon "Number of Commutes per Month" epsilonTC "How Close is Close Enough Not to Change" epsilonlabor "How Close Labor Demand must be to Labor Supplied" epsilonland "How Close Land Balance must be to total Land" epsilonimport "How Close Value of Import Must Be" pop "Population of the City" lambdapop "Dispersion Factor for Population Determination" lambdaexport "Dispersion Factor for Export Determination" truck "Number of Car Equivalents per Truck" zeta "Traffic Capacity Constant" lambda "Traffic Capacity Exponential" b "Travel Time Constant 2" r "Travel Time Constant 3" RDpercent "Percent RentDiv staying in system" count "Used to End Program at an Earlier Stage" Table

/0.5/ /480/ /22/ /0.001/ /.001/ /.06/ /.0001/ /180/ /0.4/ /0.10/ / 3/ /70/ /.8/ /.15/ /4/ /1.0/ /0/;

alpha(l,m) "C-D production function factors for inputs" * This initial table is the same as in Ch 6 and is useful for reference if the value for beta is changed. * Manuf Retail Service Worker * Manuf 0.0 0.67 0.0 0.0 * Retail 0.53 0.0 0.11 0.365 * Service 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.479 * Worker 0.27 0.19 0.43 0.0 ; Manuf Retail Service Worker Manuf 0.0 0.67 0.0 0.0 Retail 0.53 0.0 0.11 0.182 Service 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.240 Worker 0.27 0.19 0.43 0.0 ; Table

AZ(lx,l) Manuf 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1

"Indicator of Active Zone" Retail Service Worker 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 228

6 7

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 0;

parameter omega(l) "C-D Production/Utility factor for land" * This initial values are the same as in Ch 6 and is useful for reference if * the value for beta is changed. * /Manuf 0.04, Retail 0.05, Service 0.10, Worker 0.156/ /Manuf 0.04, Retail 0.05, Service 0.10, Worker 0.078/ a(ix) "Travel Time Constant 1" /2*6 .0222/ tunit(l) "Number of Units Shipped per Truck" /Manuf 5, Retail 5, Service 5, Worker 1/ delta(l) "CES Factor" /Manuf 0.8, Retail 0.8, Service 0.8, Worker 0.8/ prodcoeff(l) "Scaling Factor for Production/Utility" /Manuf 1, Retail 1, Service 1, Worker 1/ rhomin(ix) "Minimum Land Rent (Ag Rent)" /2*6 20/ deltaS(ix) "Step Change in S" /2*6 0.1/ tau(i) "Export Factor for Industry i" /Manuf 0.163, Retail .016, Service .032/ theta(i) "Import Factor for Industry i" /Manuf .437, Retail .004, Service .008/ taucalc(i) "Internally calculated value for loops" thetacalc(i) "Internally calculated value for loops"; * VARIABLES for the model. See Table 4.1. scalar RentDiv "Rent Dividend" DeficitDiv "Deficit Dividend" parameter w(jx,j) p(lx,k) rho(ix) TC(ix) TCold(ix) S(ix) Sold(ix) flow(lx)

/90/ /0/;

"Wage rate paid by industry j at zone jx" /2*6.Manuf 20, 2*6.Retail 20, 2*6.Service 20/ "Price of good k produced at location kx" /1*7.Manuf 400, 1*7.Retail 300, 1*7.Service 250/ "Land Rent at location ix" /2*6 950/ "Total Transportation Cost for zone ix" /2*6 95000/ "Old Total Transportation Cost for zone ix" /2*6 100000/ "Amount of Transportation Land in zone ix" /2 1.0, 3 3.5, 4 4.3, 5 3.5, 6 1.0/ "Old Amount of Transportation Land in zone ix" /2 1.0, 3 3.5, 4 4.3, 5 3.5, 6 1.0/ "Intrazonal Traffic Flow" 229

Ztoll(lx) Ztollold(lx) zpop(ix,jx,j) x(lx,i,mx,l)

landused(ix,i) labor(ix,i) Ztime(lx) lotsize(ix,jx,j) h(ix,jx,j) production(ix,i) Itoll(lx,mx) Itime(lx,mx) pold(lx,k) wold(jx,j) rhoold(ix) F(lx,mx) capacity(ix) U(ix,jx,j) Ualt(ix,jx,j) TotalLand(ix) TollRev(ix) RoadRent(ix) TCWage(ix) TCToll(ix) TotExport(i) TotExportOld(i) TotalZpop z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)

/1 50, 2 200, 3 350, 4 420, 5 350, 6 200, 7 50/ "Intrazonal Toll Rate" /1 0, 2 .24, 3 .27, 4 .28, 5 .27, 6 .24, 7 0/ "Old Intrazonal Toll Rate" /1 0, 2 .24, 3 .27, 4 .28, 5 .27, 6 .24, 7 0/ "Population in zone ix of workers from industry j at jx" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail) 1.8, 2*6.2*6.Service 3.6/ "Amount of good i from ix going to industry l at jx" /2*6.Manuf.2*6.Retail 100, 2*6.Retail.2*6.(Manuf,Service) 30, 2*6.Service.2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) 30, (1,7).Manuf.2*6.Retail 500, (1,7).Retail.2*6.(Manuf,Service) 60, (1,7).Service.2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) 120, 2*6.Manuf.(1,7).Manuf 62, 2*6.Retail.(1,7).Retail 85, 2*6.Service.(1,7).Service 130/ "Amount of land used by industry i at location ix" /2*6.Manuf 4, 2*6.Retail 7.5, 2*6.Service 19/ "Amount of labor used by industry i at location ix" /2*6.Manuf 1300, 2*6.Retail 1400, 2*6.Service 3400/ "Time to pass through zone ix" /1 0, 2*6 .025, 7 0/ "Size of lot used by individual ix,jx,j" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) .8/ "Hours of Work per day for individual ix,jx,j" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) 8/ "Amount of good i produced at location ix" /2*6.Manuf 250, 2*6.Retail 350, 2*6.Service 600/ "Interzonal toll to travel between zones ix and jx" /1*7.1*7 0/ "Interzonal time to travel between zones ix and jx" /1*7.1*7 0/ "Old price of good k imported from zone px" "Old wage rate paid by industry j at zone jx" "Old Land Rent at location ix" "Total flow from lx to mx" /1*7.1*7 0/ "Traffic Capacity of Zone ix" /2*6 0/ "Resident utility living at ix working for j at jx" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ "Utility based on prices" "Amount of Land Used by a zone" "Toll Collected" "Rent for Roads" "Wage Component of Total Transport Cost" /2*6 0/ "Toll Component of Total Transport Cost" /2*6 0/ "Total Amount of Good i Exported" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ "Old Total Amount of Good i Exported" "Total Population in the City" "Good k purchased from lx by individual ix,jx,j" 230

leisure(ix,jx,j) TotInc(ix,jx,j)

/2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service).2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ "Amount of leisure time for individual ix,jx,j" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ "Total income less commute costs" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/;

*############################################################################# * Start Transport Cost Loop Minimization (Outermost Loop) * While the total costs of one zone continue decreasing, the model will * continue to run. The amount of transport land (S) is increased only in * the zones that have a reduction in transport costs; other zones remain unchanged. *############################################################################# *############################################################################# * The while statement corresponds to the “Have Transport Costs Decreased” step in Figure 5.1 *############################################################################# count = 0; while(sum(ix$(TC(ix) < TCold(ix)*(1-epsilonTC)), 1) gt 0 and count lt 2000, *############################################################################## * The following loop and equations correspond to the “Increase Transportation Land” step in *Figure 5.1 *############################################################################## * Loop increases transport land for each zone that saw reduced total cost loop(hx, if (TC(hx) < TCold(hx)*(1-epsilonTC), S(hx) = Sold(hx) + 0.1; else S(hx) = Sold(hx););); * End of loop, but not of the while statement * Reset the old total cost and transport land variable for next pass through while loop TCold(ix) = TC(ix); Sold(ix) = S(ix); count = 0; *############################################################################ * This loop determines the equilibrium city form for the given transportation * system. It assesses three main conditions: (1) the labor demand equals the labor * supply, (2) the total land used per zone equals the amount available, and if * less is used, the land rent is at its minimum value, (3) the import * balance is met. It also checks the count to prevent too many iterations * and enters the while loop at count = 0. * This while statement corresponds to the “Labor, Land and Imports Balanced” step in Figure 5.1 231

*############################################################################ while( (sum((jx,j)$(labor(jx,j) > (1+epsilonlabor)*(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)))),1) + sum((jx,j)$(labor(jx,j) < (1-epsilonlabor)*(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)))),1)) + (sum(ix$(sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(ix,i))+S(ix) > 64 + epsilonland), 1) +sum(ix$((sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(ix,i))+S(ix) < 64 - epsilonland) and rho(ix) > rhomin(ix)), 1)) + (sum(i$(sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i)) > (1+epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), 1) +sum(i$(sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i)) < (1-epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), 1)) gt 0 and count lt 2000 or count eq 0, count = count + 1; Ztollold(ix) = Ztoll(ix); *############################################################################## * The next three loops correspond to the “Adjust Wage Rate, Land Rent, and Import Prices” step in * Figure 5.1 *############################################################################## * This while loop adjusts the wage rates to ensure that labor supply equals labor demand * Uses Eq. (4.98) wold(jx,j) = w(jx,j) loop((hx,j), if(labor(hx,j)>(1+epsilonlabor)*(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,hx,j)*h(ix,hx,j))), w(hx,j) =(1 + 0.05*(labor(hx,j)/(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,hx,j)*h(ix,hx,j)))-1))*wold(hx,j); elseif(labor(hx,j) (64 + epsilonland), rho(hx) = (1 + 0.2*(((sum((jx,j),zpop(hx,jx,j)*lotsize(hx,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(hx,i))+S(hx)))/64 - 1))*rhoold(hx); elseif(((sum((jx,j),zpop(hx,jx,j)*lotsize(hx,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(hx,i))+S(hx))) < (64-epsilonland)), rho(hx) = max((1 - 0.2*(1-(((sum((jx,j),zpop(hx,jx,j)*lotsize(hx,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(hx,i))+S(hx)))/64))) * rhoold(hx), rhomin(hx)); 232

else rho(hx) = rhoold(hx););); * This loop adjusts the import prices to ensure that the value of imports is within a tolerance of the * value of city production for that good. Uses Eq. (4.79) pold(px,i) = p(px,i); thetacalc(i) =sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i))/ sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i)); loop(i, if((sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*pold(px,i)) > (1 + epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), p(px,i) = (1+0.2*(thetacalc(i)-theta(i))/theta(i))*pold(px,i); elseif(sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*pold(px,i)) < (1 - epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), p(px,i) = (1-0.2*(theta(i)-thetacalc(i))/theta(i))*pold(px,i); else p(px,i) = pold(px,i) );); *############################################################################## * The following corresponds to the “Calculate” step in Figure 5.1. *############################################################################## * Calculate interzonal travel time. Eqs. (4.88) and (4.89) Itime(lx,mx) = 0.5*(Ztime(lx) + Ztime(mx)$(ord(mx) ne ord(lx))) + sum(nx$((ord(nx) gt ord(lx) and ord(nx) lt ord(mx)) or (ord(nx) lt ord(lx) and ord(nx) gt ord(mx))), Ztime(nx)); * Based on the new Ztoll, calculate the interzonal tolls. Eqs. (4.90) and (4.91) Itoll(lx,mx) = .5*Ztoll(lx) + .5*Ztoll(mx)$(ord(lx) ne ord(mx)) + sum(nx$((ord(nx) gt ord(lx) and ord(nx) lt ord(mx)) or (ord(nx) lt ord(lx) and ord(nx) gt ord(mx))), Ztoll(nx)); * Ensure that certain goods do not move and flows remain at zero. * Eqs. (4.99), (4.100) (4.101), and (4.102) x(px,i,qx,l) = 0; x(px,i,ix,'worker') = 0; x(ix,i,px,j)$(ord(i) ne ord(j)) = 0; x(ix,i,px,'worker') = 0; * Calculate total resident income less commuting costs. Eq. (4.27) TotInc(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = w(jx,j)*TotHours - 2*upsilon*(Itoll(ix,jx)+ w(jx,j)*Itime(ix,jx)) + RDpercent*RentDiv + DeficitDiv; *Calculate equilibrium lot size. Eq. (4.29) lotsize(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = omega('worker')*TotInc(ix,jx,j)/rho(ix); 233

*Calculate equilibrium leisure time. Eq. (4.30) leisure(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = beta*TotInc(ix,jx,j)/w(jx,j); *Calculate shopping goods purchased. Eq. (4.31) z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)$(AZ(kx,k) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = max(0,(alpha(k,'worker')*TotInc(ix,jx,j)*(p(kx,k)+2*Itoll(kx,ix)+ w(jx,j)*2*Itime(kx,ix))**(1 / (delta('worker') - 1))) / (sum(hx$(AZ(hx,k) eq 1), (p(hx,k)+2*Itoll(hx,ix)+ w(jx,j)*2*Itime(hx,ix))**(delta('worker') /(delta('worker') - 1))))); *Calculate length of work day. Eq. (4.32) h(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = max(1,(1/upsilon)*(TotHours - leisure(ix,jx,j) – 2*upsilon*Itime(ix,jx) - sum((kx,k)$(alpha(k,'worker') ne 0 and AZ(kx,k) eq 1), 2*Itime(kx,ix)*z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)))); * Calculate Utility Levels. Eq. (4.38) U(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = (prodcoeff('worker')* TotInc(ix,jx,j)* prod(k$(alpha(k,'worker') ne 0), alpha(k,'worker')**alpha(k,'worker')) *omega('worker')**omega('worker')*beta**beta)/(prod(k$(alpha(k,'worker') ne 0), sum(kx$(AZ(kx,k) eq 1), (p(kx,k) + 2*Itoll(kx,ix) + w(jx,j)*2*Itime(kx,ix))**(delta('worker')/ (delta('worker') - 1)))** (alpha(k,'worker')* (delta('worker')-1)/delta('worker'))) *rho(ix)**omega('worker')*w(jx,j)**beta); * Utility Level Check. Eq. (4.1) Ualt(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1) = prodcoeff('worker') *prod(k$(alpha(k,'worker') ne 0), sum(kx$(AZ(kx,k) eq 1), z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)**delta('worker')) **(alpha(k,'worker')/delta('worker')))* lotsize(ix,jx,j)**omega('worker') *leisure(ix,jx,j)**beta; * Assign population to resident and work locations as well as work industry. Eq. (4.41) zpop(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1) = pop/sum((hx,kx,k)$(AZ(hx,'worker') eq 1 and AZ(kx,k) eq 1), exp(lambdapop*(U(hx,kx,k)-U(ix,jx,j)))); zpop(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 0 or AZ (jx,j) eq 0) = 0; * Using population and purchases derived from maximizing utility and population assignment, * determine the amounts of goods purchased from each zone. Eq. (4.42) x(kx,k,ix,'worker')$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1 and AZ(kx,k) eq 1) = sum((jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1), zpop(ix,jx,j)*z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)); x(kx,k,ix,'worker')$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 0 or AZ (kx,k) eq 0) = 0; * Required production level based on demand of residents and other firms. Eq. (4.46) production(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1) = sum((jx,l) $(alpha(i,l) ne 0 and AZ(jx,l) eq 1), x(ix,i,jx,l)) + sum(px$(AZ(px,i) eq 1), x(ix,i,px,i)); production(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; * The Marshallian Demand for Land. Eq. (4.59) 234

landused(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1) = p(ix,i)*omega(i)*production(ix,i)/rho(ix); landused(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; * The Marshallian Demand for Labor. Eq. (4.60) labor(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1) =p(ix,i)*alpha('worker',i)*production(ix,i)/w(ix,i); labor(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; * The Marshallian Demand for Inputs. Eq. (4.67) x(lx,j,ix,i)$(AZ(lx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,i) eq 1) = (alpha(j,i)*p(ix,i)*production(ix,i)* (p(lx,j)+ 2*truck/tunit(j)* Itoll(lx,ix))**(1/(delta(i)-1))) /sum(nx$(AZ(nx,j) eq 1), (p(nx,j)+ 2*truck/tunit(j)*Itoll(nx,ix)) **(delta(i)/(delta(i)-1))); x(lx,j,ix,i)$(AZ(lx,j) eq 0 or AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; * The Marshallian Price of Goods Produced. Eq. (4.73) pold(nx,j) = p(nx,j); p(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1) = prod(j$(alpha(j,i) ne 0), sum(nx$(AZ(nx,j) eq 1), (pold(nx,j) + 2*truck/tunit(j)*Itoll(nx,ix)) **(delta(i)/(delta(i) -1))) **(alpha(j,i)*(delta(i)-1)/delta(i))) *w(ix,i)**alpha('worker',i) *rho(ix)**omega(i)/(prodcoeff(i)*prod(j$(alpha(j,i) ne 0), alpha(j,i)**alpha(j,i))*alpha('worker',i)**alpha('worker',i)*omega(i)**omega(i)); p(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; * Calculate the amount of goods to be exported. Eq. (4.78) TotExport(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))*tau(i)/ (sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i))/sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), 1)); * Amount of goods exported from each production zone to each port. Eq. (4.77) x(ix,i,px,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1 and AZ(px,i) eq 1) = 1/sum(jx$(AZ(jx,i) eq 1), exp(-lambdaexport*(p(jx,i)p(ix,i) +2*truck/tunit(i)*(Itoll(jx,px)-Itoll(ix,px)))))* TotExport(i)/sum(qx, AZ(qx,i)); x(ix,i,px,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0 or AZ(px,i) eq 0) = 0; * Calculate the interzonal flows. Eq. (4.80) F(ix,jx) = sum((i,j)$(alpha(i,j) ne 0), 1/upsilon*truck/tunit(i)*x(ix,i,jx,j)) +sum((kx,k,i) $(alpha(i,'worker') ne 0), 1/upsilon*zpop(ix,kx,k)*z(jx,i,ix,kx,k)) +sum(j, zpop(ix,jx,j)); * Calculate the flow of imports. Eq. (4.81) F(px,jx) = sum((i,j)$(alpha(i,j) ne 0), 1/upsilon*truck/tunit(i)*x(px,i,jx,j)); * Calculate the flow of exports. Eq. (4.82) F(ix,px) = sum(i, 1/upsilon*truck/tunit(i)*x(ix,i,px,i)); * Set the flow within and between ports equal to zero. Eq. (4.83) F(px,qx) = 0; 235

* Calculate the intrazonal flows. Eqs. (4.84) and (4.85) flow(lx) = F(lx,lx) + sum(mx$(ord(mx) ne ord(lx)), F(lx,mx) + F(mx,lx)) +2*sum((nx,ox) $((ord(nx) gt ord(lx)) and (ord(ox) lt ord(lx))), F(nx,ox) + F(ox,nx)); * Calculate capacity of the transport land. Eq. (4.86) capacity(ix) = zeta*S(ix)**lambda; * Calculate intrazonal travel time. Eq. (4.87) Ztime(ix) = a(ix)*(1 + b*(flow(ix)/capacity(ix))**r); Ztime(px) = 0; * Calculate the zone toll need to pay land rent for transportation land. Eq. (4.92) and (4.93) Ztoll(ix) = S(ix)*rho(ix)/(flow(ix)*upsilon); Ztoll(px) = 0; * Total Cost of traffic = toll revenue + cost of travel time going through the zones + cost of travel * time starting or ending in the zones. TollRev is an intermediate calculation useful for later * analysis. Eq. (4.94) TollRev(ix) = flow(ix)*Ztoll(ix)*upsilon; TC(ix) = TollRev(ix) + sum((hx,kx,k)$((ord(hx) lt ord(ix) and ord(kx) gt ord(ix)) or (ord(hx) gt ord(ix) and ord(kx) lt ord(ix))), w(kx,k)*zpop(hx,kx,k)*2*upsilon*Ztime(ix) + sum((jx,j), w(jx,j)*zpop(hx,jx,j)*2*z(kx,k,hx,jx,j)*Ztime(ix))) + sum((hx,kx,k)$((ord(hx) eq ord(ix) and ord(kx) ne ord(ix)) or (ord(hx) ne ord(ix) and ord(kx) eq ord(ix)) or (ord(hx) eq ord(ix) and ord(kx) eq ord(ix))), 0.5*w(kx,k)*zpop(hx,kx,k)*2*upsilon*Ztime(ix) + 0.5*sum((jx,j), w(jx,j)*zpop(hx,jx,j)*2*z(kx,k,hx,jx,j)*Ztime(ix))); * The rent dividend = rent paid by residents + by companies + for transportation divided by the * number of people in the city. Eq. (4.95) RentDiv = min((sum((ix,jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)*rho(ix)) + sum((ix,i), landused(ix,i)*rho(ix)) + sum(ix, flow(ix)*Ztoll(ix)*upsilon))/pop, sum(ix, rho(ix)*64)/pop); * The deficit dividend = value of imports - the value of exports divided by the number of people * in the city. Eq. (4.96) DeficitDiv = (sum((px,i,ix,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(ix,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0),x(px,i,ix,j)*p(px,i)) - sum((px,ix,i)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(ix,i) eq 1), x(ix,i,px,i)*p(ix,i)))/pop; * The total amount of land used = residential + industrial + transport land. Eq. (4.97) TotalLand(ix) = sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) + sum(i, landused(ix,i)) + S(ix); display U, leisure, h, z, x, Itoll, Itime, p; *############################################################################# 236

* End Equilibrium City Loop * This is the feedback into the “Land Labor, and Import Balanced” step of Figure 5.1 *############################################################################## ); *############################################################################## * End Minimization of Transport Cost While Loop * This is the feedback into the “Have Transport Costs Decreased” step of Figure 5.1 *############################################################################## ); display TotalLand, x, z, rho, p, h, leisure, zpop, U;

A.2. COMPLETE GAMS CODING * Fixed-Point Optimization of Transportation System with General Equilibrium * Solution to Each Transportation System Checked * Craig T. Olwert * Final Dissertation Version, 2/14/2010. *############################################################################# * This section defines sets, parameters, and variables, corresponding to the Data Input Stage * of Figure 5.1. *############################################################################# * The SETS are the indices used throughout the model as described in Chapter 4. set lx "All Zones" /1 * 7/ ix(lx) "City Zones" /2 * 6/ px(lx) "Port Zones" /1, 7/ l "Employment and Labor Industry" /Manuf, Retail, Service, Worker/ i(l) "Employment Industry" /Manuf, Retail, Service/; alias (hx,ix,jx,kx); alias (lx,mx,nx,ox); alias (px,qx,rx,sx); alias (i,j,k); alias (l,m,n,o); * PARAMETERS for the model: includes scalars, tables and parameters. scalar beta "Leisure Time factor for Utility" TotHours "Number of Waking Hours per Month" upsilon "Number of Commutes per Month" 237

/0.5/ /480/ /22/

epsilonTC epsilonlabor epsilonland epsilonimport pop lambdapop lambdaexport truck zeta lambda b r RDpercent count

"How Close is Close Enough Not to Change" "How Close Labor Demand must be to Labor Supplied" "How Close Land Balance must be to total Land" "How Close Value of Import Must Be" "Population of the City" "Dispersion Factor for Population Determination" "Dispersion Factor for Export Determination" "Number of Car Equivalents per Truck" "Traffic Capacity Constant" "Traffic Capacity Exponential" "Travel Time Constant 2" "Travel Time Constant 3" "Percent RentDiv staying in system" "Used to End Program at an Earlier Stage"

/0.001/ /.001/ /.06/ /.0001/ /180/ /0.4/ /0.10/ / 3/ /70/ /.8/ /.15/ /4/ /1.0/ /0/;

Table alpha(l,m) "C-D production function factors for inputs" * This initial table is the same as in Ch 6 and is useful for reference if the value for beta is changed. * Manuf Retail Service Worker * Manuf 0.0 0.67 0.0 0.0 * Retail 0.53 0.0 0.11 0.365 * Service 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.479 * Worker 0.27 0.19 0.43 0.0 ; Manuf Retail Service Worker Manuf 0.0 0.67 0.0 0.0 Retail 0.53 0.0 0.11 0.182 Service 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.240 Worker 0.27 0.19 0.43 0.0 ; Table AZ(lx,l) Manuf 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1

"Indicator of Active Zone" Retail Service Worker 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0;

parameter omega(l) "C-D Production/Utility factor for land" * This initial values are the same as in Ch 6 and is useful for reference if * the value for beta is changed. 238

*

/Manuf 0.04, Retail 0.05, Service 0.10, Worker 0.156/ /Manuf 0.04, Retail 0.05, Service 0.10, Worker 0.078/ a(ix) "Travel Time Constant 1" /2*6 .0222/ tunit(l) "Number of Units Shipped per Truck" /Manuf 5, Retail 5, Service 5, Worker 1/ delta(l) "CES Factor" /Manuf 0.8, Retail 0.8, Service 0.8, Worker 0.8/ prodcoeff(l) "Scaling Factor for Production/Utility" /Manuf 1, Retail 1, Service 1, Worker 1/ rhomin(ix) "Minimum Land Rent (Ag Rent)" /2*6 20/ deltaS(ix) "Step Change in S" /2*6 0.1/ tau(i) "Export Factor for Industry i" /Manuf 0.163, Retail .016, Service .032/ theta(i) "Import Factor for Industry i" /Manuf .437, Retail .004, Service .008/ taucalc(i) "Internally calculated value for loops" thetacalc(i) "Internally calculated value for loops";

* VARIABLES for the model. See Table 4.1. scalar RentDiv "Rent Dividend" DeficitDiv "Deficit Dividend" parameter w(jx,j) p(lx,k) rho(ix) TC(ix) TCold(ix) S(ix) Sold(ix) flow(lx) Ztoll(lx) Ztollold(lx) zpop(ix,jx,j)

/90/ /0/;

"Wage rate paid by industry j at zone jx" /2*6.Manuf 20, 2*6.Retail 20, 2*6.Service 20/ "Price of good k produced at location kx" /1*7.Manuf 400, 1*7.Retail 300, 1*7.Service 250/ "Land Rent at location ix" /2*6 950/ "Total Transportation Cost for zone ix" /2*6 95000/ "Old Total Transportation Cost for zone ix" /2*6 100000/ "Amount of Transportation Land in zone ix" /2 1.0, 3 3.5, 4 4.3, 5 3.5, 6 1.0/ "Old Amount of Transportation Land in zone ix" /2 1.0, 3 3.5, 4 4.3, 5 3.5, 6 1.0/ "Intrazonal Traffic Flow" /1 50, 2 200, 3 350, 4 420, 5 350, 6 200, 7 50/ "Intrazonal Toll Rate" /1 0, 2 .24, 3 .27, 4 .28, 5 .27, 6 .24, 7 0/ "Old Intrazonal Toll Rate" /1 0, 2 .24, 3 .27, 4 .28, 5 .27, 6 .24, 7 0/ "Population in zone ix of workers from industry j at jx" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail) 1.8, 2*6.2*6.Service 3.6/ 239

x(lx,i,mx,l)

"Amount of good i from ix going to industry l at jx" /2*6.Manuf.2*6.Retail 100, 2*6.Retail.2*6.(Manuf,Service) 30, 2*6.Service.2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) 30, (1,7).Manuf.2*6.Retail 500, (1,7).Retail.2*6.(Manuf,Service) 60, (1,7).Service.2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) 120, 2*6.Manuf.(1,7).Manuf 62, 2*6.Retail.(1,7).Retail 85, 2*6.Service.(1,7).Service 130/ landused(ix,i) "Amount of land used by industry i at location ix" /2*6.Manuf 4, 2*6.Retail 7.5, 2*6.Service 19/ labor(ix,i) "Amount of labor used by industry i at location ix" /2*6.Manuf 1300, 2*6.Retail 1400, 2*6.Service 3400/ Ztime(lx) "Time to pass through zone ix" /1 0, 2*6 .025, 7 0/ lotsize(ix,jx,j) "Size of lot used by individual ix,jx,j" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) .8/ h(ix,jx,j) "Hours of Work per day for individual ix,jx,j" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) 8/ production(ix,i) "Amount of good i produced at location ix" /2*6.Manuf 250, 2*6.Retail 350, 2*6.Service 600/ Itoll(lx,mx) "Interzonal toll to travel between zones ix and jx" /1*7.1*7 0/ Itime(lx,mx) "Interzonal time to travel between zones ix and jx" /1*7.1*7 0/ pold(lx,k) "Old price of good k imported from zone px" wold(jx,j) "Old wage rate paid by industry j at zone jx" rhoold(ix) "Old Land Rent at location ix" F(lx,mx) "Total flow from lx to mx" /1*7.1*7 0/ Ffreight(i,lx,mx) "Total freight flow of i from lx to mx" /(Manuf, Retail, Service).1*7.1*7 0/ Ffreightwin(i,lx) "Total freight flow within zone lx" /(Manuf, Retail, Service).1*7 0/ FfreightOD(i,lx) "Total freight flow orig or dest of zone lx" /(Manuf, Retail, Service).1*7 0/ Ffreightthru(i,lx) "Total freight flow through zone lx" /(Manuf, Retail, Service).1*7 0/ Fshop(ix,jx) "Total shopping flow from ix to jx" /2*6.2*6 0/ Fshopwin(ix) "Total shopping flow within zone ix" /2*6 0/ FshopOD(ix) "Total shopping flow orig or dest of zone ix" /2*6 0/ Fshopthru(ix) "Total shopping flow through zone ix" /2*6 0/ Fcomm(ix,jx) "Total commuting flow from lx to mx" /2*6.2*6 0/ Fcommwin(ix) "Total commuting flow within zone ix" /2*6 0/ FcommOD(ix) "Total commuting flow orig or dest of zone ix" /2*6 0/ Fcommthru(ix) "Total commuting flow through zone ix" /2*6 0/ capacity(ix) "Traffic Capacity of Zone ix" /2*6 0/ U(ix,jx,j) "Resident utility living at ix working for j at jx" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ TotalLand(ix) "Amount of Land Used by a zone" LaborSupply(jx,j) "Labor Supplied for Each Industry in Each Zone" 240

TollRev(ix) RoadRent(ix) TCWage(ix) TCToll(ix) TotExport(i) TotExportOld(i) TotalZpop z(kx,k,ix,jx,j) leisure(ix,jx,j) TotInc(ix,jx,j)

"Toll Collected" "Rent for Roads" "Wage Component of Total Transport Cost" /2*6 0/ "Toll Component of Total Transport Cost" /2*6 0/ "Total Amount of Good i Exported" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ "Old Total Amount of Good i Exported" "Total Population in the City" "Good k purchased from lx by individual ix,jx,j" /2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service).2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ "Amount of leisure time for individual ix,jx,j" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ "Total income less commute costs" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/;

* REPORTING: Variables used for Reports parameter profit(ix,i) "Profit of a Firm" /2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ Ualt(ix,jx,j) "Utility based on prices" ZonePop(ix) "Total Population in the Zone" hind(i) "Average hours worked by employees of industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ hres(ix) "Average hours worked by residents of zone ix" /2*6 0/ leisureind(i) "Average leisure for employees of industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ leisureres(ix) "Average leisure for residents of zone ix" /2*6 0/ zind(k,j) "Average good k purchased by worker of industry j" /(Manuf, Retail, Service).(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ zres(k,ix) "Average good k purchase by worker living in zone ix" /(Manuf, Retail, Service).2*6 0/ zind1(kx,k,j) "Average good k purchased from zone kx by worker of industry j" /2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service).(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ zres1(kx,k,ix) "Average good k purchased from zone kx by worker living in ix" /2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service).2*6 0/ goodval(k,ix,jx,j) "Value of good k purchased by ix,jx,j worker" /(Manuf, Retail, Service).2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ goodvalind(k,j) "Average value of good k purchased by worker of industry j" /(Manuf, Retail, Service).(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ goodvalres(k,ix) "Average value of good k purchased by worker living in ix" /(Manuf, Retail, Service).2*6 0/ shopval(ix,jx,j) "Cost of shopping travel by ix,jx,j worker" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ shopvalind(j) "Average cost of shopping travel for worker of industry j" 241

/(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ shopvalres(ix) "Average cost of shopping travel for worker living in ix" /2*6 0/ commuteval(ix,jx,j) "Cost of commuting for ix,jx,j worker" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ commutevalind(j) "Average cost of commuting for worker of industry j" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ commutevalres(ix) "Average cost of commuting for worker living in ix" /2*6 0/ lotval(ix,jx,j) "Lot value for ix,jx,j worker" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ lotvalind(j) "Average lot value for worker of industry j" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ lotvalres(ix) "Average lot value for worker living in ix" /2*6 0/ actinc(ix,jx,j) "Actual income for ix,jx,j worker" /2*6.2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ actincind(j) "Average actual income for worker of industry j" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ actincres(ix) "Average actual income for worker living in ix" /2*6 0/ lotsizeind(i) "Average lot size for employees of industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ lotsizeres(ix) "Average lot size for residents of zone ix" /2*6 0/ Uind(i) "Average utility for employees of industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ Ures(ix) "Average utility for residents of zone ix" /2*6 0/ xdomind(i,j) "Total amount of good i used by j from domestic sources" ximportind(i,j) "Total amount of good i used by j from import sources" xexportind(i) "Total amount of good i exported" xdomzone(i,jx) "Total domestic good i used by industry in zone jx" ximportzone(i,jx) "Total imported good i used by industry in zone jx" xexportzone(ix,i) "Total amount of good i exported by zone ix" zpopind(i) "Total number of people working for industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ zpopres(ix) "Total number of people living in zone ix" /2*6 0/ TotIncind(i) "Average Income of people working for industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ TotIncres(ix) "Average Income of people living in zone ix" /2*6 0/ landusedind(i) "Average Amount of land used by industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ landusedzone(ix) "Average Amount of land used by all industry in zone ix" /2*6 0/ wind(i) "Average wage offered by industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ wzone(ix) "Average wage offered by all industry in zone ix" /2*6 0/ prodind(i) "Average production of industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ prodzone(ix) "Average production by all industry in zone ix" /2*6 0/ 242

laborind(i)

"Average labor used by industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ laborzone(ix) "Average labor used by all industry in zone ix" /2*6 0/ profitind(i) "Average profit of industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ profitzone(ix) "Average profit of all industry in zone ix" /2*6 0/ landvalueind(i) "Average land value used by industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ landvaluezone(ix) "Average land value of all industry in zone ix" /2*6 0/ landvalue(ix,i) "Land value of land used by industry i in zone ix" /2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) 0/ laborvalueind(i) "Average land value used by industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ laborvaluezone(ix) "Average land value of all industry in zone ix" /2*6 0/ laborvalue(ix,i) "Land value of land used by industry i in zone ix" /2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) 0/ revind(i) "Average revenue of industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ revzone(ix) "Average revenue of all industry in zone ix" /2*6 0/ revenue(ix,i) "Revenue of industry i in zone ix" /2*6.(Manuf,Retail,Service) 0/ inputvalueind(lx,j,i) "Average value of input lx,j by industry i" /1*7.(Manuf, Retail, Service).(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ inputvaluezone(lx,j,ix) "Average value of input lx,j by all industry in zone ix" /1*7.(Manuf, Retail, Service).2*6 0/ inputvalue(lx,j,ix,i) "Revenue of industry i in zone ix" /1*7.(Manuf, Retail, Service).2*6.(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ pind(i) "Average price of industry i" /(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ pzone(lx) "Average price for all industry in zone ix" /1*7 0/ xind(lx,j,i) "Average value of input lx,j by industry i" /1*7.(Manuf, Retail, Service).(Manuf, Retail, Service) 0/ xzone(lx,j,mx) "Average value of input lx,j by all industry in zone ix" /1*7.(Manuf, Retail, Service).1*7 0/ residland(ix) "Total Land Used by Residents of Zone ix" /2*6 0/; *############################################################################## * Create output files for the model results to be analyzed *############################################################################## file iterations /iterations.dat/, land /land.dat/, transport /transport.dat/, population /population.dat/, work /work.dat/, hours /hours.dat/, shopping /shopping.dat/, goods /goods.dat/, import /import.dat/, export /export.dat/, allinfo /allinfo.dat/, completeinfo1 /completeinfo1.dat/, completeinfo2 /completeinfo2.dat/,testTCloop /testTCloop.dat/, testlaborloop /testlaborloop.dat/, testlandloop /testlandloop.dat/, testItoll /testItoll.dat/,testTotInc /testTotInc.dat/, 243

testlotsize /testlotsize.dat/,testleisure /testleisure.dat/, testshopping /testshopping.dat/, testhours /testhours.dat/, testutility /testutility.dat/, testzpop /testzpop.dat/, testworkerpurchase /testworkerpurchase.dat/,testproduction /testproduction.dat/, testlandused /testlandused.dat/, testlabor /testlabor.dat/, testinput /testinput.dat/, testprice /testprice.dat/, testexport /testexport.dat/,testinterzonalflow /testinterzonalflow.dat/, testflow /testflow.dat/, testcapacity /testcapacity.dat/, testztime /testztime.dat/, testitime /testitime.dat/, testztoll /testztoll.dat/, testtotexport /testtotexport.dat/, testportprice /testportprice.dat/, testtotalland /testtotalland.dat/, testtollrev /testtollrev.dat/, testtc /testtc.dat/, testrentdiv /testrentdiv.dat/, testdeficitdiv /testdeficitdiv.dat/, testprofit /testprofit.dat/, testUalt /testUalt.dat/, testzeroflow /testzeroflow.dat/, finaloutput /finaloutput.dat/; iterations.pc = 5; iterations.pw = 1000; land.pc = 5; land.pw = 1000; transport.pc = 5; transport.pw = 1000; population.pc = 5; population.pw = 1000; work.pc = 5; work.pw = 1000; hours.pc = 5; hours.pw = 1000; shopping.pc = 5; shopping.pw = 1000; goods.pc = 5; goods.pw = 1000; import.pc = 5; import.pw = 1000; export.pc = 5; export.pw = 1000; allinfo.pc = 5; allinfo.pw = 2000; completeinfo1.pc = 5; completeinfo1.pw = 5000; completeinfo2.pc = 5; completeinfo2.pw = 5000; testTCloop.pc = 5; testTCloop.pw = 1000; testlaborloop.pc = 5; testlaborloop.pw = 1000; testlandloop.pc = 5; testlandloop.pw = 1000; testItoll.pc = 5; testItoll.pw = 1000; testTotInc.pc = 5; testTotInc.pw = 1000; testlotsize.pc = 5; testlotsize.pw = 1000; testleisure.pc = 5; testleisure.pw = 1000; testshopping.pc = 5; testshopping.pw = 1000; testhours.pc = 5; testhours.pw = 1000; testutility.pc = 5; testutility.pw = 1000; testzpop.pc = 5; testzpop.pw = 1000; testworkerpurchase.pc = 5; testworkerpurchase.pw = 1000; testproduction.pc = 5; testproduction.pw = 1000; testlandused.pc = 5; testlandused.pw = 1000; testlabor.pc = 5; testlabor.pw = 1000; testinput.pc = 5; testinput.pw = 1000; testprice.pc = 5; testprice.pw = 1000; testexport.pc = 5; testexport.pw = 1000; testinterzonalflow.pc = 5; testinterzonalflow.pw = 1000; testflow.pc = 5; testflow.pw = 1000; testcapacity.pc = 5; testcapacity.pw = 1000; testztime.pc = 5; testztime.pw = 1000; testitime.pc = 5; testitime.pw = 1000; testztoll.pc = 5; testztoll.pw = 1000; testtotexport.pc = 5; testtotexport.pw = 1000; testportprice.pc = 5; testportprice.pw = 1000; testtotalland.pc = 5; testtotalland.pw = 1000; testtollrev.pc = 5; testtollrev.pw = 1000; testtc.pc = 5; testtc.pw = 1000; testrentdiv.pc = 5; testrentdiv.pw = 1000; testdeficitdiv.pc = 5; testdeficitdiv.pw = 1000; testprofit.pc = 5; testprofit.pw = 1000; testUalt.pc = 5; testUalt.pw = 1000; testzeroflow.pc = 5; testzeroflow.pw = 1000; finaloutput.pc = 5; finaloutput.pw = 1000; *############################################################################## *Create Headers for Files *############################################################################## put iterations; put 'S'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'Ztoll', loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'w'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'rho'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'p'; loop((lx,i), put lx.tl); put /; 244

putclose iterations; put land; put 'TotalLand', loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'landused'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'lotsize'; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl); put /; putclose land; put transport; put 'TC'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'TCWage'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'TollRev'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'RoadRent'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'flow'; loop(lx, put lx.tl); put /; putclose transport; put population; put 'U'; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl); put 'zpop'; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl); put /; putclose population; put work; put 'RentDiv'; put 'RD'; put 'DeficitDiv'; put 'DD'; put 'LaborSupply'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'labor'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put /; putclose work; put hours; put 'h'; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl); put 'leisure'; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl); put /; putclose hours; put import; put 'p'; loop((lx,i), put lx.tl); put 'Value of Imports'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'Value of Production'; loop(i, put i.tl); put /; putclose import; put export; put 'TotExport'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'Value of Exports'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'Value of Production'; loop(i, put i.tl); put /; putclose export; put allinfo; put 'Loop'; put 'S'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'TC'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'deltaS'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'w'; put '2.M'; put '2.R'; put '2.S'; put '4.M'; put '4.R'; put '4.S'; put 'LaborSupply'; put '2.M'; put '2.R'; put '2.S'; put '4.M'; put '4.R'; put '4.S'; put 'Labor'; put '2.M'; put '2.R'; put '2.S'; put '4.M'; put '4.R'; put '4.S'; put 'rho'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'TotalLand'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'p'; put '1.M'; put '1.R'; put '1.S'; put 'Value of Imports'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'Value of Prod'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'TotExport'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'Value of Exports'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'Value of Production'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'RentDiv', put 'RentDiv'; put 'DeficitDiv'; put 'DeficitDiv'; put 'Ztoll'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'zpop'; put '2.2.M'; 245

put '2.2.R'; put '2.2.S'; put '4.4.M'; put '4.4.R'; put '4.4.S'; put 'h'; put '2.2.M'; put '2.2.R'; put '2.2.S'; put '4.4.M'; put '4.4.R'; put '4.4.S'; put 'ZonePop'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'TotalZpop'; put 'TotalZpop'; put 'Production'; put '2.M'; put '2.R'; put '2.S'; put '4.M'; put '4.R'; put '4.S'; put 'z'; put '2.R.4.4.S'; put '2.S.4.4.S'; put '4.R.4.4.S'; put '4.S.4.4.S'; put 'Utility'; put '2.2.S'; put '3.3.S'; put '4.4.S'; put '5.5.S'; put '6.6.S'; put 'beta'; put 'lambdapop'; put 'lambdaexport'; put 'omega.M'; put 'omega.R'; put 'omega.S'; put 'omega.W'; put 'delta.M'; put 'delta.R'; put 'delta.S'; put 'delta.W'; put 'prodcoeff.M'; put 'prodcoeff.R'; put 'prodcoeff.S'; put 'prodcoeff.W'; put 'tau.M'; put 'tau.R';put 'tau.S'; put 'theta.M'; put 'theta.R';put 'theta.S'; put /; putclose allinfo; put completeinfo1; put 'Loop'; put 'hind'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'hres'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'leisureind'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'leisureres'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'zind'; loop((i,j), put i.tl); put 'zres'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'lotsizeind'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'lotsizeres'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'Uind'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'Ures'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'labor'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'LaborSupply'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'xdomind'; loop((i,j), put i.tl); put 'ximportind'; loop((i,j), put i.tl); put 'xexportind'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'xdomzone'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'ximportzone'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'xexportzone'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put /; putclose completeinfo1; put completeinfo2; put 'Loop'; put 'landused'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'production'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'w'; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl); put 'p'; loop((lx,i), put lx.tl); put 'rho'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'S'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'TC'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'flow'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'Ztime'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'Ztoll'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put 'RentDiv'; put RentDiv:8:2; put 'DeficitDiv'; put DeficitDiv:8:2; put 'zpopind'; loop(i, put i.tl); put 'zpopres'; loop(ix, put ix.tl); put /; putclose completeinfo2; *############################################################################# * End of Header Creation *############################################################################# *############################################################################# * Start Transport Cost Loop Minimization (Outermost Loop) * While the total costs of one zone continue decreasing, the model will * continue to run. The amount of transport land (S) is increased only in * the zones that have a reduction in transport costs; the other zones remain unchanged. *############################################################################# *############################################################################# * The while statement corresponds to the “Have Transport Costs Decreased” step in Figure 5.1 *############################################################################# 246

count = 0; while(sum(ix$(TC(ix) < TCold(ix)*(1-epsilonTC)), 1) gt 0 and count lt 2000, * Finaloutput is the file used to demonstrate results in Chapter 7, because * it is inside the TC loop, the last set of values sent to the .dat file is * the optimal value. The S is changed after this .dat file is updated and a * new equilibrium city is calculated. If it is non-optimal (TC increases) then * the while loop is exited and the .dat is not written to again. put finaloutput; finaloutput.ap = 1; put 'Workers'; put 'kx'; put 'k'; put 'Average.M'; put 'Average.R'; put 'Average.S'; put 'Average.2'; put 'Average.3'; put 'Average.4'; put 'Average.5'; put 'Average.6'; put '2.2.M'; put '2.2.R'; put '2.2.S'; put '2.3.M'; put '2.3.R'; put '2.3.S'; put '2.4.M'; put '2.4.R'; put '2.4.S'; put '2.5.M'; put '2.5.R'; put '2.5.S'; put '2.6.M'; put '2.6.R'; put '2.6.S'; put '3.2.M'; put '3.2.R'; put '3.2.S'; put '3.3.M'; put '3.3.R'; put '3.3.S'; put '3.4.M'; put '3.4.R'; put '3.4.S'; put '3.5.M'; put '3.5.R'; put '3.5.S'; put '3.6.M'; put '3.6.R'; put '3.6.S'; put '4.2.M'; put '4.2.R'; put '4.2.S'; put '4.3.M'; put '4.3.R'; put '4.3.S'; put '4.4.M'; put '4.4.R'; put '4.4.S'; put '4.5.M'; put '4.5.R'; put '4.5.S'; put '4.6.M'; put '4.6.R'; put '4.6.S'; put '5.2.M'; put '5.2.R'; put '5.2.S'; put '5.3.M'; put '5.3.R'; put '5.3.S'; put '5.4.M'; put '5.4.R'; put '5.4.S'; put '5.5.M'; put '5.5.R'; put '5.5.S'; put '5.6.M'; put '5.6.R'; put '5.6.S'; put '6.2.M'; put '6.2.R'; put '6.2.S'; put '6.3.M'; put '6.3.R'; put '6.3.S'; put '6.4.M'; put '6.4.R'; put '6.4.S'; put '6.5.M'; put '6.5.R'; put '6.5.S'; put '6.6.M'; put '6.6.R'; put '6.6.S'; put /; put 'leisure'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put leisureind(i):8:3); loop(ix, put leisureres(ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put leisure(ix,jx,j):8:3); put /; put 'hours'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put hind(i):8:3); loop(ix, put hres(ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put h(ix,jx,j):8:3); put /; put 'lotsize'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put lotsizeind(i):8:3); loop(ix, put lotsizeres(ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put lotsize(ix,jx,j):8:3); put /; put 'zpop'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put zpopind(i):8:3); loop(ix, put zpopres(ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put zpop(ix,jx,j):8:3); put /; put 'Utility'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put Uind(i):8:3); loop(ix, put Ures(ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put U(ix,jx,j):8:3); put /; loop((kx,k), put 'z'; put kx.tl; put k.tl; loop(j, put zind1(kx,k,j):8:3); loop(ix, put Zres1(kx,k,ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put z(kx,k,ix,jx,j):8:3); put /;); loop((k), put 'goodval'; put ''; put k.tl; loop(j, put goodvalind(k,j):8:3); loop(ix, put goodvalres(k,ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put goodval(k,ix,jx,j):8:3); put /;); put 'shopval'; put ''; put ''; loop(j, put shopvalind(j):8:3); loop(ix, put shopvalres(ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put shopval(ix,jx,j):8:3); put /; put 'commuteval'; put ''; put ''; loop(j, put commutevalind(j):8:3); loop(ix, put commutevalres(ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put commuteval(ix,jx,j):8:3); put /; put 'lotval'; put ''; put ''; loop(j, put lotvalind(j):8:3); loop(ix, put lotvalres(ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put lotval(ix,jx,j):8:3); put /; put 'ActualInc'; put ''; put ''; loop(j, put actincind(j):8:3); loop(ix, put actincres(ix):8:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put actinc(ix,jx,j):8:3); put /; 247

