Atti dEl IX CONGRESSO INtERNAziONAlE SUllA ...

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Venezia, Scuola Grande dei Carmini, Aditorium Santa Margherita, 23-27 .... Italian Glazed Pottery from a Crusader Castle in the Peloponnese (Greece). . . . . . . . .

Il volume è pubblicato con il contributo dell’Università Ca’ Foscari, Venezia

Atti del IX Congresso Internazionale sulla Cer amica Medievale nel Mediterr aneo Venezia, Scuola Grande dei Carmini Auditorium Santa Margherita 23-27 novembre 2009 a cura di Sauro Gelichi

All’Insegna del Giglio

In copertina: Foto di Sebastiano Lora.

Comitato Internazionale dell’AIECM2 Presidente: Sauro Gelichi Vice Presidente: Susana Gomez Segretario: Jacques Thiriot Tesoriere: Henri Amouric Segretario Aggiunto: Alessandra Molinari Tesoriere Aggiunto: Lucy Vallauri Presidente Onorario: Gabrielle Démians d’Archimbaud Consiglieri Scientifici: Graziella Berti, Maurice Picon

Membri dei Comitati Nazionali Francia: Henri Amouric, Jacques Thiriot, Lucy Vallauri Italia: Sauro Gelichi, Alessandra Molinari, Carlo Varaldo Maghreb: Rahma El Hraïki Mondo Bizantino: Véronique François, Platon Pétridis Portogallo: Maria Alessandra Lino Gaspar, Susana Gomez Spagna: Alberto Garcia Porras, Manuel Retuerce, Juan Zozaya Stabel-Hansen Vicino Oriente: Roland-Pierre Gayraud

IX Congresso Internazionale sulla Ceramica Medievale nel Mediterraneo Venezia, Scuola Grande dei Carmini, Aditorium Santa Margherita, 23-27 novembre 2009 Cura scientifica: Sauro Gelichi Organizzazione: Margherita Ferri Editing degli Atti: Margherita Ferri, Lara Sabbionesi

ISBN 978-88-7814-540-5 © 2012 All’Insegna del Giglio s.a.s. Stampato a Firenze nel settembre 2012 Tipografia il Bandino Edizioni All’Insegna del Giglio s.a.s via della Fangosa, 38; 50032 Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI) tel. +39 055 8450 216; fax +39 055 8453 188 e-mail [email protected]; [email protected] sito web www.edigiglio.it

INDICE

GABRIELLE DÉMIANS D’ARCHIMBAUD, Avant-propos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 SAURO GELICHI, Dall’unità alla frammentazione e dalla frammentazione all’unità . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

L’EVOLUZIONE E LA TRASMISSIONE DELLE TECNICHE PIERRE SIMÉON, Les ateliers de potiers en Asie centrale, entre Samarqand et Nīshāpūr: approche critique, de la conquête musulmane au XIIe siècle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ALBERTO GARCÍA PORRAS, El azul en la producción cerámica bajomedieval de las áreas islámica y cristiana de la Península Ibérica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 KAREN ALVARO, JOSÉ I. PADILLA, ESTHER TRAVÉ, El alfar de Cabrera d’Anoia (Barcelona): una aproximación arqueométrica . .30 KONSTANTINOS T. RAPTIS, Early Christian and Byzantine Ceramic Production Workshops in Greece: Typology and Distribution . 38 IOANNIS MOTSIANOS, Wheel-made Glazed Lamps (from 3rd to 19th c.): Comments on their Technology and Diffusion . . . . . 44 OLIVIER GINOUVÈZ, GUERGANA GUIONOVA, JACQUES THIRIOT, LUCY VALLAURI, JEAN-LOUIS VAYSSETTES, Montpellier: un atelier de potiers-faïenciers entre Moyen Age et époque modern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 ALBAN HORRY, Entre Nord et Sud. Céramiques médiévales en Lyonnais et Dauphiné. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 MARTA CAROSCIO, Si cava in Inghilterra, et anche in certi luochi de la Fiandra: Tin Trade and Technical Devices in Pottery Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 NATALIYA GINKUT, Glazed Ware manufacture in the Genoese Fortress of Cembalo (Crimean Peninsula) from the Late Fourteenth to Fifteenth Century. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 SIMONA PANNUZI, STEFANO MONARI, ORIETTA MANTOVANI, Indagini archeometriche su argille di cava di area romana e su maioliche cinquecentesche dal Borgo di Ostia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

