Abstract India is world 4th largest wind energy ...

5 downloads 0 Views 6MB Size Report
network system of railways is the endeavor of the author so that concrete, ... Further proliferation of railway electrification, which is inevitable for growth,.

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

OPPORTUNITIES AND ROADMAP FOR HARNESSING WIND ENERGY IN RAIL SECTOR

Abstract

India is world 4th largest wind energy producer. Indian Railways is world’s 4th largest rail network. If these two facts are synergized, we find that the country is sitting upon a treasure trove of opportunity towards energy security on one hand, and cheaper, greener transport solution to the nation on other hand. Indian Railways’ land bank of more than 4 lakh hectares and electricity consumption of more than 17 billion units per year vouches for exploring the possibility of harnessing the only proven bulk renewable energy sourceWind Energy.

This paper attempts to explore these possibilities, find out bottlenecks and chalk out a road map for harnessing wind energy in rail sector. Addressing the technological challenges and utilizing the strength of robust power network system of railways is the endeavor of the author so that concrete, promising and low-gestation period solutions can be brought out and mindshared. The key issue of scarce resources available for investment has been kept in centre of the paper so that low hanging fruits of the opportunity in wind energy can be identified for Indian Railways.

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

Introduction:

Western Railway is organizing this seminar at a very propitious time. While world is awaiting the crucial Climate Change meet in Paris this month end, countries are reworking their long term energy strategies. Wind Energy sector in India is best established among all renewable options.

Around 20,000 wind turbines of India have made the country worl’d 4 th largest wind power producer (Spain relegated to 5th position couple of months back. It’s a pleasant co-incidence that India is world’s 4th largest rail network. Country adds around 2500 MW wind power capacity every year electrifies around 2500 kilometers of track annually. This amazing similarity of statistics has far reaching prospects. Though Indian Railways tryst with wind energy has gained momentum in past decade, the time for paradigm shift has come just now. Driving forces:

        

Indian Railways annual electricity bill of INR 15000 Cr. approx. makes investment in wind energy the need of the hour. It will not only bring down cost of energy but will also have spiraling effect upon energy efficient transport mode by bringing down the cost rail network expansion in India. Further proliferation of railway electrification, which is inevitable for growth, speed and profitability of Railways, will be possible only through a bulk (consumption of over 17000 billion units per year)renewable energy resource such as wind energy. From the energy security perspective for the country, where import dependency of more than 70 % exists for fossil fuels , wind energy is natural choice for Railways. Govt. of India has set an ambitious target of 60 GW wind energy capacity by 2022. This will require active participation of India’s single largest consumer ( 2% of whole nations generated power). Wind energy potential of 300 + GW has been assessed in the country much of which remains untapped. IR has all the groundwork ready for leading this juggernaut. NAPCC calls for 15 % power from renewables, (wind contributes 80 %) by 2020, and so does the vision 2020 document of IR. All major public and private industries in India have heavily invested in wind energy. PSUs, Tatas, Reliance and even banks are increasingly harnessing the benefits of wind energy. IR can’t afford to lag behind. Next week, COPs meet on climate change begins in Paris. Countries with solid carbon reduction programmes will only attract good foreign investment. If India is to keep pace with the world leaders it will have to add capacity even faster rate as evident from following scenario display:

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

Energy Scenario Vs. transport sector:

Today India needs around 5000 Twh energy per year, out of which railway sector’s need is 1000 TWh per year. In 2047, with modest growth scenario, this will shoot up to 20,000 Twh/y and 5,000 Twh/y respectively. Because of import dependence upon oil only, country has to shell out INR 5 Trillion/ year today. In 2047, total fuel import cost will go upto INR 40 Trillion/y (out of which oil import alone will be INR 25 Trillion/y). This puts forth a challenge before the nation. Challenge to balance its energy mix towards energy security and the time to accept the challenge is now, else it will be too late. Financing:

Wind Energy projects in IR can be done financed in various manners such as budgetary support, venture capital, national clean energy fund, cess, PPP and debts etc. We can understand the resource requirement through following example: 15 MW (in 300 acres , in case of railways, using existing supply network this reduces by half) project @ Rs 700 million (for projects installed on railway land, this cost comes down):- Interest