put 'TotInc '; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put TotIncind(i):10:3); loop(ix, put TotIncres(ix):10:3); loop((ix,jx,j), put TotInc(ix,jx,j):10:3); put /; loop(k, put 'ztotal'; put ''; put k.tl; loop(j, put zind(k,j):8:3); loop(ix, put Zres(k,ix):8:3); put /;); put 'RentDiv', put ''; put ''; put RentDiv:8:3; put /; put 'DeficitDiv', put ''; put ''; put DeficitDiv:8:3; put /; put 'Firms'; put ''; put ''; put 'Average.M'; put 'Average.R'; put 'Average.S'; put 'Average.2'; put 'Average.3'; put 'Average.4'; put 'Average.5'; put 'Average.6'; put '2.M'; put '2.R'; put '2.S'; put '3.M'; put '3.R'; put '3.S'; put '4.M'; put '4.R'; put '4.S'; put '5.M'; put '5.R'; put '5.S'; put '6.M'; put '6.R'; put '6.S'; put /; put 'landused'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put landusedind(i):8:3 ); loop(ix, put landusedzone(ix):8:3); loop((ix,i), put landused(ix,i):8:3 ); put /; put 'wage'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put wind(i):8:3 );loop(ix, put wzone(ix):8:3); loop((ix,i), put w(ix,i):8:3 ); put /; put 'production'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put prodind(i):8:3 );loop(ix, put prodzone(ix):8:3); loop((ix,i), put production(ix,i):8:3 ); put /; put 'labor'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put laborind(i):8:3 ); loop(ix, put laborzone(ix):8:3); loop((ix,i), put labor(ix,i):8:3 ); put /; put 'profit'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put profitind(i):8:3 ); loop(ix, put profitzone(ix):8:3); loop((ix,i), put profit(ix,i):8:3 ); put /; put 'landvalue'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put landvalueind(i):8:3 ); loop(ix, put landvaluezone(ix):8:3); loop((ix,i), put landvalue(ix,i):8:3 ); put /; put 'laborvalue'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put laborvalueind(i):11:3 ); loop(ix, put laborvaluezone(ix):11:3); loop((ix,i), put laborvalue(ix,i):11:3 ); put /; loop((lx,j), put 'inputvalue'; put lx.tl; put j.tl; loop(i, put inputvalueind(lx,j,i):11:3 ); loop(ix, put inputvaluezone(lx,j,ix):11:3); loop((ix,i), put inputvalue(lx,j,ix,i):11:3 ); put /;); put 'revenue'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put revind(i):11:3 ); loop(ix, put revzone(ix):11:3); loop((ix,i), put revenue(ix,i):11:3 ); put /; put 'Firms'; put ''; put ''; put 'Average.M'; put 'Average.R'; put 'Average.S'; put 'Average.1'; put 'Average.2'; put 'Average.3'; put 'Average.4'; put 'Average.5'; put 'Average.6'; put 'Average.7'; put '1.M'; put '1.R'; put '1.S'; put '2.M'; put '2.R'; put '2.S'; put '3.M'; put '3.R'; put '3.S'; put '4.M'; put '4.R'; put '4.S'; put '5.M'; put '5.R'; put '5.S'; put '6.M'; put '6.R'; put '6.S'; put '7.M'; put '7.R'; put '7.S'; put /; put 'price'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put pind(i):8:3 ); loop(lx, put pzone(lx):8:3); loop((lx,j), put p(lx,j):8:3); put /; loop((lx,j), put 'x-input'; put lx.tl; put j.tl; loop(i, put xind(lx,j,i):8:3 ); loop(mx, put xzone(lx,j,mx):8:3); loop((mx,i), put x(lx,j,mx,i):8:3 ); put /;); put 'TotalExports'; put ''; put''; loop(i, put TotExport(i):8:3); put /; put 'Movements'; put ''; put 'mx'; put '1'; put '2'; put '3'; put '4'; put '5'; put '6'; put '7'; put /; loop(mx, put 'Interzonal Flows'; put ''; put mx.tl; loop(lx, put F(lx,mx):8:3 ); put /; ); put 'Flow'; put ''; put ''; loop(lx, put flow(lx):8:3 ); put /; put 'Capacity'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put capacity(ix):8:3 ); put ''; put /; 248

loop(mx, put 'Itime'; put ''; put mx.tl; loop(lx, put Itime(lx,mx):8:3 ); put /; ); loop(mx, put 'Itoll'; put ''; put mx.tl; loop(lx, put Itoll(lx,mx):8:3 ); put /; ); put 'Ztime'; put ''; put ''; loop(lx, put Ztime(lx):8:3 ); put /; put 'Ztoll'; put ''; put ''; loop(lx, put Ztoll(lx):8:3 ); put /; put 'TC'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put TC(ix):11:3 ); put ''; put /; put 'TCwage'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put TCwage(ix):11:3 ); put ''; put /; put 'TCtoll'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put TCtoll(ix):11:3 ); put ''; put /; loop((i,mx), put 'Inter Freight Flows'; put i.tl; put mx.tl; loop(lx, put Ffreight(i,lx,mx):8:3 ); put /; ); loop(jx, put 'Inter Shopping Flows'; put ''; put jx.tl; put ''; loop(ix, put Fshop(ix,jx):8:3 ); put''; put /; ); loop(jx, put 'Inter Commuting Flows'; put ''; put jx.tl; put ''; loop(ix, put Fcomm(ix,jx):8:3 ); put ''; put /; ); loop(i, put 'Freight Flow Within'; put ''; put i.tl; loop(lx, put Ffreightwin(i,lx):8:3 ); put /; ); loop(i, put 'Freight Flow OrigDest'; put ''; put i.tl; loop(lx, put FfreightOD(i,lx):8:3 ); put /; ); loop(i, put 'Freight Flow Thru'; put ''; put i.tl; loop(lx, put Ffreightthru(i,lx):8:3 ); put /; ); put 'Shopping Flow Within'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put Fshopwin(ix):8:3 ); put''; put /; put 'Shopping Flow OrigDest'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put FshopOD(ix):8:3 ); put''; put /; put 'Shopping Flow Thru'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put Fshopthru(ix):8:3 ); put''; put /; put 'Commuting Flow Within'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put Fcommwin(ix):8:3 ); put''; put /; put 'Commuting Flow OrigDest'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put FcommOD(ix):8:3 ); put''; put /; put 'Commuting Flow Thru'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put Fcommthru(ix):8:3 ); put''; put /; put 'City'; put ''; put ''; put '2'; put '3'; put '4'; put '5'; put '6'; put /; put 'Land Rent'; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put rho(ix):8:3 ); put /; put 'Transportation Land'; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put S(ix):8:3 ); put /; put 'Residential Land'; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put residland(ix):8:3 ); put /; loop(i, put 'Industry Land'; put ''; put i.tl; loop(ix, put landused(ix,i):8:3 ); put /; ); put 'parameters'; put ''; put 'lx'; put 'Manuf'; put 'Retail'; put 'Service'; put 'Worker'; put /; put 'Prodcoeff' ; put ''; put ''; loop(l, put prodcoeff(l):8:3); put /; loop(m, put 'alpha'; put ''; put m.tl; loop(l, put alpha(m,l):8:3); put /; ); loop(lx, put 'AZ'; put ''; put lx.tl; loop(l, put AZ(lx,l):8:3); put /; ); put 'omega'; put ''; put ''; loop(l, put omega(l):8:3); put /; put 'tau'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put tau(i):8:3); put /; put 'theta'; put ''; put ''; loop(i, put theta(i):8:3); put /; put 'tunit'; put ''; put ''; loop(l, put tunit(l):8:3); put /; put 'delta'; put ''; put ''; loop(l, put delta(l):8:3); put /; put 'parameters'; put ''; put ''; put 'Value'; put /; put 'truck'; put ''; put ''; put truck:8:3; put /; put 'beta'; put ''; put ''; put beta:8:3; put /; put 'zeta'; put ''; put ''; put zeta:8:3; put /; put 'lambda'; put ''; put ''; put lambda:8:3; put /; 249

put 'lambdapop'; put ''; put ''; put lambdapop:8:3; put /; put 'lambdaexport'; put ''; put ''; put lambdaexport:8:3; put /; put 'TotHours'; put ''; put ''; put TotHours:8:3; put /; put 'Pop'; put ''; put ''; put Pop:8:3; put /; put 'upsilon'; put ''; put ''; put upsilon:8:3; put /; put 'b'; put ''; put ''; put b:8:3; put /; put 'r'; put ''; put '' put r:8:3; put /; put 'parameters'; put ''; put ''; put '2'; put '3'; put '4'; put '5'; put '6'; put /; put 'a'; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put a(ix):8:3); put /; putclose finaloutput; *############################################################################## * The following loop and equations correspond to the “Increase Transportation Land” step in *Figure 5.1 *############################################################################## * Loop increases transport land for each zone that saw reduced total cost loop(hx, if (TC(hx) < TCold(hx)*(1-epsilonTC), S(hx) = Sold(hx) + 0.1; else S(hx) = Sold(hx););); * End of loop, but not of the while statement put testTCloop; put 'Header'; put 'TC'; put 'TCold'; put 'epsilonTC'; put 'S'; put 'Sold'; put /; putclose testTCloop; put testTCloop; testTCloop.ap =1; loop(ix, put ix.tl; put TC(ix):15:3; put TCold(ix):15:3; put epsilonTC:8:3; put S(ix):8:3; put Sold(ix):8:3; put /;) putclose testTCloop; * Reset the old total cost and transport land variable for next pass through while loop TCold(ix) = TC(ix); Sold(ix) = S(ix); count = 0; *############################################################################ * This loop determines the equilibrium city form for the given transportation * system. It assesses three main things: (1) the labor demand equals the labor * supply, (2) the total land used per zone equals the amount available, and if * less is used, the land rent is at its minimum value, (3) the import * balance is met. It also checks the count to prevent too many iterations * and enters the while loop at count = 0. * This while statement corresponds to the “Labor, Land and Imports Balanced” step in Figure 5.1 *############################################################################ while( 250

(sum((jx,j)$(labor(jx,j) > (1+epsilonlabor)*(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)))),1) + sum((jx,j)$(labor(jx,j) < (1-epsilonlabor)*(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)))),1)) + (sum(ix$(sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(ix,i))+S(ix) > 64 + epsilonland), 1) +sum(ix$((sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(ix,i))+S(ix) < 64 - epsilonland) and rho(ix) > rhomin(ix)), 1)) + (sum(i$(sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i)) > (1+epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), 1) +sum(i$(sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i)) < (1-epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), 1)) gt 0 and count lt 2000 or count eq 0, count = count + 1; Ztollold(ix) = Ztoll(ix); *############################################################################## * The next three loops correspond to the “Adjust Wage Rate, Land Rent, and Import Prices” step in * Figure 5.1 *############################################################################## * This while loop adjusts the wage rates to ensure that labor supply equals labor demand * Uses Eq. (4.98) wold(jx,j) = w(jx,j) loop((hx,j), if(labor(hx,j)>(1+epsilonlabor)*(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,hx,j)*h(ix,hx,j))), w(hx,j) =(1 + 0.05*(labor(hx,j)/(upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,hx,j)*h(ix,hx,j)))-1))*wold(hx,j); elseif(labor(hx,j) (64 + epsilonland), rho(hx) = (1 + 0.2*(((sum((jx,j),zpop(hx,jx,j)*lotsize(hx,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(hx,i))+S(hx)))/64 - 1))*rhoold(hx); elseif(((sum((jx,j),zpop(hx,jx,j)*lotsize(hx,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(hx,i))+S(hx))) < (64-epsilonland)), rho(hx) = max((1 - 0.2*(1-(((sum((jx,j),zpop(hx,jx,j)*lotsize(hx,jx,j)) +sum(i,landused(hx,i))+S(hx)))/64))) * rhoold(hx), rhomin(hx)); else rho(hx) = rhoold(hx););); put testlandloop; put 'Header'; put 'zpop.2.M'; put 'zpop.2.R'; put 'zpop.2.S'; put 'zpop.3.M'; put 'zpop.3.R'; put 'zpop.3.S'; put 'zpop.4.M'; put 'zpop.4.R'; put 'zpop.4.S'; put 'zpop.5.M'; put 'zpop.5.R'; put 'zpop.5.S'; put 'zpop.6.M'; put 'zpop.6.R'; put 'zpop.6.S'; put 'lotsize.2.M'; put ‘lotsize.2.R'; put 'lotsize.2.S'; put 'lotsize.3.M'; put 'lotsize.3.R'; put 'lotsize.3.S'; put 'lotsize.4.M'; put 'lotsize.4.R'; put 'lotsize.4.S'; put 'lotsize.5.M'; put 'lotsize.5.R'; put 'lotsize.5.S'; put 'lotsize.6.M'; put 'lotsize.6.R'; put 'lotsize.6.S'; put 'landused.M'; put 'landused.R'; put 'landused.S'; put 'S'; put 'epsilonland'; put 'rho'; put 'rhoold'; put 'rhomin'; put /; putclose testlandloop; put testlandloop; testlandloop.ap =1; loop(ix, put ix.tl; loop((j,jx), put zpop(ix,jx,j):8:3); loop((j,jx), put lotsize(ix,jx,j):8:3); loop(i, put landused(ix,i):8:3); put S(ix):8:3; put epsilonland; put rho(ix):8:3; put rhoold(ix):8:3; put rhomin(ix):8:3; put /;) putclose testlandloop; * This loop adjusts the import prices to ensure that the value of imports is within a tolerance of the value * of city production for that good. Uses Eq. (4.79) pold(px,i) = p(px,i); thetacalc(i) =sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*p(px,i))/ sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i)); loop(i, if((sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*pold(px,i)) > (1 + epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), p(px,i) = (1+0.2*(thetacalc(i)-theta(i))/theta(i))*pold(px,i); elseif(sum((px,jx,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)*pold(px,i)) < (1 - epsilonimport)*theta(i)*sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))), p(px,i) = (1-0.2*(theta(i)-thetacalc(i))/theta(i))*pold(px,i); else p(px,i) = pold(px,i) );); put testportprice; put 'Header1'; put 'Header2'; put 'Header 3'; put 'Header4'; put '1.M'; put '1.R'; put '1.S'; 252

put '7.M'; put '7.R'; put '7.S'; put /; putclose testportprice; put testportprice; testportprice.ap = 1; loop(ix, put 'p'; put ''; put ''; put ix.tl; loop((px,i), put p(ix,i):8:3; ); put /; ); loop(ix, put 'production'; put ''; put ''; put ix.tl; loop((px,i), put production(ix,i):8:3; ); put /; ); put 'theta'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop((px,i), put theta(i):8:3; ); put /; loop((qx,ix,j), put 'x'; put qx.tl; put ix.tl; put j.tl; loop((px,i), put x(qx,i,ix,j):8:3; ); put /; ); put 'p'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop((px,i), put p(px,i):8:3; ); put /; putclose testportprice; *############################################################################## * The following corresponds to the “Calculate” step in Figure 5.1. *############################################################################## * Calculate interzonal travel time. Eqs. (4.88) and (4.89) Itime(lx,mx) = 0.5*(Ztime(lx) + Ztime(mx)$(ord(mx) ne ord(lx))) + sum(nx$((ord(nx) gt ord(lx) and ord(nx) lt ord(mx)) or (ord(nx) lt ord(lx) and ord(nx) gt ord(mx))), Ztime(nx)); put testitime; put 'Header1'; put 'Header2'; put 'Header 3'; put '1'; put '2'; put '3'; put '4'; put '5'; put '6'; put '7'; put 'Itime'; put /; putclose testitime; put testitime; testitime.ap = 1; loop((lx,mx), put 'Ztime'; put lx.tl; put mx.tl; loop(nx, put Ztime(nx):8:3;); put Itime(lx,mx):8:3; put /;); putclose testitime; * Based on the new Ztoll, calculate the interzonal tolls. Eqs. (4.90) and (4.91) Itoll(lx,mx) = .5*Ztoll(lx) + .5*Ztoll(mx)$(ord(lx) ne ord(mx)) + sum(nx$((ord(nx) gt ord(lx) and ord(nx) lt ord(mx)) or (ord(nx) lt ord(lx) and ord(nx) gt ord(mx))), Ztoll(nx)); put testItoll; put 'Header1'; put 'Header2'; put 'Ztoll.1'; put 'Ztoll.2'; put 'Ztoll.3'; put 'Ztoll.4'; put 'Ztoll.5'; put 'Ztoll.6'; put 'Ztoll.7'; put 'Itoll'; put /; putclose testItoll; put testItoll; testItoll.ap =1; loop((lx,mx), put lx.tl; put mx.tl; loop(nx, put Ztoll(nx):8:3); put Itoll(lx,mx):8:8; put /;) putclose testItoll; * Ensure that certain goods do not move and flows remain at zero. * Eqs. (4.99), (4.100) (4.101), and (4.102) x(px,i,qx,l) = 0; x(px,i,ix,'worker') = 0; x(ix,i,px,j)$(ord(i) ne ord(j)) = 0; x(ix,i,px,'worker') = 0; 253

* Calculate total resident income less commuting costs. Eq. (4.27) TotInc(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = w(jx,j)*TotHours - 2*upsilon*(Itoll(ix,jx)+ w(jx,j)*Itime(ix,jx)) + RDpercent*RentDiv + DeficitDiv; put testTotInc; put 'ix'; put 'jx'; put 'j' put 'w'; put 'TotHours'; put 'upsilon'; put 'Itoll'; put 'Itime'; put 'RDpercent'; put 'RentDiv'; put 'DeficitDiv'; put 'TotInc'; put /; putclose testTotInc; put testTotInc; testTotInc.ap =1; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl; put jx.tl; put j.tl; put w(jx,j):8:3; put TotHours:8:3; put upsilon:8:3; put Itoll(ix,jx):8:3; put Itime(ix,jx):8:3; put RDpercent:8:3; put RentDiv:8:3; put DeficitDiv:8:3; put TotInc(ix,jx,j):11:3; put /;); putclose testTotInc; *Calculate equilibrium lot size. Eq. (4.29) lotsize(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = omega('worker')*TotInc(ix,jx,j)/rho(ix); put testlotsize; put 'ix'; put 'jx'; put 'j'; put 'omega'; put 'TotInc'; put 'rho'; put 'lotsize'; put /; putclose testlotsize; put testlotsize; testlotsize.ap =1; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl; put jx.tl; put j.tl; put omega('worker'):8:3; put TotInc(ix,jx,j):11:3; put rho(ix):8:3; put lotsize(ix,jx,j):8:3; put /; ); putclose testlotsize; *Calculate equilibrium leisure time. Eq. (4.30) leisure(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = beta*TotInc(ix,jx,j)/w(jx,j); put testleisure; put 'ix'; put 'jx'; put 'j'; put 'beta'; put 'TotInc'; put 'w'; put 'leisure'; put /; putclose testleisure; put testleisure; testleisure.ap =1; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl; put jx.tl; put j.tl; put beta:8:3; put TotInc(ix,jx,j):11:3; put w(jx,j):8:3; put leisure(ix,jx,j):8:3; put /; ); putclose testleisure; *Calculate shopping goods purchased. Eq. (4.31) z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)$(AZ(kx,k) eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = max(0,(alpha(k,'worker')*TotInc(ix,jx,j)*(p(kx,k)+2*Itoll(kx,ix)+ w(jx,j)*2*Itime(kx,ix))**(1 / (delta('worker') - 1))) / (sum(hx$(AZ(hx,k) eq 1), (p(hx,k)+2*Itoll(hx,ix)+ w(jx,j)*2*Itime(hx,ix))**(delta('worker') /(delta('worker') - 1))))); 254

put testshopping; put 'kx'; put 'k'; put 'ix'; put 'jx'; put 'j'; put 'alpha'; put 'TotInc'; put 'p'; put 'Itoll'; put 'w'; put 'Itime'; put 'delta'; put 'p.2'; put 'p.3'; put 'p.4'; put 'p.5'; put 'p.6'; put 'Itoll.2.home'; put 'Itoll.3.home'; put 'Itoll.4.home'; put 'Itoll.5.home'; put 'Itoll.6.home'; put 'Itime.2.home'; put 'Itime.3.home'; put 'Itime.4.home'; put 'Itime.5.home'; put 'Itime.6.home'; put 'z'; put /; putclose testshopping; put testshopping; testshopping.ap =1; loop((kx,k,ix,jx,j), put kx.tl; put k.tl; put ix.tl; put jx.tl; put j.tl; put alpha(k,'worker'):8:3; put TotInc(ix,jx,j):11:3; put p(kx,k):8:3; put Itoll(kx,ix):8:3; put w(jx,j):8:3; put Itime(kx,ix):8:3; put delta('worker'):8:3; loop(hx, put p(hx,k):8:3;); loop(hx, put Itoll(hx,ix):8:3;); loop(hx, put Itime(hx,ix):8:3;); put z(kx,k,ix,jx,j); put /; ); putclose testshopping; *Calculate length of work day. Eq. (4.32) h(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = max(1,(1/upsilon)*(TotHours - leisure(ix,jx,j) – 2*upsilon*Itime(ix,jx) - sum((kx,k)$(alpha(k,'worker') ne 0 and AZ(kx,k) eq 1), 2*Itime(kx,ix)*z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)))); put testhours; put 'ix'; put 'jx'; put 'j'; put 'upsilon'; put 'Tothours'; put 'leisure'; put 'Itime'; put 'Itime.2.home'; put 'Itime.3.home'; put 'Itime.4.home'; put 'Itime.5.home'; put 'Itime.6.home'; put 'z.2.M'; put 'z.2.R'; put 'z.2.S'; put 'z.3.M'; put 'z.3.R'; put 'z.3.S'; put 'z.4.M'; put 'z.4.R'; put 'z.4.S'; put 'z.5.M'; put 'z.5.R'; put 'z.5.S'; put 'z.6.M'; put 'z.6.R'; put 'z.6.S'; put 'h'; put /; putclose testhours; put testhours; testhours.ap =1; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl; put jx.tl; put j.tl; put upsilon:8:3; put Tothours:8:3; put leisure(ix,jx,j):8:3; put Itime(ix,jx):8:3; loop(kx, put Itime(kx,ix):8:3; ); loop((kx,k), put z(kx,k,ix,jx,j):8:3; ); put h(ix,jx,j):8:3; put /; ); putclose testhours; * Calculate Utility Levels. Eq. (4.38) U(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1) = (prodcoeff('worker')* TotInc(ix,jx,j)* prod(k$(alpha(k,'worker') ne 0), alpha(k,'worker')**alpha(k,'worker')) *omega('worker')**omega('worker')*beta**beta)/(prod(k$(alpha(k,'worker') ne 0), sum(kx$(AZ(kx,k) eq 1), (p(kx,k) + 2*Itoll(kx,ix) + w(jx,j)*2*Itime(kx,ix))**(delta('worker')/ (delta('worker') - 1)))** (alpha(k,'worker')* (delta('worker')-1)/delta('worker'))) *rho(ix)**omega('worker')*w(jx,j)**beta); put testutility; put 'ix'; put 'jx'; put 'j'; put 'prodcoeff'; put 'TotInc'; put 'delta'; put 'alpha.M'; put 'alpha.R'; put 'alpha.S'; put 'omega'; put 'beta'; put 'p.2.M'; put 'p.2.R'; put 'p.2.S'; put 'p.3.M';

255

put 'p.3.R'; put 'p.3.S'; put 'p.4.M'; put 'p.4.R'; put 'p.4.S'; put 'p.5.M'; put 'p.5.R'; put 'p.5.S'; put 'p.6.M'; put 'p.6.R'; put 'p.6.S'; put 'Itoll.2.ix'; put 'Itoll.3.ix'; put 'Itoll.4.ix'; put 'Itoll.5.ix'; put 'Itoll.6.ix'; put 'w'; put 'Itime.2.ix'; put 'Itime.3.ix'; put 'Itime.4.ix'; put 'Itime.5.ix'; put 'Itime.6.ix'; put 'rho'; put 'U'; put 'Ualt'; put /; putclose testutility; put testutility; testutility.ap = 1; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl; put jx.tl; put j.tl; put prodcoeff('worker'):8:3; put TotInc(ix,jx,j):8:3; put delta('worker'):8:3; loop(k, put alpha(k,'worker'):8:3; ); put omega('worker'):8:3; put beta:8:3; loop((kx,k), put p(kx,k):8:3; ); loop(kx, put Itoll(kx,ix):8:3; ); put w(jx,j):8:3; loop(kx, put Itime(kx,ix):8:3; ); put rho(ix):8:3; put U(ix,jx,j):8:3; put /; ); putclose testutility; * Utility Level Check. Eq. (4.1) Ualt(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1) = prodcoeff('worker') *prod(k$(alpha(k,'worker') ne 0), sum(kx$(AZ(kx,k) eq 1), z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)**delta('worker')) **(alpha(k,'worker')/delta('worker')))* lotsize(ix,jx,j)**omega('worker') *leisure(ix,jx,j)**beta; put testUalt; put 'ix'; put 'jx'; put 'j'; put 'prodcoeff'; put 'z.2.M'; put 'z.2.R'; put 'z.2.S'; put 'z.3.M'; put 'z.3.R'; put 'z.3.S'; put 'z.4.M'; put 'z.4.R'; put 'z.4.S'; put 'z.5.M'; put 'z.5.R'; put 'z.5.S'; put 'z.6.M'; put 'z.6.R'; put 'z.6.S'; put 'delta'; put 'alpha.M'; put 'alpha.R'; put 'alpha.S'; put 'lotsize'; put 'omega'; put 'leisure'; put 'beta'; put 'Ualt'; put 'U'; put /; putclose testUalt; put testUalt; testUalt.ap =1; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl; put jx.tl; put j.tl; put prodcoeff('worker'):8:3; loop((kx,k), put z(kx,k,ix,jx,j):8:3; ); put delta('worker'):8:3; loop(k, put alpha(k,'worker'):8:3; ); put lotsize(ix,jx,j):8:3; put omega('worker'):8:3; put leisure(ix,jx,j):8:3; put beta:8:3; put Ualt(ix,jx,j):8:3; put U(ix,jx,j):8:3; put /; ); putclose testUalt; * Assign population to resident and work locations as well as work industry. Eq. (4.41) zpop(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1 and AZ(jx,j) eq 1) = pop/sum((hx,kx,k)$(AZ(hx,'worker') eq 1 and AZ(kx,k) eq 1), exp(lambdapop*(U(hx,kx,k)-U(ix,jx,j)))); zpop(ix,jx,j)$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 0 or AZ (jx,j) eq 0) = 0; put testzpop; put 'ix'; put 'jx'; put 'j'; put 'pop'; put 'lambdapop'; put 'U.2.2.M'; put 'U.2.2.R'; put 'U.2.2.S'; put 'U.2.3.M'; put 'U.2.3.R'; put 'U.2.3.S'; put 'U.2.4.M'; put 'U.2.4.R'; put 'U.2.4.S'; put 'U.2.5.M'; put 'U.2.5.R'; put 'U.2.5.S'; put 'U.2.6.M'; put 'U.2.6.R'; put 'U.2.6.S'; put 'U.3.2.M'; put 'U.3.2.R'; put 'U.3.2.S'; put 'U.3.3.M'; put 'U.3.3.R'; put 'U.3.3.S'; put 'U.3.4.M'; put 'U.3.4.R'; put 'U.3.4.S'; put 'U.3.5.M'; put 'U.3.5.R'; put 'U.3.5.S'; put 'U.3.6.M'; put 'U.3.6.R'; put 'U.3.6.S'; put 'U.4.2.M'; put 'U.4.2.R'; put 'U.4.2.S'; put 'U.4.3.M'; put 'U.4.3.R'; put 'U.4.3.S'; put 'U.4.4.M'; put 'U.4.4.R'; put 'U.4.4.S'; put 'U.4.5.M'; put 'U.4.5.R'; put 'U.4.5.S'; put 'U.4.6.M'; put 'U.4.6.R'; put 'U.4.6.S'; put 'U.5.2.M'; put 'U.5.2.R'; put 'U.5.2.S'; put 'U.5.3.M'; put 'U.5.3.R'; put 'U.5.3.S'; 256

put 'U.5.4.M'; put 'U.5.4.R'; put 'U.5.4.S'; put 'U.5.5.M'; put 'U.5.5.R'; put 'U.5.5.S'; put 'U.5.6.M'; put 'U.5.6.R'; put 'U.5.6.S'; put 'U.6.2.M'; put 'U.6.2.R'; put 'U.6.2.S'; put 'U.6.3.M'; put 'U.6.3.R'; put 'U.6.3.S'; put 'U.6.4.M'; put 'U.6.4.R'; put 'U.6.4.S'; put 'U.6.5.M'; put 'U.6.5.R'; put 'U.6.5.S'; put 'U.6.6.M'; put 'U.6.6.R'; put 'U.6.6.S'; put 'U'; put 'zpop'; put /; putclose testzpop; put testzpop; testzpop.ap =1; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl; put jx.tl; put j.tl; put pop:8:3; put lambdapop:8:3; loop((hx,kx,k), put U(hx,kx,k):8:3; ); put U(ix,jx,j); put zpop(ix,jx,j):8:3; put /; ); putclose testzpop; * Using population and purchases derived from maximizing utility and population assignment, * determine the amounts of goods purchased from each zone. Eq. (4.42) x(kx,k,ix,'worker')$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 1 and AZ(kx,k) eq 1) = sum((jx,j)$(AZ(jx,j) eq 1), zpop(ix,jx,j)*z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)); x(kx,k,ix,'worker')$(AZ(ix,'worker') eq 0 or AZ (kx,k) eq 0) = 0; put testworkerpurchase; put 'kx'; put 'k'; put 'ix'; put 'zpop.ix.2.M'; put 'zpop.ix.2.R'; put 'zpop.ix.2.S'; put 'zpop.ix.3.M'; put 'zpop.ix.3.R'; put 'zpop.ix.3.S'; put 'zpop.ix.4.M'; put 'zpop.ix.4.R'; put 'zpop.ix.4.S'; put 'zpop.ix.5.M'; put 'zpop.ix.5.R'; put 'zpop.ix.5.S'; put 'zpop.ix.6.M'; put 'zpop.ix.6.R'; put 'zpop.ix.6.S'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.2.M'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.2.R'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.2.S'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.3.M'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.3.R'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.3.S'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.4.M'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.4.R'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.4.S'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.5.M'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.5.R'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.5.S'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.6.M'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.6.R'; put 'z.kx.k.ix.6.S'; put 'x'; put /; putclose testworkerpurchase; put testworkerpurchase; testworkerpurchase.ap =1; loop((kx,k,ix), put kx.tl; put k.tl; put ix.tl; loop((jx,j), put zpop(ix,jx,j):8:3; ); loop((jx,j), put z(kx,k,ix,jx,j):8:3; ); put x(kx,k,ix,'worker'); put /; ); putclose testworkerpurchase; * Required production level based on demand of residents and other firms. Eq. (4.46) production(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1) = sum((jx,l) $(alpha(i,l) ne 0 and AZ(jx,l) eq 1), x(ix,i,jx,l)) + sum(px$(AZ(px,i) eq 1), x(ix,i,px,i)); production(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; put testproduction; put 'ix'; put 'i'; put 'x.ix.i.1.M'; put 'x.ix.i.1.R'; put 'x.ix.i.1.S'; put 'x.ix.i.1.W'; put 'x.ix.i.2.M'; put 'x.ix.i.2.R'; put 'x.ix.i.2.S'; put 'x.ix.i.2.W'; put 'x.ix.i.3.M'; put 'x.ix.i.3.R'; put 'x.ix.i.3.S'; put 'x.ix.i.3.W'; put 'x.ix.i.4.M'; put 'x.ix.i.4.R'; put 'x.ix.i.4.S'; put 'x.ix.i.4.W'; put 'x.ix.i.5.M'; put 'x.ix.i.5.R'; put 'x.ix.i.5.S'; put 'x.ix.i.5.W'; put 'x.ix.i.6.M'; put 'x.ix.i.6.R'; put 'x.ix.i.6.S'; put 'x.ix.i.6.W'; put 'x.ix.i.7.M'; put 'x.ix.i.7.R'; put 'x.ix.i.7.S'; put 'x.ix.i.7.W'; put 'production'; put /; putclose testproduction; put testproduction; testproduction.ap =1; 257

loop((ix,i), put ix.tl; put i.tl; loop((lx,l), put x(ix,i,lx,l):8:3; ); put production(ix,i):8:3; put /; ); putclose testproduction; * The Marshallian Demand for Land. Eq. (4.59) landused(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1) = p(ix,i)*omega(i)*production(ix,i)/rho(ix); landused(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; put testlandused; put 'ix'; put 'i'; put 'p'; put 'omega'; put 'production'; put 'rho'; put 'landused'; put /; putclose testlandused; put testlandused; testlandused.ap =1; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl; put i.tl; put p(ix,i):8:3; put omega(i):8:3; put production(ix,i):8:3; put rho(ix):8:3; put landused(ix,i):8:3; put /; ); putclose testlandused; * The Marshallian Demand for Labor. Eq. (4.60) labor(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1) =p(ix,i)*alpha('worker',i)*production(ix,i)/w(ix,i); labor(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; put testlabor; put 'ix'; put 'i'; put 'p'; put 'alpha'; put 'production'; put 'w'; put 'labor'; put /; putclose testlabor; put testlabor; testlabor.ap =1; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl; put i.tl; put p(ix,i):8:3; put alpha('worker',i):8:3; put production(ix,i):8:3; put w(ix,i):8:3; put labor(ix,i):8:3; put /; ); putclose testlabor; * The Marshallian Demand for Inputs. Eq. (4.67) x(lx,j,ix,i)$(AZ(lx,j) eq 1 and AZ(ix,i) eq 1) = (alpha(j,i)*p(ix,i)*production(ix,i)* (p(lx,j)+ 2*truck/tunit(j)* Itoll(lx,ix))**(1/(delta(i)-1))) /sum(nx$(AZ(nx,j) eq 1), (p(nx,j)+ 2*truck/tunit(j)*Itoll(nx,ix)) **(delta(i)/(delta(i)-1))); x(lx,j,ix,i)$(AZ(lx,j) eq 0 or AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; put testinput; put 'Header'; put 'Header2'; put 'Header3'; put 'Header4'; put 'alpha'; put 'p.ix.i'; put 'production'; put 'p.lx.j'; put 'truck'; put 'tunit'; put 'Itoll'; put 'delta'; put 'p.1.j'; put 'p.2.j'; put 'p.3.j'; put 'p.4.j'; put 'p.5.j'; put 'p.6.j'; put 'p.7.j'; put 'Itoll.1.ix'; put 'Itoll.2.ix'; put 'Itoll.3.ix'; put 'Itoll.4.ix'; put 'Itoll.5.ix'; put 'Itoll.6.ix': put 'Itoll.7.ix'; put 'x'; put /; putclose testinput; put testinput; testinput.ap = 1; loop((lx,j,ix,i), put lx.tl; put j.tl; put ix.tl; put i.tl; put alpha(j,i):8:3; put p(ix,i):8:3; put production(ix,i):8:3; put p(lx,j):8:3; put truck; put tunit(j); put Itoll(lx,ix):8:3; put delta(i); loop(nx, put p(nx,j);); loop(nx, put Itoll(nx,ix);); put x(lx,j,ix,i):8:3; put /;); putclose testinput; 258

* The Marshallian Price of Goods Produced. Eq. (4.73) pold(nx,j) = p(nx,j); p(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1) = prod(j$(alpha(j,i) ne 0), sum(nx$(AZ(nx,j) eq 1), (pold(nx,j) + 2*truck/tunit(j)*Itoll(nx,ix)) **(delta(i)/(delta(i) -1))) **(alpha(j,i)*(delta(i)-1)/delta(i))) *w(ix,i)**alpha('worker',i) *rho(ix)**omega(i)/(prodcoeff(i)*prod(j$(alpha(j,i) ne 0), alpha(j,i)**alpha(j,i))*alpha('worker',i)**alpha('worker',i)*omega(i)**omega(i)); p(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0) = 0; put testprice; put 'ix'; put 'i'; put 'alpha.M.i'; put 'alpha.R.i'; put 'alpha.S.i'; put 'pold.1.M'; put 'pold.1.R'; put 'pold.1.S'; put 'pold.2.M'; put 'pold.2.R'; put 'pold.2.S'; put 'pold.3.M'; put 'pold.3.R'; put 'pold.3.S'; put 'pold.4.M'; put 'pold.4.R'; put 'pold.4.S'; put 'pold.5.M'; put 'pold.5.R'; put 'pold.5.S'; put 'pold.6.M'; put 'pold.6.R'; put 'pold.6.S'; put 'pold.7.M'; put 'pold.7.R'; put 'pold.7.S'; put 'truck'; put 'tunit.M'; put 'tunit.R'; put 'tunit.S'; put 'Itoll.1.ix'; put 'Itoll.2.ix'; put 'Itoll.3.ix'; put 'Itoll.4.ix'; put 'Itoll.5.ix'; put 'Itoll.6.ix'; put 'Itoll.7.ix'; put 'delta.i'; put 'w'; put 'alpha.worker.i'; put 'rho.ix'; put 'omega.i'; put 'prodcoeff.i'; put 'p'; put /; putclose testprice; put testprice; testprice.ap =1; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl; put i.tl; loop(j, put alpha(j,i):8:3; ); loop((nx,j), put pold(nx,j):8:3; ); put truck:8:3; loop(j, put tunit(j):8:3; ); loop(nx, put Itoll(nx,ix):8:3; ); put delta(i):8:3; put w(ix,i):8:3; put alpha('worker',i):8:3; put rho(ix):8:3; put omega(i):8:3; put prodcoeff(i):8:3; put p(ix,i):8:3; put /; ); putclose testprice; * Calculate the amount of goods to be exported. Eq. (4.78) TotExport(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))*tau(i)/ (sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), p(ix,i))/sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), 1)); put testtotexport; put 'Header1'; put'Header2'; put 'M'; put 'R'; put 'S'; put /; putclose testtotexport; put testtotexport; testtotexport.ap = 1; loop(ix, put 'p'; put ix.tl; loop(i, put p(ix,i):8:3; ); put /; ); loop(ix, put 'production'; put ix.tl; loop(i, put production(ix,i):8:3; ); put /; ); put 'tau'; put ''; loop(i, put tau(i):8:3; ); put /; loop(ix, put 'AZ'; put ix.tl; loop(i, put AZ(ix,i); ); put /; ); put 'TotExport'; put ''; loop(i, put TotExport(i):8:3;); put /; putclose testtotexport; * Amount of goods exported from each production zone to each port. Eq. (4.77) x(ix,i,px,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1 and AZ(px,i) eq 1) = 1/sum(jx$(AZ(jx,i) eq 1), exp(-lambdaexport*(p(jx,i)p(ix,i) +2*truck/tunit(i)*(Itoll(jx,px)-Itoll(ix,px)))))* TotExport(i)/sum(qx, AZ(qx,i)); 259

x(ix,i,px,i)$(AZ(ix,i) eq 0 or AZ(px,i) eq 0) = 0; put testexport; put 'ix'; put 'i'; put 'px'; put 'lambdaexport'; put 'p.ix.i'; put 'p.2.i'; put 'p.3.i'; put 'p.4.i'; put 'p.5.i'; put 'p.6.i'; put 'truck'; put 'tunit.i'; put 'Itoll.ix.px'; put 'Itoll.2.px'; put 'Itoll.3.px'; put 'Itoll.4.px'; put 'Itoll.5.px'; put 'Itoll.6.px'; put 'TotExport'; put 'AZ.1.i'; put 'AZ.7.i'; put 'x'; put /; putclose testexport; put testexport; testexport.ap = 1; loop((ix,i,px), put ix.tl; put i.tl; put px.tl; put lambdaexport:8:3; put p(ix,i):8:3; loop(jx, put p(jx,i):8:3;); put truck:8:3; put tunit(i); put Itoll(ix,px):8:3; loop(jx, put Itoll(jx,px);); put TotExport(i):8:3; loop(qx, put AZ(qx,i);); put x(ix,i,px,i):8:3; put /;); putclose testexport; * Calculate the interzonal flows. Eq. (4.80) F(ix,jx) = sum((i,j)$(alpha(i,j) ne 0), 1/upsilon*truck/tunit(i)*x(ix,i,jx,j)) +sum((kx,k,i) $(alpha(i,'worker') ne 0), 1/upsilon*zpop(ix,kx,k)*z(jx,i,ix,kx,k)) +sum(j, zpop(ix,jx,j)); * Calculate the flow of imports. Eq. (4.81) F(px,jx) = sum((i,j)$(alpha(i,j) ne 0), 1/upsilon*truck/tunit(i)*x(px,i,jx,j)); * Calculate the flow of exports. Eq. (4.82) F(ix,px) = sum(i, 1/upsilon*truck/tunit(i)*x(ix,i,px,i)); * Set the flow within and between ports equal to zero. Eq. (4.83) F(px,qx) = 0; put testinterzonalflow; put 'Header1'; put 'Header2'; put 'Header3'; put 'Header4'; put '1.1'; put '1.2'; put '1.3'; put '1.4'; put '1.5'; put '1.6'; put '1.7'; put '2.1'; put '2.2'; put '2.3'; put '2.4'; put '2.5'; put '2.6'; put '2.7'; put '3.1'; put '3.2'; put '3.3'; put '3.4'; put '3.5'; put '3.6'; put '3.7'; put '4.1'; put '4.2'; put '4.3'; put '4.4'; put '4.5'; put '4.6'; put '4.7'; put '5.1'; put '5.2'; put '5.3'; put '5.4'; put '5.5'; put '5.6'; put '5.7'; put '6.1'; put '6.2'; put '6.3'; put '6.4'; put '6.5'; put '6.6'; put '6.7'; put '7.1'; put '7.2'; put '7.3'; put '7.4'; put '7.5'; put '7.6'; put '7.7'; put /; putclose testinterzonalflow; put testinterzonalflow; testinterzonalflow.ap = 1; put 'upsilon'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop((lx,mx), put upsilon:8:3;); put /; put 'truck'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop((lx,mx), put truck:8:3;); put /; loop(i, put 'tunit'; put ''; put ''; put i.tl; loop((lx,mx), put tunit(i):8:3;); put /;); loop((i,j), put 'x'; put ''; put i.tl; put j.tl; loop((lx,mx), put x(lx,i,mx,j):8:3;); put /;); loop((kx,k), put 'zpop'; put ''; put kx.tl; put k.tl; loop((lx), put ''; ); loop(ix, put ''; loop(jx, put zpop(ix,kx,k):8:3;); put '';); loop((lx), put ''; ); put /;); loop((i,kx,k), put 'z'; put i.tl; put kx.tl; put k.tl; loop((lx), put ''; ); loop(ix, put ''; loop(jx, put z(jx,i,ix,kx,k):8:3); put '';); loop((lx), put ''; ); put /;); loop(j, put 'zpopcommute'; put ''; put ''; put j.tl; loop((lx), put ''; ); loop(ix, put ''; loop(jx, put zpop(ix,jx,j):8:3;); put '';); 260

loop((lx), put ''; ); put /;); put 'F'; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop((lx,mx), put F(lx,mx):8:3;); put /; putclose testinterzonalflow; * Calculate the intrazonal flows. Eqs. (4.84) and (4.85) flow(lx) = F(lx,lx) + sum(mx$(ord(mx) ne ord(lx)), F(lx,mx) + F(mx,lx)) +2*sum((nx,ox) $((ord(nx) gt ord(lx)) and (ord(ox) lt ord(lx))), F(nx,ox) + F(ox,nx)); put testflow; put 'Header1'; put 'Header2'; put 'Header 3'; put '1'; put '2'; put '3'; put '4'; put '5'; put '6'; put '7'; put /; putclose testflow; put testflow; testflow.ap = 1; loop((lx,mx), put 'F'; put lx.tl; put mx.tl; loop(nx, put F(lx,mx):8:3;); put /;); put 'flow'; put ''; put ''; loop(nx, put flow(nx):8:3;); put /; putclose testflow; * Calculate capacity of the transport land. Eq. (4.86) capacity(ix) = zeta*S(ix)**lambda; put testcapacity; put 'zone'; put 'zeta'; put 'S'; put 'lambda'; put 'capacity'; put /; putclose testcapacity; put testcapacity; testcapacity.ap = 1; loop(ix, put ix.tl; put zeta:8:3; put S(ix):8:3; put lambda:8:3; put capacity(ix):8:3; put /;); putclose testcapacity; * Calculate intrazonal travel time. Eq. (4.87) Ztime(ix) = a(ix)*(1 + b*(flow(ix)/capacity(ix))**r); Ztime(px) = 0; put testztime; put 'zone'; put 'a'; put 'b'; put 'flow'; put 'capacity'; put 'r'; put 'ztime'; put /; putclose testztime; put testztime; testztime.ap = 1; loop(ix, put ix.tl; put a(ix):8:4; put b:8:3; put flow(ix):8:3; put capacity(ix):8:3; put r:8:3; put Ztime(ix):8:3; put /;); putclose testztime; * Calculate the zone toll need to pay land rent for transportation land. Eq. (4.92) and (4.93) Ztoll(ix) = S(ix)*rho(ix)/(flow(ix)*upsilon); Ztoll(px) = 0; 261

put testztoll; put 'zone'; put 'S'; put 'rho'; put 'flow'; put 'upsilon'; put 'Ztoll'; put /; putclose testztoll; put testztoll; testztoll.ap = 1; loop(ix, put ix.tl; put S(ix):8:3; put rho(ix):8:3; put flow(ix):8:3; put upsilon:8:3; put Ztoll(ix):8:3; put /;); putclose testztoll; * Total Cost of traffic = toll revenue + cost of travel time going through the zones + cost of travel * time starting or ending in the zones. TollRev is an intermediate calculation useful for later * analysis. Eq. (4.94) TollRev(ix) = flow(ix)*Ztoll(ix)*upsilon; put testtollrev; put 'Header1'; put '2'; put '3'; put '4'; put '5'; put '6'; put /; putclose testtollrev; put testtollrev; testtollrev.ap = 1; put 'flow'; loop(ix, put flow(ix):8:3;); put /; put 'Ztoll'; loop(ix, put Ztoll(ix):8:3;); put /; put 'upsilon'; loop(ix, put upsilon:8:3;); put /; put 'TotalRev'; loop(ix, put TollRev(ix):8:3;); put /; putclose testtollrev; TC(ix) = TollRev(ix) + sum((hx,kx,k)$((ord(hx) lt ord(ix) and ord(kx) gt ord(ix)) or (ord(hx) gt ord(ix) and ord(kx) lt ord(ix))), w(kx,k)*zpop(hx,kx,k)*2*upsilon*Ztime(ix) + sum((jx,j), w(jx,j)*zpop(hx,jx,j)*2*z(kx,k,hx,jx,j)*Ztime(ix))) + sum((hx,kx,k)$((ord(hx) eq ord(ix) and ord(kx) ne ord(ix)) or (ord(hx) ne ord(ix) and ord(kx) eq ord(ix)) or (ord(hx) eq ord(ix) and ord(kx) eq ord(ix))), 0.5*w(kx,k)*zpop(hx,kx,k)*2*upsilon*Ztime(ix) + 0.5*sum((jx,j), w(jx,j)*zpop(hx,jx,j)*2*z(kx,k,hx,jx,j)*Ztime(ix))); put testtc; put 'Header1'; put 'Header2'; put 'Header3'; put 'Header4'; put 'Header5'; put 'Header6'; put '2'; put '3'; put '4'; put '5'; put '6'; put/; putclose testtc; put testtc; testtc.ap = 1; put 'TollRev'; put ''; put ''; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put TollRev(ix):8:3; ); put /; put 'upsilon'; put ''; put ''; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put upsilon:8:3; ); put /; put 'Ztime' ; put ''; put ''; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put Ztime(ix):8:3; ); put /; loop((kx,k), put 'w'; put ''; put ''; put ''; put kx.tl; put k.tl; loop(ix, put w(kx,k):8:3; ); put /; ); loop((hx,kx,k), put 'zpop'; put ''; put''; put hx.tl; put kx.tl; put k.tl; loop(ix, put zpop(hx,kx,k):8:3; ); put /; ); loop((kx,k,hx,jx,j), put 'z'; put kx.tl; put k.tl; put hx.tl; put jx.tl; put j.tl; loop(ix, put z(kx,k,hx,jx,j):8:3; ); put /; ); put 'TC'; put ''; put ''; put ''; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put TC(ix):11:3; ); put /; putclose testtc; * The rent dividend = rent paid by residents + by companies + for transportation divided by the 262