CERAMICHE E COMMERCI JULIA BELTRAN DE HEREDIA, NÚRIA MIRÒ I ALAIX, Cerámica y comercio en Barcelona: importaciones del Mediterráneo occidental, norte de Europa y Oriente . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 MANUEL RETUERCE VELASCO, MANUEL MELERO SERRANO, La cerámica de reflejo dorado valenciana en la Corona de Castilla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 REBECCA BRIDGMAN, Contextualising Pottery Production and Distribution in South-Western al-Andalus during the Almohad Period: Implications for Understanding Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 STEPHEN MCPHILLIPS, Une collection inédite de céramiques des époques abbasside à ottomanes provenant de Fostat: nouveaux indices de production et commerce interrégional pour le Caire médiéval au Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm . . . . . .101 PIETRO RIAVEZ, Ceramiche e commerci nel Mediterraneo bassomedievale. Le esportazioni italiane . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 RAFFAELLA CASSANO, CATERINA LAGANARA, La linea di costa tra Siponto e Brindisi, porti ed approdi: l’indicatore ceramico .112 LUIGI DI COSMO, FEDERICO MARAZZI, GIORGIO TROJSI, Produzione e circolazione della ceramica nella Campania settentrionale (secoli X-XIV): i dati dal territorio di Alife (CE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 LAURA BICCONE, PAOLA MAMELI, DANIELA ROVINA, La circolazione di ceramiche da mensa e da trasporto tra X e XI secolo: l’esempio della Sardegna alla luce di recenti indagini archeologiche e archeometriche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 FEDERICO CANTINI, FRANCESCA GRASSI, Produzione, circolazione e consumo della ceramica in Toscana tra la fine del X e il XIII secolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 STEPHANIA SKARTSIS, Chlemoutsi: Italian Glazed Pottery from a Crusader Castle in the Peloponnese (Greece). . . . . . . . .140

YONA WAKSMAN, The First Workshop of Byzantine Ceramics Discovered in Constantinople/Istanbul: Chemical Characterization and Preliminary Typological Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 IANA MOROZOVA, Graffiti on the Italian Ware from the Medieval “Novi Svet” Shipwreck in the Black Sea, Crimea . . . . . .152 CLAUDIO NEGRELLI, L’Adriatico ed il Mediterraneo orientale tra il VII e il IX secolo: vasellame e contenitori da trasporto per la storia economica dell’Altomedioevo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 ANNA FERRARESE LUPI, Alluvional Deposits and Shipwrecks in the Stratigraphical Basin of Pisa-San Rossore. The Meaning of Late Roman Pottery in a Sample from the 1998-1999 Excavations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 SALVINA FIORILLA, Gela medievale: le ceramiche come indicatore di commercio e di cultura. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 FABIOLA ARDIZZONE, FRANCO D’ANGELO, ELENA PEZZINI, VIVA SACCO, Ceramiche di età islamica provenienti da Castello della Pietra (Trapani) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 FABIOLA ARDIZZONE, ELENA PEZZINI, FRANCESCA AGRÒ, FILIPPO PISCIOTTA, Dati sulla circolazione della ceramica e sulle rotte del Mediterraneo occidentale attraverso i contesti tardoantichi e medievali di Marettimo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 FRANCO D’ANGELO, Sicilia XII secolo: importazioni dal Mediterraneo orientale, importazioni dal Mediterraneo occidentale, produzioni locali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 MARIA JOSÉ GONÇALVES, Evidências do Comércio no Mediterrâneo Antigo. A Cerâmica Verde e Manganês Presente num Arrabalde Islâmico de Silves (Portugal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 SANDRA CAVACO, JAQUELINA COVANEIRO, Expression of taste or assertion of power. Imported ceramics in Tavira (Portugal) from XIV to XVII centuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 RAFFAELLA CARTA, La circolazione delle ceramiche italiane post-medievali nel Mediterraneo occidentale. Il caso del Regno di Granada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 ALBERTO GARCIA PORRAS, La cerámica española en el área Véneta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 JORDI ROIG BUXÓ, JOAN MANUEL COLL, El registro ceramico de una aldea modelo de la antigüedad tardia en Cataluña (siglos VI-VIII): Can Gambús-1 (Sabadell, Barcelona). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 JORDI ROIG BUXÓ, La cerámica del período carolingio y primera época condal en la Cataluña Vieja: las producciones reducidas, oxidantes y espatuladas (siglos IX, X y XI). Propuesta de tipología. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 RÉGINE BROECKER, FRANÇOISE LAURIER, Les jarres à cordons digités (XIIe-XVe s.) découvertes en Provence (sud-est de la France) . .203 JEAN-CHRISTOPHE TRÉGLIA, CATHERINE RICHARTE, CLAUDIO CAPELLI, YONA WAKSMAN, Importations d’amphores médiévales dans le Sud-est de la France (Xe-XIIe s.). Premières données archéologiques et archéométriques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 SERGEY ZELENKO, MARIIA TYMOSHENKO, The trade contacts the Anatolian Region with the Crimean Black Sea Coast during the Late Byzantine Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 IRINA TESLENKO, The Italian Majolica in the Crimea of the Turkish Supremacy Period (1475-the Last Quarter of the 18th Century) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212