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

free foreign currency loan ( Rs 400 Million), Rupee term loan from financial institutions/banks ( Rs 120 million) and promotors contribution could be Rs 180 million. Life of a wind farm is accounted as 25 years and CUF is taken 25%. O&M costs are assumed INR 2 Lakh/MW/Annum. The payback comes in less than 7 years. Another example where 600 KW machine pays back in less than 8 years is as follows:

In case of railwy land windfarms, the cost of land shall not be taken into account. If railway’s maintenance facilities are used and integrated with exsitsting switchgear infrastructure, costs further come down. Some of the incentives that had been available in the past for encouraging investment in wind energy sectors are:

      

I-Tax holiday under section 81/1 A. Excise duty relief. Concessional customs duty. Prefential tariff by SERC. AD @ 35 % for initial years. REC floor price of INR 1.50/unit till 2017. GBI support.

Most of these incentives have been withdrawn/diluted and focus has shifted to Solar PV.

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

Global Railway-Windfarmsuccess stories:



In Belgium, “Wind Train“ project of Infrabel is powering entire countries trains through wind energy only by way of setting up 100 GW windfarms between Leuren and Leig High Speed Lines.



In Britain, “X-wind’ project is working upon 6 MW vertical axis wind turbines project.

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR



In northern America, BNSF is using right of way (RoW) of rail line between Chicago and California to evacuate windfarms output.

Success Stories of Indian Railways:



Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

ICF Plant:The 10.5 MW windfarm of ICF in Kasthurirangapuram and Urumangulam villages of Tirunelveli district of TN was commissioned in 2009 is landmark success story where the entire investment of about INR 60 Cr was paid back in less than 6 years. There are 7 units of 1.5 MW each. ( @25mUnits/year).

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

   

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

MOU has been signed between IR and REMCL for installing 158 MW capacity windmills. 26 MW windfarm in Khodiyar Village of Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) is under contrsuction. ( @ 45 mUnits/year). Pooling at InoxDangri Station. PPA signed for consumption in WCR 3 TSS. Construction of 132.5 MW windfarm planned in Andhra Pradesh is in pipeline by REMCL.

Advantage Rail:



Land:If we juxtapose the wind map and Indian Railways map, we clearly see the opportunity that remains untapped. With a land holding of over 4 Lakh hectares, and a right of way unmatched by any other entity in the country, its only a matter of time IR can become the largest wind power producer organization of the country.



Buildings: There around 500 large office complexes, 10,000 medium sized office complexes, 8000 station buldings and lakhs of railway quarters. Similar potential of at least 10 MW cumulative wind power capacity exists for these buildings.

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

  

 

 

TSS:IR has over 250 TSS, and over 1,000 SP/SSPs. With minimal expenditure on evacuation infrastructure, IR and wind turbine projects can synergise. Author has prepared a plan for same.

Grid Interaction Seamless connectivity: IR traction department is already well versed with the state and national grid. Skilled staff who handle SCADA is already available. Right of Way:IR railway traction system has over 4 Lakh OHE masts. If we are able to make even 1 KW wind turbine wok on even 10 % of these masts, we end up adding 40 MW wind power capacity to the system.

This is in addition to vast network of non-traction structures and land avalailable for use as right of way. Skilled Manpower: IR can save hugely on installation commissioning and O&M cost as vast pool of IRSEE officers and subordinate staff is available, who can deliver with little amount of training. Coastal Rail Network: Indian railway zones located along the coast of India can help India achieve breakthrough in the most untapped sector of offshore farms. IR can help in transport of windfarm equipment as well as can help in power evacuation. No aesthetics/avian mortality concerns: IR windfarms will only improve the landscapes and no issues such as threat to birds or noise pollution exist. Secure sites: IR is well guarded network. Unlike theft prone areas of remotely located windfarms in state, IR widfarms will be far safer and well looked after.

Challenges:



Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

Focus: Only wind energy can provide bulk renewable power. Following chart shows the glorious history of Indian renewable energy sector has been written because of wind energy component only.

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector



Resources, be it finances, land, skilled manpower are limited. One has to be cautious while making choices of renewable.



Technology and costs: In sub-MW size wind turbines, imported turbines are cost competitive. World has gone for 10 MW machines with 300 feet dia carbon fibre blades and most of India’s wind turbines are < 2 MW size machines. Though vertical axis or bladeless wind turbines are far away from national scenario, its high time 100 m hub height machines are proliferated.In case of small wind turbines those with low cut in speed and high capacity utilization factor (CUF) designs need to be emphasized.