* number of people in the city. Eq. (4.95) RentDiv = min((sum((ix,jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)*rho(ix)) + sum((ix,i), landused(ix,i)*rho(ix)) + sum(ix, flow(ix)*Ztoll(ix)*upsilon))/pop, sum(ix, rho(ix)*64)/pop); put testrentdiv; put 'Header1'; put 'Header2'; put 'Header3'; put '2'; put '3'; put '4'; put '5'; put '6'; put /; putclose testrentdiv; put testrentdiv; testrentdiv.ap = 1; loop((jx,j), put 'zpop'; put jx.tl; put j.tl; loop(ix, put zpop(ix,jx,j):8:3; ); put /; ); loop((jx,j), put 'lotsize'; put jx.tl; put j.tl; loop(ix, put lotsize(ix,jx,j):8:3; ); put /; ); put 'rho', put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put rho(ix):8:3; ); put /; loop (i, put 'landused'; put ''; put i.tl; loop(ix, put landused(ix,i):8:3; ); put /; ); put 'flow', put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put flow(ix):8:3; ); put /; put 'Ztoll', put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put Ztoll(ix):8:3; ); put /; put 'upsilon', put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put upsilon:8:3; ); put /; put 'pop', put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put pop:8:3; ); put /; put 'RentDiv', put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put RentDiv:8:3; ); put /; putclose testrentdiv; * The deficit dividend = value of imports - the value of exports divided by the number of people * in the city. Eq. (4.96) DeficitDiv = (sum((px,i,ix,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(ix,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0),x(px,i,ix,j)*p(px,i)) - sum((px,ix,i)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and AZ(ix,i) eq 1), x(ix,i,px,i)*p(ix,i)))/pop; put testdeficitdiv; put 'Header1'; put 'Header2'; put 'Header3'; put 'Header4'; put 'Header5'; put 'x'; put 'p'; put /; putclose testdeficitdiv; put testdeficitdiv; testdeficitdiv.ap = 1; loop((px,i,ix,j), put 'x'; put px.tl; put i.tl; put ix.tl; put j.tl; put x(px,i,ix,j):8:3; put p(px,i); put /; ); loop((px,ix,i), put 'x'; put ''; put px.tl; put ix.tl; put i.tl; put x(ix,i,px,i):8:3; put p(ix,i); put /; ); put 'pop'; put ''; put ''; put ''; put''; put pop:8:3; put /; put 'DeficitDiv'; put ''; put ''; put ''; put ''; put DeficitDiv:8:3; put /; putclose testdeficitdiv; * The total amount of land used = residential + industrial + transport land. Eq. (4.97) TotalLand(ix) = sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) + sum(i, landused(ix,i)) + S(ix); put testtotalland; put 'Header1'; put 'Header2'; put 'Header3'; put '2'; put '3'; put '4'; put '5'; put '6'; put /; putclose testtotalland; put testtotalland; testtotalland.ap = 1; loop((jx,j), put 'zpop'; put jx.tl; put j.tl; loop(ix, put zpop(ix,jx,j):8:3; ); put /; ); loop((jx,j), put 'lotsize'; put jx.tl; put j.tl; loop(ix, put lotsize(ix,jx,j):8:3; ); put /; ); loop((i), put 'landused'; put ''; put i.tl; loop(ix, put landused(ix,i):8:3; ); put /; ); 263

put 'S'; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put S(ix):8:3;); put /; put 'TotalLand'; put ''; put ''; loop(ix, put TotalLand(ix):8:3;); put /; putclose testtotalland; display U, leisure, h, z, x, Itoll, Itime, p; *############################################################################# * Start of reporting results from each iteration of the import price loop *############################################################################# * Intermediate Calculations for Reports RoadRent(ix) = S(ix)*rho(ix); TCWage(ix) = TC(ix) - TollRev(ix); TCToll(ix) = TollRev(ix); LaborSupply(jx,j) = upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)); TotalLand(ix) = sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) + sum(i, landused(ix,i)) + S(ix); ZonePop(ix) = sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); TotalZpop = sum((ix,jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); put import; import.ap =1; put 'p'; loop((mx,i), put p(mx,i):7:3); put 'Value of Imports'; loop(i, put sum((px,ix,j) $(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,ix,j)*p(px,i))); put 'Value of Production'; loop(i, put (theta(i)*sum(ix, p(ix,i)*production(ix,i)))); put /; putclose import; put export; export.ap =1; put 'TotExport'; loop(i, put TotExport(i):7:3); put 'Value of Exports'; loop(i, put sum((px,ix)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1), x(ix,i,px,i)*p(ix,i))); put 'Value of Production'; loop(i, put sum(ix, tau(i)*p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))); put /; putclose export; put iterations; iterations.ap = 1; put 'S'; loop(ix, put S(ix):4:2); put 'Ztoll', loop(ix, put Ztoll(ix):6:5); put 'w'; loop((ix,i), put w(ix,i):5:4); put 'rho'; loop(ix, put rho(ix):6:3); put 'p'; loop((lx,i), put p(lx,i):7:3); put /; putclose iterations; put land; land.ap =1; put 'TotalLand', loop(ix, put TotalLand(ix):6:3); put 'landused'; loop((ix,i), put landused(ix,i):6:3); put 'lotsize'; loop((ix,jx,j), put lotsize(ix,jx,j):5:3); put /; putclose land; put transport; transport.ap = 1; put 'TC'; loop(ix, put TC(ix):7:3); put 'TCWage'; loop(ix, put TCWage(ix):6:3); put 'TollRev'; loop(ix, put TollRev(ix):6:3); put 'RoadRent'; loop(ix, put RoadRent(ix):6:3); put 'flow'; loop(lx, put flow(lx):7:3); put /; 264

putclose transport; put population; population.ap = 1; put 'U'; loop((ix,jx,j), put U(ix,jx,j):7:2); put 'zpop'; loop((ix,jx,j), put zpop(ix,jx,j):6:3); put /; putclose population; put work; work.ap = 1; put 'RentDiv'; put RentDiv:6:3; put 'DeficitDiv'; put DeficitDiv:7:3; put 'LaborSupply'; loop((ix,i), put LaborSupply(ix,i):7:2); put 'labor'; loop((ix,i), put labor(ix,i):7:2); put /; putclose work; put hours; hours.ap =1; put 'h'; loop((ix,jx,j), put h(ix,jx,j):6:3); put 'leisure'; loop((ix,jx,j), put leisure(ix,jx,j):5:1); put /; putclose hours; put allinfo; allinfo.ap =1; put 'Import'; put 'S'; loop(ix, put S(ix):7:2); put 'TC'; loop(ix, put TC(ix):8:2); put 'deltaS'; loop(ix, put deltaS(ix):5:2); put 'w'; put w('2','Manuf'):8:3; put w('2','Retail'):8:3; put w('2','Service'):8:3; put w('4','Manuf'):8:3; put w('4','Retail'); put w('4','Service'):8:3; put 'LaborSupply'; put LaborSupply('2','Manuf'):8:2; put LaborSupply('2','Retail'):8:2; put LaborSupply('2','Service'):8:2; put LaborSupply('4','Manuf'):8:2; put LaborSupply('4','Retail'):8:2; put LaborSupply('4','Service'):8:2; put 'Labor'; put labor('2','Manuf'):8:2; put labor('2','Retail'):8:2; put labor('2','Service'):8:2; put labor('4','Manuf'):8:2; put labor('4','Retail'):8:2; put labor('4','Service'):8:2; put 'rho'; loop(ix, put rho(ix):8:2); put 'TotalLand'; loop(ix, put TotalLand(ix):8:2); put 'p'; put p('1','Manuf'):8:2; put p('1','Retail'):8:2; put p('1','Service'):8:2; put 'Value of Imports'; loop(i, put sum((px,ix,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,ix,j)*p(px,i))); put 'Value of Prod'; loop(i, put (theta(i)*sum(ix, p(ix,i)*production(ix,i)))); put 'TotExport'; loop(i, put TotExport(i):8:2); put 'Value of Exports'; loop(i, put sum((px,ix)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1), x(ix,i,px,i)*p(ix,i))); put 'Value of Production'; loop(i, put sum(ix, tau(i)*p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))); put 'RentDiv', put RentDiv:8:2; put 'DeficitDiv'; put DeficitDiv:8:2; put 'Ztoll'; loop(ix, put Ztoll(ix):8:3); put 'zpop'; put zpop('2','2','Manuf'):8:3; put zpop('2','2','Retail'):8:3; put zpop('2','2','Service'):8:3; put zpop('4','4','Manuf'):8:3; put zpop('4','4','Retail'):8:3; put zpop('4','4','Service'):8:3; put 'h'; put h('2','2','Manuf'):8:3; put h('2','2','Retail'):8:3; put h('2','2','Service'):8:3; put h('4','4','Manuf'):8:3; put h('4','4','Retail'):8:3; put h('4','4','Service'):8:3; put 'ZonePop'; loop(ix, put ZonePop(ix):6:2); put 'TotalZpop'; put TotalZpop:8:2; put 'Production'; put production('2','Manuf'):8:2; put production('2','Retail'):8:2; put production('2','Service'):8:2; put production('4','Manuf'):8:2; put production('4','Retail'):8:2; put production('4','Service'):8:2; put 'z'; put z('2','Retail','4','4','Service'):8:2; put z('2','Service','4','4','Service'):8:2; put z('4','Retail','4','4','Service'):8:2; put z('4','Service','4','4','Service'):8:2; put 'U'; loop(ix, put U(ix,ix,'Service'):8:2); put beta:8:3; put lambdapop:8:3; put lambdaexport:8:3; loop(l, put omega(l):8:3;); loop(l, put delta(l):8:3;); loop(l, put prodcoeff(l):8:3;); 265

loop(i, put tau(i):8:3;); loop(i, put theta(i):8:3;); put /; putclose allinfo; profit(ix,i)$(AZ(ix,i)=1) = p(ix,i)*production(ix,i) - w(ix,i)*labor(ix,i) - rho(ix)*landused(ix,i) – sum((lx,j)$(alpha(j,i) ne 0 and AZ(lx,j) eq 1), (p(lx,j) + 2*truck/tunit(j)*Itoll(lx,ix))*x(lx,j,ix,i)); put testprofit; put 'ix'; put 'i'; put 'p'; put 'production'; put 'w'; put 'labor'; put 'rho'; put 'landused'; put 'truck'; put 'tunit.M': put 'tunit.R'; put 'tunit.S'; put 'p.1.M'; put 'p.1.R'; put 'p.1.S'; put 'p.2.M'; put 'p.2.R'; put 'p.2.S'; put 'p.3.M'; put 'p.3.R'; put 'p.3.S'; put 'p.4.M'; put 'p.4.R'; put 'p.4.S'; put 'p.5.M'; put 'p.5.R'; put 'p.5.S'; put 'p.6.M'; put 'p.6.R'; put 'p.6.S'; put 'p.7.M'; put 'p.7.R'; put 'p.7.S'; put 'Itoll.1.ix'; put 'Itoll.2.ix'; put 'Itoll.3.ix'; put 'Itoll.4.ix'; put 'Itoll.5.ix'; put 'Itoll.6.ix'; put 'Itoll.7.ix'; put 'x.1.M.ix.i'; put 'x.1.R.ix.i'; put 'x.1.S.ix.i'; put 'x.2.M.ix.i'; put 'x.2.R.ix.i'; put 'x.2.S.ix.i'; put 'x.3.M.ix.i'; put 'x.3.R.ix.i'; put 'x.3.S.ix.i'; put 'x.4.M.ix.i'; put 'x.4.R.ix.i'; put 'x.4.S.ix.i'; put 'x.5.M.ix.i'; put 'x.5.R.ix.i'; put 'x.5.S.ix.i'; put 'x.6.M.ix.i'; put 'x.6.R.ix.i'; put 'x.6.S.ix.i'; put 'x.7.M.ix.i'; put 'x.7.R.ix.i'; put 'x.7.S.ix.i'; put 'profit'; put /; putclose testprofit; put testprofit; testprofit.ap = 1; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl; put i.tl; put p(ix,i):8:3; put production(ix,i):8:3; put w(ix,i):8:3; put labor(ix,i):8:3; put rho(ix):8:3; put landused(ix,i):8:3; put truck:8:3; loop(j, put tunit(j):8:3;); loop((lx,j), put p(lx,j):8:3; ); loop(lx, put Itoll(lx,ix):8:3;); loop((lx,j), put x(lx,j,ix,i):8:3; ); put profit(ix,i):8:3; put /;); putclose testprofit; put testzeroflow; testzeroflow.ap = 1; put 'from.i'; put 'to.l'; put 'from.lx'; put 'to.1'; put 'to.2'; put 'to.3'; put 'to.4'; put 'to.5'; put 'to.6'; put 'to.7'; put /; loop((i,l,lx), put i.tl; put l.tl; put lx.tl; loop(mx, put x(lx,i,mx,l):8:3; ); put /; ); putclose testzeroflow; *############################################################################# * End of reporting results from each iteration of the import price loop * End Equilibrium City Loop * This is the feedback into the “Land Labor, and Import Balanced” step of Figure 5.1 *############################################################################## ); *############################################################################## * End Minimize Transport Cost While Loop * This is the feedback into the “Have Transport Costs Decreased” step of Figure 5.1 *############################################################################## LaborSupply(jx,j) = upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)); TotalLand(ix) = sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)*lotsize(ix,jx,j)) + sum(i, landused(ix,i)) + S(ix); ZonePop(ix) = sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); TotalZpop = sum((ix,jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); hind(j) = sum((ix,jx), h(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j))/sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); hres(ix) = sum((jx,j), h(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j))/sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); leisureind(j) = sum((ix,jx), leisure(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); 266

leisureres(ix) = sum((jx,j), leisure(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); zres(k,ix) = sum((kx,jx,j), z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); zind(k,j) = sum((kx,ix,jx), z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); zind1(kx,k,j) = sum((ix,jx), z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); zres1(kx,k,ix) = sum((jx,j), z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); goodval(k,ix,jx,j) = sum(kx, z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)*p(kx,k)); goodvalind(k,j) = sum((ix,jx), goodval(k,ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); goodvalres(k,ix) = sum((jx,j), goodval(k,ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); shopval(ix,jx,j) = sum((kx,k), 2*Itoll(kx,ix)*z(kx,k,ix,jx,j)); shopvalind(j) = sum((ix,jx), shopval(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); shopvalres(ix) = sum((jx,j), shopval(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); commuteval(ix,jx,j) = 2*upsilon*Itoll(ix,jx); commutevalind(j) = sum((ix,jx), commuteval(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); commutevalres(ix) = sum((jx,j), commuteval(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); lotval(ix,jx,j) = lotsize(ix,jx,j)*rho(ix); lotvalind(j) = sum((ix,jx), lotval(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); lotvalres(ix) = sum((jx,j), lotval(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); actinc(ix,jx,j) = w(jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)*upsilon + RentDiv + DeficitDiv; actincind(j) = sum((ix,jx), actinc(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); actincres(ix) = sum((jx,j), actinc(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); lotsizeind(j) = sum((ix,jx), lotsize(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); lotsizeres(ix) = sum((jx,j), lotsize(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); TotIncind(j) = sum((ix,jx), TotInc(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); TotIncres(ix) = sum((jx,j), TotInc(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)) /sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); Uind(j) = sum((ix,jx), U(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j))/sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); Ures(ix) = sum((jx,j), U(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j))/sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); LaborSupply(jx,j) = upsilon*sum(ix,zpop(ix,jx,j)*h(ix,jx,j)); xdomind(i,j) = sum((ix,jx), x(ix,i,jx,j)); ximportind(i,j) = sum((px,jx)$(AZ(px,i) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)); xexportind(i) = sum((ix,px)$(AZ(px,i) ne 0), x(ix,i,px,i)); xdomzone(i,jx) = sum((ix,j), x(ix,i,jx,j)); ximportzone(i,jx) = sum((px,j)$(AZ(px,i) ne 0), x(px,i,jx,j)); xexportzone(ix,i) = sum(px$(AZ(px,i) ne 0), x(ix,i,px,i)); zpopind(j) = sum((ix,jx), zpop(ix,jx,j)); zpopres(ix) = sum((jx,j), zpop(ix,jx,j)); landusedind(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), landused(ix,i))/sum(ix, AZ(ix,i)); landusedzone(ix) = sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), landused(ix,i)); wind(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), w(ix,i)*labor(ix,i))/sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), labor(ix,i)); wzone(ix) = sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), w(ix,i)*labor(ix,i))/sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), labor(ix,i)); prodind(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), production(ix,i))/sum(ix, AZ(ix,i)); prodzone(ix) = sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), production(ix,i)); laborind(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), labor(ix,i))/sum(ix, AZ(ix,i)); laborzone(ix) = sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), labor(ix,i))/sum(i, AZ(ix,i)); profitind(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), profit(ix,i))/sum(ix, AZ(ix,i)); 267

profitzone(ix) = sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), profit(ix,i))/sum(i, AZ(ix,i)); landvalue(ix,i) = landused(ix,i)*rho(ix); landvalueind(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), landvalue(ix,i))/sum(ix, AZ(ix,i)); landvaluezone(ix) = sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), landvalue(ix,i))/sum(i, AZ(ix,i)); laborvalue(ix,i) = labor(ix,i)*w(ix,i); laborvalueind(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), laborvalue(ix,i))/sum(ix, AZ(ix,i)); laborvaluezone(ix) = sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), laborvalue(ix,i))/sum(i, AZ(ix,i)); revenue(ix,i) = production(ix,i)*p(ix,i); revind(i) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), revenue(ix,i))/sum(ix, AZ(ix,i)); revzone(ix) = sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1), revenue(ix,i))/sum(i, AZ(ix,i)); inputvalue(lx,j,ix,i) = x(lx,j,ix,i)*(p(lx,j)+ 2*truck/tunit(j)*Itoll(lx,ix)); inputvalueind(lx,j,i)$(alpha(j,i) ne 0) = sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1 and AZ(lx,j) eq 1 and alpha(j,i) ne 0), inputvalue(lx,j,ix,i))/sum(ix$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1 and AZ(lx,j) eq 1 and alpha(j,i) ne 0), AZ(ix,i)); inputvaluezone(lx,j,ix) = sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1 and AZ(lx,j) eq 1 and alpha(j,i) ne 0), inputvalue(lx,j,ix,i))/sum(i$(AZ(ix,i) eq 1 and AZ(lx,j) eq 1 and alpha(j,i) ne 0), AZ(ix,i)); pind(i) = sum((lx,mx,j)$(AZ(lx,i) eq 1 and AZ(mx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), p(lx,i)*x(lx,i,mx,j))/sum((lx,mx,j)$(AZ(lx,i) eq 1 and AZ(mx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(lx,i,mx,j)); pzone(lx) = sum((i,mx,j)$(AZ(lx,i) eq 1 and AZ(mx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), p(lx,i)*x(lx,i,mx,j))/sum((i,mx,j)$(AZ(lx,i) eq 1 and AZ(mx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(lx,i,mx,j)); xind(lx,i,j)$(alpha(i,j) ne 0) = sum(mx$(AZ(lx,i) eq 1 and AZ(mx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(lx,i,mx,j))/sum(mx$(AZ(lx,i) eq 1 and AZ(mx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), 1); xzone(lx,i,mx) = sum(j$(AZ(lx,i) eq 1 and AZ(mx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(lx,i,mx,j))/sum(j$(AZ(lx,i) eq 1 and AZ(mx,j) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), 1); Ffreight(i,lx,mx) = 1/upsilon*truck*sum(j, x(lx,i,mx,j)/tunit(i)); Ffreightwin(i,lx) = Ffreight(i,lx,lx); FfreightOD(i,lx) = sum(mx$(ord(mx) ne ord(lx)), Ffreight(i,lx,mx) + Ffreight(i,mx,lx)); Ffreightthru(i,lx) = 2*sum((nx,ox)$((ord(nx) gt ord(lx)) and (ord(ox) lt ord(lx))), Ffreight(i,nx,ox) + Ffreight(i,ox,nx)); Fshop(ix,jx) = 1/upsilon*sum((kx,k,j)$(alpha(j,'worker') ne 0), zpop(ix,kx,k)*z(jx,j,ix,kx,k)); Fshopwin(ix) = Fshop(ix,ix); FshopOD(ix) = sum(jx$(ord(jx) ne ord(ix)), Fshop(ix,jx) + Fshop(jx,ix)); Fshopthru(ix) = 2*sum((jx,kx)$((ord(jx) gt ord(ix)) and (ord(kx) lt ord(ix))), Fshop(jx,kx) + Fshop(kx,jx)); Fcomm(ix,jx) = sum(j, zpop(ix,jx,j)); Fcommwin(ix) = Fcomm(ix,ix); FcommOD(ix) = sum(jx$(ord(jx) ne ord(ix)), Fcomm(ix,jx) + Fcomm(jx,ix)); Fcommthru(ix) = 2*sum((jx,kx)$((ord(jx) gt ord(ix)) and (ord(kx) lt ord(ix))), Fcomm(jx,kx) + Fcomm(kx,jx)); residland(ix) = sum((jx,j), lotsize(ix,jx,j)*zpop(ix,jx,j)); ); *############################################################################## 268

*Create Headers for Final Files *############################################################################## put goods; put 'ix'; put 'i'; loop((jx,l), put jx.tl, l.tl); put /; loop((ix,i), put ix.tl; put i.tl; loop((jx,l), put ' ', x(ix,i,jx,l);); put /; ); putclose goods; put shopping; put 'kx'; put 'k'; loop((ix,jx,j), put ix.tl, jx.tl, j.tl); put /; loop((kx,k), put kx.tl; put k.tl; loop((ix,jx,j), put ' ', z(kx,k,ix,jx,j), ' ';); put /;); putclose shopping; put allinfo; allinfo.ap =1; put 'Complete'; put 'S'; loop(ix, put S(ix):7:2); put 'TC'; loop(ix, put TC(ix):8:2); put 'deltaS'; loop(ix, put deltaS(ix):5:2); put 'w'; put w('2','Manuf'):8:3; put w('2','Retail'):8:3; put w('2','Service'):8:3; put w('4','Manuf'):8:3; put w('4','Retail'); put w('4','Service'):8:3; put 'LaborSupply'; put LaborSupply('2','Manuf'):8:2; put LaborSupply('2','Retail'):8:2; put LaborSupply('2','Service'):8:2; put LaborSupply('4','Manuf'):8:2; put LaborSupply('4','Retail'):8:2; put LaborSupply('4','Service'):8:2; put 'Labor'; put labor('2','Manuf'):8:2; put labor('2','Retail'):8:2; put labor('2','Service'):8:2; put labor('4','Manuf'):8:2; put labor('4','Retail'):8:2; put labor('4','Service'):8:2; put 'rho'; loop(ix, put rho(ix):8:2); put 'TotalLand'; loop(ix, put TotalLand(ix):8:2); put 'p'; put p('1','Manuf'):8:2; put p('1','Retail'):8:2; put p('1','Service'):8:2; put 'Value of Imports'; loop(i, put sum((px,ix,j)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1 and alpha(i,j) ne 0), x(px,i,ix,j)*p(px,i))); put 'Value of Prod'; loop(i, put (theta(i)*sum(ix, p(ix,i)*production(ix,i)))); put 'TotExport'; loop(i, put TotExport(i):8:2); put 'Value of Exports'; loop(i, put sum((px,ix)$(AZ(px,i) eq 1), x(ix,i,px,i)*p(ix,i))); put 'Value of Production'; loop(i, put sum(ix, tau(i)*p(ix,i)*production(ix,i))); put 'RentDiv', put RentDiv:8:2; put 'DeficitDiv'; put DeficitDiv:8:2; put 'Ztoll'; loop(ix, put Ztoll(ix):8:3); put 'zpop'; put zpop('2','2','Manuf'):8:3; put zpop('2','2','Retail'):8:3; put zpop('2','2','Service'):8:3; put zpop('4','4','Manuf'):8:3; put zpop('4','4','Retail'):8:3; put zpop('4','4','Service'):8:3; put 'h'; put h('2','2','Manuf'):8:3; put h('2','2','Retail'):8:3; put h('2','2','Service'):8:3; put h('4','4','Manuf'):8:3; put h('4','4','Retail'):8:3; put h('4','4','Service'):8:3; put 'ZonePop'; loop(ix, put ZonePop(ix):6:2); put 'TotalZpop'; put TotalZpop:8:2; put 'Production'; put production('2','Manuf'):8:2; put production('2','Retail'):8:2; put production('2','Service'):8:2; put production('4','Manuf'):8:2; put production('4','Retail'):8:2; put production('4','Service'):8:2; put 'z'; put z('2','Retail','4','4','Service'):8:2; put z('2','Service','4','4','Service'):8:2; put z('4','Retail','4','4','Service'):8:2; put z('4','Service','4','4','Service'):8:2; put 'U'; loop(ix, put U(ix,ix,'Service'):8:2); put beta:8:3; put lambdapop:8:3; put lambdaexport:8:3; loop(l, put omega(l):8:3;); loop(l, put delta(l):8:3;); loop(l, put prodcoeff(l):8:3;); loop(i, put tau(i):8:3;); loop(i, put theta(i):8:3;); put /; putclose allinfo; 269

put completeinfo1; put 'Loop'; put 'hind'; loop(i, put hind(i):8:2); put 'hres'; loop(ix, put hres(ix):8:2); put 'leisureind'; loop(i, put leisureind(i):8:2); put 'leisureres'; loop(ix, put leisureres(ix):8:2); put 'zind'; loop((k,j), put zind(k,j):8:3); put 'zres'; loop((kx,k), put z(kx,k,'4','4','Service'):8:3); put 'lotsizeind'; loop(i, put lotsizeind(i):8:3); put 'lotsizeres'; loop(ix, put lotsizeres(ix):8:3); put 'Uind'; loop(i, put Uind(i):8:2); put 'Ures'; loop(ix, put Ures(ix):8:2); put 'labor'; loop((ix,i), put labor(ix,i):8:2); put 'LaborSupply'; loop((ix,i), put LaborSupply(ix,i):8:2); put 'xdomind'; loop((i,j), put xdomind(i,j):8:2); put 'ximportind'; loop((i,j), put ximportind(i,j):8:2); put 'xexportind'; loop(i, put xexportind(i):8:2); put 'xdomzone'; loop((jx,i), put xdomzone(i,jx):8:2); put 'ximportzone'; loop((i,jx), put ximportzone(i,jx):8:2); put 'xexportzone'; loop((ix,i), put xexportzone(ix,i):8:2); put /; putclose completeinfo1; put completeinfo2; put 'Loop'; put 'landused'; loop((ix,i), put landused(ix,i):8:2); put 'production'; loop((ix,i), put production(ix,i):8:2); put 'w'; loop((ix,i), put w(ix,i):8:3); put 'p'; loop((lx,i), put p(lx,i):8:3); put 'rho'; loop(ix, put rho(ix):8:2); put 'S'; loop(ix, put S(ix):8:3); put 'TC'; loop(ix, put TC(ix):8:2); put 'flow'; loop(ix, put flow(ix):8:2); put 'Ztime'; loop(ix, put Ztime(ix):8:3); put 'Ztoll'; loop(ix, put Ztoll(ix):8:3); put 'RentDiv'; put RentDiv:8:2; put 'DeficitDiv'; put DeficitDiv:8:2; put 'zpopind'; loop(i, put zpopind(i):8:3); put 'zpopres'; loop(ix, put zpopres(ix):8:3); put /; putclose completeinfo2; display TotalLand, LaborSupply, x, z, rho, p, h, leisure, zpop, U;

270

APPENDIX B DETAILED MODEL OUTPUT AND EQUATION VERIFICATION This appendix presents the detailed model outputs from the base case scenario (Chapter 7, Section 7.1) and the spreadsheet verification of the GAMS calculations for each equation used in the model. Table B.1 verifies the utility Eq. (4.1). For parameter values, see Chapters 6 and 7. U and Ualt are calculated by the GAMS model, and Ucalc is the spreadsheet verification. The product of the values Uland, Uleisure, Umanuf, Uretail, and Uservice equals Ucalc, indicating how much of the utility is attributable to land, leisure time, manufactured goods, retail goods, and service goods. The differences are all very small and check for each resident type (ix, jx, j: ix = resident zone, jx = industry zone, j = industry). The consumptions of goods are noted as z.n.R or z.n.S, where R indicate retail goods and S indicates services goods, both of which would be purchased from zone n. Table B.2 verifies the total income Eq. (4.27). TotInc is calculated by GAMS and TotIncCalc is the spreadsheet verification. The Difference and %Diff (percent difference) are all very small for each resident type (ix, jx, j: ix = resident zone, jx = industry zone, j = industry). TotHours is the constant H in Eq. (4.27). 271

Table B.3 verifies the resident lot size Eq. (4.29). GAMS computes lotsize and lotsizecalc is computed by the spreadsheet. The differences are all zero. Table B.4 verifies resident leisure time Eq. (4.30). Leisure is calculated by GAMS and leisurecalc by the spreadsheet. The percent differences are negligible. Table B.5 verifies Eq. (4.31), the amount of goods, zkx,k,ix,jx,j, purchased by individuals. All the calculated differences are very close to zero, but are not shown due to space limitations. The variables alpha, TotInc, p, Itoll, w, and Itime are used in the numerator of Eq. (4.32). p.nx, Itoll.nx and Itime.nx are the prices, interzonal tolls, and interzonal times used in the denominator for competing shopping locations (nx) for the resident (ix.jx.j). Table B.6 verifies the number of work hours for an individual in Eq. (4.32). The equation was simplified because the work hours are simply 1/υ of the value of H less leisure time, commute time, and shopping travel time. Therefore, the spreadsheet verifies Eq. (B.1):

1 , ,

,

 

, ,

,

2

2

, ,

,

, , , ,

,

, ,

(B.1)

Itime.kx and z.kx.k are the data needed for the summation to calculate shopping travel time for resident ix.jx.j. h is the number of work hours calculated by GAMS, and hcalc is the spreadsheet verification. The differences are all very small.

272

Table B.7 verifies the Utility calculation in Eq. (4.38). The parameter values are not presented in Table B.7. The variables p.kx.k, Itoll.kx, and Itime.kx are all used within the summation of the denominator of Eq. (4.38). U is the utility level calculated by GAMS and Ucalc is the spreadsheet verification. The percent differences are all very small for each resident ix.jx.j. Table B.8 verifies the assignment of the population to work types (home and work locations as well as work industry), in Eq. (4.41). The errors are slightly larger because the exponential powers magnify rounding errors. All the utility levels are needed to calculate the denominator, and are shown in the utility column. The sumexp column is the denominator of the equation and the exp column is the numerator once the total population is multiplied by it. Thus exp/sumexp indicates the percentage of the population that is assigned to the resident type. zpop is the number of people assigned by GAMS and zpopcalc is the population spreadsheet verification. Table B.9 verifies Eq. (4.42), the determination of the total amounts of goods that residents purchase from industries. The x value represents the amount going from a firm to workers. The purch.jx.j is the amount of goods that all the residents who work for industry j in zone jx purchase from industry k at zone kx (or is equal to Nix,w,jx,j times zkx,k,ix,w,jx,j). However, there was no room to show the zpop (N) and z-values, and only the total amount purchased is shown. x is the value calculated by GAMS and xcalc is the spreadsheet verification. All errors are very small. Table B.10 verifies the amounts of goods that need to be produced by each firm (by zone and industry) in Eq. (4.46). Each column indicates the firm being evaluated 273

(ix.i: industry i in zone ix), and the rows indicate the amount of product being demanded from that firm (x.ix.i.lx.l) by industry l (including workers) at zone lx (including ports). The row “production” (at the bottom) indicates the amount the firm in the column needs to produce as calculated by GAMS, and productioncalc is the spreadsheet verification. The differences are all very small or zero. Table B.11 verifies the amount of land used by each firm in Eq. (4.59). GAMS calculates the value landused, and landusedcalc is the spreadsheet verification. The differences are all zero. Table B.12 verifies the amount of labor used by each firm according to Eq. (4.60). GAMS calculates labor, and laborcalc is the spreadsheet verification. The percent differences are all very small. Table B.13 verifies the good inputs to each firm in Eq. (4.67). Several prices are used. p.jx.j is the price at which the firm sells its goods and is used to determine the amount of revenue of the firm. p.ix.i is the price of the good being used as the input. p.1.i to p.7.i is the price of the same good from all the competing zones. Itoll.nx is the interzonal cost to get a good from zone nx to the receiving firm at zone jx. x is the input value calculated by GAMS, and xcalc is the value verified by the spreadsheet. All the differences are small. Table B.14 verifies the price of the goods that the firms produce in Eq. (4.73). Each column, ix.i, has the data, price, and intermediate calculations for the zone ix and industry i. The input data needed for the equation are shown in the rows above p. The parameters alpha, input prices pold, parameter truck, parameter tunit, interzonal toll Itoll, 274

parameter delta, wage w, parameter for labor alpha, land rent rho, parameter omega, and production coefficient prodcoeff are the inputs. p is the price determined in GAMS, and pcalc is the spreadsheet verified value. The percent differences are insignificant. The rows below the percent differences are intermediate calculations. The num and denom are the final numerator and denominator values used to calculate pcalc. The remaining rows represent more intermediate steps. Table B.15 verifies the amount of goods exported from each firm (ix,i) and sent to port px in Eq. (4.77). The MNL equation form requires that the price of the good being shipped to be compared to the prices of all the possible goods sent to the ports, and the values of all goods from zones 2 to 6 are shown. Similarly, the interzonal tolls from each city zone to the port zone under consideration are needed as inputs. x is the value exported, as calculated by GAMS, and is spreadsheet-verified in the xcalc column. The differences are all small. The sumexp column is the intermediate calculation for the denominator value, and the exp2 to exp6 are the intermediate calculations based on price and tolls that are summed in the denominator. Table B.16 verifies that the appropriate value of goods is exported according to Eq. (4.78). The columns are the check for each industry, (M)anufacturing, (R)etail, and (S)ervice. The row TotExport is the total amount of exports as calculated by GAMS, and TotExportcalc is the spreadsheet verification of that calculation based on the above inputs. The differences are all zero. LocalProdVal is an intermediate calculation that determines the value of the good produced in the city. The Average Price is obtained by summing the prices of the goods across the city (p2 to p6), and their sum is denoted as 275

AvepNum. Dividing it by the number of active zones (AZ2 to AZ6), noted as AvepDenom, produces the average price. Table B.17 verifies the import balance in Eq. (4.79). Each column has the input data, price, and verified price pcalc and intermediate calculations for each port (1 or 7) and good ((M)anfacturing, (R)etail, or (S)ervices). The calculations are conducted down the columns. The right hand side of the equation needs the prices (p) and production values, and theta in the first 11 rows. The left hand side needs the amount imported (x) and multiplies it by the price (p) being verified. pcalc is the verification of the port price. pcalc is calculated by taking the right hand side of Eq. (4.79), (LocalProdValue in the spreadsheet) and dividing it by the “amount of imports”. This calculation is valid because the prices for each industry good at either port are defined to be equal. The percent differences are all very small. Table B.18 verifies the calculations of interzonal flows in Eq. (4.80). Each total flow is tabulated down a column. Because of the need for several pages, each page refers to one origin zone for the goods. zpopcommute is the amount of traffic generated by commuters who live in that origin zone and travel to the destination of that column. F is the interzonal flow calculated by GAMS, and Fcalc is the spreadsheet verification of that flow. The differences are all zero. This table also verifies Eqs. (4.81) to (4.83). Table B.19 verifies the zonal flows in Eq. (4.84) and (4.85). The inputs are all the interzonal flows (all the rows above flow). flow is the value calculated by GAMS and flowcalc is the spreadsheet verified value. The differences are all very small. There are

276

intermediate calculations that are not shown, but the flows of traffic within, originating from, ending at, through (cross haul) are shown in the last four rows. Table B.20 verifies the capacity calculations in Eq. (4.86). capacity is the value GAMS calculates and capacitycalc is the spreadsheet-verified value. The differences are all zero. Table B.21 verifies the travel time to cross a zone in Eq. (4.87). ztime is the value calculated by GAMS and ztimecalc is the spreadsheet-verification of the value. Differences are all zero. Table B.22 verifies the travel times between zones in Eqs. (4.88) and (4.89). Itime is the value calculated by GAMS and Itimecalc is the spreadsheet-verified value. All the differences are very small. Table B.23 verifies the travel tolls between zones in Eqs. (4.90) and (4.91). Itoll is the value calculated by GAMS and Itollcalc is the spreadsheet-verified value. All the differences are very small. Table B.24 verifies that the transportation tolls equal the transportation land rents in Eq. (4.92). TollRev is the amount of revenues collected for each zone to pay for the transportation land rent and is calculated by GAMS. TollRevcalc is the spreadsheetverified value. The percent differences are all very small. Table B.25 verifies the total transportation costs in Eq. (4.94). TC is the value calculated by GAMS, TCcalc is the spreadsheet-verified value. The percent differences are very small. Inputs include w (wages), zpop (zone populations), and z (amount of goods an individual buys from a firm). All the rows above row “TC” are input values, 277

and the rows below “TC” show intermediate calculations. “commute” and “shopping” are the value of commuting and shopping travel costs and “tollrev” are the costs of the land rents. This follows a series of rows that calculate the travel time commute costs for each resident type and their effect on the given zone (column). Lastly, a series of rows calculates the travel time costs for each resident type to shop at each firm, so there is the same number of rows as there were for z. These last two sets of rows are intermediate calculations. Table B.26 verifies the rent dividend in Eq. (4.95). RentDiv is the GAMS value and RentDivcalc is the spreadsheet-verified calculation. The differences are very small. resrent is an intermediate calculation of the land rents paid by residents by worker types and indrent is the industry rent for the firms. All these values sum up to TotLandRent, the total land rent. Table B.27 verifies the deficit dividend in Eq. (4.96). The DeficitDiv is the value calculated by GAMS, and DeficitDiv calc is the spreadsheet-verified value, with very small differences. The values of the imports and exports are intermediate calculations that are needed to determine the deficit dividend. Table B.28 verifies the land use loop in Eq. (4.97). The rows above and including “rhomin” are input needed to verify the equation. They sum up to LHS Land Used, the left hand side of Eq. (4.97). Resident use from 2.M to 6.S is the amount of land used by the different workers, an intermediate calculation. RHS1 and RHS2 represent the right hand side of Eq. (4.97). The range is related to the epsilonland condition of Eq. (4.97). LHS Land Used is always within the range set by RHS1 and RHS2. 278

Table B.29 verifies the labor demand balance in Eq. (4.98). The laborsupply, right-hand side of Eq. (4.98), and labordemand, left-hand side of Eq. (4.98), are both calculated using the original data (columns to the left). The percent differences are all small. Table B.30 verifies that the zero flow Eqs. (4.99 – 4.102) are satisfied. The zero flow equations are all related to flows of goods (variable x). To show that the equations are satisfied, the cells that satisfy these conditions are highlighted. The key to the highlighting colors is displayed at the bottom of the table. The number of cells that are highlighted should and do match the number of equations as shown in Table 4.2. All the equations are satisfied, demonstrating that the model has obtained an equilibrium city for the given transportation system.

279

ix

280

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

jx 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4

j Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

z.2.R 0.936 0.942 1.124 0.931 0.938 1.119 0.927 0.934 1.114 0.926 0.933 1.112 0.926 0.933 1.112 0.918 0.924 1.098 0.916 0.922 1.097 0.913 0.92 1.094 0.912 0.918 1.092 0.912 0.918 1.092 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.895 0.901 1.067 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.895 0.901 1.067 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.878 0.884 1.045 0.878 0.884 1.045 0.879 0.886

z.2.S 1.599 1.61 1.922 1.591 1.603 1.913 1.584 1.596 1.905 1.581 1.593 1.901 1.582 1.593 1.902 1.56 1.57 1.867 1.556 1.568 1.864 1.552 1.564 1.859 1.549 1.561 1.856 1.55 1.561 1.856 1.512 1.521 1.801 1.511 1.522 1.801 1.511 1.522 1.802 1.511 1.522 1.801 1.512 1.521 1.801 1.476 1.486 1.754 1.475 1.486 1.754 1.478 1.489

z.3.R 0.925 0.931 1.109 0.92 0.927 1.104 0.917 0.924 1.1 0.915 0.922 1.097 0.915 0.922 1.098 0.924 0.93 1.108 0.922 0.929 1.106 0.92 0.927 1.103 0.918 0.925 1.101 0.919 0.925 1.101 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.909 0.916 1.088 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.909 0.916 1.088 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.893 0.898 1.065 0.892 0.898 1.065 0.894 0.9

z.3.S 1.572 1.582 1.885 1.563 1.575 1.876 1.557 1.569 1.869 1.554 1.565 1.865 1.555 1.565 1.865 1.57 1.581 1.883 1.567 1.578 1.88 1.563 1.574 1.876 1.56 1.571 1.872 1.561 1.571 1.872 1.54 1.551 1.843 1.539 1.55 1.843 1.54 1.551 1.844 1.539 1.55 1.843 1.54 1.551 1.843 1.504 1.514 1.794 1.503 1.514 1.794 1.506 1.517

z.4.R 0.907 0.913 1.084 0.902 0.909 1.079 0.899 0.905 1.075 0.897 0.903 1.073 0.897 0.903 1.073 0.915 0.921 1.095 0.913 0.919 1.093 0.91 0.917 1.09 0.908 0.915 1.088 0.909 0.915 1.088 0.918 0.924 1.1 0.917 0.924 1.1 0.918 0.924 1.1 0.917 0.924 1.1 0.918 0.924 1.1 0.909 0.915 1.088 0.908 0.915 1.088 0.91 0.917

z.4.S 1.53 1.54 1.828 1.523 1.534 1.82 1.516 1.527 1.813 1.513 1.524 1.809 1.514 1.524 1.809 1.548 1.558 1.853 1.544 1.556 1.85 1.54 1.552 1.845 1.537 1.549 1.842 1.538 1.549 1.842 1.556 1.567 1.866 1.555 1.566 1.865 1.556 1.567 1.866 1.555 1.566 1.865 1.556 1.567 1.866 1.538 1.549 1.842 1.537 1.549 1.842 1.54 1.552

z.5.R 0.891 0.896 1.061 0.886 0.892 1.056 0.882 0.889 1.052 0.881 0.887 1.05 0.881 0.887 1.05 0.898 0.904 1.072 0.896 0.903 1.07 0.894 0.9 1.067 0.892 0.898 1.065 0.893 0.898 1.065 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.909 0.916 1.088 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.909 0.916 1.088 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.919 0.925 1.101 0.918 0.925 1.101 0.92 0.927

Table B.1. Utility Calculations, Eq. (4.1)

z.5.S 1.497 1.506 1.781 1.489 1.5 1.773 1.483 1.494 1.766 1.48 1.49 1.762 1.481 1.49 1.762 1.513 1.523 1.805 1.51 1.521 1.802 1.506 1.517 1.797 1.503 1.514 1.794 1.504 1.514 1.794 1.54 1.551 1.843 1.539 1.55 1.843 1.54 1.551 1.844 1.539 1.55 1.843 1.54 1.551 1.843 1.561 1.571 1.872 1.56 1.571 1.872 1.563 1.574

z.6.R 0.876 0.882 1.041 0.872 0.878 1.036 0.868 0.874 1.032 0.867 0.873 1.03 0.867 0.872 1.03 0.883 0.889 1.051 0.882 0.888 1.049 0.879 0.886 1.047 0.878 0.884 1.045 0.878 0.884 1.045 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.895 0.901 1.067 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.895 0.901 1.067 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.912 0.918 1.092 0.912 0.918 1.092 0.913 0.92

z.6.S 1.469 1.478 1.741 1.462 1.472 1.733 1.456 1.466 1.727 1.453 1.463 1.723 1.453 1.463 1.723 1.485 1.495 1.764 1.482 1.493 1.761 1.478 1.489 1.757 1.475 1.486 1.754 1.476 1.486 1.754 1.512 1.521 1.801 1.511 1.522 1.801 1.511 1.522 1.802 1.511 1.522 1.801 1.512 1.521 1.801 1.55 1.561 1.856 1.549 1.561 1.856 1.552 1.564

lotsize 0.809 0.814 0.968 0.805 0.811 0.963 0.802 0.808 0.96 0.8 0.806 0.958 0.801 0.806 0.958 0.786 0.792 0.941 0.785 0.79 0.939 0.783 0.788 0.937 0.781 0.787 0.935 0.782 0.787 0.935 0.777 0.782 0.929 0.776 0.782 0.929 0.776 0.782 0.929 0.776 0.782 0.929 0.777 0.782 0.929 0.782 0.787 0.935 0.781 0.787 0.935 0.783 0.788

leisure 312.27 311.893 303.104 312.008 311.593 302.8 311.126 310.702 301.952 310.111 309.701 301.015 308.977 308.608 299.998 311.799 311.424 302.661 312.466 312.05 303.237 312.055 311.628 302.833 311.039 310.627 301.896 309.904 309.533 300.878 310.852 310.478 301.769 311.988 311.574 302.788 312.527 312.098 303.277 311.988 311.574 302.788 310.852 310.478 301.769 309.904 309.533 300.878 311.039 310.627 301.896 312.055 311.628

Ualt 53.79 53.912 57.325 53.641 53.776 57.177 53.457 53.595 56.988 53.315 53.449 56.84 53.223 53.345 56.738 53.659 53.782 57.198 53.67 53.805 57.216 53.567 53.705 57.111 53.425 53.56 56.963 53.333 53.456 56.861 53.479 53.601 57.013 53.571 53.705 57.115 53.63 53.768 57.178 53.571 53.705 57.115 53.479 53.601 57.013 53.333 53.456 56.861 53.425 53.56 56.963 53.567 53.705

U 53.79 53.912 57.325 53.641 53.776 57.177 53.457 53.595 56.988 53.315 53.449 56.84 53.223 53.345 56.738 53.659 53.782 57.198 53.67 53.805 57.216 53.567 53.705 57.111 53.425 53.56 56.963 53.333 53.456 56.861 53.479 53.601 57.013 53.571 53.705 57.115 53.63 53.768 57.178 53.571 53.705 57.115 53.479 53.601 57.013 53.333 53.456 56.861 53.425 53.56 56.963 53.567 53.705

Uland 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.98

Uleisure 23.55 23.53 23.17 23.54 23.52 23.15 23.50 23.48 23.12 23.46 23.44 23.08 23.41 23.40 23.04 23.53 23.51 23.15 23.56 23.54 23.17 23.54 23.52 23.16 23.50 23.48 23.12 23.45 23.44 23.07 23.49 23.48 23.11 23.54 23.52 23.15 23.56 23.54 23.17 23.54 23.52 23.15 23.49 23.48 23.11 23.45 23.44 23.07 23.50 23.48 23.12 23.54 23.52

Umanuf 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Uretail 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37

Uservice 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.70

Ucalc 53.789 53.907 57.329 53.640 53.777 57.176 53.459 53.596 56.992 53.317 53.450 56.840 53.220 53.344 56.737 53.656 53.784 57.199 53.672 53.804 57.215 53.568 53.703 57.109 53.424 53.562 56.965 53.335 53.458 56.859 53.481 53.604 57.015 53.570 53.706 57.112 53.631 53.761 57.177 53.570 53.706 57.112 53.481 53.604 57.015 53.335 53.458 56.859 53.424 53.562 56.965 53.568 53.703

Difference 0.001 0.005 -0.004 0.001 -0.001 0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.004 -0.002 -0.001 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 0.001 0.001 -0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.002 0.001 -0.001 0.003 -0.001 0.007 0.001 0.001 -0.001 0.003 -0.002 -0.003 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 0.002 0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 0.002

continued

Table B.1 continued 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

1.047 0.882 0.888 1.049 0.883 0.889 1.051 0.867 0.872 1.03 0.867 0.873 1.03 0.868 0.874 1.032 0.872 0.878 1.036 0.876 0.882 1.041

1.757 1.482 1.493 1.761 1.485 1.495 1.764 1.453 1.463 1.723 1.453 1.463 1.723 1.456 1.466 1.727 1.462 1.472 1.733 1.469 1.478 1.741

1.067 0.896 0.903 1.07 0.898 0.904 1.072 0.881 0.887 1.05 0.881 0.887 1.05 0.882 0.889 1.052 0.886 0.892 1.056 0.891 0.896 1.061

1.797 1.51 1.521 1.802 1.513 1.523 1.805 1.481 1.49 1.762 1.48 1.49 1.762 1.483 1.494 1.766 1.489 1.5 1.773 1.497 1.506 1.781

1.09 0.913 0.919 1.093 0.915 0.921 1.095 0.897 0.903 1.073 0.897 0.903 1.073 0.899 0.905 1.075 0.902 0.909 1.079 0.907 0.913 1.084

1.845 1.544 1.556 1.85 1.548 1.558 1.853 1.514 1.524 1.809 1.513 1.524 1.809 1.516 1.527 1.813 1.523 1.534 1.82 1.53 1.54 1.828

1.103 0.922 0.929 1.106 0.924 0.93 1.108 0.915 0.922 1.098 0.915 0.922 1.097 0.917 0.924 1.1 0.92 0.927 1.104 0.925 0.931 1.109

1.876 1.567 1.578 1.88 1.57 1.581 1.883 1.555 1.565 1.865 1.554 1.565 1.865 1.557 1.569 1.869 1.563 1.575 1.876 1.572 1.582 1.885

1.094 0.916 0.922 1.097 0.918 0.924 1.098 0.926 0.933 1.112 0.926 0.933 1.112 0.927 0.934 1.114 0.931 0.938 1.119 0.936 0.942 1.124

1.859 1.556 1.568 1.864 1.56 1.57 1.867 1.582 1.593 1.902 1.581 1.593 1.901 1.584 1.596 1.905 1.591 1.603 1.913 1.599 1.61 1.922

0.937 0.785 0.79 0.939 0.786 0.792 0.941 0.801 0.806 0.958 0.8 0.806 0.958 0.802 0.808 0.96 0.805 0.811 0.963 0.809 0.814 0.968

302.833 312.466 312.05 303.237 311.799 311.424 302.661 308.977 308.608 299.998 310.111 309.701 301.015 311.126 310.702 301.952 312.008 311.593 302.8 312.27 311.893 303.104

57.111 53.67 53.805 57.216 53.659 53.782 57.198 53.223 53.345 56.738 53.315 53.449 56.84 53.457 53.595 56.988 53.641 53.776 57.177 53.79 53.912 57.325

57.111 53.67 53.805 57.216 53.659 53.782 57.198 53.223 53.345 56.738 53.315 53.449 56.84 53.457 53.595 56.988 53.641 53.776 57.177 53.79 53.912 57.325

1.00 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 1.00

23.16 23.56 23.54 23.17 23.53 23.51 23.15 23.41 23.40 23.04 23.46 23.44 23.08 23.50 23.48 23.12 23.54 23.52 23.15 23.55 23.53 23.17

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.41

1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.69 1.76 1.69 1.70 1.76

57.109 53.672 53.804 57.215 53.656 53.784 57.199 53.220 53.344 56.737 53.317 53.450 56.840 53.459 53.596 56.992 53.640 53.777 57.176 53.789 53.907 57.329

0.002 -0.002 0.001 0.001 0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0.003 0.001 0.001 -0.002 -0.001 0.000 -0.002 -0.001 -0.004 0.001 -0.001 0.001 0.001 0.005 -0.004

281

ix 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6

jx 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3

j Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

w 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465

TotHours 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480

upsilon 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22

Itoll 0.308 0.308 0.308 0.672 0.672 0.672 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.148 2.148 2.148 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.672 0.672 0.672 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.738 0.738 0.738 1.476 1.476 1.476 2.148 2.148 2.148 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.738 0.738 0.738 0.374 0.374 0.374 0.738 0.738 0.738 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.148 2.148 2.148 1.476 1.476 1.476 0.738 0.738 0.738 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.672 0.672 0.672 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.148 2.148 2.148

Itime 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108

RDpercent 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

RentDiv 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671

Table B.2. Verification of Total Income, Eq. (4.27) 282

DeficitDiv 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958

TotInc 11999.675 12438.799 14301.101 11907.323 12345.26 14193.987 11823.23 12259.641 14098.57 11778.519 12213.489 14049.686 11778.81 12212.832 14053.496 11967.89 12406.284 14265.493 11935.311 12373.919 14225.479 11882.839 12320.65 14165.477 11838.192 12274.561 14116.667 11838.675 12274.099 14120.707 11903.283 12340.192 14193.1 11902.593 12340.447 14188.818 11914.49 12353.03 14200.928 11902.593 12340.447 14188.818 11903.283 12340.192 14193.1 11838.675 12274.099 14120.707 11838.192 12274.561 14116.667 11882.839 12320.65 14165.477 11935.311 12373.919 14225.479 11967.89 12406.284 14265.493 11778.81 12212.832 14053.496 11778.519 12213.489 14049.686

TotIncCalc 11999.497 12438.492 14300.865 11907.025 12344.815 14193.585 11822.954 12259.255 14097.919 11778.849 12213.701 14050.059 11779.126 12213.042 14053.871 11967.789 12406.058 14265.354 11935.302 12373.777 14225.437 11882.775 12320.485 14165.088 11837.867 12274.088 14116.227 11839.206 12274.533 14121.347 11903.061 12339.84 14192.809 11902.388 12340.099 14188.528 11914.35 12352.785 14200.441 11902.388 12340.099 14188.528 11903.061 12339.84 14192.809 11839.206 12274.533 14121.347 11837.867 12274.088 14116.227 11882.775 12320.485 14165.088 11935.302 12373.777 14225.437 11967.789 12406.058 14265.354 11779.126 12213.042 14053.871 11778.849 12213.701 14050.059

Difference 0.178 0.307 0.236 0.298 0.445 0.402 0.276 0.386 0.651 -0.33 -0.212 -0.373 -0.316 -0.21 -0.375 0.101 0.226 0.139 0.009 0.142 0.042 0.064 0.165 0.389 0.325 0.473 0.44 -0.531 -0.434 -0.64 0.222 0.352 0.291 0.205 0.348 0.29 0.14 0.245 0.487 0.205 0.348 0.29 0.222 0.352 0.291 -0.531 -0.434 -0.64 0.325 0.473 0.44 0.064 0.165 0.389 0.009 0.142 0.042 0.101 0.226 0.139 -0.316 -0.21 -0.375 -0.33 -0.212 -0.373

% Diff 0.00001 0.00002 0.00002 0.00003 0.00004 0.00003 0.00002 0.00003 0.00005 -0.00003 -0.00002 -0.00003 -0.00003 -0.00002 -0.00003 0.00001 0.00002 0.00001 0.00000 0.00001 0.00000 0.00001 0.00001 0.00003 0.00003 0.00004 0.00003 -0.00004 -0.00004 -0.00005 0.00002 0.00003 0.00002 0.00002 0.00003 0.00002 0.00001 0.00002 0.00003 0.00002 0.00003 0.00002 0.00002 0.00003 0.00002 -0.00004 -0.00004 -0.00005 0.00003 0.00004 0.00003 0.00001 0.00001 0.00003 0.00000 0.00001 0.00000 0.00001 0.00002 0.00001 -0.00003 -0.00002 -0.00003 -0.00003 -0.00002 -0.00003

continued

Table B.2 continued 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615

omega

480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480

22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22

1.41 1.41 1.41 0.672 0.672 0.672 0.308 0.308 0.308

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671 2096.671

420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958 420.958

ix

jx

j

2

2

Manuf

TotInc

rho

lotsize

lotsizecalc

552.283

47.782

0.809

0.809

0

2

2

Retail

2

2

Service

0.07

555.926

47.782

0.814

0.814

0

0.07

660.617

47.782

0.968

0.968

2

3

Manuf

0.07

0

549.451

47.782

0.805

0.805

0

2

3

Retail

2

3

Service

0.07

553.438

47.782

0.811

0.811

0

0.07

657.626

47.782

0.963

0.963

2

4

Manuf

0

0.07

547.145

47.782

0.802

0.802

0

2

4

Retail

0.07

551.229

47.782

0.808

0.808

0

2

4

Service

0.07

2

5

Manuf

0.07

655.042

47.782

0.96

0.96

0

546.109

47.782

0.8

0.8

0

2

5

Retail

0.07

550.077

47.782

0.806

0.806

0

2

5

Service

0.07

653.75

47.782

0.958

0.958

0

2

6

Manuf

0.07

546.459

47.782

0.801

0.801

0

2

6

Retail

0.07

550.07

47.782

0.806

0.806

0

2

6

Service

0.07

653.847

47.782

0.958

0.958

0

3

2

Manuf

0.07

551.451

49.088

0.786

0.786

0

3

2

Retail

0.07

555.089

49.088

0.792

0.792

0

3

2

Service

0.07

659.65

49.088

0.941

0.941

0

3

3

Manuf

0.07

550.256

49.088

0.785

0.785

0

3

3

Retail

0.07

554.249

49.088

0.79

0.79

0

3

3

Service

0.07

658.574

49.088

0.939

0.939

0

3

4

Manuf

0.07

548.778

49.088

0.783

0.783

0

3

4

Retail

0.07

552.873

49.088

0.788

0.788

0

3

4

Service

0.07

656.952

49.088

0.937

0.937

0

0.07

Difference

3

5

Manuf

0.07

547.744

49.088

0.781

0.781

0

3

5

Retail

0.07

551.722

49.088

0.787

0.787

0

3

5

Service

0.07

655.662

49.088

0.935

0.935

0

3

6

Manuf

0.07

548.099

49.088

0.782

0.782

0

3

6

Retail

0.07

551.72

49.088

0.787

0.787

0

3

6

Service

0.07

655.764

49.088

0.935

0.935

0

4

2

Manuf

0.07

549.775

49.552

0.777

0.777

0

4

2

Retail

0.07

553.405

49.552

0.782

0.782

0

4

2

Service

0.07

657.707

49.552

0.929

0.929

0

Table B.3. Verification of Lotsize, Eq. (4.29)

continued 283

11823.23 12259.641 14098.57 11907.323 12345.26 14193.987 11999.675 12438.799 14301.101

11822.954 12259.255 14097.919 11907.025 12344.815 14193.585 11999.497 12438.492 14300.865

0.276 0.386 0.651 0.298 0.445 0.402 0.178 0.307 0.236

0.00002 0.00003 0.00005 0.00003 0.00004 0.00003 0.00001 0.00002 0.00002

Table B.3 continued 4

3

Manuf

0.07

549.415

49.552

0.776

0.776

0

4

3

Retail

0.07

553.403

49.552

0.782

0.782

0

4

3

Service

0.07

657.6

49.552

0.929

0.929

0

4

4

Manuf

0.07

549.607

49.552

0.776

0.776

0

4

4

Retail

0.07

553.707

49.552

0.782

0.782

0

4

4

Service

0.07

657.916

49.552

0.929

0.929

0

4

5

Manuf

0.07

549.415

49.552

0.776

0.776

0

4

5

Retail

0.07

553.403

49.552

0.782

0.782

0

4

5

Service

0.07

657.6

49.552

0.929

0.929

0

4

6

Manuf

0.07

549.775

49.552

0.777

0.777

0

4

6

Retail

0.07

553.405

49.552

0.782

0.782

0

4

6

Service

0.07

657.707

49.552

0.929

0.929

0

5

2

Manuf

0.07

548.099

49.088

0.782

0.782

0

5

2

Retail

0.07

551.72

49.088

0.787

0.787

0

5

2

Service

0.07

655.764

49.088

0.935

0.935

0

5

3

Manuf

0.07

547.744

49.088

0.781

0.781

0

5

3

Retail

0.07

551.722

49.088

0.787

0.787

0

5

3

Service

0.07

655.662

49.088

0.935

0.935

0

5

4

Manuf

0.07

548.778

49.088

0.783

0.783

0

5

4

Retail

0.07

552.873

49.088

0.788

0.788

0

5

4

Service

0.07

656.952

49.088

0.937

0.937

0

5

5

Manuf

0.07

550.256

49.088

0.785

0.785

0

5

5

Retail

0.07

554.249

49.088

0.79

0.79

0

5

5

Service

0.07

658.574

49.088

0.939

0.939

0

5

6

Manuf

0.07

551.451

49.088

0.786

0.786

0

5

6

Retail

0.07

555.089

49.088

0.792

0.792

0

5

6

Service

0.07

659.65

49.088

0.941

0.941

0

6

2

Manuf

0.07

546.459

47.782

0.801

0.801

0

6

2

Retail

0.07

550.07

47.782

0.806

0.806

0

6

2

Service

0.07

653.847

47.782

0.958

0.958

0

6

3

Manuf

0.07

546.109

47.782

0.8

0.8

0

6

3

Retail

0.07

550.077

47.782

0.806

0.806

0

6

3

Service

0.07

653.75

47.782

0.958

0.958

0

6

4

Manuf

0.07

547.145

47.782

0.802

0.802

0

6

4

Retail

0.07

551.229

47.782

0.808

0.808

0

6

4

Service

0.07

655.042

47.782

0.96

0.96

0

6

5

Manuf

0.07

549.451

47.782

0.805

0.805

0

6

5

Retail

0.07

553.438

47.782

0.811

0.811

0

6

5

Service

0.07

657.626

47.782

0.963

0.963

0

6

6

Manuf

0.07

552.283

47.782

0.809

0.809

0

6

6

Retail

0.07

555.926

47.782

0.814

0.814

0

6

6

Service

0.07

660.617

47.782

0.968

0.968

0

284

ix

jx

j

beta

TotInc

w

leisure

leisurecalc

Difference

% Diff

2

2

Manuf

0.5

11999.675

19.813

302.827

302.823

0.004

0.00001

2

2

Retail

0.5

12438.799

20.729

300.034

300.034

0

0.00000

2

2

Service

0.5

14301.101

24.615

290.499

290.496

0.003

0.00001

2

3

Manuf

0.5

11907.323

19.686

302.428

302.431

-0.003

-0.00001

2

3

Retail

0.5

12345.26

20.601

299.621

299.628

-0.007

-0.00002

2

3

Service

0.5

14193.987

24.465

290.084

290.088

-0.004

-0.00001 0.00001

2

4

Manuf

0.5

11823.23

19.645

300.924

300.922

0.002

2

4

Retail

0.5

12259.641

20.56

298.142

298.143

-0.001

0.00000

2

4

Service

0.5

14098.57

24.416

288.71

288.716

-0.006

-0.00002

2

5

Manuf

0.5

11778.519

19.686

299.157

299.16

-0.003

-0.00001

2

5

Retail

0.5

12213.489

20.601

296.423

296.43

-0.007

-0.00002

2

5

Service

0.5

14049.686

24.465

287.135

287.138

-0.003

-0.00001

2

6

Manuf

0.5

11778.81

19.813

297.253

297.25

0.003

0.00001

2

6

Retail

0.5

12212.832

20.729

294.583

294.583

0

0.00000

2

6

Service

0.5

14053.496

24.615

285.469

285.466

0.003

0.00001

3

2

Manuf

0.5

11967.89

19.813

302.025

302.021

0.004

0.00001

3

2

Retail

0.5

12406.284

20.729

299.249

299.249

0

0.00000

3

2

Service

0.5

14265.493

24.615

289.775

289.772

0.003

0.00001

3

3

Manuf

0.5

11935.311

19.686

303.139

303.142

-0.003

-0.00001

3

3

Retail

0.5

12373.919

20.601

300.316

300.323

-0.007

-0.00002

3

3

Service

0.5

14225.479

24.465

290.728

290.731

-0.003

-0.00001

3

4

Manuf

0.5

11882.839

19.645

302.441

302.439

0.002

0.00001

3

4

Retail

0.5

12320.65

20.56

299.625

299.627

-0.002

-0.00001

3

4

Service

0.5

14165.477

24.416

290.08

290.086

-0.006

-0.00002

3

5

Manuf

0.5

11838.192

19.686

300.673

300.675

-0.002

-0.00001

3

5

Retail

0.5

12274.561

20.601

297.905

297.912

-0.007

-0.00002

3

5

Service

0.5

14116.667

24.465

288.504

288.507

-0.003

-0.00001

3

6

Manuf

0.5

11838.675

19.813

298.764

298.76

0.004

0.00001

3

6

Retail

0.5

12274.099

20.729

296.061

296.061

0

0.00000

3

6

Service

0.5

14120.707

24.615

286.834

286.831

0.003

0.00001

4

2

Manuf

0.5

11903.283

19.813

300.394

300.391

0.003

0.00001

4

2

Retail

0.5

12340.192

20.729

297.655

297.655

0

0.00000

4

2

Service

0.5

14193.1

24.615

288.305

288.302

0.003

0.00001

4

3

Manuf

0.5

11902.593

19.686

302.308

302.311

-0.003

-0.00001

4

3

Retail

0.5

12340.447

20.601

299.504

299.511

-0.007

-0.00002

4

3

Service

0.5

14188.818

24.465

289.979

289.982

-0.003

-0.00001

4

4

Manuf

0.5

11914.49

19.645

303.247

303.245

0.002

0.00001

4

4

Retail

0.5

12353.03

20.56

300.413

300.414

-0.001

0.00000

4

4

Service

0.5

14200.928

24.416

290.806

290.812

-0.006

-0.00002

4

5

Manuf

0.5

11902.593

19.686

302.308

302.311

-0.003

-0.00001

4

5

Retail

0.5

12340.447

20.601

299.504

299.511

-0.007

-0.00002

4

5

Service

0.5

14188.818

24.465

289.979

289.982

-0.003

-0.00001

4

6

Manuf

0.5

11903.283

19.813

300.394

300.391

0.003

0.00001

4

6

Retail

0.5

12340.192

20.729

297.655

297.655

0

0.00000

Table B.4. Verification of Leisure Time, Eq. (4.30) 285

continued

Table B.4 continued 4

6

Service

0.5

14193.1

24.615

288.305

288.302

0.003

0.00001

5

2

Manuf

0.5

11838.675

19.813

298.764

298.76

0.004

0.00001

5

2

Retail

0.5

12274.099

20.729

296.061

296.061

0

0.00000

5

2

Service

0.5

14120.707

24.615

286.834

286.831

0.003

0.00001

5

3

Manuf

0.5

11838.192

19.686

300.673

300.675

-0.002

-0.00001

5

3

Retail

0.5

12274.561

20.601

297.905

297.912

-0.007

-0.00002

5

3

Service

0.5

14116.667

24.465

288.504

288.507

-0.003

-0.00001

5

4

Manuf

0.5

11882.839

19.645

302.441

302.439

0.002

0.00001

5

4

Retail

0.5

12320.65

20.56

299.625

299.627

-0.002

-0.00001

5

4

Service

0.5

14165.477

24.416

290.08

290.086

-0.006

-0.00002

5

5

Manuf

0.5

11935.311

19.686

303.139

303.142

-0.003

-0.00001

5

5

Retail

0.5

12373.919

20.601

300.316

300.323

-0.007

-0.00002

5

5

Service

0.5

14225.479

24.465

290.728

290.731

-0.003

-0.00001

5

6

Manuf

0.5

11967.89

19.813

302.025

302.021

0.004

0.00001

5

6

Retail

0.5

12406.284

20.729

299.249

299.249

0

0.00000

5

6

Service

0.5

14265.493

24.615

289.775

289.772

0.003

0.00001

6

2

Manuf

0.5

11778.81

19.813

297.253

297.25

0.003

0.00001

6

2

Retail

0.5

12212.832

20.729

294.583

294.583

0

0.00000

6

2

Service

0.5

14053.496

24.615

285.469

285.466

0.003

0.00001

6

3

Manuf

0.5

11778.519

19.686

299.157

299.16

-0.003

-0.00001

6

3

Retail

0.5

12213.489

20.601

296.423

296.43

-0.007

-0.00002

6

3

Service

0.5

14049.686

24.465

287.135

287.138

-0.003

-0.00001 0.00001

6

4

Manuf

0.5

11823.23

19.645

300.924

300.922

0.002

6

4

Retail

0.5

12259.641

20.56

298.142

298.143

-0.001

0.00000

6

4

Service

0.5

14098.57

24.416

288.71

288.716

-0.006

-0.00002

6

5

Manuf

0.5

11907.323

19.686

302.428

302.431

-0.003

-0.00001

6

5

Retail

0.5

12345.26

20.601

299.621

299.628

-0.007

-0.00002

6

5

Service

0.5

14193.987

24.465

290.084

290.088

-0.004

-0.00001

6

6

Manuf

0.5

11999.675

19.813

302.827

302.823

0.004

0.00001

6

6

Retail

0.5

12438.799

20.729

300.034

300.034

0

0.00000

6

6

Service

0.5

14301.101

24.615

290.499

290.496

0.003

0.00001

286

287

kx.k.ix.jx.j 2.Manuf.2.2.Manuf 2.Manuf.2.2.Retail 2.Manuf.2.2.Service 2.Manuf.2.3.Manuf 2.Manuf.2.3.Retail 2.Manuf.2.3.Service 2.Manuf.2.4.Manuf 2.Manuf.2.4.Retail 2.Manuf.2.4.Service 2.Manuf.2.5.Manuf 2.Manuf.2.5.Retail 2.Manuf.2.5.Service 2.Manuf.2.6.Manuf 2.Manuf.2.6.Retail 2.Manuf.2.6.Service 2.Manuf.3.2.Manuf 2.Manuf.3.2.Retail 2.Manuf.3.2.Service 2.Manuf.3.3.Manuf 2.Manuf.3.3.Retail 2.Manuf.3.3.Service 2.Manuf.3.4.Manuf 2.Manuf.3.4.Retail 2.Manuf.3.4.Service 2.Manuf.3.5.Manuf 2.Manuf.3.5.Retail 2.Manuf.3.5.Service 2.Manuf.3.6.Manuf 2.Manuf.3.6.Retail 2.Manuf.3.6.Service 2.Manuf.4.2.Manuf 2.Manuf.4.2.Retail 2.Manuf.4.2.Service 2.Manuf.4.3.Manuf 2.Manuf.4.3.Retail 2.Manuf.4.3.Service 2.Manuf.4.4.Manuf 2.Manuf.4.4.Retail 2.Manuf.4.4.Service 2.Manuf.4.5.Manuf 2.Manuf.4.5.Retail 2.Manuf.4.5.Service 2.Manuf.4.6.Manuf 2.Manuf.4.6.Retail 2.Manuf.4.6.Service 2.Manuf.5.2.Manuf

alpha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TotInc 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839

p 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

Itoll 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15

w 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81

Itime 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108

p.2 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

Table B.5. Residential Shopping, Eq. (4.31)

p.3 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

p.4 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

p.5 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

p.6 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

Itoll2 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15

Itoll3 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48

Itoll4 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74

Itoll5 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36

Itoll6 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67

Itime2 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108

Itime3 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074

Itime4 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037

Itime5 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018

Itime6 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035

z 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

zcalc 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

continued

Table B.5 continued

288

2.Manuf.5.2.Retail 2.Manuf.5.2.Service 2.Manuf.5.3.Manuf 2.Manuf.5.3.Retail 2.Manuf.5.3.Service 2.Manuf.5.4.Manuf 2.Manuf.5.4.Retail 2.Manuf.5.4.Service 2.Manuf.5.5.Manuf 2.Manuf.5.5.Retail 2.Manuf.5.5.Service 2.Manuf.5.6.Manuf 2.Manuf.5.6.Retail 2.Manuf.5.6.Service 2.Manuf.6.2.Manuf 2.Manuf.6.2.Retail 2.Manuf.6.2.Service 2.Manuf.6.3.Manuf 2.Manuf.6.3.Retail 2.Manuf.6.3.Service 2.Manuf.6.4.Manuf 2.Manuf.6.4.Retail 2.Manuf.6.4.Service 2.Manuf.6.5.Manuf 2.Manuf.6.5.Retail 2.Manuf.6.5.Service 2.Manuf.6.6.Manuf 2.Manuf.6.6.Retail 2.Manuf.6.6.Service 2.Retail.2.2.Manuf 2.Retail.2.2.Retail 2.Retail.2.2.Service 2.Retail.2.3.Manuf 2.Retail.2.3.Retail 2.Retail.2.3.Service 2.Retail.2.4.Manuf 2.Retail.2.4.Retail 2.Retail.2.4.Service 2.Retail.2.5.Manuf 2.Retail.2.5.Retail 2.Retail.2.5.Service 2.Retail.2.6.Manuf 2.Retail.2.6.Retail 2.Retail.2.6.Service 2.Retail.3.2.Manuf 2.Retail.3.2.Retail

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182

12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67

20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.98 1.02 1.18 0.98 1.01 1.17 0.97 1.01 1.16 0.97 1.00 1.16 0.97 1.00 1.16 0.95 0.99

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.99 1.02 1.18 0.98 1.01 1.17 0.97 1.01 1.16 0.97 1.00 1.16 0.97 1.00 1.16 0.95 0.99

continued

Table B.5 continued

289

2.Retail.3.2.Service 2.Retail.3.3.Manuf 2.Retail.3.3.Retail 2.Retail.3.3.Service 2.Retail.3.4.Manuf 2.Retail.3.4.Retail 2.Retail.3.4.Service 2.Retail.3.5.Manuf 2.Retail.3.5.Retail 2.Retail.3.5.Service 2.Retail.3.6.Manuf 2.Retail.3.6.Retail 2.Retail.3.6.Service 2.Retail.4.2.Manuf 2.Retail.4.2.Retail 2.Retail.4.2.Service 2.Retail.4.3.Manuf 2.Retail.4.3.Retail 2.Retail.4.3.Service 2.Retail.4.4.Manuf 2.Retail.4.4.Retail 2.Retail.4.4.Service 2.Retail.4.5.Manuf 2.Retail.4.5.Retail 2.Retail.4.5.Service 2.Retail.4.6.Manuf 2.Retail.4.6.Retail 2.Retail.4.6.Service 2.Retail.5.2.Manuf 2.Retail.5.2.Retail 2.Retail.5.2.Service 2.Retail.5.3.Manuf 2.Retail.5.3.Retail 2.Retail.5.3.Service 2.Retail.5.4.Manuf 2.Retail.5.4.Retail 2.Retail.5.4.Service 2.Retail.5.5.Manuf 2.Retail.5.5.Retail 2.Retail.5.5.Service 2.Retail.5.6.Manuf 2.Retail.5.6.Retail 2.Retail.5.6.Service 2.Retail.6.2.Manuf 2.Retail.6.2.Retail 2.Retail.6.2.Service

0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182

14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82

24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017

1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.93 1.06 0.90 0.93 1.06 0.87 0.90 1.03

1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.93 1.06 0.90 0.93 1.06 0.87 0.90 1.03

continued

Table B.5 continued

290

2.Retail.6.3.Manuf 2.Retail.6.3.Retail 2.Retail.6.3.Service 2.Retail.6.4.Manuf 2.Retail.6.4.Retail 2.Retail.6.4.Service 2.Retail.6.5.Manuf 2.Retail.6.5.Retail 2.Retail.6.5.Service 2.Retail.6.6.Manuf 2.Retail.6.6.Retail 2.Retail.6.6.Service 2.Service.2.2.Manuf 2.Service.2.2.Retail 2.Service.2.2.Service 2.Service.2.3.Manuf 2.Service.2.3.Retail 2.Service.2.3.Service 2.Service.2.4.Manuf 2.Service.2.4.Retail 2.Service.2.4.Service 2.Service.2.5.Manuf 2.Service.2.5.Retail 2.Service.2.5.Service 2.Service.2.6.Manuf 2.Service.2.6.Retail 2.Service.2.6.Service 2.Service.3.2.Manuf 2.Service.3.2.Retail 2.Service.3.2.Service 2.Service.3.3.Manuf 2.Service.3.3.Retail 2.Service.3.3.Service 2.Service.3.4.Manuf 2.Service.3.4.Retail 2.Service.3.4.Service 2.Service.3.5.Manuf 2.Service.3.5.Retail 2.Service.3.5.Service 2.Service.3.6.Manuf 2.Service.3.6.Retail 2.Service.3.6.Service 2.Service.4.2.Manuf 2.Service.4.2.Retail 2.Service.4.2.Service 2.Service.4.3.Manuf

0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.87 0.90 1.03 0.87 0.90 1.03 0.88 0.91 1.04 0.88 0.92 1.05 1.67 1.73 2.00 1.66 1.72 1.99 1.65 1.71 1.97 1.64 1.70 1.97 1.64 1.70 1.97 1.61 1.67 1.92 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.90 1.59 1.65 1.90 1.59 1.65 1.90 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53

0.87 0.90 1.03 0.87 0.90 1.03 0.88 0.91 1.04 0.89 0.92 1.05 1.67 1.74 2.00 1.66 1.72 1.99 1.65 1.71 1.97 1.64 1.70 1.97 1.64 1.70 1.97 1.61 1.67 1.92 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.90 1.59 1.65 1.90 1.59 1.65 1.90 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53

continued

Table B.5 continued

291

2.Service.4.3.Retail 2.Service.4.3.Service 2.Service.4.4.Manuf 2.Service.4.4.Retail 2.Service.4.4.Service 2.Service.4.5.Manuf 2.Service.4.5.Retail 2.Service.4.5.Service 2.Service.4.6.Manuf 2.Service.4.6.Retail 2.Service.4.6.Service 2.Service.5.2.Manuf 2.Service.5.2.Retail 2.Service.5.2.Service 2.Service.5.3.Manuf 2.Service.5.3.Retail 2.Service.5.3.Service 2.Service.5.4.Manuf 2.Service.5.4.Retail 2.Service.5.4.Service 2.Service.5.5.Manuf 2.Service.5.5.Retail 2.Service.5.5.Service 2.Service.5.6.Manuf 2.Service.5.6.Retail 2.Service.5.6.Service 2.Service.6.2.Manuf 2.Service.6.2.Retail 2.Service.6.2.Service 2.Service.6.3.Manuf 2.Service.6.3.Retail 2.Service.6.3.Service 2.Service.6.4.Manuf 2.Service.6.4.Retail 2.Service.6.4.Service 2.Service.6.5.Manuf 2.Service.6.5.Retail 2.Service.6.5.Service 2.Service.6.6.Manuf 2.Service.6.6.Retail 2.Service.6.6.Service 3.Manuf.2.2.Manuf 3.Manuf.2.2.Retail 3.Manuf.2.2.Service 3.Manuf.2.3.Manuf 3.Manuf.2.3.Retail

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0 0 0 0 0

12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143

1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.47 1.52 1.74 1.47 1.52 1.74 1.47 1.53 1.74 1.48 1.53 1.75 1.48 1.54 1.75 1.43 1.48 1.69 1.43 1.48 1.69 1.44 1.49 1.70 1.45 1.50 1.71 1.46 1.51 1.72 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.47 1.52 1.74 1.47 1.52 1.74 1.47 1.53 1.74 1.48 1.53 1.75 1.49 1.54 1.76 1.43 1.48 1.69 1.43 1.48 1.69 1.44 1.49 1.70 1.45 1.50 1.71 1.46 1.51 1.72 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

continued

Table B.5 continued

292

3.Manuf.2.3.Service 3.Manuf.2.4.Manuf 3.Manuf.2.4.Retail 3.Manuf.2.4.Service 3.Manuf.2.5.Manuf 3.Manuf.2.5.Retail 3.Manuf.2.5.Service 3.Manuf.2.6.Manuf 3.Manuf.2.6.Retail 3.Manuf.2.6.Service 3.Manuf.3.2.Manuf 3.Manuf.3.2.Retail 3.Manuf.3.2.Service 3.Manuf.3.3.Manuf 3.Manuf.3.3.Retail 3.Manuf.3.3.Service 3.Manuf.3.4.Manuf 3.Manuf.3.4.Retail 3.Manuf.3.4.Service 3.Manuf.3.5.Manuf 3.Manuf.3.5.Retail 3.Manuf.3.5.Service 3.Manuf.3.6.Manuf 3.Manuf.3.6.Retail 3.Manuf.3.6.Service 3.Manuf.4.2.Manuf 3.Manuf.4.2.Retail 3.Manuf.4.2.Service 3.Manuf.4.3.Manuf 3.Manuf.4.3.Retail 3.Manuf.4.3.Service 3.Manuf.4.4.Manuf 3.Manuf.4.4.Retail 3.Manuf.4.4.Service 3.Manuf.4.5.Manuf 3.Manuf.4.5.Retail 3.Manuf.4.5.Service 3.Manuf.4.6.Manuf 3.Manuf.4.6.Retail 3.Manuf.4.6.Service 3.Manuf.5.2.Manuf 3.Manuf.5.2.Retail 3.Manuf.5.2.Service 3.Manuf.5.3.Manuf 3.Manuf.5.3.Retail 3.Manuf.5.3.Service

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48

24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

continued

Table B.5 continued

293

3.Manuf.5.4.Manuf 3.Manuf.5.4.Retail 3.Manuf.5.4.Service 3.Manuf.5.5.Manuf 3.Manuf.5.5.Retail 3.Manuf.5.5.Service 3.Manuf.5.6.Manuf 3.Manuf.5.6.Retail 3.Manuf.5.6.Service 3.Manuf.6.2.Manuf 3.Manuf.6.2.Retail 3.Manuf.6.2.Service 3.Manuf.6.3.Manuf 3.Manuf.6.3.Retail 3.Manuf.6.3.Service 3.Manuf.6.4.Manuf 3.Manuf.6.4.Retail 3.Manuf.6.4.Service 3.Manuf.6.5.Manuf 3.Manuf.6.5.Retail 3.Manuf.6.5.Service 3.Manuf.6.6.Manuf 3.Manuf.6.6.Retail 3.Manuf.6.6.Service 3.Retail.2.2.Manuf 3.Retail.2.2.Retail 3.Retail.2.2.Service 3.Retail.2.3.Manuf 3.Retail.2.3.Retail 3.Retail.2.3.Service 3.Retail.2.4.Manuf 3.Retail.2.4.Retail 3.Retail.2.4.Service 3.Retail.2.5.Manuf 3.Retail.2.5.Retail 3.Retail.2.5.Service 3.Retail.2.6.Manuf 3.Retail.2.6.Retail 3.Retail.2.6.Service 3.Retail.3.2.Manuf 3.Retail.3.2.Retail 3.Retail.3.2.Service 3.Retail.3.3.Manuf 3.Retail.3.3.Retail 3.Retail.3.3.Service 3.Retail.3.4.Manuf

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182

11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.97 1.00 1.15 0.96 0.99 1.15 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.96 1.00 1.15 0.96 1.00 1.15 0.96

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.97 1.00 1.15 0.96 0.99 1.15 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.96 1.00 1.15 0.96 1.00 1.15 0.96

continued

Table B.5 continued

294

3.Retail.3.4.Retail 3.Retail.3.4.Service 3.Retail.3.5.Manuf 3.Retail.3.5.Retail 3.Retail.3.5.Service 3.Retail.3.6.Manuf 3.Retail.3.6.Retail 3.Retail.3.6.Service 3.Retail.4.2.Manuf 3.Retail.4.2.Retail 3.Retail.4.2.Service 3.Retail.4.3.Manuf 3.Retail.4.3.Retail 3.Retail.4.3.Service 3.Retail.4.4.Manuf 3.Retail.4.4.Retail 3.Retail.4.4.Service 3.Retail.4.5.Manuf 3.Retail.4.5.Retail 3.Retail.4.5.Service 3.Retail.4.6.Manuf 3.Retail.4.6.Retail 3.Retail.4.6.Service 3.Retail.5.2.Manuf 3.Retail.5.2.Retail 3.Retail.5.2.Service 3.Retail.5.3.Manuf 3.Retail.5.3.Retail 3.Retail.5.3.Service 3.Retail.5.4.Manuf 3.Retail.5.4.Retail 3.Retail.5.4.Service 3.Retail.5.5.Manuf 3.Retail.5.5.Retail 3.Retail.5.5.Service 3.Retail.5.6.Manuf 3.Retail.5.6.Retail 3.Retail.5.6.Service 3.Retail.6.2.Manuf 3.Retail.6.2.Retail 3.Retail.6.2.Service 3.Retail.6.3.Manuf 3.Retail.6.3.Retail 3.Retail.6.3.Service 3.Retail.6.4.Manuf 3.Retail.6.4.Retail

0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182

12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.91 0.95 1.08 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.89 0.92 1.06 0.89 0.92 1.06 0.89 0.93

0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.91 0.95 1.08 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.89 0.92 1.06 0.89 0.92 1.06 0.89 0.93

continued

Table B.5 continued

295

3.Retail.6.4.Service 3.Retail.6.5.Manuf 3.Retail.6.5.Retail 3.Retail.6.5.Service 3.Retail.6.6.Manuf 3.Retail.6.6.Retail 3.Retail.6.6.Service 3.Service.2.2.Manuf 3.Service.2.2.Retail 3.Service.2.2.Service 3.Service.2.3.Manuf 3.Service.2.3.Retail 3.Service.2.3.Service 3.Service.2.4.Manuf 3.Service.2.4.Retail 3.Service.2.4.Service 3.Service.2.5.Manuf 3.Service.2.5.Retail 3.Service.2.5.Service 3.Service.2.6.Manuf 3.Service.2.6.Retail 3.Service.2.6.Service 3.Service.3.2.Manuf 3.Service.3.2.Retail 3.Service.3.2.Service 3.Service.3.3.Manuf 3.Service.3.3.Retail 3.Service.3.3.Service 3.Service.3.4.Manuf 3.Service.3.4.Retail 3.Service.3.4.Service 3.Service.3.5.Manuf 3.Service.3.5.Retail 3.Service.3.5.Service 3.Service.3.6.Manuf 3.Service.3.6.Retail 3.Service.3.6.Service 3.Service.4.2.Manuf 3.Service.4.2.Retail 3.Service.4.2.Service 3.Service.4.3.Manuf 3.Service.4.3.Retail 3.Service.4.3.Service 3.Service.4.4.Manuf 3.Service.4.4.Retail 3.Service.4.4.Service

0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

1.06 0.90 0.93 1.07 0.91 0.94 1.08 1.62 1.68 1.94 1.61 1.67 1.93 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.59 1.65 1.91 1.59 1.65 1.91 1.62 1.68 1.94 1.62 1.68 1.93 1.61 1.67 1.92 1.60 1.66 1.92 1.60 1.66 1.92 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87

1.06 0.90 0.93 1.07 0.91 0.94 1.08 1.62 1.69 1.94 1.61 1.67 1.93 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.59 1.65 1.91 1.60 1.65 1.91 1.62 1.68 1.94 1.62 1.68 1.93 1.61 1.67 1.93 1.60 1.66 1.92 1.60 1.66 1.92 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87

continued

Table B.5 continued

296

3.Service.4.5.Manuf 3.Service.4.5.Retail 3.Service.4.5.Service 3.Service.4.6.Manuf 3.Service.4.6.Retail 3.Service.4.6.Service 3.Service.5.2.Manuf 3.Service.5.2.Retail 3.Service.5.2.Service 3.Service.5.3.Manuf 3.Service.5.3.Retail 3.Service.5.3.Service 3.Service.5.4.Manuf 3.Service.5.4.Retail 3.Service.5.4.Service 3.Service.5.5.Manuf 3.Service.5.5.Retail 3.Service.5.5.Service 3.Service.5.6.Manuf 3.Service.5.6.Retail 3.Service.5.6.Service 3.Service.6.2.Manuf 3.Service.6.2.Retail 3.Service.6.2.Service 3.Service.6.3.Manuf 3.Service.6.3.Retail 3.Service.6.3.Service 3.Service.6.4.Manuf 3.Service.6.4.Retail 3.Service.6.4.Service 3.Service.6.5.Manuf 3.Service.6.5.Retail 3.Service.6.5.Service 3.Service.6.6.Manuf 3.Service.6.6.Retail 3.Service.6.6.Service 4.Manuf.2.2.Manuf 4.Manuf.2.2.Retail 4.Manuf.2.2.Service 4.Manuf.2.3.Manuf 4.Manuf.2.3.Retail 4.Manuf.2.3.Service 4.Manuf.2.4.Manuf 4.Manuf.2.4.Retail 4.Manuf.2.4.Service 4.Manuf.2.5.Manuf

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143

1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.51 1.56 1.79 1.51 1.56 1.79 1.52 1.57 1.80 1.52 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.47 1.52 1.75 1.47 1.53 1.75 1.48 1.53 1.75 1.49 1.54 1.76 1.50 1.55 1.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.51 1.56 1.79 1.51 1.56 1.79 1.52 1.57 1.80 1.52 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.47 1.53 1.75 1.47 1.53 1.75 1.48 1.53 1.75 1.49 1.54 1.76 1.50 1.55 1.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

continued

Table B.5 continued

297

4.Manuf.2.5.Retail 4.Manuf.2.5.Service 4.Manuf.2.6.Manuf 4.Manuf.2.6.Retail 4.Manuf.2.6.Service 4.Manuf.3.2.Manuf 4.Manuf.3.2.Retail 4.Manuf.3.2.Service 4.Manuf.3.3.Manuf 4.Manuf.3.3.Retail 4.Manuf.3.3.Service 4.Manuf.3.4.Manuf 4.Manuf.3.4.Retail 4.Manuf.3.4.Service 4.Manuf.3.5.Manuf 4.Manuf.3.5.Retail 4.Manuf.3.5.Service 4.Manuf.3.6.Manuf 4.Manuf.3.6.Retail 4.Manuf.3.6.Service 4.Manuf.4.2.Manuf 4.Manuf.4.2.Retail 4.Manuf.4.2.Service 4.Manuf.4.3.Manuf 4.Manuf.4.3.Retail 4.Manuf.4.3.Service 4.Manuf.4.4.Manuf 4.Manuf.4.4.Retail 4.Manuf.4.4.Service 4.Manuf.4.5.Manuf 4.Manuf.4.5.Retail 4.Manuf.4.5.Service 4.Manuf.4.6.Manuf 4.Manuf.4.6.Retail 4.Manuf.4.6.Service 4.Manuf.5.2.Manuf 4.Manuf.5.2.Retail 4.Manuf.5.2.Service 4.Manuf.5.3.Manuf 4.Manuf.5.3.Retail 4.Manuf.5.3.Service 4.Manuf.5.4.Manuf 4.Manuf.5.4.Retail 4.Manuf.5.4.Service 4.Manuf.5.5.Manuf 4.Manuf.5.5.Retail