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

 

 



Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

Grid Integration: Smart Grid in India is yet to arrive. Proliferation of gridinteractive small wind projects will need more disciplined national grid. Power evacuation should be seamless. Production capacity: Though blade and generator production capacity has gained done remarkably well (there are more than 20 wind turbine manufacturing units in the country), indigenous production capacity of gearbox and control electronics needs attention.

Power purchase tariff barrier (presently the feed in tariff for wind energy is not motivating factor vis-à-vis solar) needs be to eased out. Poor generation problem: Some Indian windfarms could note operate at optimum CUF. The reasons can be:-Bad siting, Power Curve related problem (pitch angle setting and yaw alignment) , Equipment Inefficiency or Losses. To overcome we increase the hub relocate the wind can correct the yaw alignments and or can change the noisy gearbox/generator. Weak RPO compliance.

Roadmap:

pitch

can height, turbine, settings,

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

Following target can be set for wind energy in IR(all figures in MW): 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

             

1000 2015 2022 2047

Off grid turbines

800

2015

600

2022

400

2047

200 0

Grid-interactive turbines

In December 2015, micrositing and order placement can commence. Project Design Documents (PDDs should be prepared in not less than a months time). Power purchase agreements should be ready by the time turbines are commissioned. Each division falling in high potential map should be given target to install at least 5 machines of MW size and 100 machines of sub-MW range. Techno-financial report of TSS-Turbine integration should be prepared. IREDA should be made a partner for helping in innovative project financing mechanism between IR and WT manufacturers. Industry-Railway’s joint committee should be formed Exploring innovative use of existing OHE and other structures and right of way for along the track wind turbine installation. PPAs should be made with utilities/SERCs for feed in tariffs. Scope of wind turbine assembly/manufacturing in railway’s Pus should be explored. So far wind turbine blades etc are transported only through road. Mutual agreements of transportation by rail, installation on/near railway land and power evacuation though traction system can be made. Net metering arrangement need to made for rooftop wind turbines. Railway near coastal areas can explore offshore potential. Wind energy capacity building should be made compulsory for all zonal railways. Following delegation of power is recommended for timely harnessing the wind potential of IR: Rank Powers Remarks All powers should be without CEEs > 1 MW machines CESEs 50 kw to 1 MW machines requirement of finance concurrence or involvement SrDEEs < 50 kw machines of stores deptt.

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

Conclusion:

If India is to meet its energy demand of about 20000 TWh (out of which 5000 Twh will be required by railways only) by 2047, then dependence upon fossil fuels (in view of import bills) will have to be eased substantially. Wind energy is the only bulk RE source which can come to rescue. Indian Railways is best poised to lead India in this green revolution. With judicious investmentand technology choices, its possible to run lifeline of the nation solely on wind energy and with zero dependence upon fossil fuels. Sail with the windahead , Sun won’t take you far my friend. हवाके खकोज दीसमझबेहतरहोगा। धूपमखड़ेरहनेसेकुछनहािसलहोगा।

(1)

(2)

-

Lt Rajesh Gupta, IRSEE

(3)

1. Author sitting atop the nacelle of a 200 feet tall 2.1 MW wind turbine somewhere in Central Indian windfarm. 2.Author

visiting a windfarm in Sinnar- birthplace of Veer Savarkar.

3. Author before climbing up the 1.5 MW machine .

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

Installation of small wind tubine on roof of DRM office, Mumbai Central Bibliography:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

NitiAyog’s “IESS 2047” Publications of National Institute of Wind Energy (C-WET). Indian Railways book of statistics. MNRE publications. Data from wind turbine manuals.

Lt Rajesh Gupta Prof.(Elect), NAIR

Int’l Seminar On Wind Energy Opportunities in Rail Sector

Author Details LtRajesh Gupta, IRSEE ,BE Hons.(Electrical engineering), Certified Energy Auditor. Working as Professor(Electrical Engineering) in National Aacademy of Indian Railways (NAIR)-vadodara, previously- Railway Staff College. His 17 years of work experience includes process plant, state electricity board(SEB), Central Electricy Authority(CEA) and Railways.

Keen observer of energy security issues and renewable energy sector of the country has been studying wind energy as a subject of personal interest.

Suggest Documents