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

continued

Table B.5 continued

298

4.Manuf.5.5.Service 4.Manuf.5.6.Manuf 4.Manuf.5.6.Retail 4.Manuf.5.6.Service 4.Manuf.6.2.Manuf 4.Manuf.6.2.Retail 4.Manuf.6.2.Service 4.Manuf.6.3.Manuf 4.Manuf.6.3.Retail 4.Manuf.6.3.Service 4.Manuf.6.4.Manuf 4.Manuf.6.4.Retail 4.Manuf.6.4.Service 4.Manuf.6.5.Manuf 4.Manuf.6.5.Retail 4.Manuf.6.5.Service 4.Manuf.6.6.Manuf 4.Manuf.6.6.Retail 4.Manuf.6.6.Service 4.Retail.2.2.Manuf 4.Retail.2.2.Retail 4.Retail.2.2.Service 4.Retail.2.3.Manuf 4.Retail.2.3.Retail 4.Retail.2.3.Service 4.Retail.2.4.Manuf 4.Retail.2.4.Retail 4.Retail.2.4.Service 4.Retail.2.5.Manuf 4.Retail.2.5.Retail 4.Retail.2.5.Service 4.Retail.2.6.Manuf 4.Retail.2.6.Retail 4.Retail.2.6.Service 4.Retail.3.2.Manuf 4.Retail.3.2.Retail 4.Retail.3.2.Service 4.Retail.3.3.Manuf 4.Retail.3.3.Retail 4.Retail.3.3.Service 4.Retail.3.4.Manuf 4.Retail.3.4.Retail 4.Retail.3.4.Service 4.Retail.3.5.Manuf 4.Retail.3.5.Retail 4.Retail.3.5.Service

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182

14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.97 1.11 0.93 0.96 1.10 0.92 0.95 1.10 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.94 0.98 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.94 0.97 1.11 0.93 0.96 1.10 0.92 0.96 1.10 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.94 0.98 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12

continued

Table B.5 continued

299

4.Retail.3.6.Manuf 4.Retail.3.6.Retail 4.Retail.3.6.Service 4.Retail.4.2.Manuf 4.Retail.4.2.Retail 4.Retail.4.2.Service 4.Retail.4.3.Manuf 4.Retail.4.3.Retail 4.Retail.4.3.Service 4.Retail.4.4.Manuf 4.Retail.4.4.Retail 4.Retail.4.4.Service 4.Retail.4.5.Manuf 4.Retail.4.5.Retail 4.Retail.4.5.Service 4.Retail.4.6.Manuf 4.Retail.4.6.Retail 4.Retail.4.6.Service 4.Retail.5.2.Manuf 4.Retail.5.2.Retail 4.Retail.5.2.Service 4.Retail.5.3.Manuf 4.Retail.5.3.Retail 4.Retail.5.3.Service 4.Retail.5.4.Manuf 4.Retail.5.4.Retail 4.Retail.5.4.Service 4.Retail.5.5.Manuf 4.Retail.5.5.Retail 4.Retail.5.5.Service 4.Retail.5.6.Manuf 4.Retail.5.6.Retail 4.Retail.5.6.Service 4.Retail.6.2.Manuf 4.Retail.6.2.Retail 4.Retail.6.2.Service 4.Retail.6.3.Manuf 4.Retail.6.3.Retail 4.Retail.6.3.Service 4.Retail.6.4.Manuf 4.Retail.6.4.Retail 4.Retail.6.4.Service 4.Retail.6.5.Manuf 4.Retail.6.5.Retail 4.Retail.6.5.Service 4.Retail.6.6.Manuf

0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182

11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000

461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

0.94 0.97 1.12 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.98 1.12 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.10 0.93 0.96 1.10 0.93

0.94 0.97 1.12 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.98 1.12 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.96 1.10 0.93 0.96 1.10 0.94

continued

Table B.5 continued

300

4.Retail.6.6.Retail 4.Retail.6.6.Service 4.Service.2.2.Manuf 4.Service.2.2.Retail 4.Service.2.2.Service 4.Service.2.3.Manuf 4.Service.2.3.Retail 4.Service.2.3.Service 4.Service.2.4.Manuf 4.Service.2.4.Retail 4.Service.2.4.Service 4.Service.2.5.Manuf 4.Service.2.5.Retail 4.Service.2.5.Service 4.Service.2.6.Manuf 4.Service.2.6.Retail 4.Service.2.6.Service 4.Service.3.2.Manuf 4.Service.3.2.Retail 4.Service.3.2.Service 4.Service.3.3.Manuf 4.Service.3.3.Retail 4.Service.3.3.Service 4.Service.3.4.Manuf 4.Service.3.4.Retail 4.Service.3.4.Service 4.Service.3.5.Manuf 4.Service.3.5.Retail 4.Service.3.5.Service 4.Service.3.6.Manuf 4.Service.3.6.Retail 4.Service.3.6.Service 4.Service.4.2.Manuf 4.Service.4.2.Retail 4.Service.4.2.Service 4.Service.4.3.Manuf 4.Service.4.3.Retail 4.Service.4.3.Service 4.Service.4.4.Manuf 4.Service.4.4.Retail 4.Service.4.4.Service 4.Service.4.5.Manuf 4.Service.4.5.Retail 4.Service.4.5.Service 4.Service.4.6.Manuf 4.Service.4.6.Retail

0.182 0.182 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340

461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37

20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019

460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37

461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37

0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019

0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.97 1.11 1.56 1.61 1.85 1.54 1.60 1.84 1.53 1.59 1.83 1.53 1.58 1.82 1.53 1.58 1.82 1.58 1.64 1.89 1.58 1.64 1.88 1.57 1.63 1.88 1.57 1.62 1.87 1.57 1.62 1.87 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66

0.97 1.11 1.56 1.61 1.85 1.54 1.60 1.84 1.53 1.59 1.83 1.53 1.58 1.82 1.53 1.58 1.82 1.58 1.64 1.89 1.58 1.64 1.88 1.57 1.63 1.88 1.57 1.62 1.87 1.57 1.62 1.87 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.60 1.66

continued

Table B.5 continued

301

4.Service.4.6.Service 4.Service.5.2.Manuf 4.Service.5.2.Retail 4.Service.5.2.Service 4.Service.5.3.Manuf 4.Service.5.3.Retail 4.Service.5.3.Service 4.Service.5.4.Manuf 4.Service.5.4.Retail 4.Service.5.4.Service 4.Service.5.5.Manuf 4.Service.5.5.Retail 4.Service.5.5.Service 4.Service.5.6.Manuf 4.Service.5.6.Retail 4.Service.5.6.Service 4.Service.6.2.Manuf 4.Service.6.2.Retail 4.Service.6.2.Service 4.Service.6.3.Manuf 4.Service.6.3.Retail 4.Service.6.3.Service 4.Service.6.4.Manuf 4.Service.6.4.Retail 4.Service.6.4.Service 4.Service.6.5.Manuf 4.Service.6.5.Retail 4.Service.6.5.Service 4.Service.6.6.Manuf 4.Service.6.6.Retail 4.Service.6.6.Service 5.Manuf.2.2.Manuf 5.Manuf.2.2.Retail 5.Manuf.2.2.Service 5.Manuf.2.3.Manuf 5.Manuf.2.3.Retail 5.Manuf.2.3.Service 5.Manuf.2.4.Manuf 5.Manuf.2.4.Retail 5.Manuf.2.4.Service 5.Manuf.2.5.Manuf 5.Manuf.2.5.Retail 5.Manuf.2.5.Service 5.Manuf.2.6.Manuf 5.Manuf.2.6.Retail 5.Manuf.2.6.Service

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053

363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62

0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143

1.91 1.57 1.62 1.87 1.57 1.62 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.88 1.58 1.64 1.88 1.58 1.64 1.89 1.53 1.58 1.82 1.53 1.58 1.82 1.53 1.59 1.83 1.54 1.60 1.84 1.56 1.61 1.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.91 1.57 1.62 1.87 1.57 1.62 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.88 1.58 1.64 1.88 1.58 1.64 1.89 1.53 1.58 1.82 1.53 1.58 1.82 1.53 1.59 1.83 1.54 1.60 1.84 1.56 1.61 1.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

continued

Table B.5 continued

302

5.Manuf.3.2.Manuf 5.Manuf.3.2.Retail 5.Manuf.3.2.Service 5.Manuf.3.3.Manuf 5.Manuf.3.3.Retail 5.Manuf.3.3.Service 5.Manuf.3.4.Manuf 5.Manuf.3.4.Retail 5.Manuf.3.4.Service 5.Manuf.3.5.Manuf 5.Manuf.3.5.Retail 5.Manuf.3.5.Service 5.Manuf.3.6.Manuf 5.Manuf.3.6.Retail 5.Manuf.3.6.Service 5.Manuf.4.2.Manuf 5.Manuf.4.2.Retail 5.Manuf.4.2.Service 5.Manuf.4.3.Manuf 5.Manuf.4.3.Retail 5.Manuf.4.3.Service 5.Manuf.4.4.Manuf 5.Manuf.4.4.Retail 5.Manuf.4.4.Service 5.Manuf.4.5.Manuf 5.Manuf.4.5.Retail 5.Manuf.4.5.Service 5.Manuf.4.6.Manuf 5.Manuf.4.6.Retail 5.Manuf.4.6.Service 5.Manuf.5.2.Manuf 5.Manuf.5.2.Retail 5.Manuf.5.2.Service 5.Manuf.5.3.Manuf 5.Manuf.5.3.Retail 5.Manuf.5.3.Service 5.Manuf.5.4.Manuf 5.Manuf.5.4.Retail 5.Manuf.5.4.Service 5.Manuf.5.5.Manuf 5.Manuf.5.5.Retail 5.Manuf.5.5.Service 5.Manuf.5.6.Manuf 5.Manuf.5.6.Retail 5.Manuf.5.6.Service 5.Manuf.6.2.Manuf

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67

19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

continued

Table B.5 continued

303

5.Manuf.6.2.Retail 5.Manuf.6.2.Service 5.Manuf.6.3.Manuf 5.Manuf.6.3.Retail 5.Manuf.6.3.Service 5.Manuf.6.4.Manuf 5.Manuf.6.4.Retail 5.Manuf.6.4.Service 5.Manuf.6.5.Manuf 5.Manuf.6.5.Retail 5.Manuf.6.5.Service 5.Manuf.6.6.Manuf 5.Manuf.6.6.Retail 5.Manuf.6.6.Service 5.Retail.2.2.Manuf 5.Retail.2.2.Retail 5.Retail.2.2.Service 5.Retail.2.3.Manuf 5.Retail.2.3.Retail 5.Retail.2.3.Service 5.Retail.2.4.Manuf 5.Retail.2.4.Retail 5.Retail.2.4.Service 5.Retail.2.5.Manuf 5.Retail.2.5.Retail 5.Retail.2.5.Service 5.Retail.2.6.Manuf 5.Retail.2.6.Retail 5.Retail.2.6.Service 5.Retail.3.2.Manuf 5.Retail.3.2.Retail 5.Retail.3.2.Service 5.Retail.3.3.Manuf 5.Retail.3.3.Retail 5.Retail.3.3.Service 5.Retail.3.4.Manuf 5.Retail.3.4.Retail 5.Retail.3.4.Service 5.Retail.3.5.Manuf 5.Retail.3.5.Retail 5.Retail.3.5.Service 5.Retail.3.6.Manuf 5.Retail.3.6.Retail 5.Retail.3.6.Service 5.Retail.4.2.Manuf 5.Retail.4.2.Retail

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182

12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74

20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037

0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.90 0.93 1.07 0.89 0.93 1.06 0.89 0.92 1.06 0.89 0.92 1.06 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.91 0.95 1.08 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.94 0.97

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.90 0.93 1.07 0.89 0.93 1.06 0.89 0.92 1.06 0.89 0.92 1.06 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.91 0.95 1.08 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.91 0.94 1.08 0.94 0.97

continued

Table B.5 continued

304

5.Retail.4.2.Service 5.Retail.4.3.Manuf 5.Retail.4.3.Retail 5.Retail.4.3.Service 5.Retail.4.4.Manuf 5.Retail.4.4.Retail 5.Retail.4.4.Service 5.Retail.4.5.Manuf 5.Retail.4.5.Retail 5.Retail.4.5.Service 5.Retail.4.6.Manuf 5.Retail.4.6.Retail 5.Retail.4.6.Service 5.Retail.5.2.Manuf 5.Retail.5.2.Retail 5.Retail.5.2.Service 5.Retail.5.3.Manuf 5.Retail.5.3.Retail 5.Retail.5.3.Service 5.Retail.5.4.Manuf 5.Retail.5.4.Retail 5.Retail.5.4.Service 5.Retail.5.5.Manuf 5.Retail.5.5.Retail 5.Retail.5.5.Service 5.Retail.5.6.Manuf 5.Retail.5.6.Retail 5.Retail.5.6.Service 5.Retail.6.2.Manuf 5.Retail.6.2.Retail 5.Retail.6.2.Service 5.Retail.6.3.Manuf 5.Retail.6.3.Retail 5.Retail.6.3.Service 5.Retail.6.4.Manuf 5.Retail.6.4.Retail 5.Retail.6.4.Service 5.Retail.6.5.Manuf 5.Retail.6.5.Retail 5.Retail.6.5.Service 5.Retail.6.6.Manuf 5.Retail.6.6.Retail 5.Retail.6.6.Service 5.Service.2.2.Manuf 5.Service.2.2.Retail 5.Service.2.2.Service

0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.24 0.24 0.24

14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15

24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14

461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143

1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.96 0.99 1.14 0.96 1.00 1.15 0.96 1.00 1.15 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.96 0.99 1.15 0.97 1.00 1.15 1.50 1.55 1.78

1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.94 0.97 1.12 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.96 0.99 1.14 0.96 1.00 1.15 0.96 1.00 1.15 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.96 0.99 1.15 0.97 1.00 1.15 1.50 1.55 1.78

continued

Table B.5 continued

305

5.Service.2.3.Manuf 5.Service.2.3.Retail 5.Service.2.3.Service 5.Service.2.4.Manuf 5.Service.2.4.Retail 5.Service.2.4.Service 5.Service.2.5.Manuf 5.Service.2.5.Retail 5.Service.2.5.Service 5.Service.2.6.Manuf 5.Service.2.6.Retail 5.Service.2.6.Service 5.Service.3.2.Manuf 5.Service.3.2.Retail 5.Service.3.2.Service 5.Service.3.3.Manuf 5.Service.3.3.Retail 5.Service.3.3.Service 5.Service.3.4.Manuf 5.Service.3.4.Retail 5.Service.3.4.Service 5.Service.3.5.Manuf 5.Service.3.5.Retail 5.Service.3.5.Service 5.Service.3.6.Manuf 5.Service.3.6.Retail 5.Service.3.6.Service 5.Service.4.2.Manuf 5.Service.4.2.Retail 5.Service.4.2.Service 5.Service.4.3.Manuf 5.Service.4.3.Retail 5.Service.4.3.Service 5.Service.4.4.Manuf 5.Service.4.4.Retail 5.Service.4.4.Service 5.Service.4.5.Manuf 5.Service.4.5.Retail 5.Service.4.5.Service 5.Service.4.6.Manuf 5.Service.4.6.Retail 5.Service.4.6.Service 5.Service.5.2.Manuf 5.Service.5.2.Retail 5.Service.5.2.Service 5.Service.5.3.Manuf

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

1.49 1.54 1.76 1.48 1.53 1.75 1.47 1.53 1.75 1.47 1.52 1.75 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.52 1.58 1.81 1.52 1.57 1.80 1.51 1.56 1.79 1.51 1.56 1.79 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.60 1.66 1.92 1.60

1.49 1.54 1.76 1.48 1.53 1.75 1.47 1.53 1.75 1.47 1.53 1.75 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.52 1.58 1.81 1.52 1.57 1.80 1.51 1.56 1.79 1.51 1.56 1.79 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.57 1.63 1.87 1.60 1.66 1.92 1.60

continued

Table B.5 continued

306

5.Service.5.3.Retail 5.Service.5.3.Service 5.Service.5.4.Manuf 5.Service.5.4.Retail 5.Service.5.4.Service 5.Service.5.5.Manuf 5.Service.5.5.Retail 5.Service.5.5.Service 5.Service.5.6.Manuf 5.Service.5.6.Retail 5.Service.5.6.Service 5.Service.6.2.Manuf 5.Service.6.2.Retail 5.Service.6.2.Service 5.Service.6.3.Manuf 5.Service.6.3.Retail 5.Service.6.3.Service 5.Service.6.4.Manuf 5.Service.6.4.Retail 5.Service.6.4.Service 5.Service.6.5.Manuf 5.Service.6.5.Retail 5.Service.6.5.Service 5.Service.6.6.Manuf 5.Service.6.6.Retail 5.Service.6.6.Service 6.Manuf.2.2.Manuf 6.Manuf.2.2.Retail 6.Manuf.2.2.Service 6.Manuf.2.3.Manuf 6.Manuf.2.3.Retail 6.Manuf.2.3.Service 6.Manuf.2.4.Manuf 6.Manuf.2.4.Retail 6.Manuf.2.4.Service 6.Manuf.2.5.Manuf 6.Manuf.2.5.Retail 6.Manuf.2.5.Service 6.Manuf.2.6.Manuf 6.Manuf.2.6.Retail 6.Manuf.2.6.Service 6.Manuf.3.2.Manuf 6.Manuf.3.2.Retail 6.Manuf.3.2.Service 6.Manuf.3.3.Manuf 6.Manuf.3.3.Retail

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

1.66 1.92 1.61 1.67 1.92 1.62 1.68 1.93 1.62 1.68 1.94 1.59 1.65 1.91 1.59 1.65 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.61 1.67 1.93 1.62 1.68 1.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.66 1.92 1.61 1.67 1.93 1.62 1.68 1.93 1.62 1.68 1.94 1.60 1.65 1.91 1.59 1.65 1.91 1.60 1.66 1.91 1.61 1.67 1.93 1.62 1.69 1.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

continued

Table B.5 continued

307

6.Manuf.3.3.Service 6.Manuf.3.4.Manuf 6.Manuf.3.4.Retail 6.Manuf.3.4.Service 6.Manuf.3.5.Manuf 6.Manuf.3.5.Retail 6.Manuf.3.5.Service 6.Manuf.3.6.Manuf 6.Manuf.3.6.Retail 6.Manuf.3.6.Service 6.Manuf.4.2.Manuf 6.Manuf.4.2.Retail 6.Manuf.4.2.Service 6.Manuf.4.3.Manuf 6.Manuf.4.3.Retail 6.Manuf.4.3.Service 6.Manuf.4.4.Manuf 6.Manuf.4.4.Retail 6.Manuf.4.4.Service 6.Manuf.4.5.Manuf 6.Manuf.4.5.Retail 6.Manuf.4.5.Service 6.Manuf.4.6.Manuf 6.Manuf.4.6.Retail 6.Manuf.4.6.Service 6.Manuf.5.2.Manuf 6.Manuf.5.2.Retail 6.Manuf.5.2.Service 6.Manuf.5.3.Manuf 6.Manuf.5.3.Retail 6.Manuf.5.3.Service 6.Manuf.5.4.Manuf 6.Manuf.5.4.Retail 6.Manuf.5.4.Service 6.Manuf.5.5.Manuf 6.Manuf.5.5.Retail 6.Manuf.5.5.Service 6.Manuf.5.6.Manuf 6.Manuf.5.6.Retail 6.Manuf.5.6.Service 6.Manuf.6.2.Manuf 6.Manuf.6.2.Retail 6.Manuf.6.2.Service 6.Manuf.6.3.Manuf 6.Manuf.6.3.Retail 6.Manuf.6.3.Service

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

continued

Table B.5 continued

308

6.Manuf.6.4.Manuf 6.Manuf.6.4.Retail 6.Manuf.6.4.Service 6.Manuf.6.5.Manuf 6.Manuf.6.5.Retail 6.Manuf.6.5.Service 6.Manuf.6.6.Manuf 6.Manuf.6.6.Retail 6.Manuf.6.6.Service 6.Retail.2.2.Manuf 6.Retail.2.2.Retail 6.Retail.2.2.Service 6.Retail.2.3.Manuf 6.Retail.2.3.Retail 6.Retail.2.3.Service 6.Retail.2.4.Manuf 6.Retail.2.4.Retail 6.Retail.2.4.Service 6.Retail.2.5.Manuf 6.Retail.2.5.Retail 6.Retail.2.5.Service 6.Retail.2.6.Manuf 6.Retail.2.6.Retail 6.Retail.2.6.Service 6.Retail.3.2.Manuf 6.Retail.3.2.Retail 6.Retail.3.2.Service 6.Retail.3.3.Manuf 6.Retail.3.3.Retail 6.Retail.3.3.Service 6.Retail.3.4.Manuf 6.Retail.3.4.Retail 6.Retail.3.4.Service 6.Retail.3.5.Manuf 6.Retail.3.5.Retail 6.Retail.3.5.Service 6.Retail.3.6.Manuf 6.Retail.3.6.Retail 6.Retail.3.6.Service 6.Retail.4.2.Manuf 6.Retail.4.2.Retail 6.Retail.4.2.Service 6.Retail.4.3.Manuf 6.Retail.4.3.Retail 6.Retail.4.3.Service 6.Retail.4.4.Manuf

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182

11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260 14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65

0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.88 0.92 1.05 0.88 0.91 1.04 0.87 0.90 1.03 0.87 0.90 1.03 0.87 0.90 1.03 0.90 0.93 1.06 0.89 0.93 1.06 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.88 0.91 1.04 0.87 0.90 1.03 0.87 0.90 1.03 0.87 0.90 1.03 0.90 0.93 1.06 0.89 0.93 1.06 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.89 0.92 1.05 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92

continued

Table B.5 continued

309

6.Retail.4.4.Retail 6.Retail.4.4.Service 6.Retail.4.5.Manuf 6.Retail.4.5.Retail 6.Retail.4.5.Service 6.Retail.4.6.Manuf 6.Retail.4.6.Retail 6.Retail.4.6.Service 6.Retail.5.2.Manuf 6.Retail.5.2.Retail 6.Retail.5.2.Service 6.Retail.5.3.Manuf 6.Retail.5.3.Retail 6.Retail.5.3.Service 6.Retail.5.4.Manuf 6.Retail.5.4.Retail 6.Retail.5.4.Service 6.Retail.5.5.Manuf 6.Retail.5.5.Retail 6.Retail.5.5.Service 6.Retail.5.6.Manuf 6.Retail.5.6.Retail 6.Retail.5.6.Service 6.Retail.6.2.Manuf 6.Retail.6.2.Retail 6.Retail.6.2.Service 6.Retail.6.3.Manuf 6.Retail.6.3.Retail 6.Retail.6.3.Service 6.Retail.6.4.Manuf 6.Retail.6.4.Retail 6.Retail.6.4.Service 6.Retail.6.5.Manuf 6.Retail.6.5.Retail 6.Retail.6.5.Service 6.Retail.6.6.Manuf 6.Retail.6.6.Retail 6.Retail.6.6.Service 6.Service.2.2.Manuf 6.Service.2.2.Retail 6.Service.2.2.Service 6.Service.2.3.Manuf 6.Service.2.3.Retail 6.Service.2.3.Service 6.Service.2.4.Manuf 6.Service.2.4.Retail

0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165 11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301 12000 12439 14301 11907 12345 14194 11823 12260

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37

461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143

0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.97 1.00 1.16 0.97 1.00 1.16 0.97 1.01 1.16 0.98 1.01 1.17 0.98 1.02 1.18 1.46 1.51 1.72 1.45 1.50 1.71 1.44 1.49

0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.92 0.95 1.09 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.94 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.98 1.13 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.95 0.99 1.14 0.97 1.00 1.16 0.97 1.00 1.16 0.97 1.01 1.16 0.98 1.01 1.17 0.99 1.02 1.18 1.46 1.51 1.72 1.45 1.50 1.71 1.44 1.49

continued

Table B.5 continued

310

6.Service.2.4.Service 6.Service.2.5.Manuf 6.Service.2.5.Retail 6.Service.2.5.Service 6.Service.2.6.Manuf 6.Service.2.6.Retail 6.Service.2.6.Service 6.Service.3.2.Manuf 6.Service.3.2.Retail 6.Service.3.2.Service 6.Service.3.3.Manuf 6.Service.3.3.Retail 6.Service.3.3.Service 6.Service.3.4.Manuf 6.Service.3.4.Retail 6.Service.3.4.Service 6.Service.3.5.Manuf 6.Service.3.5.Retail 6.Service.3.5.Service 6.Service.3.6.Manuf 6.Service.3.6.Retail 6.Service.3.6.Service 6.Service.4.2.Manuf 6.Service.4.2.Retail 6.Service.4.2.Service 6.Service.4.3.Manuf 6.Service.4.3.Retail 6.Service.4.3.Service 6.Service.4.4.Manuf 6.Service.4.4.Retail 6.Service.4.4.Service 6.Service.4.5.Manuf 6.Service.4.5.Retail 6.Service.4.5.Service 6.Service.4.6.Manuf 6.Service.4.6.Retail 6.Service.4.6.Service 6.Service.5.2.Manuf 6.Service.5.2.Retail 6.Service.5.2.Service 6.Service.5.3.Manuf 6.Service.5.3.Retail 6.Service.5.3.Service 6.Service.5.4.Manuf 6.Service.5.4.Retail 6.Service.5.4.Service

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

14099 11779 12213 14050 11779 12213 14053 11968 12406 14265 11935 12374 14225 11883 12321 14165 11838 12275 14117 11839 12274 14121 11903 12340 14193 11903 12340 14189 11914 12353 14201 11903 12340 14189 11903 12340 14193 11839 12274 14121 11838 12275 14117 11883 12321 14165

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074

0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018

0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

1.70 1.43 1.48 1.69 1.43 1.48 1.69 1.48 1.54 1.75 1.48 1.53 1.75 1.47 1.53 1.74 1.47 1.52 1.74 1.47 1.52 1.74 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.59 1.65 1.90 1.59 1.65 1.90 1.60 1.66 1.90

1.70 1.43 1.48 1.69 1.43 1.48 1.69 1.49 1.54 1.76 1.48 1.53 1.75 1.47 1.53 1.74 1.47 1.52 1.74 1.47 1.52 1.74 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.53 1.58 1.81 1.59 1.65 1.90 1.59 1.65 1.90 1.60 1.66 1.90

continued

Table B.5 continued 6.Service.5.5.Manuf 6.Service.5.5.Retail 6.Service.5.5.Service 6.Service.5.6.Manuf 6.Service.5.6.Retail 6.Service.5.6.Service 6.Service.6.2.Manuf 6.Service.6.2.Retail 6.Service.6.2.Service 6.Service.6.3.Manuf 6.Service.6.3.Retail 6.Service.6.3.Service 6.Service.6.4.Manuf 6.Service.6.4.Retail 6.Service.6.4.Service 6.Service.6.5.Manuf 6.Service.6.5.Retail 6.Service.6.5.Service 6.Service.6.6.Manuf 6.Service.6.6.Retail 6.Service.6.6.Service

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24

11935 12374 14225 11968 12406 14265 11779 12213 14053 11779 12213 14050 11823 12260 14099 11907 12345 14194 12000 12439 14301

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37

363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50 362.50

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143

0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.074 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108

0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072

0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017

1.60 1.66 1.91 1.61 1.67 1.92 1.64 1.70 1.97 1.64 1.70 1.97 1.65 1.71 1.97 1.66 1.72 1.99 1.67 1.73 2.00

1.60 1.66 1.91 1.61 1.67 1.92 1.64 1.70 1.97 1.64 1.70 1.97 1.65 1.71 1.97 1.66 1.72 1.99 1.67 1.74 2.00

311

312

ix.jx.j 2.2.Manuf 2.2.Retail 2.2.Service 2.3.Manuf 2.3.Retail 2.3.Service 2.4.Manuf 2.4.Retail 2.4.Service 2.5.Manuf 2.5.Retail 2.5.Service 2.6.Manuf 2.6.Retail 2.6.Service 3.2.Manuf 3.2.Retail 3.2.Service 3.3.Manuf 3.3.Retail 3.3.Service 3.4.Manuf 3.4.Retail 3.4.Service 3.5.Manuf 3.5.Retail 3.5.Service 3.6.Manuf 3.6.Retail 3.6.Service 4.2.Manuf 4.2.Retail 4.2.Service 4.3.Manuf 4.3.Retail 4.3.Service 4.4.Manuf 4.4.Retail 4.4.Service 4.5.Manuf 4.5.Retail 4.5.Service 4.6.Manuf 4.6.Retail 4.6.Service 5.2.Manuf

leisure 312.27 311.893 303.104 312.008 311.593 302.8 311.126 310.702 301.952 310.111 309.701 301.015 308.977 308.608 299.998 311.799 311.424 302.661 312.466 312.05 303.237 312.055 311.628 302.833 311.039 310.627 301.896 309.904 309.533 300.878 310.852 310.478 301.769 311.988 311.574 302.788 312.527 312.098 303.277 311.988 311.574 302.788 310.852 310.478 301.769 309.904

Itime 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.082

Itime.2 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.082

Itime.3 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.054

Itime.4 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.027

Itime.5 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.013

Table B.6. Length of Work Day, Eq. (4.32)

Itime.6 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.028

z.2.R 0.936 0.942 1.124 0.931 0.938 1.119 0.927 0.934 1.114 0.926 0.933 1.112 0.926 0.933 1.112 0.918 0.924 1.098 0.916 0.922 1.097 0.913 0.92 1.094 0.912 0.918 1.092 0.912 0.918 1.092 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.895 0.901 1.067 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.895 0.901 1.067 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.878

z.2.S 1.599 1.61 1.922 1.591 1.603 1.913 1.584 1.596 1.905 1.581 1.593 1.901 1.582 1.593 1.902 1.56 1.57 1.867 1.556 1.568 1.864 1.552 1.564 1.859 1.549 1.561 1.856 1.55 1.561 1.856 1.512 1.521 1.801 1.511 1.522 1.801 1.511 1.522 1.802 1.511 1.522 1.801 1.512 1.521 1.801 1.476

z.3.R 0.925 0.931 1.109 0.92 0.927 1.104 0.917 0.924 1.1 0.915 0.922 1.097 0.915 0.922 1.098 0.924 0.93 1.108 0.922 0.929 1.106 0.92 0.927 1.103 0.918 0.925 1.101 0.919 0.925 1.101 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.909 0.916 1.088 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.909 0.916 1.088 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.893

z.3.S 1.572 1.582 1.885 1.563 1.575 1.876 1.557 1.569 1.869 1.554 1.565 1.865 1.555 1.565 1.865 1.57 1.581 1.883 1.567 1.578 1.88 1.563 1.574 1.876 1.56 1.571 1.872 1.561 1.571 1.872 1.54 1.551 1.843 1.539 1.55 1.843 1.54 1.551 1.844 1.539 1.55 1.843 1.54 1.551 1.843 1.504

z.4.R 0.907 0.913 1.084 0.902 0.909 1.079 0.899 0.905 1.075 0.897 0.903 1.073 0.897 0.903 1.073 0.915 0.921 1.095 0.913 0.919 1.093 0.91 0.917 1.09 0.908 0.915 1.088 0.909 0.915 1.088 0.918 0.924 1.1 0.917 0.924 1.1 0.918 0.924 1.1 0.917 0.924 1.1 0.918 0.924 1.1 0.909

z.4.S 1.53 1.54 1.828 1.523 1.534 1.82 1.516 1.527 1.813 1.513 1.524 1.809 1.514 1.524 1.809 1.548 1.558 1.853 1.544 1.556 1.85 1.54 1.552 1.845 1.537 1.549 1.842 1.538 1.549 1.842 1.556 1.567 1.866 1.555 1.566 1.865 1.556 1.567 1.866 1.555 1.566 1.865 1.556 1.567 1.866 1.538

z.5.R 0.891 0.896 1.061 0.886 0.892 1.056 0.882 0.889 1.052 0.881 0.887 1.05 0.881 0.887 1.05 0.898 0.904 1.072 0.896 0.903 1.07 0.894 0.9 1.067 0.892 0.898 1.065 0.893 0.898 1.065 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.909 0.916 1.088 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.909 0.916 1.088 0.91 0.916 1.089 0.919

z.5.S 1.497 1.506 1.781 1.489 1.5 1.773 1.483 1.494 1.766 1.48 1.49 1.762 1.481 1.49 1.762 1.513 1.523 1.805 1.51 1.521 1.802 1.506 1.517 1.797 1.503 1.514 1.794 1.504 1.514 1.794 1.54 1.551 1.843 1.539 1.55 1.843 1.54 1.551 1.844 1.539 1.55 1.843 1.54 1.551 1.843 1.561

z.6.R 0.876 0.882 1.041 0.872 0.878 1.036 0.868 0.874 1.032 0.867 0.873 1.03 0.867 0.872 1.03 0.883 0.889 1.051 0.882 0.888 1.049 0.879 0.886 1.047 0.878 0.884 1.045 0.878 0.884 1.045 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.895 0.901 1.067 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.895 0.901 1.067 0.895 0.901 1.068 0.912

z.6.S 1.469 1.478 1.741 1.462 1.472 1.733 1.456 1.466 1.727 1.453 1.463 1.723 1.453 1.463 1.723 1.485 1.495 1.764 1.482 1.493 1.761 1.478 1.489 1.757 1.475 1.486 1.754 1.476 1.486 1.754 1.512 1.521 1.801 1.511 1.522 1.801 1.511 1.522 1.802 1.511 1.522 1.801 1.512 1.521 1.801 1.55

h 7.533 7.549 7.937 7.518 7.536 7.924 7.504 7.523 7.909 7.497 7.515 7.898 7.493 7.509 7.889 7.545 7.562 7.952 7.544 7.562 7.954 7.536 7.555 7.946 7.528 7.546 7.935 7.524 7.54 7.926 7.54 7.557 7.945 7.544 7.563 7.955 7.547 7.566 7.96 7.544 7.563 7.955 7.54 7.557 7.945 7.524

hcalc 7.533 7.550 7.938 7.518 7.536 7.924 7.504 7.523 7.909 7.496 7.514 7.898 7.494 7.510 7.890 7.545 7.561 7.951 7.544 7.563 7.955 7.535 7.554 7.946 7.528 7.546 7.935 7.523 7.540 7.925 7.540 7.556 7.945 7.544 7.562 7.955 7.547 7.567 7.960 7.544 7.562 7.955 7.540 7.556 7.945 7.523

difference -0.0003 -0.0010 -0.0009 0.0005 0.0001 -0.0001 0.0001 0.0003 0.0001 0.0009 0.0007 0.0003 -0.0006 -0.0010 -0.0009 0.0003 0.0005 0.0006 -0.0005 -0.0011 -0.0013 0.0007 0.0006 0.0002 0.0004 0.0000 0.0005 0.0009 0.0003 0.0012 0.0005 0.0007 0.0002 0.0001 0.0006 0.0005 -0.0004 -0.0006 -0.0003 0.0001 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0007 0.0002 0.0009

continued

Table B.6 continued

313

5.2.Retail 5.2.Service 5.3.Manuf 5.3.Retail 5.3.Service 5.4.Manuf 5.4.Retail 5.4.Service 5.5.Manuf 5.5.Retail 5.5.Service 5.6.Manuf 5.6.Retail 5.6.Service 6.2.Manuf 6.2.Retail 6.2.Service 6.3.Manuf 6.3.Retail 6.3.Service 6.4.Manuf 6.4.Retail 6.4.Service 6.5.Manuf 6.5.Retail 6.5.Service 6.6.Manuf 6.6.Retail 6.6.Service

309.533 300.878 311.039 310.627 301.896 312.055 311.628 302.833 312.466 312.05 303.237 311.799 311.424 302.661 308.977 308.608 299.998 310.111 309.701 301.015 311.126 310.702 301.952 312.008 311.593 302.8 312.27 311.893 303.104

0.082 0.082 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.014 0.014 0.014

0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.109

0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.054 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082 0.082

0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055

0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028

0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014

0.884 1.045 0.878 0.884 1.045 0.879 0.886 1.047 0.882 0.888 1.049 0.883 0.889 1.051 0.867 0.872 1.03 0.867 0.873 1.03 0.868 0.874 1.032 0.872 0.878 1.036 0.876 0.882 1.041

1.486 1.754 1.475 1.486 1.754 1.478 1.489 1.757 1.482 1.493 1.761 1.485 1.495 1.764 1.453 1.463 1.723 1.453 1.463 1.723 1.456 1.466 1.727 1.462 1.472 1.733 1.469 1.478 1.741

0.898 1.065 0.892 0.898 1.065 0.894 0.9 1.067 0.896 0.903 1.07 0.898 0.904 1.072 0.881 0.887 1.05 0.881 0.887 1.05 0.882 0.889 1.052 0.886 0.892 1.056 0.891 0.896 1.061

1.514 1.794 1.503 1.514 1.794 1.506 1.517 1.797 1.51 1.521 1.802 1.513 1.523 1.805 1.481 1.49 1.762 1.48 1.49 1.762 1.483 1.494 1.766 1.489 1.5 1.773 1.497 1.506 1.781

0.915 1.088 0.908 0.915 1.088 0.91 0.917 1.09 0.913 0.919 1.093 0.915 0.921 1.095 0.897 0.903 1.073 0.897 0.903 1.073 0.899 0.905 1.075 0.902 0.909 1.079 0.907 0.913 1.084

1.549 1.842 1.537 1.549 1.842 1.54 1.552 1.845 1.544 1.556 1.85 1.548 1.558 1.853 1.514 1.524 1.809 1.513 1.524 1.809 1.516 1.527 1.813 1.523 1.534 1.82 1.53 1.54 1.828

0.925 1.101 0.918 0.925 1.101 0.92 0.927 1.103 0.922 0.929 1.106 0.924 0.93 1.108 0.915 0.922 1.098 0.915 0.922 1.097 0.917 0.924 1.1 0.92 0.927 1.104 0.925 0.931 1.109

1.571 1.872 1.56 1.571 1.872 1.563 1.574 1.876 1.567 1.578 1.88 1.57 1.581 1.883 1.555 1.565 1.865 1.554 1.565 1.865 1.557 1.569 1.869 1.563 1.575 1.876 1.572 1.582 1.885

0.918 1.092 0.912 0.918 1.092 0.913 0.92 1.094 0.916 0.922 1.097 0.918 0.924 1.098 0.926 0.933 1.112 0.926 0.933 1.112 0.927 0.934 1.114 0.931 0.938 1.119 0.936 0.942 1.124

1.561 1.856 1.549 1.561 1.856 1.552 1.564 1.859 1.556 1.568 1.864 1.56 1.57 1.867 1.582 1.593 1.902 1.581 1.593 1.901 1.584 1.596 1.905 1.591 1.603 1.913 1.599 1.61 1.922

7.54 7.926 7.528 7.546 7.935 7.536 7.555 7.946 7.544 7.562 7.954 7.545 7.562 7.952 7.493 7.509 7.889 7.497 7.515 7.898 7.504 7.523 7.909 7.518 7.536 7.924 7.533 7.549 7.937

7.540 7.925 7.528 7.546 7.935 7.535 7.554 7.946 7.544 7.563 7.955 7.545 7.561 7.951 7.494 7.510 7.890 7.496 7.514 7.898 7.504 7.523 7.909 7.518 7.536 7.924 7.533 7.550 7.938

0.0003 0.0012 0.0004 0.0000 0.0005 0.0007 0.0006 0.0002 -0.0005 -0.0011 -0.0013 0.0003 0.0005 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.0010 -0.0009 0.0009 0.0007 0.0003 0.0001 0.0003 0.0001 0.0005 0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0010 -0.0009

ix.jx.j TotInc p.2.M p.2.R p.2.S p.3.M p.3.R p.3.S p.4.M p.4.R p.4.S p.5.M p.5.R p.5.S p.6.M p.6.R p.6.S Itoll2 Itoll3 Itoll4 Itoll5 Itoll6 w Itime2 Itime3 Itime4 Itime5 Itime6 rho U Ucalc % Diff 2.2.Manuf 12000 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 19.81 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 44.0 44.0 0.0000 2.2.Retail 12440 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 20.73 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 44.6 44.6 -0.0001 2.2.Service 14300 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 24.62 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 47.1 47.0 0.0001 2.3.Manuf 11910 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 19.69 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 43.8 43.8 -0.0002 2.3.Retail 12350 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 20.60 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 44.4 44.4 -0.0004 2.3.Service 14190 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 24.47 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 46.8 46.8 0.0003 2.4.Manuf 11820 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 19.65 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 43.6 43.6 0.0003 2.4.Retail 12260 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 20.56 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 44.2 44.2 0.0000 2.4.Service 14100 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 24.42 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 46.6 46.6 -0.0001 2.5.Manuf 11780 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 19.69 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 43.4 43.4 -0.0001 2.5.Retail 12210 453.5 460.9 362.5 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.2 461.4 363.4 453.3 461.3 363.1 453.5 460.9 362.5 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 20.60 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.14 1140.5 43.9 43.9 0.0003

Table B.7. Utility Eq. (4.38)

continued

Table B.7 continued

314

2.5.Service 2.6.Manuf 2.6.Retail 2.6.Service 3.2.Manuf 3.2.Retail 3.2.Service 3.3.Manuf 3.3.Retail 3.3.Service 3.4.Manuf 3.4.Retail 3.4.Service 3.5.Manuf 3.5.Retail 3.5.Service 3.6.Manuf 3.6.Retail 3.6.Service 4.2.Manuf 4.2.Retail 4.2.Service 4.3.Manuf 4.3.Retail 4.3.Service 4.4.Manuf 4.4.Retail 4.4.Service 4.5.Manuf 4.5.Retail 4.5.Service 4.6.Manuf 4.6.Retail 4.6.Service 5.2.Manuf 5.2.Retail 5.2.Service 5.3.Manuf 5.3.Retail 5.3.Service 5.4.Manuf 5.4.Retail 5.4.Service 5.5.Manuf 5.5.Retail 5.5.Service

14050 11780 12210 14050 11970 12410 14270 11940 12370 14230 11880 12320 14170 11840 12270 14120 11840 12270 14120 11900 12340 14190 11900 12340 14190 11910 12350 14200 11900 12340 14190 11900 12340 14190 11840 12270 14120 11840 12270 14120 11880 12320 14170 11940 12370 14230

453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5

460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9

362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5

453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3

461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3

363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1

453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2

461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4

363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4

453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3

461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3

363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1

453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5

460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9

362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48

1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36

2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11

0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07

0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04

0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04

1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1218.9 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1198.5

46.4 43.2 43.8 46.2 43.8 44.4 46.8 43.8 44.4 46.8 43.7 44.3 46.7 43.5 44.1 46.5 43.3 43.9 46.4 43.6 44.1 46.6 43.7 44.3 46.7 43.8 44.4 46.8 43.7 44.3 46.7 43.6 44.1 46.6 43.3 43.9 46.4 43.5 44.1 46.5 43.7 44.3 46.7 43.8 44.4 46.8

46.4 43.2 43.8 46.2 43.8 44.4 46.9 43.9 44.4 46.9 43.7 44.3 46.7 43.5 44.1 46.5 43.4 43.9 46.4 43.5 44.1 46.6 43.7 44.3 46.7 43.8 44.4 46.8 43.7 44.3 46.7 43.5 44.1 46.6 43.4 43.9 46.4 43.5 44.1 46.5 43.7 44.3 46.7 43.9 44.4 46.9

0.0000 -0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 -0.0002 -0.0003 -0.0003 -0.0004 0.0003 -0.0003 0.0002 0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0002 0.0004 -0.0003 -0.0001 0.0003 0.0001 0.0003 0.0000 0.0002 0.0002 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0004 0.0003 0.0001 0.0002 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0003 0.0000 0.0002 -0.0001 0.0003 0.0001 -0.0002 0.0004 -0.0003 0.0002 0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0004 0.0003 -0.0003

continued

Table B.7 continued 5.6.Manuf 5.6.Retail 5.6.Service 6.2.Manuf 6.2.Retail 6.2.Service 6.3.Manuf 6.3.Retail 6.3.Service 6.4.Manuf 6.4.Retail 6.4.Service 6.5.Manuf 6.5.Retail 6.5.Service 6.6.Manuf 6.6.Retail 6.6.Service

11970 12410 14270 11780 12210 14050 11780 12210 14050 11820 12260 14100 11910 12350 14190 12000 12440 14300

453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5

460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9

362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5

453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3

461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3

363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1

453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2 453.2

461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4 461.4

363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4 363.4

453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3 453.3

461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3 461.3

363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1 363.1

453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5 453.5

460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9 460.9

362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5

2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.82

1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

19.81 20.73 24.62 19.81 20.73 24.62 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.65 20.56 24.42 19.69 20.60 24.47 19.81 20.73 24.62

0.11 0.11 0.11 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14

0.07 0.07 0.07 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11

0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04

0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

1198.5 1198.5 1198.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5 1140.5

43.8 44.4 46.8 43.2 43.8 46.2 43.4 43.9 46.4 43.6 44.2 46.6 43.8 44.4 46.8 44.0 44.6 47.1

43.8 44.4 46.9 43.2 43.8 46.2 43.4 43.9 46.4 43.6 44.2 46.6 43.8 44.4 46.8 44.0 44.6 47.0

-0.0002 -0.0003 -0.0003 -0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 -0.0001 0.0003 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000 -0.0001 -0.0002 -0.0004 0.0003 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0001

315

kx.jx.j 2.2.Manuf 2.2.Retail 2.2.Service 2.3.Manuf 2.3.Retail 2.3.Service 2.4.Manuf 2.4.Retail 2.4.Service 2.5.Manuf 2.5.Retail 2.5.Service 2.6.Manuf 2.6.Retail 2.6.Service 3.2.Manuf 3.2.Retail 3.2.Service 3.3.Manuf 3.3.Retail 3.3.Service 3.4.Manuf 3.4.Retail 3.4.Service 3.5.Manuf 3.5.Retail 3.5.Service 3.6.Manuf 3.6.Retail 3.6.Service 4.2.Manuf 4.2.Retail 4.2.Service 4.3.Manuf 4.3.Retail 4.3.Service 4.4.Manuf 4.4.Retail 4.4.Service 4.5.Manuf 4.5.Retail 4.5.Service 4.6.Manuf 4.6.Retail

pop lambdapop U zpop zpopcalc Difference sumexp exp 180 0.4 44.04 1.508 1.511 -0.003 119.15 1.00 180 0.4 44.62 1.906 1.905 0.001 94.48 0.79 180 0.4 47.05 5.038 5.036 0.002 35.74 0.30 180 0.4 43.84 1.394 1.395 -0.001 129.07 1.08 180 0.4 44.42 1.761 1.759 0.002 102.35 0.86 180 0.4 46.84 4.634 4.63 0.004 38.88 0.33 180 0.4 43.57 1.254 1.252 0.002 143.80 1.20 180 0.4 44.16 1.585 1.585 0 113.57 0.95 180 0.4 46.57 4.163 4.156 0.007 43.31 0.36 180 0.4 43.36 1.153 1.151 0.002 156.40 1.31 180 0.4 43.95 1.457 1.457 0 123.52 1.03 180 0.4 46.37 3.83 3.837 -0.007 46.92 0.39 180 0.4 43.23 1.091 1.093 -0.002 164.74 1.38 180 0.4 43.81 1.378 1.378 0 130.63 1.09 180 0.4 46.24 3.637 3.642 -0.005 49.42 0.41 180 0.4 43.82 1.384 1.383 0.001 130.11 1.09 180 0.4 44.41 1.749 1.752 -0.003 102.76 0.86 180 0.4 46.84 4.624 4.63 -0.006 38.88 0.33 180 0.4 43.84 1.396 1.395 0.001 129.07 1.08 180 0.4 44.43 1.764 1.766 -0.002 101.94 0.85 180 0.4 46.85 4.646 4.649 -0.003 38.72 0.32 180 0.4 43.7 1.316 1.319 -0.003 136.51 1.14 180 0.4 44.28 1.664 1.663 0.001 108.24 0.91 180 0.4 46.7 4.374 4.378 -0.004 41.12 0.34 180 0.4 43.49 1.21 1.212 -0.002 148.47 1.24 180 0.4 44.07 1.529 1.529 0 117.73 0.99 180 0.4 46.49 4.026 4.025 0.001 44.72 0.37 180 0.4 43.35 1.145 1.146 -0.001 157.02 1.32 180 0.4 43.93 1.447 1.446 0.001 124.51 1.04 180 0.4 46.36 3.824 3.821 0.003 47.11 0.39 180 0.4 43.55 1.243 1.242 0.001 144.95 1.21 180 0.4 44.14 1.571 1.572 -0.001 114.48 0.96 180 0.4 46.57 4.153 4.156 -0.003 43.31 0.36 180 0.4 43.69 1.313 1.313 0 137.06 1.15 180 0.4 44.28 1.66 1.663 -0.003 108.24 0.91 180 0.4 46.7 4.372 4.378 -0.006 41.12 0.34 180 0.4 43.78 1.361 1.361 0 132.21 1.11 180 0.4 44.37 1.72 1.724 -0.004 104.42 0.87 180 0.4 46.78 4.526 4.52 0.006 39.82 0.33 180 0.4 43.69 1.313 1.313 0 137.06 1.15 180 0.4 44.28 1.66 1.663 -0.003 108.24 0.91 180 0.4 46.7 4.372 4.378 -0.006 41.12 0.34 180 0.4 43.55 1.243 1.242 0.001 144.95 1.21 180 0.4 44.14 1.571 1.572 -0.001 114.48 0.96

Table B.8. Population Assignment, Eq. (4.41) 316

continued

Table B.8 continued 4.6.Service 5.2.Manuf 5.2.Retail 5.2.Service 5.3.Manuf 5.3.Retail 5.3.Service 5.4.Manuf 5.4.Retail 5.4.Service 5.5.Manuf 5.5.Retail 5.5.Service 5.6.Manuf 5.6.Retail 5.6.Service 6.2.Manuf 6.2.Retail 6.2.Service 6.3.Manuf 6.3.Retail 6.3.Service 6.4.Manuf 6.4.Retail 6.4.Service 6.5.Manuf 6.5.Retail 6.5.Service 6.6.Manuf 6.6.Retail 6.6.Service

180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

46.57 43.35 43.93 46.36 43.49 44.07 46.49 43.7 44.28 46.7 43.84 44.43 46.85 43.82 44.41 46.84 43.23 43.81 46.24 43.36 43.95 46.37 43.57 44.16 46.57 43.84 44.42 46.84 44.04 44.62 47.05

4.153 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038

4.156 1.146 1.446 3.821 1.212 1.529 4.025 1.319 1.663 4.378 1.395 1.766 4.649 1.383 1.752 4.63 1.093 1.378 3.642 1.151 1.457 3.837 1.252 1.585 4.156 1.395 1.759 4.63 1.511 1.905 5.036

317

-0.003 -0.001 0.001 0.003 -0.002 0 0.001 -0.003 0.001 -0.004 0.001 -0.002 -0.003 0.001 -0.003 -0.006 -0.002 0 -0.005 0.002 0 -0.007 0.002 0 0.007 -0.001 0.002 0.004 -0.003 0.001 0.002

43.31 157.02 124.51 47.11 148.47 117.73 44.72 136.51 108.24 41.12 129.07 101.94 38.72 130.11 102.76 38.88 164.74 130.63 49.42 156.40 123.52 46.92 143.80 113.57 43.31 129.07 102.35 38.88 119.15 94.48 35.74

0.36 1.32 1.04 0.39 1.24 0.99 0.37 1.14 0.91 0.34 1.08 0.85 0.32 1.09 0.86 0.33 1.38 1.09 0.41 1.31 1.03 0.39 1.20 0.95 0.36 1.08 0.86 0.33 1.00 0.79 0.30

318

kx k ix x 2 Manuf 2 2 Manuf 3 2 Manuf 4 2 Manuf 5 2 Manuf 6 2 Retail 2 2 Retail 3 2 Retail 4 2 Retail 5 2 Retail 6 2 Service 2 2 Service 3 2 Service 4 2 Service 5 2 Service 6 3 Manuf 2 3 Manuf 3 3 Manuf 4 3 Manuf 5 3 Manuf 6 3 Retail 2 3 Retail 3 3 Retail 4 3 Retail 5 3 Retail 6 3 Service 2 3 Service 3 3 Service 4 3 Service 5 3 Service 6 4 Manuf 2 4 Manuf 3 4 Manuf 4 4 Manuf 5 4 Manuf 6 4 Retail 2 4 Retail 3 4 Retail 4 4 Retail 5 4 Retail 6 4 Service 2 4 Service 3 4 Service 4 4 Service 5 4 Service 6 5 Manuf 2

xcalc 0 0 0 0 0 36.88 36.65 35.92 35.15 34.3 63.04 62.29 60.64 59.04 57.44 0 0 0 0 0 36.41 36.94 36.58 35.8 34.93 61.87 62.78 61.93 60.3 58.65 0 0 0 0 0 35.63 36.52 36.94 36.52 35.63 60.11 61.81 62.64 61.81 60.11 0

0 0 0 0 0 36.88 36.65 35.92 35.15 34.3 63.03 62.28 60.63 59.04 57.44 0 0 0 0 0 36.42 36.94 36.58 35.79 34.93 61.87 62.78 61.93 60.3 58.65 0 0 0 0 0 35.64 36.52 36.94 36.52 35.64 60.11 61.81 62.64 61.81 60.11 0

difference purch.2.M purch.2.R purch.2.S purch.3.M purch.3.R purch.3.S purch.4.M purch.4.R purch.4.S purch.5.M purch.5.R purch.5.S purch.6.M purch.6.R purch.6.S 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 1.619 1.681 4.706 1.552 1.617 4.515 1.476 1.539 4.288 1.423 1.483 4.124 1.390 1.444 4.020 0 1.538 1.596 4.453 1.538 1.602 4.469 1.494 1.558 4.342 1.440 1.499 4.177 1.408 1.461 4.071 0 1.433 1.487 4.136 1.466 1.526 4.239 1.487 1.551 4.310 1.466 1.526 4.239 1.433 1.487 4.136 0 1.356 1.406 3.896 1.386 1.444 3.997 1.438 1.501 4.156 1.481 1.542 4.274 1.479 1.535 4.263 0 1.301 1.350 3.723 1.333 1.387 3.820 1.382 1.440 3.972 1.454 1.514 4.180 1.515 1.573 4.359 0.01 2.766 2.872 8.047 2.652 2.764 7.719 2.522 2.630 7.332 2.430 2.531 7.051 2.375 2.466 6.876 0.01 2.613 2.711 7.573 2.613 2.724 7.594 2.539 2.649 7.378 2.446 2.549 7.099 2.393 2.484 6.919 0.01 2.421 2.510 6.975 2.475 2.578 7.155 2.511 2.619 7.273 2.475 2.578 7.155 2.421 2.510 6.975 0 2.279 2.364 6.539 2.329 2.427 6.709 2.418 2.522 6.974 2.488 2.593 7.174 2.487 2.582 7.155 0 2.181 2.265 6.229 2.233 2.325 6.391 2.318 2.416 6.647 2.437 2.538 6.993 2.541 2.637 7.290 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.01 1.600 1.661 4.643 1.534 1.598 4.455 1.460 1.523 4.234 1.406 1.465 4.069 1.373 1.427 3.969 0 1.548 1.606 4.494 1.548 1.614 4.506 1.505 1.570 4.378 1.450 1.511 4.211 1.419 1.472 4.105 0 1.457 1.511 4.218 1.489 1.552 4.323 1.512 1.576 4.395 1.489 1.552 4.323 1.457 1.511 4.218 0.01 1.379 1.429 3.970 1.408 1.466 4.074 1.463 1.525 4.235 1.504 1.569 4.359 1.504 1.561 4.348 0 1.322 1.373 3.796 1.354 1.409 3.894 1.404 1.465 4.049 1.477 1.538 4.261 1.541 1.598 4.442 0 2.720 2.822 7.892 2.606 2.715 7.570 2.479 2.586 7.194 2.388 2.487 6.917 2.334 2.423 6.742 0 2.630 2.730 7.637 2.631 2.741 7.659 2.557 2.666 7.446 2.463 2.565 7.160 2.410 2.499 6.979 0 2.466 2.559 7.138 2.521 2.626 7.322 2.559 2.669 7.442 2.521 2.626 7.322 2.466 2.559 7.138 0 2.322 2.409 6.688 2.373 2.472 6.862 2.464 2.570 7.132 2.535 2.642 7.341 2.534 2.630 7.321 0 2.223 2.307 6.370 2.275 2.368 6.535 2.361 2.462 6.797 2.482 2.586 7.154 2.590 2.687 7.457 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.01 1.569 1.629 4.539 1.504 1.567 4.354 1.431 1.491 4.138 1.379 1.435 3.980 1.346 1.398 3.879 0 1.533 1.591 4.441 1.533 1.596 4.453 1.489 1.553 4.326 1.434 1.494 4.162 1.403 1.456 4.056 0 1.470 1.525 4.260 1.502 1.565 4.370 1.526 1.590 4.440 1.502 1.565 4.370 1.470 1.525 4.260 0 1.403 1.456 4.056 1.434 1.494 4.162 1.489 1.553 4.326 1.533 1.596 4.453 1.533 1.591 4.441 -0.01 1.346 1.398 3.879 1.379 1.435 3.980 1.431 1.491 4.138 1.504 1.567 4.354 1.569 1.629 4.539 0 2.647 2.747 7.654 2.539 2.645 7.344 2.413 2.516 6.978 2.325 2.422 6.710 2.273 2.359 6.540 0 2.593 2.691 7.516 2.592 2.703 7.537 2.519 2.629 7.323 2.427 2.530 7.046 2.375 2.464 6.867 0 2.491 2.586 7.227 2.547 2.653 7.410 2.586 2.697 7.531 2.547 2.653 7.410 2.491 2.586 7.227 0 2.375 2.464 6.867 2.427 2.530 7.046 2.519 2.629 7.323 2.592 2.703 7.537 2.593 2.691 7.516 0 2.273 2.359 6.540 2.325 2.422 6.710 2.413 2.516 6.978 2.539 2.645 7.344 2.647 2.747 7.654 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

Table B.9. Goods Purchased by Workers, Eq. (4.42)

continued

Table B.9 continued

319

5 Manuf 5 Manuf 5 Manuf 5 Manuf 5 Retail 5 Retail 5 Retail 5 Retail 5 Retail 5 Service 5 Service 5 Service 5 Service 5 Service 6 Manuf 6 Manuf 6 Manuf 6 Manuf 6 Manuf 6 Retail 6 Retail 6 Retail 6 Retail 6 Retail 6 Service 6 Service 6 Service 6 Service 6 Service

3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6

0 0 0 0 34.93 35.8 36.58 36.94 36.41 58.65 60.3 61.93 62.78 61.87 0 0 0 0 0 34.3 35.15 35.92 36.65 36.88 57.44 59.04 60.64 62.29 63.04

0 0 0 0 34.93 35.79 36.58 36.94 36.42 58.65 60.3 61.93 62.78 61.87 0 0 0 0 0 34.3 35.15 35.92 36.65 36.88 57.44 59.04 60.63 62.28 63.03

0 0 0 0 0 0.01 0 0 -0.01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01 0.01 0.01

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.541 1.504 1.457 1.419 1.373 2.590 2.534 2.466 2.410 2.334 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.515 1.479 1.433 1.408 1.390 2.541 2.487 2.421 2.393 2.375

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.598 1.561 1.511 1.472 1.427 2.687 2.630 2.559 2.499 2.423 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.573 1.535 1.487 1.461 1.444 2.637 2.582 2.510 2.484 2.466

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 4.442 4.348 4.218 4.105 3.969 7.457 7.321 7.138 6.979 6.742 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 4.359 4.263 4.136 4.071 4.020 7.290 7.155 6.975 6.919 6.876

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.477 1.504 1.489 1.450 1.406 2.482 2.535 2.521 2.463 2.388 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.454 1.481 1.466 1.440 1.423 2.437 2.488 2.475 2.446 2.430

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.538 1.569 1.552 1.511 1.465 2.586 2.642 2.626 2.565 2.487 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.514 1.542 1.526 1.499 1.483 2.538 2.593 2.578 2.549 2.531

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 4.261 4.359 4.323 4.211 4.069 7.154 7.341 7.322 7.160 6.917 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 4.180 4.274 4.239 4.177 4.124 6.993 7.174 7.155 7.099 7.051

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.404 1.463 1.512 1.505 1.460 2.361 2.464 2.559 2.557 2.479 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.382 1.438 1.487 1.494 1.476 2.318 2.418 2.511 2.539 2.522

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.465 1.525 1.576 1.570 1.523 2.462 2.570 2.669 2.666 2.586 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.440 1.501 1.551 1.558 1.539 2.416 2.522 2.619 2.649 2.630

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 4.049 4.235 4.395 4.378 4.234 6.797 7.132 7.442 7.446 7.194 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.972 4.156 4.310 4.342 4.288 6.647 6.974 7.273 7.378 7.332

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.354 1.408 1.489 1.548 1.534 2.275 2.373 2.521 2.631 2.606 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.333 1.386 1.466 1.538 1.552 2.233 2.329 2.475 2.613 2.652

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.409 1.466 1.552 1.614 1.598 2.368 2.472 2.626 2.741 2.715 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.387 1.444 1.526 1.602 1.617 2.325 2.427 2.578 2.724 2.764

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.894 4.074 4.323 4.506 4.455 6.535 6.862 7.322 7.659 7.570 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.820 3.997 4.239 4.469 4.515 6.391 6.709 7.155 7.594 7.719

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.322 1.379 1.457 1.548 1.600 2.223 2.322 2.466 2.630 2.720 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.301 1.356 1.433 1.538 1.619 2.181 2.279 2.421 2.613 2.766

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.373 1.429 1.511 1.606 1.661 2.307 2.409 2.559 2.730 2.822 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.350 1.406 1.487 1.596 1.681 2.265 2.364 2.510 2.711 2.872

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.796 3.970 4.218 4.494 4.643 6.370 6.688 7.138 7.637 7.892 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.723 3.896 4.136 4.453 4.706 6.229 6.539 6.975 7.573 8.047

320

ix.i x.ix.i.1.M x.ix.i.1.R x.ix.i.1.S x.ix.i.1.W x.ix.i.2.M x.ix.i.2.R x.ix.i.2.S x.ix.i.2.W x.ix.i.3.M x.ix.i.3.R x.ix.i.3.S x.ix.i.3.W x.ix.i.4.M x.ix.i.4.R x.ix.i.4.S x.ix.i.4.W x.ix.i.5.M x.ix.i.5.R x.ix.i.5.S x.ix.i.5.W x.ix.i.6.M x.ix.i.6.R x.ix.i.6.S x.ix.i.6.W x.ix.i.7.M x.ix.i.7.R x.ix.i.7.S x.ix.i.7.W production productioncalc difference

2.Manuf 17.115 0 0 0 0 30.523 0 0 0 30.553 0 0 0 30.321 0 0 0 29.964 0 0 0 29.53 0 0 12.201 0 0 0 180.206 180.207 -0.001

2.Retail 0 3.272 0 0 18.871 0 10.897 39.248 18.85 0 10.856 38.462 18.693 0 10.758 37.147 18.493 0 10.65 35.94 18.266 0 10.548 34.956 0 2.333 0 0 338.24 338.24 0

2.Service 0 0 12.34 0 7.23 7.758 45.258 66.672 7.205 7.737 44.986 64.801 7.124 7.653 44.444 61.937 7.032 7.551 43.905 59.465 6.937 7.443 43.424 57.577 0 0 8.797 0 627.276 627.276 0

3.Manuf 16.132 0 0 0 0 30.449 0 0 0 30.75 0 0 0 30.663 0 0 0 30.302 0 0 0 29.862 0 0 13.513 0 0 0 181.67 181.671 -0.001

3.Retail 0 2.916 0 0 18.712 0 10.805 38.449 18.855 0 10.859 38.894 18.786 0 10.811 38.195 18.584 0 10.703 36.947 18.357 0 10.6 35.93 0 2.442 0 0 340.844 340.845 -0.001

Table B.10. Production by Firms, Eq. (4.46)

3.Service 0 0 10.67 0 7.123 7.643 44.588 64.686 7.178 7.708 44.814 65.454 7.139 7.67 44.541 63.897 7.047 7.568 44 61.331 6.952 7.459 43.518 59.369 0 0 8.937 0 629.291 629.292 -0.001

4.Manuf 14.874 0 0 0 0 30.178 0 0 0 30.623 0 0 0 30.836 0 0 0 30.623 0 0 0 30.178 0 0 14.874 0 0 0 182.186 182.186 0

4.Retail 0 2.637 0 0 18.51 0 10.688 37.117 18.74 0 10.793 38.176 18.851 0 10.849 38.793 18.74 0 10.793 38.176 18.51 0 10.688 37.117 0 2.637 0 0 341.815 341.815 0

4.Service 0 0 9.548 0 7.015 7.527 43.914 61.771 7.111 7.637 44.401 63.833 7.16 7.692 44.671 65.073 7.111 7.637 44.401 63.833 7.015 7.527 43.914 61.771 0 0 9.548 0 630.109 630.11 -0.001

5.Manuf 13.513 0 0 0 0 29.862 0 0 0 30.302 0 0 0 30.663 0 0 0 30.75 0 0 0 30.449 0 0 16.132 0 0 0 181.67 181.671 -0.001

5.Retail 0 2.442 0 0 18.357 0 10.6 35.93 18.584 0 10.703 36.947 18.786 0 10.811 38.195 18.855 0 10.859 38.894 18.712 0 10.805 38.449 0 2.916 0 0 340.844 340.845 -0.001

5.Service 0 0 8.937 0 6.952 7.459 43.518 59.369 7.047 7.568 44 61.331 7.139 7.67 44.541 63.897 7.178 7.708 44.814 65.454 7.123 7.643 44.588 64.686 0 0 10.67 0 629.291 629.292 -0.001

6.Manuf 12.201 0 0 0 0 29.53 0 0 0 29.964 0 0 0 30.321 0 0 0 30.553 0 0 0 30.523 0 0 17.115 0 0 0 180.206 180.207 -0.001

6.Retail 0 2.333 0 0 18.266 0 10.548 34.956 18.493 0 10.65 35.94 18.693 0 10.758 37.147 18.85 0 10.856 38.462 18.871 0 10.897 39.248 0 3.272 0 0 338.24 338.24 0

6.Service 0 0 8.797 0 6.937 7.443 43.424 57.577 7.032 7.551 43.905 59.465 7.124 7.653 44.444 61.937 7.205 7.737 44.986 64.801 7.23 7.758 45.258 66.672 0 0 12.34 0 627.276 627.276 0

ix i

p

omega production

2 Manuf

453.526

0.04

2 Retail

460.919

2 Service 362.495

rho

landused

landusedcalc

difference

180.206 1140.462

2.866

2.866

0.000

0.05

338.24 1140.462

6.835

6.835

0.000

0.1

627.276 1140.462

19.938

19.938

0.000

3 Manuf

453.311

0.04

181.67 1198.535

2.748

2.748

0.000

3 Retail

461.266

0.05

340.844 1198.535

6.559

6.559

0.000

3 Service 363.143

0.1

629.291 1198.535

19.067

19.067

0.000

4 Manuf

453.238

0.04

182.186 1218.892

2.710

2.710

0.000

4 Retail

461.383

0.05

341.815 1218.892

6.469

6.469

0.000

4 Service 363.368

0.1

630.109 1218.892

18.784

18.784

0.000

5 Manuf

453.311

0.04

181.67 1198.535

2.748

2.748

0.000

5 Retail

461.266

0.05

340.844 1198.535

6.559

6.559

0.000

5 Service 363.143

0.1

629.291 1198.535

19.067

19.067

0.000

6 Manuf

453.526

0.04

180.206 1140.462

2.866

2.866

0.000

6 Retail

460.919

0.05

338.24 1140.462

6.835

6.835

0.000

6 Service 362.495

0.1

627.276 1140.462

19.938

19.938

0.000

Table B.11. Verification of Landused by Firms, Eq. (4.59)

321

ix i

p

2 Manuf

453.53

0.27

180.206 19.81 1113.756 1113.743

0.013

0.0000

2 Retail

460.92

0.19

338.24 20.73 1428.975 1428.976

-0.001

0.0000

2 Service

362.5

0.43

627.276 24.62 3972.227 3972.184

0.043

0.0000

3 Manuf

453.31

0.27

181.67 19.69 1129.489 1129.499

-0.01

0.0000

3 Retail

461.27

0.19

340.844

20.6 1449.981 1450.015

-0.034

0.0000

3 Service 363.14

0.43

629.291 24.47 4016.499 4016.543

-0.044

0.0000

4 Manuf

453.24

0.27

182.186 19.65 1134.896 1134.888

0.008

0.0000

4 Retail

461.38

0.19

341.815 20.56 1457.409 1457.415

-0.006

0.0000

4 Service 363.37

0.43

630.109 24.42

4032.25 4032.332

-0.082

0.0000

5 Manuf

453.31

0.27

181.67 19.69 1129.489 1129.499

-0.01

0.0000

5 Retail

461.27

0.19

340.844

20.6 1449.981 1450.015

-0.034

0.0000

5 Service 363.14

0.43

629.291 24.47 4016.499 4016.543

-0.044

0.0000

6 Manuf

453.53

0.27

180.206 19.81 1113.756 1113.743

0.013

0.0000

6 Retail

460.92

0.19

338.24 20.73 1428.975 1428.976

-0.001

0.0000

362.5

0.43

627.276 24.62 3972.227 3972.184

0.043

0.0000

6 Service

alpha production w

labor

laborcalc

Table B.12. Verification of Labor Used by Firms, Eq. (4.60)

322

difference %diff

323

ix.i.jx.j 1.Manuf.2.Manuf 1.Manuf.2.Retail 1.Manuf.2.Service 1.Manuf.3.Manuf 1.Manuf.3.Retail 1.Manuf.3.Service 1.Manuf.4.Manuf 1.Manuf.4.Retail 1.Manuf.4.Service 1.Manuf.5.Manuf 1.Manuf.5.Retail 1.Manuf.5.Service 1.Manuf.6.Manuf 1.Manuf.6.Retail 1.Manuf.6.Service 1.Retail.2.Manuf 1.Retail.2.Retail 1.Retail.2.Service 1.Retail.3.Manuf 1.Retail.3.Retail 1.Retail.3.Service 1.Retail.4.Manuf 1.Retail.4.Retail 1.Retail.4.Service 1.Retail.5.Manuf 1.Retail.5.Retail 1.Retail.5.Service 1.Retail.6.Manuf 1.Retail.6.Retail 1.Retail.6.Service 1.Service.2.Manuf 1.Service.2.Retail 1.Service.2.Service 1.Service.3.Manuf 1.Service.3.Retail 1.Service.3.Service 1.Service.4.Manuf 1.Service.4.Retail 1.Service.4.Service 1.Service.5.Manuf 1.Service.5.Retail 1.Service.5.Service 1.Service.6.Manuf 1.Service.6.Retail 1.Service.6.Service 2.Manuf.2.Manuf

alpha 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0

p.jx.j 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526

production p.ix.i Itoll 180.206 423.278 338.24 423.278 627.276 423.278 181.67 423.278 340.844 423.278 629.291 423.278 182.186 423.278 341.815 423.278 630.109 423.278 181.67 423.278 340.844 423.278 629.291 423.278 180.206 423.278 338.24 423.278 627.276 423.278 180.206 1184.561 338.24 1184.561 627.276 1184.561 181.67 1184.561 340.844 1184.561 629.291 1184.561 182.186 1184.561 341.815 1184.561 630.109 1184.561 181.67 1184.561 340.844 1184.561 629.291 1184.561 180.206 1184.561 338.24 1184.561 627.276 1184.561 180.206 800.281 338.24 800.281 627.276 800.281 181.67 800.281 340.844 800.281 629.291 800.281 182.186 800.281 341.815 800.281 630.109 800.281 181.67 800.281 340.844 800.281 629.291 800.281 180.206 800.281 338.24 800.281 627.276 800.281 180.206 453.526

0.308 0.308 0.308 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.718 1.718 1.718 2.456 2.456 2.456 3.128 3.128 3.128 0.308 0.308 0.308 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.718 1.718 1.718 2.456 2.456 2.456 3.128 3.128 3.128 0.308 0.308 0.308 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.718 1.718 1.718 2.456 2.456 2.456 3.128 3.128 3.128 0.308

delta p.1.i p.2.i p.3.i p.4.i p.5.i p.6.i p.7.i Itoll1 Itoll2 Itoll3 Itoll4 Itoll5 Itoll6 Itoll7 x 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 0.98 0.67 0.36 0.74 1.48 2.15 2.46 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 0.98 0.67 0.36 0.74 1.48 2.15 2.46 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 0.98 0.67 0.36 0.74 1.48 2.15 2.46 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 1.72 1.41 0.74 0.37 0.74 1.41 1.72 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 1.72 1.41 0.74 0.37 0.74 1.41 1.72 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 1.72 1.41 0.74 0.37 0.74 1.41 1.72 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 2.46 2.15 1.48 0.74 0.36 0.67 0.98 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 2.46 2.15 1.48 0.74 0.36 0.67 0.98 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 2.46 2.15 1.48 0.74 0.36 0.67 0.98 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 3.13 2.82 2.15 1.41 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 3.13 2.82 2.15 1.41 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 3.13 2.82 2.15 1.41 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 0.98 0.67 0.36 0.74 1.48 2.15 2.46 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 0.98 0.67 0.36 0.74 1.48 2.15 2.46 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 0.98 0.67 0.36 0.74 1.48 2.15 2.46 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 1.72 1.41 0.74 0.37 0.74 1.41 1.72 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 1.72 1.41 0.74 0.37 0.74 1.41 1.72 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 1.72 1.41 0.74 0.37 0.74 1.41 1.72 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 2.46 2.15 1.48 0.74 0.36 0.67 0.98 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 2.46 2.15 1.48 0.74 0.36 0.67 0.98 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 2.46 2.15 1.48 0.74 0.36 0.67 0.98 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 3.13 2.82 2.15 1.41 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 3.13 2.82 2.15 1.41 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.8 1184.56 460.92 461.27 461.38 461.27 460.92 1184.56 3.13 2.82 2.15 1.41 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 0.98 0.67 0.36 0.74 1.48 2.15 2.46 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 0.98 0.67 0.36 0.74 1.48 2.15 2.46 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 0.98 0.67 0.36 0.74 1.48 2.15 2.46 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 1.72 1.41 0.74 0.37 0.74 1.41 1.72 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 1.72 1.41 0.74 0.37 0.74 1.41 1.72 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 1.72 1.41 0.74 0.37 0.74 1.41 1.72 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 2.46 2.15 1.48 0.74 0.36 0.67 0.98 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 2.46 2.15 1.48 0.74 0.36 0.67 0.98 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 2.46 2.15 1.48 0.74 0.36 0.67 0.98 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 3.13 2.82 2.15 1.41 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 3.13 2.82 2.15 1.41 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.8 800.28 362.5 363.14 363.37 363.14 362.5 800.28 3.13 2.82 2.15 1.41 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.8 423.28 453.53 453.31 453.24 453.31 453.53 423.28 0.31 0.31 0.67 1.41 2.15 2.82 3.13

Table B.13. Input of Goods to Firms, Eq. (4.67)

0 43.09 0 0 42.929 0 0 42.574 0 0 42.044 0 0 41.41 0 0.169 0 0.097 0.169 0 0.097 0.168 0 0.097 0.168 0 0.096 0.166 0 0.096 0.138 0.148 0.865 0.138 0.148 0.861 0.137 0.147 0.856 0.136 0.146 0.852 0.135 0.145 0.847 0

xcalc Diff 0.000 0.0000 43.091 -0.0015 0.000 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 42.930 -0.0014 0.000 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 42.575 -0.0011 0.000 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 42.046 -0.0018 0.000 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 41.411 -0.0009 0.000 0.0000 0.169 0.0003 0.000 0.0000 0.097 -0.0004 0.169 0.0002 0.000 0.0000 0.097 -0.0002 0.168 -0.0003 0.000 0.0000 0.097 0.0001 0.168 0.0005 0.000 0.0000 0.096 -0.0005 0.166 -0.0003 0.000 0.0000 0.096 -0.0001 0.138 -0.0002 0.148 -0.0003 0.865 -0.0004 0.138 0.0001 0.148 -0.0001 0.861 0.0000 0.137 -0.0003 0.147 -0.0005 0.856 -0.0003 0.136 -0.0004 0.146 -0.0005 0.852 0.0004 0.135 -0.0004 0.145 -0.0002 0.847 -0.0003 0.000 0.0000

continued

Table B.13 continued

324

2.Manuf.2.Retail 2.Manuf.2.Service 2.Manuf.3.Manuf 2.Manuf.3.Retail 2.Manuf.3.Service 2.Manuf.4.Manuf 2.Manuf.4.Retail 2.Manuf.4.Service 2.Manuf.5.Manuf 2.Manuf.5.Retail 2.Manuf.5.Service 2.Manuf.6.Manuf 2.Manuf.6.Retail 2.Manuf.6.Service 2.Retail.2.Manuf 2.Retail.2.Retail 2.Retail.2.Service 2.Retail.3.Manuf 2.Retail.3.Retail 2.Retail.3.Service 2.Retail.4.Manuf 2.Retail.4.Retail 2.Retail.4.Service 2.Retail.5.Manuf 2.Retail.5.Retail 2.Retail.5.Service 2.Retail.6.Manuf 2.Retail.6.Retail 2.Retail.6.Service 2.Service.2.Manuf 2.Service.2.Retail 2.Service.2.Service 2.Service.3.Manuf 2.Service.3.Retail 2.Service.3.Service 2.Service.4.Manuf 2.Service.4.Retail 2.Service.4.Service 2.Service.5.Manuf 2.Service.5.Retail 2.Service.5.Service 2.Service.6.Manuf 2.Service.6.Retail 2.Service.6.Service 3.Manuf.2.Manuf 3.Manuf.2.Retail

0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0 0.67

460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919

338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24

453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 453.311 453.311

0.308 0.308 0.672 0.672 0.672 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.148 2.148 2.148 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.308 0.308 0.308 0.672 0.672 0.672 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.148 2.148 2.148 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.308 0.308 0.308 0.672 0.672 0.672 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.148 2.148 2.148 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.672 0.672

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.24 453.24

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28

0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31

0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31

0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67

1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15

2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82

3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13

30.523 0 0 30.552 0 0 30.32 0 0 29.963 0 0 29.529 0 18.871 0 10.897 18.85 0 10.856 18.693 0 10.757 18.493 0 10.65 18.266 0 10.548 7.23 7.758 45.258 7.205 7.737 44.986 7.124 7.653 44.444 7.032 7.551 43.905 6.937 7.443 43.424 0 30.448

30.524 0.000 0.000 30.553 0.000 0.000 30.321 0.000 0.000 29.964 0.000 0.000 29.530 0.000 18.871 0.000 10.897 18.850 0.000 10.856 18.693 0.000 10.758 18.493 0.000 10.651 18.267 0.000 10.548 7.230 7.758 45.259 7.205 7.737 44.986 7.124 7.653 44.445 7.032 7.552 43.905 6.937 7.443 43.425 0.000 30.449

-0.0006 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0007 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0006 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0011 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0009 0.0000 -0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0003 0.0000 -0.0004 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0006 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0005 -0.0006 0.0000 0.0002 0.0001 0.0003 -0.0006 -0.0002 -0.0004 -0.0002 0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0006 -0.0001 -0.0005 -0.0004 0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0007 0.0000 -0.0011

continued

Table B.13 continued

325

3.Manuf.2.Service 3.Manuf.3.Manuf 3.Manuf.3.Retail 3.Manuf.3.Service 3.Manuf.4.Manuf 3.Manuf.4.Retail 3.Manuf.4.Service 3.Manuf.5.Manuf 3.Manuf.5.Retail 3.Manuf.5.Service 3.Manuf.6.Manuf 3.Manuf.6.Retail 3.Manuf.6.Service 3.Retail.2.Manuf 3.Retail.2.Retail 3.Retail.2.Service 3.Retail.3.Manuf 3.Retail.3.Retail 3.Retail.3.Service 3.Retail.4.Manuf 3.Retail.4.Retail 3.Retail.4.Service 3.Retail.5.Manuf 3.Retail.5.Retail 3.Retail.5.Service 3.Retail.6.Manuf 3.Retail.6.Retail 3.Retail.6.Service 3.Service.2.Manuf 3.Service.2.Retail 3.Service.2.Service 3.Service.3.Manuf 3.Service.3.Retail 3.Service.3.Service 3.Service.4.Manuf 3.Service.4.Retail 3.Service.4.Service 3.Service.5.Manuf 3.Service.5.Retail 3.Service.5.Service 3.Service.6.Manuf 3.Service.6.Retail 3.Service.6.Service 4.Manuf.2.Manuf 4.Manuf.2.Retail 4.Manuf.2.Service

0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0 0.67 0

362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495

627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276

453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 453.238 453.238 453.238

0.672 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.738 0.738 0.738 1.476 1.476 1.476 2.148 2.148 2.148 0.672 0.672 0.672 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.738 0.738 0.738 1.476 1.476 1.476 2.148 2.148 2.148 0.672 0.672 0.672 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.738 0.738 0.738 1.476 1.476 1.476 2.148 2.148 2.148 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28 423.28

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53 453.53

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.24 453.24 453.24

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53 453.53

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28 423.28

0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67

1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41

2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15

2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82

3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13

0 0 30.749 0 0 30.662 0 0 30.301 0 0 29.861 0 18.712 0 10.805 18.855 0 10.859 18.786 0 10.811 18.584 0 10.703 18.357 0 10.6 7.123 7.643 44.587 7.178 7.708 44.813 7.139 7.67 44.541 7.047 7.568 44 6.952 7.459 43.518 0 30.178 0

0.000 0.000 30.750 0.000 0.000 30.663 0.000 0.000 30.302 0.000 0.000 29.862 0.000 18.712 0.000 10.805 18.855 0.000 10.859 18.786 0.000 10.811 18.585 0.000 10.703 18.357 0.000 10.600 7.123 7.643 44.588 7.178 7.708 44.814 7.139 7.670 44.541 7.047 7.568 44.001 6.952 7.459 43.519 0.000 30.178 0.000

0.0000 0.0000 -0.0010 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0011 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0008 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0012 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.0001 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0001 -0.0008 0.0000 -0.0005 -0.0002 0.0000 -0.0002 0.0003 0.0003 -0.0011 0.0003 0.0001 -0.0012 -0.0004 0.0000 -0.0004 -0.0004 0.0000 -0.0008 0.0001 -0.0004 -0.0008 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0000

continued

Table B.13 continued

326

4.Manuf.3.Manuf 4.Manuf.3.Retail 4.Manuf.3.Service 4.Manuf.4.Manuf 4.Manuf.4.Retail 4.Manuf.4.Service 4.Manuf.5.Manuf 4.Manuf.5.Retail 4.Manuf.5.Service 4.Manuf.6.Manuf 4.Manuf.6.Retail 4.Manuf.6.Service 4.Retail.2.Manuf 4.Retail.2.Retail 4.Retail.2.Service 4.Retail.3.Manuf 4.Retail.3.Retail 4.Retail.3.Service 4.Retail.4.Manuf 4.Retail.4.Retail 4.Retail.4.Service 4.Retail.5.Manuf 4.Retail.5.Retail 4.Retail.5.Service 4.Retail.6.Manuf 4.Retail.6.Retail 4.Retail.6.Service 4.Service.2.Manuf 4.Service.2.Retail 4.Service.2.Service 4.Service.3.Manuf 4.Service.3.Retail 4.Service.3.Service 4.Service.4.Manuf 4.Service.4.Retail 4.Service.4.Service 4.Service.5.Manuf 4.Service.5.Retail 4.Service.5.Service 4.Service.6.Manuf 4.Service.6.Retail 4.Service.6.Service 5.Manuf.2.Manuf 5.Manuf.2.Retail 5.Manuf.2.Service 5.Manuf.3.Manuf

0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0 0.67 0 0

453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311

181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67

453.238 453.238 453.238 453.238 453.238 453.238 453.238 453.238 453.238 453.238 453.238 453.238 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 461.383 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 363.368 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311

0.738 0.738 0.738 0.374 0.374 0.374 0.738 0.738 0.738 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.738 0.738 0.738 0.374 0.374 0.374 0.738 0.738 0.738 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.738 0.738 0.738 0.374 0.374 0.374 0.738 0.738 0.738 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.148 2.148 2.148 1.476

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28

0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98

0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67

0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74

1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48

2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15

2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46

0 30.622 0 0 30.835 0 0 30.622 0 0 30.178 0 18.51 0 10.688 18.74 0 10.793 18.851 0 10.848 18.74 0 10.793 18.51 0 10.688 7.015 7.527 43.913 7.111 7.637 44.4 7.16 7.692 44.671 7.111 7.637 44.4 7.015 7.527 43.913 0 29.861 0 0

0.000 30.623 0.000 0.000 30.836 0.000 0.000 30.623 0.000 0.000 30.178 0.000 18.510 0.000 10.688 18.740 0.000 10.793 18.851 0.000 10.849 18.740 0.000 10.793 18.510 0.000 10.688 7.015 7.527 43.914 7.112 7.637 44.401 7.160 7.692 44.671 7.112 7.637 44.401 7.015 7.527 43.914 0.000 29.862 0.000 0.000

0.0000 -0.0010 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0007 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0010 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0000 -0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0.0002 -0.0001 0.0000 -0.0006 0.0002 0.0000 0.0002 -0.0001 0.0000 -0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0002 -0.0010 -0.0005 0.0002 -0.0012 -0.0002 -0.0003 -0.0002 -0.0005 0.0002 -0.0012 -0.0001 -0.0002 -0.0010 0.0000 -0.0012 0.0000 0.0000

continued

Table B.13 continued

327

5.Manuf.3.Retail 5.Manuf.3.Service 5.Manuf.4.Manuf 5.Manuf.4.Retail 5.Manuf.4.Service 5.Manuf.5.Manuf 5.Manuf.5.Retail 5.Manuf.5.Service 5.Manuf.6.Manuf 5.Manuf.6.Retail 5.Manuf.6.Service 5.Retail.2.Manuf 5.Retail.2.Retail 5.Retail.2.Service 5.Retail.3.Manuf 5.Retail.3.Retail 5.Retail.3.Service 5.Retail.4.Manuf 5.Retail.4.Retail 5.Retail.4.Service 5.Retail.5.Manuf 5.Retail.5.Retail 5.Retail.5.Service 5.Retail.6.Manuf 5.Retail.6.Retail 5.Retail.6.Service 5.Service.2.Manuf 5.Service.2.Retail 5.Service.2.Service 5.Service.3.Manuf 5.Service.3.Retail 5.Service.3.Service 5.Service.4.Manuf 5.Service.4.Retail 5.Service.4.Service 5.Service.5.Manuf 5.Service.5.Retail 5.Service.5.Service 5.Service.6.Manuf 5.Service.6.Retail 5.Service.6.Service 6.Manuf.2.Manuf 6.Manuf.2.Retail 6.Manuf.2.Service 6.Manuf.3.Manuf 6.Manuf.3.Retail

0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0 0.67 0 0 0.67

461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266

340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844

453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 453.311 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 461.266 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 363.143 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526

1.476 1.476 0.738 0.738 0.738 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.672 0.672 0.672 2.148 2.148 2.148 1.476 1.476 1.476 0.738 0.738 0.738 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.672 0.672 0.672 2.148 2.148 2.148 1.476 1.476 1.476 0.738 0.738 0.738 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.672 0.672 0.672 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.148 2.148

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28

0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98

0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67

0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36

0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74

1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48

2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15

2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46

30.301 0 0 30.662 0 0 30.749 0 0 30.448 0 18.357 0 10.6 18.584 0 10.703 18.786 0 10.811 18.855 0 10.859 18.712 0 10.805 6.952 7.459 43.518 7.047 7.568 44 7.139 7.67 44.541 7.178 7.708 44.813 7.123 7.643 44.587 0 29.529 0 0 29.963

30.302 0.000 0.000 30.663 0.000 0.000 30.750 0.000 0.000 30.449 0.000 18.357 0.000 10.600 18.585 0.000 10.703 18.786 0.000 10.811 18.855 0.000 10.859 18.712 0.000 10.805 6.952 7.459 43.519 7.047 7.568 44.001 7.139 7.670 44.541 7.178 7.708 44.814 7.123 7.643 44.588 0.000 29.530 0.000 0.000 29.964

-0.0008 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0011 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0010 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0011 0.0000 -0.0002 0.0000 -0.0002 -0.0008 0.0000 -0.0005 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.0001 0.0001 -0.0004 -0.0008 -0.0004 0.0000 -0.0008 -0.0004 0.0000 -0.0004 0.0003 0.0001 -0.0012 0.0003 0.0003 -0.0011 0.0000 -0.0009 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0011

continued

Table B.13 continued

328

6.Manuf.3.Service 6.Manuf.4.Manuf 6.Manuf.4.Retail 6.Manuf.4.Service 6.Manuf.5.Manuf 6.Manuf.5.Retail 6.Manuf.5.Service 6.Manuf.6.Manuf 6.Manuf.6.Retail 6.Manuf.6.Service 6.Retail.2.Manuf 6.Retail.2.Retail 6.Retail.2.Service 6.Retail.3.Manuf 6.Retail.3.Retail 6.Retail.3.Service 6.Retail.4.Manuf 6.Retail.4.Retail 6.Retail.4.Service 6.Retail.5.Manuf 6.Retail.5.Retail 6.Retail.5.Service 6.Retail.6.Manuf 6.Retail.6.Retail 6.Retail.6.Service 6.Service.2.Manuf 6.Service.2.Retail 6.Service.2.Service 6.Service.3.Manuf 6.Service.3.Retail 6.Service.3.Service 6.Service.4.Manuf 6.Service.4.Retail 6.Service.4.Service 6.Service.5.Manuf 6.Service.5.Retail 6.Service.5.Service 6.Service.6.Manuf 6.Service.6.Retail 6.Service.6.Service 7.Manuf.2.Manuf 7.Manuf.2.Retail 7.Manuf.2.Service 7.Manuf.3.Manuf 7.Manuf.3.Retail 7.Manuf.3.Service

0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0

363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143

629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291

453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 453.526 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 460.919 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 362.495 423.278 423.278 423.278 423.278 423.278 423.278

2.148 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.672 0.672 0.672 0.308 0.308 0.308 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.148 2.148 2.148 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.672 0.672 0.672 0.308 0.308 0.308 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.148 2.148 2.148 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.672 0.672 0.672 0.308 0.308 0.308 3.128 3.128 3.128 2.456 2.456 2.456

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28

0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98

0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36

0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74

1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48

2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15

2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46

0 0 30.32 0 0 30.552 0 0 30.523 0 18.266 0 10.548 18.493 0 10.65 18.693 0 10.757 18.85 0 10.856 18.871 0 10.897 6.937 7.443 43.424 7.032 7.551 43.905 7.124 7.653 44.444 7.205 7.737 44.986 7.23 7.758 45.258 0 41.41 0 0 42.044 0

0.000 0.000 30.321 0.000 0.000 30.553 0.000 0.000 30.524 0.000 18.267 0.000 10.548 18.493 0.000 10.651 18.693 0.000 10.758 18.850 0.000 10.856 18.871 0.000 10.897 6.937 7.443 43.425 7.032 7.552 43.905 7.124 7.653 44.445 7.205 7.737 44.986 7.230 7.758 45.259 0.000 41.411 0.000 0.000 42.046 0.000

0.0000 0.0000 -0.0006 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0007 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0006 0.0000 -0.0006 0.0000 0.0002 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0005 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0006 -0.0003 0.0000 -0.0004 -0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0007 -0.0001 -0.0005 -0.0004 0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0006 -0.0002 -0.0004 -0.0002 0.0001 0.0003 -0.0006 0.0000 -0.0009 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0018 0.0000

continued

Table B.13 continued

329

7.Manuf.4.Manuf 7.Manuf.4.Retail 7.Manuf.4.Service 7.Manuf.5.Manuf 7.Manuf.5.Retail 7.Manuf.5.Service 7.Manuf.6.Manuf 7.Manuf.6.Retail 7.Manuf.6.Service 7.Retail.2.Manuf 7.Retail.2.Retail 7.Retail.2.Service 7.Retail.3.Manuf 7.Retail.3.Retail 7.Retail.3.Service 7.Retail.4.Manuf 7.Retail.4.Retail 7.Retail.4.Service 7.Retail.5.Manuf 7.Retail.5.Retail 7.Retail.5.Service 7.Retail.6.Manuf 7.Retail.6.Retail 7.Retail.6.Service 7.Service.2.Manuf 7.Service.2.Retail 7.Service.2.Service 7.Service.3.Manuf 7.Service.3.Retail 7.Service.3.Service 7.Service.4.Manuf 7.Service.4.Retail 7.Service.4.Service 7.Service.5.Manuf 7.Service.5.Retail 7.Service.5.Service 7.Service.6.Manuf 7.Service.6.Retail 7.Service.6.Service

0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0 0.67 0 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.53 0 0.11 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36 0.16 0.09 0.36

453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495

182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276 180.206 338.24 627.276 181.67 340.844 629.291 182.186 341.815 630.109 181.67 340.844 629.291 180.206 338.24 627.276

423.278 423.278 423.278 423.278 423.278 423.278 423.278 423.278 423.278 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 1184.561 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281 800.281

1.718 1.718 1.718 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.308 0.308 0.308 3.128 3.128 3.128 2.456 2.456 2.456 1.718 1.718 1.718 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.308 0.308 0.308 3.128 3.128 3.128 2.456 2.456 2.456 1.718 1.718 1.718 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.308 0.308 0.308

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 453.24 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 461.38 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37 363.37

453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14 363.14

453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 460.92 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5 362.5

423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28

1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.98 0.98 0.98 1.72 1.72 1.72 2.46 2.46 2.46 3.13 3.13 3.13

1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.67 0.67 1.41 1.41 1.41 2.15 2.15 2.15 2.82 2.82 2.82

0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.48 1.48 1.48 2.15 2.15 2.15

0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.74 0.74 0.74 1.41 1.41 1.41

0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.48 1.48 1.48 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.67 0.67 0.67

1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.31 0.31 0.31

1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31 3.13 3.13 3.13 2.46 2.46 2.46 1.72 1.72 1.72 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.31 0.31 0.31

0 42.574 0 0 42.929 0 0 43.09 0 0.166 0 0.096 0.168 0 0.096 0.168 0 0.097 0.169 0 0.097 0.169 0 0.097 0.135 0.145 0.847 0.136 0.146 0.852 0.137 0.147 0.856 0.138 0.148 0.861 0.138 0.148 0.865

0.000 42.575 0.000 0.000 42.930 0.000 0.000 43.091 0.000 0.166 0.000 0.096 0.168 0.000 0.096 0.168 0.000 0.097 0.169 0.000 0.097 0.169 0.000 0.097 0.135 0.145 0.847 0.136 0.146 0.852 0.137 0.147 0.856 0.138 0.148 0.861 0.138 0.148 0.865

0.0000 -0.0011 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0014 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0015 0.0000 -0.0003 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0005 0.0000 -0.0005 -0.0003 0.0000 0.0001 0.0002 0.0000 -0.0002 0.0003 0.0000 -0.0004 -0.0004 -0.0002 -0.0003 -0.0004 -0.0005 0.0004 -0.0003 -0.0005 -0.0003 0.0001 -0.0001 0.0000 -0.0002 -0.0003 -0.0004

Firm

330

alpha.M.i alpha.R.i alpha.S.i pold.1.M pold.1.R pold.1.S pold.2.M pold.2.R pold.2.S pold.3.M pold.3.R pold.3.S pold.4.M pold.4.R pold.4.S pold.5.M pold.5.R pold.5.S pold.6.M pold.6.R pold.6.S pold.7.M pold.7.R pold.7.S truck tunit.M tunit.R tunit.S Itoll.1.ix Itoll.2.ix Itoll.3.ix Itoll.4.ix Itoll.5.ix Itoll.6.ix Itoll.7.ix delta.i w alpha.worker.i rho.ix omega.i prodcoeff.i p pcalc % difference num denom

2.Manuf 0 0.53 0.16 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 0.308 0.308 0.672 1.41 2.148 2.82 3.128 0.8 19.813 0.27 1140.462 0.04 1 453.529 453.531 -4.1E-06 149.170 0.329

2.Retail 0.67 0 0.09 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 0.308 0.308 0.672 1.41 2.148 2.82 3.128 0.8 20.729 0.19 1140.462 0.05 1 460.921 460.920 1.1E-06 178.193 0.387

2.Service 0 0.11 0.36 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 0.308 0.308 0.672 1.41 2.148 2.82 3.128 0.8 24.615 0.43 1140.462 0.1 1 362.496 362.498 -4.2E-06 108.772 0.300

3.Manuf 0 0.53 0.16 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 0.98 0.672 0.364 0.738 1.476 2.148 2.456 0.8 19.686 0.27 1198.535 0.04 1 453.314 453.313 1.4E-06 149.099 0.329

Table B.14. Firm Prices, Eq. (4.73)

3.Retail 0.67 0 0.09 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 0.98 0.672 0.364 0.738 1.476 2.148 2.456 0.8 20.601 0.19 1198.535 0.05 1 461.268 461.266 5.2E-06 178.326 0.387

3.Service 0 0.11 0.36 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 0.98 0.672 0.364 0.738 1.476 2.148 2.456 0.8 24.465 0.43 1198.535 0.1 1 363.144 363.142 4.8E-06 108.966 0.300

4.Manuf 0 0.53 0.16 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 1.718 1.41 0.738 0.374 0.738 1.41 1.718 0.8 19.645 0.27 1218.892 0.04 1 453.241 453.241 -4.6E-07 149.075 0.329

4.Retail 0.67 0 0.09 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 1.718 1.41 0.738 0.374 0.738 1.41 1.718 0.8 20.56 0.19 1218.892 0.05 1 461.385 461.384 1.9E-06 178.372 0.387

4.Service 0 0.11 0.36 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 1.718 1.41 0.738 0.374 0.738 1.41 1.718 0.8 24.416 0.43 1218.892 0.1 1 363.369 363.366 9.4E-06 109.033 0.300

5.Manuf 0 0.53 0.16 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 2.456 2.148 1.476 0.738 0.364 0.672 0.98 0.8 19.686 0.27 1198.535 0.04 1 453.314 453.313 1.4E-06 149.099 0.329

5.Retail 0.67 0 0.09 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 2.456 2.148 1.476 0.738 0.364 0.672 0.98 0.8 20.601 0.19 1198.535 0.05 1 461.268 461.266 5.2E-06 178.326 0.387

5.Service 0 0.11 0.36 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 2.456 2.148 1.476 0.738 0.364 0.672 0.98 0.8 24.465 0.43 1198.535 0.1 1 363.144 363.142 4.8E-06 108.966 0.300

6.Manuf 0 0.53 0.16 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 3.128 2.82 2.148 1.41 0.672 0.308 0.308 0.8 19.813 0.27 1140.462 0.04 1 453.529 453.531 -4.1E-06 149.170 0.329

6.Retail 0.67 0 0.09 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 3.128 2.82 2.148 1.41 0.672 0.308 0.308 0.8 20.729 0.19 1140.462 0.05 1 460.921 460.920 1.1E-06 178.193 0.387

6.Service 0 0.11 0.36 423.278 1184.561 800.281 453.526 460.919 362.495 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.238 461.383 363.368 453.311 461.266 363.143 453.526 460.919 362.495 423.278 1184.561 800.281 3 5 5 5 3.128 2.82 2.148 1.41 0.672 0.308 0.308 0.8 24.615 0.43 1140.462 0.1 1 362.496 362.498 -4.2E-06 108.772 0.300

continued

Table B.14 continued

331

p.M p.R p.S w^alpha rho^omega alpha.M alpha.R alpha.S alpha^worker omega^omega num.1.M num.2.M num.3.M num.4.M num.5.M num.6.M num.7.M num.1.R num.2.R num.3.R num.4.R num.5.R num.6.R num.7.R num.1.s num.2.S num.3.S num.4.S num.5.S num.6.S num.7.S

1.000 20.872 2.408 2.240 1.325 1.000 0.714 0.746 0.702 0.879 3.10E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 2.33E-11 2.32E-11 2.29E-11 3.01E-11 5.07E-13 2.21E-11 2.19E-11 2.17E-11 2.16E-11 2.15E-11 5.02E-13 2.43E-12 5.77E-11 5.70E-11 5.63E-11 5.59E-11 5.58E-11 2.39E-12

42.974 1.000 1.639 1.779 1.422 0.765 1.000 0.805 0.729 0.861 3.10E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 2.33E-11 2.32E-11 2.29E-11 3.01E-11 5.07E-13 2.21E-11 2.19E-11 2.17E-11 2.16E-11 2.15E-11 5.02E-13 2.43E-12 5.77E-11 5.70E-11 5.63E-11 5.59E-11 5.58E-11 2.39E-12

1.000 1.879 7.223 3.965 2.022 1.000 0.784 0.692 0.696 0.794 3.10E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 2.33E-11 2.32E-11 2.29E-11 3.01E-11 5.07E-13 2.21E-11 2.19E-11 2.17E-11 2.16E-11 2.15E-11 5.02E-13 2.43E-12 5.77E-11 5.70E-11 5.63E-11 5.59E-11 5.58E-11 2.39E-12

1.000 20.861 2.408 2.236 1.328 1.000 0.714 0.746 0.702 0.879 3.08E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 2.33E-11 2.31E-11 3.03E-11 5.06E-13 2.20E-11 2.20E-11 2.19E-11 2.18E-11 2.17E-11 5.03E-13 2.42E-12 5.74E-11 5.72E-11 5.68E-11 5.64E-11 5.63E-11 2.40E-12

42.955 1.000 1.639 1.777 1.425 0.765 1.000 0.805 0.729 0.861 3.08E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 2.33E-11 2.31E-11 3.03E-11 5.06E-13 2.20E-11 2.20E-11 2.19E-11 2.18E-11 2.17E-11 5.03E-13 2.42E-12 5.74E-11 5.72E-11 5.68E-11 5.64E-11 5.63E-11 2.40E-12

1.000 1.879 7.220 3.954 2.032 1.000 0.784 0.692 0.696 0.794 3.08E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 2.33E-11 2.31E-11 3.03E-11 5.06E-13 2.20E-11 2.20E-11 2.19E-11 2.18E-11 2.17E-11 5.03E-13 2.42E-12 5.74E-11 5.72E-11 5.68E-11 5.64E-11 5.63E-11 2.40E-12

1.000 20.857 2.407 2.234 1.329 1.000 0.714 0.746 0.702 0.879 3.06E-11 2.33E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 2.33E-11 3.06E-11 5.04E-13 2.18E-11 2.19E-11 2.20E-11 2.19E-11 2.18E-11 5.04E-13 2.41E-12 5.68E-11 5.69E-11 5.71E-11 5.69E-11 5.68E-11 2.41E-12

42.948 1.000 1.639 1.776 1.427 0.765 1.000 0.805 0.729 0.861 3.06E-11 2.33E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 2.33E-11 3.06E-11 5.04E-13 2.18E-11 2.19E-11 2.20E-11 2.19E-11 2.18E-11 5.04E-13 2.41E-12 5.68E-11 5.69E-11 5.71E-11 5.69E-11 5.68E-11 2.41E-12

1.000 1.878 7.219 3.951 2.035 1.000 0.784 0.692 0.696 0.794 3.06E-11 2.33E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 2.33E-11 3.06E-11 5.04E-13 2.18E-11 2.19E-11 2.20E-11 2.19E-11 2.18E-11 5.04E-13 2.41E-12 5.68E-11 5.69E-11 5.71E-11 5.69E-11 5.68E-11 2.41E-12

1.000 20.861 2.408 2.236 1.328 1.000 0.714 0.746 0.702 0.879 3.03E-11 2.31E-11 2.33E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 3.08E-11 5.03E-13 2.17E-11 2.18E-11 2.19E-11 2.20E-11 2.20E-11 5.06E-13 2.40E-12 5.63E-11 5.64E-11 5.68E-11 5.72E-11 5.74E-11 2.42E-12

42.955 1.000 1.639 1.777 1.425 0.765 1.000 0.805 0.729 0.861 3.03E-11 2.31E-11 2.33E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 3.08E-11 5.03E-13 2.17E-11 2.18E-11 2.19E-11 2.20E-11 2.20E-11 5.06E-13 2.40E-12 5.63E-11 5.64E-11 5.68E-11 5.72E-11 5.74E-11 2.42E-12

1.000 1.879 7.220 3.954 2.032 1.000 0.784 0.692 0.696 0.794 3.03E-11 2.31E-11 2.33E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 2.35E-11 3.08E-11 5.03E-13 2.17E-11 2.18E-11 2.19E-11 2.20E-11 2.20E-11 5.06E-13 2.40E-12 5.63E-11 5.64E-11 5.68E-11 5.72E-11 5.74E-11 2.42E-12

1.000 20.872 2.408 2.240 1.325 1.000 0.714 0.746 0.702 0.879 3.01E-11 2.29E-11 2.32E-11 2.33E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 3.10E-11 5.02E-13 2.15E-11 2.16E-11 2.17E-11 2.19E-11 2.21E-11 5.07E-13 2.39E-12 5.58E-11 5.59E-11 5.63E-11 5.70E-11 5.77E-11 2.43E-12

42.974 1.000 1.639 1.779 1.422 0.765 1.000 0.805 0.729 0.861 3.01E-11 2.29E-11 2.32E-11 2.33E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 3.10E-11 5.02E-13 2.15E-11 2.16E-11 2.17E-11 2.19E-11 2.21E-11 5.07E-13 2.39E-12 5.58E-11 5.59E-11 5.63E-11 5.70E-11 5.77E-11 2.43E-12

1.000 1.879 7.223 3.965 2.022 1.000 0.784 0.692 0.696 0.794 3.01E-11 2.29E-11 2.32E-11 2.33E-11 2.35E-11 2.36E-11 3.10E-11 5.02E-13 2.15E-11 2.16E-11 2.17E-11 2.19E-11 2.21E-11 5.07E-13 2.39E-12 5.58E-11 5.59E-11 5.63E-11 5.70E-11 5.77E-11 2.43E-12

ix

332

2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6

i Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Service Service Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Service Service Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Service Service Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Service Service Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Service Service

px 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7

p.ix.i 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 453.24 453.24 461.39 461.39 363.37 363.37 453.31 453.31 461.27 461.27 363.14 363.14 453.53 453.53 460.92 460.92 362.50 362.50

p.2.i p.3.i 453.53 453.31 453.53 453.31 460.92 461.27 460.92 461.27 362.50 363.14 362.50 363.14 453.53 453.31 453.53 453.31 460.92 461.27 460.92 461.27 362.50 363.14 362.50 363.14 453.53 453.31 453.53 453.31 460.92 461.27 460.92 461.27 362.50 363.14 362.50 363.14 453.53 453.31 453.53 453.31 460.92 461.27 460.92 461.27 362.50 363.14 362.50 363.14 453.53 453.31 453.53 453.31 460.92 461.27 460.92 461.27 362.50 363.14 362.50 363.14

p.4.i p.5.i p.6.i Itoll.ix.px Itoll.2.px Itoll.3.px Itoll.4.px Itoll.5.px Itoll.6.px TotExport x xcalc difference sumexp exp2 exp3 exp4 exp5 exp6 453.24 453.31 453.53 0.308 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 147.668 17.115 17.119 -0.004 4.313 1.000 0.943 0.869 0.789 0.713 453.24 453.31 453.53 3.128 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 147.668 12.201 12.204 -0.003 6.050 1.000 1.107 1.219 1.322 1.402 461.39 461.27 460.92 0.308 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 27.2 3.272 3.273 -0.001 4.155 1.000 0.891 0.806 0.746 0.713 461.39 461.27 460.92 3.128 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 27.2 2.333 2.333 0.000 5.829 1.000 1.047 1.130 1.250 1.402 363.37 363.14 362.50 0.308 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 100.584 12.34 12.343 -0.003 4.075 1.000 0.865 0.774 0.724 0.713 363.37 363.14 362.50 3.128 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 100.584 8.797 8.799 -0.002 5.716 1.000 1.015 1.085 1.213 1.402 453.24 453.31 453.53 0.98 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 147.668 16.132 16.136 -0.004 4.576 1.061 1.000 0.922 0.837 0.756 453.24 453.31 453.53 2.456 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 147.668 13.513 13.516 -0.003 5.463 0.903 1.000 1.100 1.194 1.266 461.39 461.27 460.92 0.98 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 27.2 2.916 2.916 0.000 4.664 1.122 1.000 0.904 0.837 0.800 461.39 461.27 460.92 2.456 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 27.2 2.442 2.443 -0.001 5.567 0.955 1.000 1.080 1.194 1.339 363.37 363.14 362.50 0.98 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 100.584 10.67 10.672 -0.002 4.713 1.156 1.000 0.895 0.837 0.824 363.37 363.14 362.50 2.456 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 100.584 8.937 8.940 -0.003 5.626 0.984 1.000 1.068 1.194 1.380 453.24 453.31 453.53 1.718 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 147.668 14.874 14.876 -0.002 4.963 1.150 1.085 1.000 0.908 0.820 453.24 453.31 453.53 1.718 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 147.668 14.874 14.876 -0.002 4.963 0.820 0.908 1.000 1.085 1.150 461.39 461.27 460.92 1.718 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 27.2 2.637 2.638 -0.001 5.155 1.240 1.105 1.000 0.926 0.884 461.39 461.27 460.92 1.718 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 27.2 2.637 2.638 -0.001 5.155 0.884 0.926 1.000 1.105 1.240 363.37 363.14 362.50 1.718 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 100.584 9.548 9.550 -0.002 5.266 1.292 1.117 1.000 0.936 0.921 363.37 363.14 362.50 1.718 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 100.584 9.548 9.550 -0.002 5.266 0.921 0.936 1.000 1.117 1.292 453.24 453.31 453.53 2.456 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 147.668 13.513 13.516 -0.003 5.463 1.266 1.194 1.100 1.000 0.903 453.24 453.31 453.53 0.98 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 147.668 16.132 16.136 -0.004 4.576 0.756 0.837 0.922 1.000 1.061 461.39 461.27 460.92 2.456 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 27.2 2.442 2.443 -0.001 5.567 1.339 1.194 1.080 1.000 0.955 461.39 461.27 460.92 0.98 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 27.2 2.916 2.916 0.000 4.664 0.800 0.837 0.904 1.000 1.122 363.37 363.14 362.50 2.456 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 100.584 8.937 8.940 -0.003 5.626 1.380 1.194 1.068 1.000 0.984 363.37 363.14 362.50 0.98 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 100.584 10.67 10.672 -0.002 4.713 0.824 0.837 0.895 1.000 1.156 453.24 453.31 453.53 3.128 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 147.668 12.201 12.204 -0.003 6.050 1.402 1.322 1.219 1.107 1.000 453.24 453.31 453.53 0.308 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 147.668 17.115 17.119 -0.004 4.313 0.713 0.789 0.869 0.943 1.000 461.39 461.27 460.92 3.128 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 27.2 2.333 2.333 0.000 5.829 1.402 1.250 1.130 1.047 1.000 461.39 461.27 460.92 0.308 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 27.2 3.272 3.273 -0.001 4.155 0.713 0.746 0.806 0.891 1.000 363.37 363.14 362.50 3.128 0.31 0.98 1.72 2.46 3.13 100.584 8.797 8.799 -0.002 5.716 1.402 1.213 1.085 1.015 1.000 363.37 363.14 362.50 0.308 3.13 2.46 1.72 0.98 0.31 100.584 12.34 12.343 -0.003 4.075 0.713 0.724 0.774 0.865 1.000

Table B.15. Export Volumes, Eq. (4.77)

Variable

zone

M

R

S

p

2

453.529

460.921

362.496

p

3

453.314

461.268

363.144

p

4

453.241

461.385

363.369

p

5

453.314

461.268

363.144

p

6

453.529

460.921

362.496

production

2

180.206

338.240

627.276

production

3

181.670

340.844

629.291

production

4

182.186

341.815

630.109

production

5

181.670

340.844

629.291

production

6

180.206

338.240

627.276

0.163

0.016

0.032

tau AZ

2

1

1

1

AZ

3

1

1

1

AZ

4

1

1

1

AZ

5

1

1

1

AZ

6

1

1

1

TotExport

147.668

27.200

100.584

TotExportcalc

147.668

27.200

100.584

0

0

0

Difference LocalProdVal AvepNum AvepDenom AveragePrice

410738.568

783953.012 1140778.661

2266.927

2305.763

1814.649

5

5

5

453.385

461.153

362.930

Table B.16. Total Exports, Eq. (4.78)

333

Variable p  p  p  p  p  production  production  production  production  production  theta  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  p  pcalc  LocalProdVal ue  Amount of  Imports  % Diff 

px                                  

jx                                   1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  7  7  7  7  7  7  7  7  7  7  7  7  7  7  7 

Zone/  Industry  1.M  1.R  1.S  7.M  7.R  7.S  2  453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526  460.919  3  453.311 461.266 363.143 453.311  461.266  4  453.238 461.383 363.368 453.238  461.383  5  453.311 461.266 363.143 453.311  461.266  6  453.526 460.919 362.495 453.526  460.919  2  180.206 338.244 627.28 180.206  338.244  3  181.67 340.848 629.295 181.67  340.848  4  182.186 341.819 630.113 182.186  341.819  5  181.67 340.848 629.295 181.67  340.848  6  180.206 338.244 627.28 180.206  338.244     0.437 0.004 0.008 0.437  0.004  2  Manuf  0 0.169 0.138 0  0.169  2  Retail  43.089 0 0.148 43.089  0  2  Service  0 0.097 0.865 0  0.097  3  Manuf  0 0.169 0.138 0  0.169  3  Retail  42.928 0 0.148 42.928  0  3  Service  0 0.097 0.861 0  0.097  4  Manuf  0 0.168 0.137 0  0.168  4  Retail  42.573 0 0.147 42.573  0  4  Service  0 0.097 0.856 0  0.097  5  Manuf  0 0.168 0.136 0  0.168  5  Retail  42.043 0 0.146 42.043  0  5  Service  0 0.096 0.852 0  0.096  6  Manuf  0 0.166 0.135 0  0.166  6  Retail  41.409 0 0.145 41.409  0  6  Service  0 0.096 0.847 0  0.096  2  Manuf  0 0.166 0.135 0  0.166  2  Retail  41.409 0 0.145 41.409  0  2  Service  0 0.096 0.847 0  0.096  3  Manuf  0 0.168 0.136 0  0.168  3  Retail  42.043 0 0.146 42.043  0  3  Service  0 0.096 0.852 0  0.096  4  Manuf  0 0.168 0.137 0  0.168  4  Retail  42.573 0 0.147 42.573  0  4  Service  0 0.097 0.856 0  0.097  5  Manuf  0 0.169 0.138 0  0.169  5  Retail  42.928 0 0.148 42.928  0  5  Service  0 0.097 0.861 0  0.097  6  Manuf  0 0.169 0.138 0  0.169  6  Retail  43.089 0 0.148 43.089  0  6  Service  0 0.097 0.865 0  0.097     423.278 1184.561 800.281 423.278  1184.561     423.245 1185.123 800.690 423.245  1185.123 

     

     

  

  

  

     

     

     

362.495 363.143 363.368 363.143 362.495 627.28 629.295 630.113 629.295 627.28 0.008 0.138 0.148 0.865 0.138 0.148 0.861 0.137 0.147 0.856 0.136 0.146 0.852 0.135 0.145 0.847 0.135 0.145 0.847 0.136 0.146 0.852 0.137 0.147 0.856 0.138 0.148 0.861 0.138 0.148 0.865 800.281 800.690

410735.850 783958.835 1140782.776 410735.850  783958.835  1140782.776 424.084 ‐0.0001

2.646 0.0005

Table B.17. Import Balance, Eq. (4.79)

334

11.398 0.0005

424.084  ‐0.0001 

2.646  0.0005 

11.398 0.0005

Variable upsilon truck tunit tunit tunit x x x x x x x x x zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z zpopcommute zpopcommute zpopcommute F F calc Difference

Industry

Industry/ Zone

Industry

Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

1.1 22 3 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1.2 22 3 5 5 5 0 43.09 0 0.169 0 0.097 0.138 0.148 0.865 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.214 1.214 0

1.3 22 3 5 5 5 0 42.929 0 0.169 0 0.097 0.138 0.148 0.861 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.209 1.209 0

1.4 22 3 5 5 5 0 42.574 0 0.168 0 0.097 0.137 0.147 0.856 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.199 1.199 0

Table B.18. Interzonal Flows Origination, Eq. (4.80) 335

1.5 22 3 5 5 5 0 42.044 0 0.168 0 0.096 0.136 0.146 0.852 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.185 1.185 0

1.6 22 3 5 5 5 0 41.41 0 0.166 0 0.096 0.135 0.145 0.847 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.167 1.167 0

1.7 22 3 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

continued

Table B.18 continued Variable upsilon truck tunit tunit tunit x x x x x x x x x zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z zpopcommute zpopcommute zpopcommute F F calc Difference

Industry

Industry/ Zone

Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Industry

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

2.1 22 3 5 5 5 17.115 0 0 0 3.272 0 0 0 12.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.893 0.893 0

2.2 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.523 0 18.871 0 10.897 7.23 7.758 45.258 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 0.985 1.022 1.179 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 1.672 1.735 2.003 1.659 1.722 1.988 1.647 1.709 1.974 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.508 1.906 5.038 16.554 16.554 0

2.3 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.552 0 18.85 0 10.856 7.205 7.737 44.986 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 0.966 1.002 1.154 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 1.625 1.685 1.942 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.394 1.761 4.634 15.754 15.755 -0.001

2.4 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.32 0 18.693 0 10.757 7.124 7.653 44.444 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 0.935 0.969 1.113 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 1.556 1.613 1.851 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.254 1.585 4.163 14.742 14.742 0

2.5 22 3 5 5 5 0 29.963 0 18.493 0 10.65 7.032 7.551 43.905 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 0.907 0.939 1.076 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.894 0.926 1.061 0.891 0.923 1.057 0.89 0.922 1.057 1.5 1.553 1.776 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.153 1.457 3.83 13.978 13.979 -1E-03

2.6 22 3 5 5 5 0 29.529 0 18.266 0 10.548 6.937 7.443 43.424 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 0.885 0.915 1.045 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.868 0.899 1.027 1.459 1.509 1.72 1.448 1.498 1.708 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.091 1.378 3.637 13.479 13.48 -0.001

2.7 22 3 5 5 5 12.201 0 0 0 2.333 0 0 0 8.797 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.636 0.636 0

continued 336

Table B.18 continued Variable upsilon truck tunit tunit tunit x x x x x x x x x zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z zpopcommute zpopcommute zpopcommute F F calc Difference

Industry

Industry/ Zone

Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Industry

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

3.1 22 3 5 5 5 16.132 0 0 0 2.916 0 0 0 10.67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.81 0.81 0

3.2 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.448 0 18.712 0 10.805 7.123 7.643 44.587 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.145 1.447 3.824 0.954 0.989 1.138 0.952 0.987 1.135 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.944 0.979 1.127 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.384 1.749 4.624 15.705 15.704 0.001

3.3 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.749 0 18.855 0 10.859 7.178 7.708 44.813 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.145 1.447 3.824 0.964 1 1.152 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.396 1.764 4.646 15.826 15.826 0

3.4 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.662 0 18.786 0 10.811 7.139 7.67 44.541 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.145 1.447 3.824 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.937 0.972 1.118 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.316 1.664 4.374 15.253 15.253 0

3.5 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.301 0 18.584 0 10.703 7.047 7.568 44 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.145 1.447 3.824 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081 1.526 1.581 1.812 1.522 1.577 1.807 1.516 1.57 1.8 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.21 1.529 4.026 14.456 14.456 0

3.6 22 3 5 5 5 0 29.861 0 18.357 0 10.6 6.952 7.459 43.518 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.145 1.447 3.824 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.145 1.447 3.824 13.937 13.936 0.001

3.7 22 3 5 5 5 13.513 0 0 0 2.442 0 0 0 8.937 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.679 0.679 0

continued 337

Table B.18 continued Variable upsilon truck tunit tunit tunit x x x x x x x x x zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z zpopcommute zpopcommute zpopcommute F F calc Difference

Industry

Industry/ Zone

Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Industry

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

4.1 22 3 5 5 5 14.874 0 0 0 2.637 0 0 0 9.548 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.738 0.738 0

4.2 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.178 0 18.51 0 10.688 7.015 7.527 43.913 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.243 1.571 4.153 14.683 14.684 -1E-03

4.3 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.622 0 18.74 0 10.793 7.111 7.637 44.4 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.313 1.66 4.372 15.239 15.239 0

4.4 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.835 0 18.851 0 10.848 7.16 7.692 44.671 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.953 0.989 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.952 0.988 1.138 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.597 1.656 1.908 1.598 1.658 1.91 1.597 1.656 1.908 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.361 1.72 4.526 15.603 15.603 0

4.5 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.622 0 18.74 0 10.793 7.111 7.637 44.4 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.313 1.66 4.372 15.239 15.239 0

4.6 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.178 0 18.51 0 10.688 7.015 7.527 43.913 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.243 1.571 4.153 14.683 14.684 -1E-03

4.7 22 3 5 5 5 14.874 0 0 0 2.637 0 0 0 9.548 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.738 0.738 0

continued 338

Table B.18 continued Variable upsilon truck tunit tunit tunit x x x x x x x x x zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z zpopcommute zpopcommute zpopcommute F F calc Difference

Industry

Industry/ Zone

Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Industry

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

5.1 22 3 5 5 5 13.513 0 0 0 2.442 0 0 0 8.937 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.679 0.679 0

5.2 22 3 5 5 5 0 29.861 0 18.357 0 10.6 6.952 7.459 43.518 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.896 0.928 1.061 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.145 1.447 3.824 13.937 13.936 0.001

5.3 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.301 0 18.584 0 10.703 7.047 7.568 44 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.919 0.952 1.092 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.516 1.57 1.8 1.522 1.577 1.807 1.526 1.581 1.812 1.21 1.529 4.026 14.456 14.456 0

5.4 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.662 0 18.786 0 10.811 7.139 7.67 44.541 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.947 0.982 1.13 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.316 1.664 4.374 15.253 15.253 0

5.5 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.749 0 18.855 0 10.859 7.178 7.708 44.813 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.964 1 1.152 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.396 1.764 4.646 15.826 15.826 0

5.6 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.448 0 18.712 0 10.805 7.123 7.643 44.587 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.952 0.987 1.135 0.954 0.989 1.138 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.384 1.749 4.624 15.705 15.704 0.001

5.7 22 3 5 5 5 16.132 0 0 0 2.916 0 0 0 10.67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.81 0.81 0

continued 339

Table B.18 continued Variable upsilon truck tunit tunit tunit x x x x x x x x x zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z zpopcommute zpopcommute zpopcommute F F calc Difference

Industry

Industry/ Zone

Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Industry

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

6.1 22 3 5 5 5 12.201 0 0 0 2.333 0 0 0 8.797 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.636 0.636 0

6.2 22 3 5 5 5 0 29.529 0 18.266 0 10.548 6.937 7.443 43.424 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.885 0.915 1.045 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.448 1.498 1.708 1.459 1.509 1.72 1.091 1.378 3.637 13.479 13.48 -0.001

6.3 22 3 5 5 5 0 29.963 0 18.493 0 10.65 7.032 7.551 43.905 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.891 0.923 1.057 0.894 0.926 1.061 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.907 0.939 1.076 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.5 1.553 1.776 1.153 1.457 3.83 13.978 13.979 -1E-03

6.4 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.32 0 18.693 0 10.757 7.124 7.653 44.444 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.935 0.969 1.113 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.556 1.613 1.851 1.254 1.585 4.163 14.742 14.742 0

6.5 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.552 0 18.85 0 10.856 7.205 7.737 44.986 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.966 1.002 1.154 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.625 1.685 1.942 1.394 1.761 4.634 15.754 15.755 -0.001

6.6 22 3 5 5 5 0 30.523 0 18.871 0 10.897 7.23 7.758 45.258 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.985 1.022 1.179 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.647 1.709 1.974 1.659 1.722 1.988 1.672 1.735 2.003 1.508 1.906 5.038 16.554 16.554 0

6.7 22 3 5 5 5 17.115 0 0 0 3.272 0 0 0 12.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.893 0.893 0

continued 340

Table B.18 continued Variable upsilon truck tunit tunit tunit x x x x x x x x x zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z zpopcommute zpopcommute zpopcommute F F calc Difference

Industry

Industry/ Zone

Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Header4

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

7.1 22 3 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

7.2 22 3 5 5 5 0 41.41 0 0.166 0 0.096 0.135 0.145 0.847 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.167 1.167 0

7.3 22 3 5 5 5 0 42.044 0 0.168 0 0.096 0.136 0.146 0.852 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.185 1.185 0

341

7.4 22 3 5 5 5 0 42.574 0 0.168 0 0.097 0.137 0.147 0.856 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.199 1.199 0

7.5 22 3 5 5 5 0 42.929 0 0.169 0 0.097 0.138 0.148 0.861 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.209 1.209 0

7.6 22 3 5 5 5 0 43.09 0 0.169 0 0.097 0.138 0.148 0.865 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.214 1.214 0

7.7 22 3 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Variable F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F flow flowcalc difference f.within f.orig f.dest f.through

ix

jx 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7

2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6

1 1.214 1.209 1.199 1.185 1.167 0.893 16.554 15.754 14.742 13.978 13.479 0.636 0.81 15.705 15.826 15.253 14.456 13.937 0.679 0.738 14.683 15.239 15.603 15.239 14.683 0.738 0.679 13.937 14.456 15.253 15.826 15.705 0.81 0.636 13.479 13.978 14.742 15.754 16.554 0.893 1.167 1.185 1.199 1.209 1.214 9.731 9.73 0.001 0 5.974 3.756 0

2 1.214 1.209 1.199 1.185 1.167 0.893 16.554 15.754 14.742 13.978 13.479 0.636 0.81 15.705 15.826 15.253 14.456 13.937 0.679 0.738 14.683 15.239 15.603 15.239 14.683 0.738 0.679 13.937 14.456 15.253 15.826 15.705 0.81 0.636 13.479 13.978 14.742 15.754 16.554 0.893 1.167 1.185 1.199 1.209 1.214 151.47 151.467 0.003 16.554 59.482 60.185 7.623

3 1.214 1.209 1.199 1.185 1.167 0.893 16.554 15.754 14.742 13.978 13.479 0.636 0.81 15.705 15.826 15.253 14.456 13.937 0.679 0.738 14.683 15.239 15.603 15.239 14.683 0.738 0.679 13.937 14.456 15.253 15.826 15.705 0.81 0.636 13.479 13.978 14.742 15.754 16.554 0.893 1.167 1.185 1.199 1.209 1.214 321.902 321.897 0.005 15.826 60.84 61.821 91.705

4 1.214 1.209 1.199 1.185 1.167 0.893 16.554 15.754 14.742 13.978 13.479 0.636 0.81 15.705 15.826 15.253 14.456 13.937 0.679 0.738 14.683 15.239 15.603 15.239 14.683 0.738 0.679 13.937 14.456 15.253 15.826 15.705 0.81 0.636 13.479 13.978 14.742 15.754 16.554 0.893 1.167 1.185 1.199 1.209 1.214 377.384 377.379 0.005 15.603 61.32 62.388 119.034

Table B.19. Total Flow, Eqs. (4.84) and (4.85)

342

5 1.214 1.209 1.199 1.185 1.167 0.893 16.554 15.754 14.742 13.978 13.479 0.636 0.81 15.705 15.826 15.253 14.456 13.937 0.679 0.738 14.683 15.239 15.603 15.239 14.683 0.738 0.679 13.937 14.456 15.253 15.826 15.705 0.81 0.636 13.479 13.978 14.742 15.754 16.554 0.893 1.167 1.185 1.199 1.209 1.214 321.902 321.897 0.005 15.826 60.84 61.821 91.705

6 1.214 1.209 1.199 1.185 1.167 0.893 16.554 15.754 14.742 13.978 13.479 0.636 0.81 15.705 15.826 15.253 14.456 13.937 0.679 0.738 14.683 15.239 15.603 15.239 14.683 0.738 0.679 13.937 14.456 15.253 15.826 15.705 0.81 0.636 13.479 13.978 14.742 15.754 16.554 0.893 1.167 1.185 1.199 1.209 1.214 151.47 151.467 0.003 16.554 59.482 60.185 7.623

7 1.214 1.209 1.199 1.185 1.167 0.893 16.554 15.754 14.742 13.978 13.479 0.636 0.81 15.705 15.826 15.253 14.456 13.937 0.679 0.738 14.683 15.239 15.603 15.239 14.683 0.738 0.679 13.937 14.456 15.253 15.826 15.705 0.81 0.636 13.479 13.978 14.742 15.754 16.554 0.893 1.167 1.185 1.199 1.209 1.214 9.731 9.73 0.001 0 5.974 3.756 0

zone zeta S lambda capacity capacitycalc difference 2 70 1.8 0.8 112.025 112.025 0.0000 3 70 4.3 0.8 224.84 224.84 0.0000 4 70 5.1 0.8 257.724 257.724 0.0000 5 70 4.3 0.8 224.84 224.84 0.0000 6 70 1.8 0.8 112.025 112.025 0.0000

Table B.20. Capacity Verification, Eq. (4.86)

zone a

b

2 0.0222 0.15

flow

capacity r

ztime

Ztimecalc Difference

151.47

112.025 4 0.033

0.033

0.0000

3 0.0222 0.15 321.902

224.84 4 0.036

0.036

0.0000

4 0.0222 0.15 377.384

257.724 4 0.038

0.038

0.0000

5 0.0222 0.15 321.902

224.84 4 0.036

0.036

0.0000

112.025 4 0.033

0.033

0.0000

6 0.0222 0.15

151.47

Table B.21. Travel Time across Zones, Eq. (4.87)

343

Variable

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Itime

ix 1

jx 1

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

Itime 0

Itimecalc 0

Difference 0.000

Itime

1

2

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.017

0.0165

0.001

Itime

1

3

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.051

0.051

0.000

Itime

1

4

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.088

0.088

0.000

Itime

1

5

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.125

0.125

0.000

Itime

1

6

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.16

0.1595

0.000

Itime

1

7

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.177

0.176

0.001

Itime

2

1

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.017

0.0165

0.001

Itime

2

2

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.017

0.0165

0.001

Itime

2

3

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.035

0.0345

0.001

Itime

2

4

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.072

0.0715

0.001

Itime

2

5

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.108

0.1085

-0.001

Itime

2

6

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.143

0.143

0.000

Itime

2

7

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.16

0.1595

0.001

Itime

3

1

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.051

0.051

0.000

Itime

3

2

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.035

0.0345

0.001

Itime

3

3

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.018

0.018

0.000

Itime

3

4

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.037

0.037

0.000

Itime

3

5

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.074

0.074

0.000

Itime

3

6

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.108

0.1085

-0.001

Itime

3

7

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.125

0.125

0.000

Itime

4

1

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.088

0.088

0.000

Itime

4

2

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.072

0.0715

0.001

Itime

4

3

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.037

0.037

0.000

Itime

4

4

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.019

0.019

0.000

Itime

4

5

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.037

0.037

0.000

Itime

4

6

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.072

0.0715

0.001

Itime

4

7

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.088

0.088

0.000

Itime

5

1

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.125

0.125

0.000

Itime

5

2

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.108

0.1085

-0.001

Itime

5

3

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.074

0.074

0.000

Itime

5

4

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.037

0.037

0.000

Itime

5

5

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.018

0.018

0.000

Itime

5

6

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.035

0.0345

0.001

Itime

5

7

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.051

0.051

0.000

Itime

6

1

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.16

0.1595

0.000

Itime

6

2

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.143

0.143

0.000

Itime

6

3

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.108

0.1085

-0.001

Itime

6

4

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.072

0.0715

0.001

Itime

6

5

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.035

0.0345

0.001

Itime

6

6

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.017

0.0165

0.001

Itime

6

7

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.017

0.0165

0.001

Itime

7

1

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.177

0.176

0.001

Itime

7

2

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.16

0.1595

0.001

Itime

7

3

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.125

0.125

0.000

Itime

7

4

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.088

0.088

0.000

Itime

7

5

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.051

0.051

0.000

Itime

7

6

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0.017

0.0165

0.001

Itime

7

7

0

0.033

0.036

0.038

0.036

0.033

0

0

0

0.000

Table B.22. Calculation of Travel Time between Zones, Eqs. (4.88) and (4.89)

344

ix 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

jx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Ztoll.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ztoll.2 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616

Ztoll.3 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728

Ztoll.4 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749 0.749

Ztoll.5 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728 0.728

Ztoll.6 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616 0.616

Ztoll.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Itoll 0.0000 0.3080 0.9799 1.7181 2.4564 3.1282 3.4363 0.3080 0.3080 0.6719 1.4101 2.1483 2.8202 3.1282 0.9799 0.6719 0.3639 0.7382 1.4765 2.1483 2.4564 1.7181 1.4101 0.7382 0.3744 0.7382 1.4101 1.7181 2.4564 2.1483 1.4765 0.7382 0.3639 0.6719 0.9799 3.1282 2.8202 2.1483 1.4101 0.6719 0.3080 0.3080 3.4363 3.1282 2.4564 1.7181 0.9799 0.3080 0.0000

Table B.23. Tolls between Zones, Eqs. (4.90) and (4.91)

345

Itollcalc 0.0000 0.3080 0.9800 1.7185 2.4570 3.1290 3.4370 0.3080 0.3080 0.6720 1.4105 2.1490 2.8210 3.1290 0.9800 0.6720 0.3640 0.7385 1.4770 2.1490 2.4570 1.7185 1.4105 0.7385 0.3745 0.7385 1.4105 1.7185 2.4570 2.1490 1.4770 0.7385 0.3640 0.6720 0.9800 3.1290 2.8210 2.1490 1.4105 0.6720 0.3080 0.3080 3.4370 3.1290 2.4570 1.7185 0.9800 0.3080 0.0000

Difference 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0001 -0.0004 -0.0006 -0.0008 -0.0007 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0001 -0.0004 -0.0007 -0.0008 -0.0008 -0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0005 -0.0007 -0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0004 -0.0003 -0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0004 -0.0004 -0.0006 -0.0007 -0.0005 -0.0003 -0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0008 -0.0008 -0.0007 -0.0004 -0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0007 -0.0008 -0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0001 0.0000 0.0000

Header1

2

3

4

5

6

flow

151.47

321.902

377.384

321.902

151.47

Ztoll

0.616

0.728

0.749

0.728

0.616

22

22

22

22

22

2052.83

5153.70

6216.35

5153.70 2052.83

TollRevCalc 2052.72

5155.58

6218.53

5155.58 2052.72

Difference

0.11056

-1.87943

-2.18355

-1.87943 0.11056

0.0001

-0.0004

-0.0004

upsilon TotalRev

%Diff

-0.0004

0.0001

Table B.24. Total Toll Revenue, Eq. (4.92)

Variable TollRev upsilon Ztime w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop

kx

k

ix

jx

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

j

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

2 2052.832 22 0.033 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026

3 5153.703 22 0.036 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026

4 6216.35 22 0.038 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026

Table B.25. Total Transportation Cost Calculations, Eq. (4.94) 346

5 5153.703 22 0.036 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026

continued

6 2052.832 22 0.033 19.813 20.729 24.615 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.645 20.56 24.416 19.686 20.601 24.465 19.813 20.729 24.615 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.21 1.529 4.026

Table B.25 continued zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3

6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

1.145 1.447 3.824 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.985 1.022 1.179 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.954 0.989 1.138

1.145 1.447 3.824 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.985 1.022 1.179 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.954 0.989 1.138

1.145 1.447 3.824 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.985 1.022 1.179 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.954 0.989 1.138

1.145 1.447 3.824 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.985 1.022 1.179 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.954 0.989 1.138

1.145 1.447 3.824 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.361 1.72 4.526 1.313 1.66 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.21 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.83 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.985 1.022 1.179 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.954 0.989 1.138

continued 347

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

0.952 0.987 1.135 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.885 0.915 1.045 1.672 1.735 2.003 1.659 1.722 1.988 1.647 1.709 1.974

0.952 0.987 1.135 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.885 0.915 1.045 1.672 1.735 2.003 1.659 1.722 1.988 1.647 1.709 1.974

0.952 0.987 1.135 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.885 0.915 1.045 1.672 1.735 2.003 1.659 1.722 1.988 1.647 1.709 1.974

0.952 0.987 1.135 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.885 0.915 1.045 1.672 1.735 2.003 1.659 1.722 1.988 1.647 1.709 1.974

0.952 0.987 1.135 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.868 0.899 1.027 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.885 0.915 1.045 1.672 1.735 2.003 1.659 1.722 1.988 1.647 1.709 1.974

continued 348

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.448 1.498 1.708 1.459 1.509 1.72

1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.448 1.498 1.708 1.459 1.509 1.72

1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.448 1.498 1.708 1.459 1.509 1.72

1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.448 1.498 1.708 1.459 1.509 1.72

1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.448 1.498 1.708 1.459 1.509 1.72

continued 349

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

0.966 1.002 1.154 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.964 1 1.152 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.891 0.923 1.057

0.966 1.002 1.154 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.964 1 1.152 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.891 0.923 1.057

0.966 1.002 1.154 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.964 1 1.152 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.891 0.923 1.057

0.966 1.002 1.154 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.964 1 1.152 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.891 0.923 1.057

0.966 1.002 1.154 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.964 1 1.152 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.891 0.923 1.057

continued 350

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

0.894 0.926 1.061 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.907 0.939 1.076 1.625 1.685 1.942 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.516 1.57 1.8 1.522 1.577 1.807

0.894 0.926 1.061 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.907 0.939 1.076 1.625 1.685 1.942 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.516 1.57 1.8 1.522 1.577 1.807

0.894 0.926 1.061 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.907 0.939 1.076 1.625 1.685 1.942 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.516 1.57 1.8 1.522 1.577 1.807

0.894 0.926 1.061 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.907 0.939 1.076 1.625 1.685 1.942 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.516 1.57 1.8 1.522 1.577 1.807

0.894 0.926 1.061 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.907 0.939 1.076 1.625 1.685 1.942 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.516 1.57 1.8 1.522 1.577 1.807

continued 351

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5

6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

1.526 1.581 1.812 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.5 1.553 1.776 0.935 0.969 1.113 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.953 0.989 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.937 0.972 1.118

1.526 1.581 1.812 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.5 1.553 1.776 0.935 0.969 1.113 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.953 0.989 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.937 0.972 1.118

1.526 1.581 1.812 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.5 1.553 1.776 0.935 0.969 1.113 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.953 0.989 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.937 0.972 1.118

1.526 1.581 1.812 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.5 1.553 1.776 0.935 0.969 1.113 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.953 0.989 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.937 0.972 1.118

1.526 1.581 1.812 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.5 1.553 1.776 0.935 0.969 1.113 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.937 0.972 1.118 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.953 0.989 1.138 0.952 0.988 1.137 0.952 0.988 1.138 0.937 0.972 1.118

continued 352

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

0.937 0.972 1.118 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.935 0.969 1.113 1.556 1.613 1.851 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.597 1.656 1.908 1.598 1.658 1.91

0.937 0.972 1.118 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.935 0.969 1.113 1.556 1.613 1.851 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.597 1.656 1.908 1.598 1.658 1.91

0.937 0.972 1.118 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.935 0.969 1.113 1.556 1.613 1.851 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.597 1.656 1.908 1.598 1.658 1.91

0.937 0.972 1.118 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.935 0.969 1.113 1.556 1.613 1.851 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.597 1.656 1.908 1.598 1.658 1.91

0.937 0.972 1.118 0.94 0.975 1.122 0.945 0.979 1.127 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.918 0.951 1.093 0.921 0.955 1.097 0.928 0.962 1.104 0.935 0.969 1.113 1.556 1.613 1.851 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.597 1.656 1.908 1.598 1.658 1.91

continued 353

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

1.597 1.656 1.908 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.556 1.613 1.851 0.907 0.939 1.076 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.894 0.926 1.061 0.891 0.923 1.057 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081

1.597 1.656 1.908 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.556 1.613 1.851 0.907 0.939 1.076 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.894 0.926 1.061 0.891 0.923 1.057 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081

1.597 1.656 1.908 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.556 1.613 1.851 0.907 0.939 1.076 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.894 0.926 1.061 0.891 0.923 1.057 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081

1.597 1.656 1.908 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.556 1.613 1.851 0.907 0.939 1.076 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.894 0.926 1.061 0.891 0.923 1.057 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081

1.597 1.656 1.908 1.597 1.656 1.909 1.567 1.624 1.87 1.566 1.624 1.869 1.572 1.631 1.876 1.579 1.638 1.884 1.584 1.642 1.889 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.528 1.583 1.819 1.533 1.589 1.825 1.544 1.601 1.838 1.556 1.613 1.851 0.907 0.939 1.076 0.9 0.932 1.068 0.894 0.926 1.061 0.891 0.923 1.057 0.89 0.922 1.057 0.919 0.952 1.092 0.917 0.95 1.089 0.913 0.946 1.084 0.909 0.942 1.081 0.909 0.942 1.081

continued 354

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.964 1 1.152 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.966 1.002 1.154 1.5 1.553 1.776 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.526 1.581 1.812 1.522 1.577 1.807

0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.964 1 1.152 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.966 1.002 1.154 1.5 1.553 1.776 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.526 1.581 1.812 1.522 1.577 1.807

0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.964 1 1.152 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.966 1.002 1.154 1.5 1.553 1.776 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.526 1.581 1.812 1.522 1.577 1.807

0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.964 1 1.152 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.966 1.002 1.154 1.5 1.553 1.776 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.526 1.581 1.812 1.522 1.577 1.807

0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.94 0.974 1.12 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.939 0.973 1.119 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.953 0.989 1.14 0.957 0.993 1.144 0.961 0.997 1.148 0.964 1 1.152 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.948 0.984 1.134 0.952 0.987 1.138 0.959 0.994 1.145 0.966 1.002 1.154 1.5 1.553 1.776 1.489 1.542 1.764 1.478 1.531 1.752 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.473 1.525 1.746 1.526 1.581 1.812 1.522 1.577 1.807

continued 355

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

1.516 1.57 1.8 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.625 1.685 1.942 0.885 0.915 1.045 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.868 0.899 1.027

1.516 1.57 1.8 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.625 1.685 1.942 0.885 0.915 1.045 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.868 0.899 1.027

1.516 1.57 1.8 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.625 1.685 1.942 0.885 0.915 1.045 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.868 0.899 1.027

1.516 1.57 1.8 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.625 1.685 1.942 0.885 0.915 1.045 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.868 0.899 1.027

1.516 1.57 1.8 1.51 1.564 1.793 1.51 1.564 1.794 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.572 1.63 1.874 1.57 1.628 1.872 1.571 1.628 1.873 1.604 1.664 1.919 1.604 1.664 1.918 1.61 1.67 1.925 1.617 1.677 1.933 1.621 1.682 1.939 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.595 1.654 1.908 1.601 1.661 1.914 1.612 1.672 1.927 1.625 1.685 1.942 0.885 0.915 1.045 0.878 0.909 1.038 0.872 0.903 1.031 0.868 0.899 1.027

continued 356

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service

2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2

6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

0.868 0.899 1.027 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.952 0.987 1.135 0.954 0.989 1.138 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.985 1.022 1.179 1.459 1.509 1.72

0.868 0.899 1.027 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.952 0.987 1.135 0.954 0.989 1.138 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.985 1.022 1.179 1.459 1.509 1.72

0.868 0.899 1.027 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.952 0.987 1.135 0.954 0.989 1.138 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.985 1.022 1.179 1.459 1.509 1.72

0.868 0.899 1.027 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.952 0.987 1.135 0.954 0.989 1.138 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.985 1.022 1.179 1.459 1.509 1.72

0.868 0.899 1.027 0.896 0.928 1.061 0.894 0.925 1.058 0.89 0.921 1.054 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.886 0.918 1.05 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.916 0.949 1.088 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.915 0.948 1.087 0.944 0.979 1.127 0.944 0.979 1.126 0.947 0.982 1.13 0.952 0.987 1.135 0.954 0.989 1.138 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.967 1.003 1.158 0.97 1.007 1.162 0.977 1.014 1.17 0.985 1.022 1.179 1.459 1.509 1.72

continued 357

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

1.448 1.498 1.708 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.647 1.709 1.974

1.448 1.498 1.708 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.647 1.709 1.974

1.448 1.498 1.708 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.647 1.709 1.974

1.448 1.498 1.708 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.647 1.709 1.974

1.448 1.498 1.708 1.438 1.488 1.697 1.433 1.482 1.691 1.432 1.482 1.69 1.484 1.536 1.754 1.48 1.532 1.75 1.474 1.526 1.743 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.468 1.52 1.736 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.529 1.583 1.814 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.527 1.582 1.812 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.59 1.649 1.898 1.596 1.655 1.904 1.603 1.662 1.912 1.607 1.667 1.918 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.641 1.703 1.968 1.647 1.709 1.974

continued 358

Table B.25 continued z z z z z z TC TCcalc Difference %difference commute shopping tollrev commute

6 6 6 6 6 6

Service Service Service Service Service Service

6 6 6 6 6 6

5 5 5 6 6 6

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

1.659 1.722 1.988 1.672 1.735 2.003 3785.414 3768.345 17.069 0.0045 1044.644 670.868 2052.832 21.691 28.684 90.032 19.923 26.338 82.307 17.885 23.659 73.793 16.479 21.791 68.027 15.693 20.738 64.995 19.908 26.321 82.633

17.880 23.642 74.216

16.470 21.776 68.337

1.659 1.722 1.988 1.672 1.735 2.003 9441.909 9419.404 22.505 0.0024 2572.916 1692.785 5153.703

21.734 28.732 89.790 39.022 51.619 161.004 35.954 47.545 148.422 34.240 45.246 141.807 21.718 28.714 90.145 21.765 28.781 90.022 20.475 27.096 84.582 18.865 24.947 78.009 17.967 23.756 74.549 39.010 51.583 161.926 20.471 27.085 84.713

35.934 47.512 149.098 18.865 24.947 78.009

1.659 1.722 1.988 1.672 1.735 2.003 11466.342 11535.089 -68.747 -0.0060 3196.767 2121.972 6216.350

1.659 1.722 1.988 1.672 1.735 2.003 9441.909 9419.404 22.505 0.0024 2572.916 1692.785 5153.703

1.659 1.722 1.988 1.672 1.735 2.003 3785.414 3768.345 17.069 0.0045 1044.644 670.868 2052.832

20.595 27.243 84.974 37.951 50.186 156.668 36.142 47.760 149.685

17.977 23.772 74.211 34.240 45.246 141.807

15.693 20.738 64.995

18.865 24.947 78.009 35.934 47.512 149.098

16.470 21.776 68.337

21.613 28.601 89.281 39.827 52.666 164.685 37.931 50.151 157.382 20.589 27.225 85.461 21.609 28.589 89.419 22.352 29.564 92.384 21.609 28.589 89.419 20.589 27.225 85.461 37.931 50.151 157.382 39.827 52.666 164.685 21.613 28.601

20.471 27.085 84.713 39.010 51.583 161.926 17.967 23.756 74.549 18.865 24.947 78.009 20.475 27.096

17.880 23.642 74.216

continued 359

Table B.25 continued

shopping

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

89.281

15.693 20.738 64.995

0.971 1.332 4.825 0.885 1.214 4.377 0.789 1.083 3.898 0.724 0.993 3.581 0.690 0.945 3.421 0.863 1.183 4.274 0.863 1.184 4.257 0.808 1.109 3.982 0.742 1.018 3.660 0.707 0.969 3.501 0.744 1.019 3.667 0.780 1.070 3.837 0.808 1.107 3.968 0.780 1.070 3.837 0.744 1.019

34.240 45.246 141.807 17.977 23.772 74.211

0.942 1.291 4.663 0.942 1.291 4.644 0.881 1.209 4.344 0.810 1.110 3.993 0.771 1.057 3.819 1.622 2.223 8.001 1.703 2.334 8.371 1.763 2.416 8.657 1.703 2.334 8.371 1.622 2.223

36.142 47.760 149.685 37.951 50.186 156.668 20.595 27.243 84.974

84.582 21.765 28.781 90.022 21.718 28.714 90.145 34.240 45.246 141.807 35.954 47.545 148.422 39.022 51.619 161.004 21.734 28.732 89.790

19.908 26.321 82.633 15.693 20.738 64.995 16.479 21.791 68.027 17.885 23.659 73.793 19.923 26.338 82.307 21.691 28.684 90.032

0.856 1.173 4.223 0.899 1.232 4.418 0.931 1.275 4.569 0.899 1.232 4.418 0.856 1.173

continued 360

Table B.25 continued 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4

6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

3.667 0.663 0.909 3.262 0.696 0.954 3.413 0.759 1.040 3.715 0.811 1.109 3.968 0.811 1.110 3.985 0.619 0.847 3.034 0.650 0.890 3.176 0.709 0.971 3.458 0.795 1.088 3.883 0.873 1.193 4.276 1.649 2.262 8.197 1.502 2.062 7.438 1.339 1.838 6.621 1.229 1.687 6.085 1.171 1.605 5.814 1.454 1.994 7.204 1.454 1.993 7.172 1.362 1.868 6.710 1.250 1.714 6.169 1.190 1.632 5.896 1.241 1.700 6.113 1.302 1.785

8.001 1.447 1.983 7.116 1.520 2.082 7.446 1.657 2.269 8.105 1.769 2.420 8.658 1.769 2.422 8.695 1.351 1.849 6.620 1.419 1.943 6.929 1.547 2.119 7.545 1.735 2.374 8.473 1.904 2.603 9.331

4.223 1.528 2.093 7.511 1.604 2.198 7.860 1.749 2.395 8.555 1.867 2.555 9.140 1.867 2.557 9.178 1.426 1.952 6.988 1.497 2.051 7.314 1.633 2.236 7.964 1.831 2.506 8.944 2.010 2.747 9.849

1.586 2.176 7.859 1.586 2.174 7.824 1.485 2.038 7.320 1.363 1.870 6.730 1.299 1.781 6.432 2.708 3.709 13.337 2.842 3.895

1.429 1.958 7.039 1.500 2.056

0.724 0.991 3.558 0.760 1.041 3.723 0.828 1.134 4.052 0.884 1.210 4.329 0.884 1.211 4.347 1.351 1.849 6.620 1.419 1.943 6.929 1.547 2.119 7.545 1.735 2.374 8.473 1.904 2.603 9.331

0.619 0.847 3.034 0.650 0.890 3.176 0.709 0.971 3.458 0.795 1.088 3.883 0.873 1.193 4.276

continued 361

Table B.25 continued 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

6.396 1.349 1.847 6.615 1.302 1.785 6.396 1.241 1.700 6.113 1.099 1.505 5.392 1.154 1.580 5.643 1.258 1.723 6.143 1.342 1.837 6.564 1.343 1.838 6.588 1.021 1.397 4.993 1.073 1.468 5.229 1.169 1.600 5.692 1.311 1.793 6.390 1.439 1.967 7.039 0.952 1.306 4.723 0.868 1.190 4.284 0.774 1.061 3.817 0.710 0.975 3.506 0.676 0.928 3.350

13.955 2.943 4.031 14.433 2.842 3.895 13.955 2.708 3.709 13.337 2.398 3.283 11.765 2.518 3.447 12.311 2.744 3.759 13.402 2.928 4.008 14.322 2.930 4.010 14.374 2.229 3.048 10.893 2.342 3.203 11.408 2.551 3.491 12.419 2.861 3.913 13.942 3.139 4.293 15.357 1.039 1.425 5.152 0.947 1.298 4.673 0.844 1.158 4.164 0.775 1.063 3.825 0.738 1.012 3.655 0.952 1.305 4.720 0.951 1.304 4.698 0.891 1.223 4.398 0.817 1.121

7.365 1.553 2.127 7.617 1.500 2.056 7.365 1.429 1.958 7.039 2.531 3.465 12.419 2.658 3.639 12.995 2.896 3.968 14.147 3.091 4.231 15.117 3.093 4.232 15.173 2.353 3.217 11.499 2.472 3.381 12.042 2.692 3.685 13.109 3.020 4.130 14.716 3.313 4.531 16.211

1.199 1.641 5.883 1.259 1.724 6.156 1.372 1.879 6.701 1.464 2.004 7.161 1.465 2.005 7.187 2.229 3.048 10.893 2.342 3.203 11.408 2.551 3.491 12.419 2.861 3.913 13.942 3.139 4.293 15.357

1.021 1.397 4.993 1.073 1.468 5.229 1.169 1.600 5.692 1.311 1.793 6.390 1.439 1.967 7.039

continued 362

Table B.25 continued 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3

5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

1.602 2.197 7.947 1.460 2.002 7.209 1.302 1.786 6.420 1.195 1.638 5.900 1.138 1.559 5.637

4.042 0.778 1.068 3.863 0.833 1.141 4.118 0.874 1.198 4.309 0.905 1.240 4.456 0.874 1.198 4.309 0.833 1.141 4.118 0.742 1.017 3.663 0.779 1.068 3.833 0.850 1.165 4.168 0.907 1.243 4.456 0.907 1.243 4.474 0.693 0.948 3.407 0.728 0.997 3.566 0.793 1.086 3.882 0.889 1.217 4.359 0.976 1.336 4.804 1.748 2.397 8.670 1.593 2.184 7.865 1.420 1.949 7.004 1.303 1.787 6.436 1.241 1.701 6.149 1.600 2.195

0.879 1.204 4.347 0.922 1.264 4.548 0.955 1.309 4.703 0.922 1.264 4.548 0.879 1.204 4.347 1.567 2.147 7.733 1.646 2.255 8.092 1.794 2.460 8.798 1.915 2.624 9.407 1.915 2.623 9.446 1.462 2.002 7.192 1.537 2.106 7.527 1.674 2.293 8.196 1.877 2.570 9.202 2.060 2.820 10.141

0.742 1.017 3.663 0.779 1.068 3.833 0.850 1.165 4.168 0.907 1.243 4.456 0.907 1.243 4.474 1.385 1.896 6.813 1.456 1.995 7.131 1.586 2.173 7.765 1.778 2.434 8.718 1.951 2.671 9.607

0.635 0.869 3.123 0.667 0.914 3.268 0.727 0.996 3.559 0.815 1.116 3.996 0.894 1.224 4.403

continued 363

Table B.25 continued 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

0.922 1.263 4.555 0.840 1.152 4.130 0.749 1.027

7.945 1.600 2.194 7.910 1.498 2.057 7.401 1.375 1.887 6.801 1.310 1.797 6.503 1.393 1.909 6.893 1.461 2.004 7.208 1.513 2.075 7.455 1.461 2.004 7.208 1.393 1.909 6.893 1.233 1.689 6.079 1.295 1.774 6.358 1.411 1.934 6.920 1.506 2.063 7.394 1.506 2.063 7.425 1.146 1.568 5.627 1.204 1.648 5.890 1.311 1.796 6.411 1.471 2.014 7.199 1.613 2.209 7.929 2.011 2.756 9.938 1.834 2.513 9.012 1.634 2.241

1.470 2.015 7.276 1.542 2.116 7.609 1.597 2.190 7.869 1.542 2.116 7.609 1.470 2.015 7.276 2.603 3.565 12.834 2.734 3.744 13.422 2.979 4.082 14.610 3.179 4.355 15.610 3.180 4.356 15.674 2.420 3.311 11.880 2.541 3.479 12.434 2.767 3.792 13.534 3.105 4.252 15.199 3.406 4.663 16.738 1.062 1.455 5.245 0.968 1.326 4.756 0.862 1.183

1.233 1.689 6.079 1.295 1.774 6.358 1.411 1.934 6.920 1.506 2.063 7.394 1.506 2.063 7.425 2.293 3.136 11.254 2.407 3.296 11.779 2.622 3.592 12.822 2.942 4.028 14.399 3.227 4.418 15.857

1.051 1.438 5.158 1.103 1.511 5.399 1.202 1.646 5.877 1.348 1.846 6.600 1.479 2.025 7.268

continued 364

Table B.25 continued 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

3.680 0.688 0.942 3.380 0.655 0.896 3.229

8.028 1.500 2.055 7.374 1.429 1.956 7.045 0.935 1.282 4.630 0.935 1.281 4.612 0.875 1.201 4.314 0.803 1.102 3.964 0.765 1.050 3.788

4.237 0.792 1.085 3.892 0.754 1.032 3.718 0.987 1.353 4.887 0.987 1.352 4.868 0.923 1.268 4.553 0.848 1.163 4.185 0.808 1.108 3.999 0.891 1.223 4.421 0.935 1.284 4.621 0.968 1.329 4.779 0.935 1.284 4.621 0.891 1.223 4.421 0.808 1.108 3.999 0.848 1.163 4.185 0.923 1.268 4.553 0.987 1.352 4.868 0.987 1.353 4.887 0.754 1.032 3.718 0.792 1.085 3.892 0.862 1.183 4.237 0.968 1.326 4.756 1.062 1.455

0.765 1.050 3.788 0.803 1.102 3.964 0.875 1.201 4.314 0.935 1.281 4.612 0.935 1.282 4.630 1.429 1.956 7.045 1.500 2.055 7.374 1.634 2.241 8.028 1.834 2.513 9.012 2.011 2.756

0.655 0.896 3.229 0.688 0.942 3.380 0.749 1.027 3.680 0.840 1.152 4.130 0.922 1.263

continued 365

Table B.25 continued 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6

6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

1.534 2.103 7.575 1.398 1.917 6.876 1.246 1.709 6.121 1.145 1.568 5.625 1.090 1.492 5.374

3.347 4.588 16.527 3.051 4.182 15.003 2.719 3.728 13.356 2.497 3.421 12.272 2.378 3.256 11.725 1.564 2.143 7.740 1.562 2.143 7.709 1.463 2.009 7.213 1.343 1.842 6.627 1.280 1.754 6.337

5.245 1.767 2.422 8.723 1.610 2.207 7.918 1.435 1.968 7.049 1.318 1.806 6.477 1.255 1.718 6.188 1.651 2.262 8.170 1.649 2.262 8.137 1.544 2.120 7.613 1.417 1.944 6.995 1.351 1.851 6.689 1.495 2.049 7.416 1.569 2.152 7.755 1.624 2.228 8.021 1.569 2.152 7.755 1.495 2.049 7.416 1.351 1.851 6.689 1.417 1.944 6.995 1.544 2.120 7.613 1.649 2.262 8.137 1.651 2.262 8.170 1.255 1.718 6.188 1.318 1.806

9.938

4.555

1.280 1.754 6.337 1.343 1.842 6.627 1.463 2.009 7.213 1.562 2.143 7.709 1.564 2.143 7.740 2.378 3.256 11.725 2.497 3.421

1.090 1.492 5.374 1.145 1.568

continued 366

Table B.25 continued 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

0.894 1.224 4.403 0.815 1.116 3.996 0.727 0.996 3.559 0.667 0.914 3.268 0.635 0.869 3.123

1.951 2.671 9.607 1.778 2.434 8.718 1.586 2.173 7.765 1.456 1.995 7.131 1.385 1.896 6.813 0.907 1.243 4.474 0.907 1.243 4.456 0.850 1.165 4.168 0.779 1.068 3.833 0.742 1.017 3.663

6.477 1.435 1.968 7.049 1.610 2.207 7.918 1.767 2.422 8.723 2.060 2.820 10.141 1.877 2.570 9.202 1.674 2.293 8.196 1.537 2.106 7.527 1.462 2.002 7.192 1.915 2.623 9.446 1.915 2.624 9.407 1.794 2.460 8.798 1.646 2.255 8.092 1.567 2.147 7.733 0.879 1.204 4.347 0.922 1.264 4.548 0.955 1.309 4.703 0.922 1.264 4.548 0.879 1.204 4.347

12.272 2.719 3.728 13.356 3.051 4.182 15.003 3.347 4.588 16.527 0.976 1.336 4.804 0.889 1.217 4.359 0.793 1.086 3.882 0.728 0.997 3.566 0.693 0.948 3.407 0.907 1.243 4.474 0.907 1.243 4.456 0.850 1.165 4.168 0.779 1.068 3.833 0.742 1.017 3.663 0.833 1.141 4.118 0.874 1.198 4.309 0.905 1.240 4.456 0.874 1.198 4.309 0.833 1.141 4.118 0.778 1.068 3.863 0.817 1.121 4.042 0.891 1.223 4.398 0.951 1.304

5.625 1.246 1.709 6.121 1.398 1.917 6.876 1.534 2.103 7.575

continued 367

Table B.25 continued 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5

5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

1.479 2.025 7.268 1.348 1.846 6.600 1.202 1.646 5.877 1.103 1.511 5.399 1.051 1.438 5.158

3.227 4.418 15.857 2.942 4.028 14.399 2.622 3.592 12.822 2.407 3.296 11.779 2.293 3.136 11.254 1.506 2.063 7.425 1.506 2.063 7.394 1.411 1.934 6.920 1.295 1.774 6.358 1.233 1.689 6.079

3.406 4.663 16.738 3.105 4.252 15.199 2.767 3.792 13.534 2.541 3.479 12.434 2.420 3.311 11.880 3.180 4.356 15.674 3.179 4.355 15.610 2.979 4.082 14.610 2.734 3.744 13.422 2.603 3.565 12.834 1.470 2.015 7.276 1.542 2.116 7.609 1.597 2.190 7.869 1.542 2.116 7.609 1.470 2.015 7.276

4.698 0.952 1.305 4.720 0.738 1.012 3.655 0.775 1.063 3.825 0.844 1.158 4.164 0.947 1.298 4.673 1.039 1.425 5.152 1.613 2.209 7.929 1.471 2.014 7.199 1.311 1.796 6.411 1.204 1.648 5.890 1.146 1.568 5.627 1.506 2.063 7.425 1.506 2.063 7.394 1.411 1.934 6.920 1.295 1.774 6.358 1.233 1.689 6.079 1.393 1.909 6.893 1.461 2.004 7.208 1.513 2.075 7.455 1.461 2.004 7.208 1.393 1.909 6.893 1.310 1.797

0.676 0.928 3.350 0.710 0.975 3.506 0.774 1.061 3.817 0.868 1.190 4.284 0.952 1.306 4.723

continued 368

Table B.25 continued 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

0.873 1.193 4.276 0.795 1.088 3.883 0.709 0.971 3.458 0.650 0.890 3.176 0.619 0.847 3.034

1.904 2.603 9.331 1.735 2.374 8.473 1.547 2.119 7.545 1.419 1.943 6.929 1.351 1.849 6.620 0.884 1.211 4.347 0.884 1.210 4.329 0.828 1.134 4.052 0.760 1.041 3.723 0.724 0.991 3.558

2.010 2.747 9.849 1.831 2.506 8.944 1.633 2.236 7.964 1.497 2.051 7.314 1.426 1.952 6.988 1.867 2.557 9.178 1.867 2.555 9.140 1.749 2.395 8.555 1.604 2.198 7.860 1.528 2.093 7.511 0.856 1.173 4.223 0.899 1.232 4.418 0.931 1.275

6.503 1.375 1.887 6.801 1.498 2.057 7.401 1.600 2.194 7.910 1.600 2.195 7.945 1.241 1.701 6.149 1.303 1.787 6.436 1.420 1.949 7.004 1.593 2.184 7.865 1.748 2.397 8.670 1.904 2.603 9.331 1.735 2.374 8.473 1.547 2.119 7.545 1.419 1.943 6.929 1.351 1.849 6.620 1.769 2.422 8.695 1.769 2.420 8.658 1.657 2.269 8.105 1.520 2.082 7.446 1.447 1.983 7.116 1.622 2.223 8.001 1.703 2.334 8.371 1.763 2.416

1.138 1.559 5.637 1.195 1.638 5.900 1.302 1.786 6.420 1.460 2.002 7.209 1.602 2.197 7.947 0.873 1.193 4.276 0.795 1.088 3.883 0.709 0.971 3.458 0.650 0.890 3.176 0.619 0.847 3.034 0.811 1.110 3.985 0.811 1.109 3.968 0.759 1.040 3.715 0.696 0.954 3.413 0.663 0.909 3.262 0.744 1.019 3.667 0.780 1.070 3.837 0.808 1.107

continued 369

Table B.25 continued 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail

1.439 1.967 7.039 1.311 1.793 6.390 1.169 1.600 5.692 1.073 1.468 5.229 1.021 1.397 4.993

3.139 4.293 15.357 2.861 3.913 13.942 2.551 3.491 12.419 2.342 3.203 11.408 2.229 3.048 10.893 1.465 2.005 7.187 1.464 2.004 7.161 1.372 1.879 6.701 1.259 1.724 6.156 1.199 1.641

4.569 0.899 1.232 4.418 0.856 1.173 4.223

8.657 1.703 2.334 8.371 1.622 2.223 8.001 0.771 1.057 3.819 0.810 1.110 3.993 0.881 1.209 4.344 0.942 1.291 4.644 0.942 1.291 4.663

3.313 4.531 16.211 3.020 4.130 14.716 2.692 3.685 13.109 2.472 3.381 12.042 2.353 3.217 11.499 3.093 4.232 15.173 3.091 4.231 15.117 2.896 3.968 14.147 2.658 3.639 12.995 2.531 3.465

3.139 4.293 15.357 2.861 3.913 13.942 2.551 3.491 12.419 2.342 3.203 11.408 2.229 3.048 10.893 2.930 4.010 14.374 2.928 4.008 14.322 2.744 3.759 13.402 2.518 3.447 12.311 2.398 3.283

3.968 0.780 1.070 3.837 0.744 1.019 3.667 0.707 0.969 3.501 0.742 1.018 3.660 0.808 1.109 3.982 0.863 1.184 4.257 0.863 1.183 4.274 0.690 0.945 3.421 0.724 0.993 3.581 0.789 1.083 3.898 0.885 1.214 4.377 0.971 1.332 4.825 1.439 1.967 7.039 1.311 1.793 6.390 1.169 1.600 5.692 1.073 1.468 5.229 1.021 1.397 4.993 1.343 1.838 6.588 1.342 1.837 6.564 1.258 1.723 6.143 1.154 1.580 5.643 1.099 1.505

continued 370

Table B.25 continued 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Retail

5.883

371

12.419 1.429 1.958 7.039 1.500 2.056 7.365 1.553 2.127 7.617 1.500 2.056 7.365 1.429 1.958 7.039

11.765 2.708 3.709 13.337 2.842 3.895 13.955 2.943 4.031 14.433 2.842 3.895 13.955 2.708 3.709 13.337 1.299 1.781 6.432 1.363 1.870 6.730 1.485 2.038 7.320 1.586 2.174 7.824 1.586 2.176 7.859

5.392 1.241 1.700 6.113 1.302 1.785 6.396 1.349 1.847 6.615 1.302 1.785 6.396 1.241 1.700 6.113 1.190 1.632 5.896 1.250 1.714 6.169 1.362 1.868 6.710 1.454 1.993 7.172 1.454 1.994 7.204 1.171 1.605 5.814 1.229 1.687 6.085 1.339 1.838 6.621 1.502 2.062 7.438 1.649 2.262 8.197

Variable zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop zpop lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize lotsize rho landused landused landused flow Ztoll upsilon pop RentDiv RentDivcalc resrent

indrent

Tolls

jx 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

j Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service

2 1.508 1.906 5.038 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.153 1.457 3.830 1.091 1.378 3.637 0.821 0.851 0.978 0.814 0.844 0.971 0.809 0.838 0.964 0.806 0.835 0.961 0.806 0.835 0.961 1140.46 2.866 6.835 19.938 151.47 0.616 22 180 2096.671 2098.460 1411.97 1849.84 5619.24 1294.10 1695.05 5131.64 1156.98 1514.80 4576.82 1059.85 1387.48 4197.62 1002.86 1312.25 3986.09 3268.56 7795.06 22738.53 2052.72

3 1.384 1.749 4.624 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.210 1.529 4.026 1.145 1.447 3.824 0.779 0.807 0.928 0.777 0.805 0.926 0.773 0.802 0.922 0.770 0.799 0.919 0.770 0.799 0.919 1198.54 2.748 6.559 19.067 321.902 0.728 22 180 2096.671 Difference 1292.18 1691.66 5143.00 1300.04 1701.94 5156.33 1219.23 1599.48 4833.49 1116.68 1464.22 4434.45 1056.69 1385.69 4211.96 3293.57 7861.19 22852.47 5155.58

Table B.26. Rent Dividend, Eq. (4.95) 372

4 1.243 1.571 4.153 1.313 1.660 4.372 1.361 1.720 4.526 1.313 1.660 4.372 1.243 1.571 4.153 0.762 0.790 0.908 0.762 0.790 0.908 0.762 0.791 0.909 0.762 0.790 0.908 0.762 0.790 0.908 1218.89 2.71 6.469 18.784 377.384 0.749 22 180 2096.671 -1.789 1154.49 1512.75 4596.35 1219.51 1598.45 4838.73 1264.09 1658.33 5014.69 1219.51 1598.45 4838.73 1154.49 1512.75 4596.35 3303.20 7885.01 22895.67 6218.53

5 1.145 1.447 3.824 1.210 1.529 4.026 1.316 1.664 4.374 1.396 1.764 4.646 1.384 1.749 4.624 0.770 0.799 0.919 0.770 0.799 0.919 0.773 0.802 0.922 0.777 0.805 0.926 0.779 0.807 0.928 1198.54 2.748 6.559 19.067 321.902 0.728 22 180 2096.671 TotLandRent 1056.69 1385.69 4211.96 1116.68 1464.22 4434.45 1219.23 1599.48 4833.49 1300.04 1701.94 5156.33 1292.18 1691.66 5143.00 3293.57 7861.19 22852.47 5155.58

6 1.091 1.378 3.637 1.153 1.457 3.830 1.254 1.585 4.163 1.394 1.761 4.634 1.508 1.906 5.038 0.806 0.835 0.961 0.806 0.835 0.961 0.809 0.838 0.964 0.814 0.844 0.971 0.821 0.851 0.978 1140.46 2.866 6.835 19.938 151.47 0.616 22 180 2096.671 377722.7 1002.86 1312.25 3986.09 1059.85 1387.48 4197.62 1156.98 1514.80 4576.82 1294.10 1695.05 5131.64 1411.97 1849.84 5619.24 3268.56 7795.06 22738.53 2052.72

Variable x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

px 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

i Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Manuf Retail

jx 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2

j Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf

x

p 0 43.09 0 0 42.929 0 0 42.574 0 0 42.044 0 0 41.41 0 0.169 0 0.097 0.169 0 0.097 0.168 0 0.097 0.168 0 0.096 0.166 0 0.096 0.138 0.148 0.865 0.138 0.148 0.861 0.137 0.147 0.856 0.136 0.146 0.852 0.135 0.145 0.847 0 41.41 0 0 42.044 0 0 42.574 0 0 42.929 0 0 43.09 0 0.166

Table B.27. Deficit Dividend, Eq. (4.96)

Value 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 423.28 1184.56

0.000 18239.135 0.000 0.000 18170.987 0.000 0.000 18020.723 0.000 0.000 17796.384 0.000 0.000 17528.025 0.000 200.191 0.000 114.902 200.191 0.000 114.902 199.006 0.000 114.902 199.006 0.000 113.718 196.637 0.000 113.718 110.439 118.441 692.242 110.439 118.441 689.041 109.638 117.641 685.040 108.838 116.841 681.839 108.038 116.041 677.837 0.000 17528.025 0.000 0.000 17796.384 0.000 0.000 18020.723 0.000 0.000 18170.987 0.000 0.000 18239.135 0.000 196.637

continued 373

Table B.27 continued x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x pop Value Imports

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 191766.446

Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Retail Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service

180 Value Exports

2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 115997.716

Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service Manuf Retail Service DeficitDiv DeficitDiv calc

374

0 0.096 0.168 0 0.096 0.168 0 0.097 0.169 0 0.097 0.169 0 0.097 0.135 0.145 0.847 0.136 0.146 0.852 0.137 0.147 0.856 0.138 0.148 0.861 0.138 0.148 0.865 17.115 3.272 12.34 16.132 2.916 10.67 14.874 2.637 9.548 13.513 2.442 8.937 12.201 2.333 8.797 12.201 2.333 8.797 13.513 2.442 8.937 14.874 2.637 9.548 16.132 2.916 10.67 17.115 3.272 12.34 420.937

1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 1184.56 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 800.28 453.53 460.92 362.5 453.31 461.27 363.14 453.24 461.38 363.37 453.31 461.27 363.14 453.53 460.92 362.5 453.53 460.92 362.5 453.31 461.27 363.14 453.24 461.38 363.37 453.31 461.27 363.14 453.53 460.92 362.5 420.981 Difference

0.000 113.718 199.006 0.000 113.718 199.006 0.000 114.902 200.191 0.000 114.902 200.191 0.000 114.902 108.038 116.041 677.837 108.838 116.841 681.839 109.638 117.641 685.040 110.439 118.441 689.041 110.439 118.441 692.242 7762.166 1508.130 4473.250 7312.797 1345.063 3874.704 6741.492 1216.659 3469.457 6125.578 1126.421 3245.382 5533.520 1075.326 3188.913 5533.520 1075.326 3188.913 6125.578 1126.421 3245.382 6741.492 1216.659 3469.457 7312.797 1345.063 3874.704 7762.166 1508.130 4473.250 0.044

Header zpop.2.M zpop.2.R zpop.2.S zpop.3.M zpop.3.R zpop.3.S zpop.4.M zpop.4.R zpop.4.S zpop.5.M zpop.5.R zpop.5.S zpop.6.M zpop.6.R zpop.6.S lotsize.2.M lotsize.2.R lotsize.2.S lotsize.3.M lotsize.3.R lotsize.3.S lotsize.4.M lotsize.4.R lotsize.4.S lotsize.5.M lotsize.5.R lotsize.5.S lotsize.6.M lotsize.6.R lotsize.6.S landused.M landused.R landused.S S epsilonland rho rhoold rhomin Resident Use.2.M Resident Use.2.R Resident Use.2.S Resident Use.3.M Resident Use .3.R Resident Use.3.S Resident Use.4.M Resident Use.4.R Resident Use.4.S Resident Use.5.M Resident Use.5.R Resident Use.5.S Resident Use.6.M Resident Use.6.R Resident Use ..S Tot Resident Use Firm Use LHS Land Used RHS1 RHS2

2 1.508 1.394 1.254 1.153 1.091 1.906 1.761 1.585 1.457 1.378 5.038 4.634 4.163 3.83 3.637 0.821 0.814 0.809 0.806 0.806 0.851 0.844 0.838 0.835 0.835 0.978 0.971 0.964 0.961 0.961 2.866 6.835 19.938 1.8 0.06 1140.462 1140.462 20 1.238068 1.134716 1.014486 0.929318 0.879346 1.622006 1.486284 1.32823 1.216595 1.15063 4.927164 4.499614 4.013132 3.68063 3.495157 32.61538 29.639 64.05438 64.06 63.94

3 1.384 1.396 1.316 1.21 1.145 1.749 1.764 1.664 1.529 1.447 4.624 4.646 4.374 4.026 3.824 0.779 0.777 0.773 0.77 0.77 0.807 0.805 0.802 0.799 0.799 0.928 0.926 0.922 0.919 0.919 2.748 6.559 19.067 4.3 0.06 1198.54 1198.54 20 1.07814 1.08469 1.01727 0.9317 0.88165 1.41144 1.42002 1.33453 1.22167 1.15615 4.29107 4.3022 4.03283 3.69989 3.51426 31.3775 28.374 64.0515 64.06 63.94

4 1.243 1.313 1.361 1.313 1.243 1.571 1.66 1.72 1.66 1.571 4.153 4.372 4.526 4.372 4.153 0.762 0.762 0.762 0.762 0.762 0.79 0.79 0.791 0.79 0.79 0.908 0.908 0.909 0.908 0.908 2.71 6.469 18.784 5.1 0.06 1218.89 1218.89 20 0.94717 1.00051 1.03708 1.00051 0.94717 1.24109 1.3114 1.36052 1.3114 1.24109 3.77092 3.96978 4.11413 3.96978 3.77092 30.9935 27.963 64.0565 64.06 63.94

Table B.28. Total Land Use, Eq. (4.97)

375

5 1.145 1.21 1.316 1.396 1.384 1.447 1.529 1.664 1.764 1.749 3.824 4.026 4.374 4.646 4.624 0.77 0.77 0.773 0.777 0.779 0.799 0.799 0.802 0.805 0.807 0.919 0.919 0.922 0.926 0.928 2.748 6.559 19.067 4.3 0.06 1198.535 1198.535 20 0.88165 0.9317 1.017268 1.084692 1.078136 1.156153 1.221671 1.334528 1.42002 1.411443 3.514256 3.699894 4.032828 4.302196 4.291072 31.37751 28.374 64.05151 64.06 63.94

6 1.091 1.153 1.254 1.394 1.508 1.378 1.457 1.585 1.761 1.906 3.637 3.83 4.163 4.634 5.038 0.806 0.806 0.809 0.814 0.821 0.835 0.835 0.838 0.844 0.851 0.961 0.961 0.964 0.971 0.978 2.866 6.835 19.938 1.8 0.06 1140.46 1140.46 20 0.87935 0.92932 1.01449 1.13472 1.23807 1.15063 1.2166 1.32823 1.48628 1.62201 3.49516 3.68063 4.01313 4.49961 4.92716 32.6154 29.639 64.0544 64.06 63.94

Industry ix upsilon zpop.2 zpop.3 zpop.4 zpop.5 zpop.6 h.2

h.3

h.4

h.5

h.6

w

wold

(1+epsilonlabor) laborsupply labordemand % diff

Manuf

2

22 1.508 1.384 1.243 1.145 1.091 7.937 7.960 7.968 7.961 7.939 19.81 19.81

1.001

1114.7

1113.7

0.0008

Manuf

3

22 1.394 1.396 1.313 1.210 1.153 7.920 7.942 7.950 7.944 7.922 19.69 19.69

1.001

1128.9

1129.5

-0.0005

Manuf

4

22 1.254 1.316 1.361 1.316 1.254 7.915 7.937 7.944 7.937 7.915 19.65 19.65

1.001

1134.2

1134.9

-0.0006

Manuf

5

22 1.153 1.210 1.313 1.396 1.394 7.922 7.944 7.950 7.942 7.920 19.69 19.69

1.001

1128.9

1129.5

-0.0005

Manuf

6

22 1.091 1.145 1.243 1.384 1.508 7.939 7.961 7.968 7.960 7.937 19.81 19.81

1.001

1114.7

1113.7

0.0008

Retail

2

22 1.906 1.749 1.571 1.447 1.378 8.061 8.084 8.090 8.082 8.057 20.73 20.73

1.001

1430.2

1429.0

0.0009

Retail

3

22 1.761 1.764 1.660 1.529 1.457 8.045 8.069 8.076 8.067 8.043 20.60 20.60

1.001

1448.9

1450.0

-0.0007

Retail

4

22 1.585 1.664 1.720 1.664 1.585 8.039 8.063 8.071 8.063 8.039 20.56 20.56

1.001

1456.4

1457.4

-0.0007

Retail

5

22 1.457 1.529 1.660 1.764 1.761 8.043 8.067 8.076 8.069 8.045 20.60 20.60

1.001

1448.9

1450.0

-0.0007

Retail

376

6

22 1.378 1.447 1.571 1.749 1.906 8.057 8.082 8.090 8.084 8.061 20.73 20.73

1.001

1430.2

1429.0

0.0009

Service 2

22 5.038 4.624 4.153 3.824 3.637 8.482 8.505 8.507 8.492 8.460 24.62 24.62

1.001

3973.9

3972.2

0.0004

Service 3

22 4.634 4.646 4.372 4.026 3.830 8.466 8.495 8.501 8.486 8.453 24.47 24.47

1.001

4012.9

4016.5

-0.0009

Service 4

22 4.163 4.374 4.526 4.374 4.163 8.455 8.487 8.499 8.487 8.455 24.42 24.42

1.001

4028.4

4032.3

-0.0010

Service 5

22 3.830 4.026 4.372 4.646 4.634 8.453 8.486 8.501 8.495 8.466 24.47 24.47

1.001

4012.9

4016.5

-0.0009

Service 6

22 3.637 3.824 4.153 4.624 5.038 8.460 8.492 8.507 8.505 8.482 24.62 24.62

1.001

3973.9

3972.2

0.0004

Table B.29. Labor Balance for Each Firm, Eq. (4.98)

from.i

to.l

Manuf

Manuf

from.lx 1

to.1 0

to.2 0

to.3 0

to.4 0

to.5 0

0

0

Manuf

Manuf

2

17.115

0

0

0

0

0

12.201

Manuf

Manuf

3

16.132

0

0

0

0

0

13.513

Manuf

Manuf

4

14.874

0

0

0

0

0

14.874

Manuf

Manuf

5

13.513

0

0

0

0

0

16.132

Manuf

Manuf

6

12.201

0

0

0

0

0

17.115

Manuf

Manuf

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Retail

1

0

43.09

42.929

42.574

42.044

41.41

0

Manuf

Retail

2

0

30.523

30.552

30.32

29.963

29.529

0

Manuf

Retail

3

0

30.448

30.749

30.662

30.301

29.861

0

Manuf

Retail

4

0

30.178

30.622

30.835

30.622

30.178

0

Manuf

Retail

5

0

29.861

30.301

30.662

30.749

30.448

0

Manuf

Retail

6

0

29.529

29.963

30.32

30.552

30.523

0

Manuf

Retail

7

0

41.41

42.044

42.574

42.929

43.09

0

Manuf

Service

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Service

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Service

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Service

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Service

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Service

6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Service

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Worker

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Worker

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Worker

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Worker

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Worker

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Worker

6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Manuf

Worker

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Retail

Manuf

1

0

0.169

0.169

0.168

0.168

0.166

0

Retail

Manuf

2

0

18.871

18.85

18.693

18.493

18.266

0

Retail

Manuf

3

0

18.712

18.855

18.786

18.584

18.357

0

Retail

Manuf

4

0

18.51

18.74

18.851

18.74

18.51

0

Retail

Manuf

5

0

18.357

18.584

18.786

18.855

18.712

0

Retail

Manuf

6

0

18.266

18.493

18.693

18.85

18.871

0

Retail

Manuf

7

0

0.166

0.168

0.168

0.169

0.169

0

Retail

Retail

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Retail

Retail

2

3.272

0

0

0

0

0

2.333

Retail

Retail

3

2.916

0

0

0

0

0

2.442

Retail

Retail

4

2.637

0

0

0

0

0

2.637

Retail

Retail

5

2.442

0

0

0

0

0

2.916

Retail

Retail

6

2.333

0

0

0

0

0

3.272

Retail

Retail

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Retail

Service

1

0

0.097

0.097

0.097

0.096

0.096

0

Retail

Service

2

0

10.897

10.856

10.757

10.65

10.548

0

Retail

Service

3

0

10.805

10.859

10.811

10.703

10.6

0

Retail

Service

4

0

10.688

10.793

10.848

10.793

10.688

0

Retail

Service

5

0

10.6

10.703

10.811

10.859

10.805

0

Retail

Service

6

0

10.548

10.65

10.757

10.856

10.897

0

Retail

Service

7

0

0.096

0.096

0.097

0.097

0.097

0

Retail

Worker

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Retail

Worker

2

0

39.248

38.462

37.147

35.94

34.956

0

Table B.30. Zero Flow Equations, Eqs. (4.99 – 4.102) 377

to.6

to.7

continued

Table B.30 continued Retail

Worker

3

0

38.449

38.894

38.195

36.947

35.93

0

Retail

Worker

4

0

37.117

38.176

38.793

38.176

37.117

0

Retail

Worker

5

0

35.93

36.947

38.195

38.894

38.449

0

Retail

Worker

6

0

34.956

35.94

37.147

38.462

39.248

0

Retail

Worker

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Service

Manuf

1

0

0.138

0.138

0.137

0.136

0.135

0

Service

Manuf

2

0

7.23

7.205

7.124

7.032

6.937

0

Service

Manuf

3

0

7.123

7.178

7.139

7.047

6.952

0

Service

Manuf

4

0

7.015

7.111

7.16

7.111

7.015

0

Service

Manuf

5

0

6.952

7.047

7.139

7.178

7.123

0

Service

Manuf

6

0

6.937

7.032

7.124

7.205

7.23

0

Service

Manuf

7

0

0.135

0.136

0.137

0.138

0.138

0

Service

Retail

1

0

0.148

0.148

0.147

0.146

0.145

0

Service

Retail

2

0

7.758

7.737

7.653

7.551

7.443

0

Service

Retail

3

0

7.643

7.708

7.67

7.568

7.459

0

Service

Retail

4

0

7.527

7.637

7.692

7.637

7.527

0

Service

Retail

5

0

7.459

7.568

7.67

7.708

7.643

0

Service

Retail

6

0

7.443

7.551

7.653

7.737

7.758

0

Service

Retail

7

0

0.145

0.146

0.147

0.148

0.148

0

Service

Service

1

0

0.865

0.861

0.856

0.852

0.847

0

Service

Service

2

12.34

45.258

44.986

44.444

43.905

43.424

8.797

Service

Service

3

10.67

44.587

44.813

44.541

44

43.518

8.937

Service

Service

4

9.548

43.913

44.4

44.671

44.4

43.913

9.548

Service

Service

5

8.937

43.518

44

44.541

44.813

44.587

10.67

Service

Service

6

8.797

43.424

43.905

44.444

44.986

45.258

12.34

Service

Service

7

0

0.847

0.852

0.856

0.861

0.865

0

Service

Worker

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Service

Worker

2

0

66.672

64.801

61.937

59.465

57.577

0

Service

Worker

3

0

64.686

65.454

63.897

61.331

59.369

0

Service

Worker

4

0

61.771

63.833

65.073

63.833

61.771

0

Service

Worker

5

0

59.369

61.331

63.897

65.454

64.686

0

Service

Worker

6

0

57.577

59.465

61.937

64.801

66.672

0

Service

Worker

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Notes:

Satisfies Eq. (4.99) Satisfies Eq. (4.100) Satisfies Eq. (4.101) Satisfies Eq. (4.102)

378