NUOVE SCOPERTE JUAN ZOZAYA STABEL-HANSEN, HORTENSIA LARRÉN IZQUIERDO, JOSÉ AVELINO GUTIÉRREZ GONZÁLEZ, FERNANDO MIGUEL HERNÁNDEZ, Asentamientos andalusíes en el Valle Del Duero: el registro cerámico. . . . . . . . . . . .217 ELENA SALINAS, Las primeras producciones vidriadas de época emiral en Córdoba (España). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 JAUME COLL CONESA, M. MAGDALENA ESTARELLAS, JOSEP MERINO, JOAN CARRERAS, JAUME GUASP (†), CLODOALDO ROLDÁN, La alfarería musulmana de época taifa del carrer de Botons de Palma de Mallorca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 VICTORIA AMORÓS RUIZ, VÍCTOR CAÑAVATE CASTEJÓN, SONIA GUTIÉRREZ LLORET, JULIA SARABIA BAUTISTA, Cerámica altomedieval en el Tolmo de Minateda (Hellin, Albacete, España) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246 JAUME COLL CONESA, LAURENT CALLEGARIN, MOHAMED KBIRI ALAOUI, ABDALAH FILI, TIERRY JULLIEN, JACQUES THIRIOT, Les productions médiévales de Rirha (Maroc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258 SERGEI BOCHAROV, ANDREI MASLOVSKIY, Byzantine Glazed Pottery in the Cities of the North Black Sea Region in the Golden Horde Period (Second Half of 13th Century-End of 14th Century) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 ANASTASIA G. YANGAKI, Observations on the Glazed Pottery of the 11th-17th Centuries A.D. from Akronauplia . . . . . . . .276 BEATE BÖHLENDORF-ARSLAN, Die Byzantinische Keramik aus der Troas/Türkei: Keramik des 10.-12. Jahrhunderts aus Assos . .282 JOANITA VROOM, Early Medieval Pottery Finds from Recent Excavations at Butrint, Albania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289 ROLAND-PIERRE GAYRAUD, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE TRÉGLIA avec la collaboration de GUERGANA GUIONOVA, Céramiques d’un niveau d’occupation d’époque mamelouke à Istabl Antar/Fostat (Le Caire, Egypte). . . . . . . . . . . . . .297

JACQUES THIRIOT avec la collaboration de JAVIER MANIEZ, ANTONIO MOLINA EXPÓSITO, ALEJANDRO VILA GORGÉ, XAVIER VIDAL FERRÚS, ISABEL GARCÌA VILLANUEVA, ENRIQUE RUIZ VAL, FRANCISCA RUBIO, ZHAI YI, Une possible “filiation” vers le four de faïencier moderne occidental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 RÉMI CARME, JACQUES THIRIOT, Nouvelles données sur les ateliers de potiers médiévaux de Saint-Gilles (Gard, France) . . . .313 MARCELLO ROTILI, Nuovi rinvenimenti a Benevento . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 ERICA FERRONATO, Ceramiche comuni da Montegrotto Terme (PD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327 MARCELLA GIORGIO, Le ceramiche rivestite bassomedievali di produzione pisana: la maiolica arcaica e le invetriate depurate. Risultati dagli scavi urbani 2000-2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329 ALESSANDRA PECCI, EVA DEGL’INNOCENTI, GIANLUCA GIORGI, FEDERICO CANTINI, Are Glazed Ceramics really Waterproof? Chemical Analysis of the Organic Residues Trapped in some Post-Medieval Glazed Slip Painted Wares Found in Florence . . .332 SIMONA PANNUZI, Produzioni e commerci nel Lazio meridionale tra XIII e XVI secolo: Smaltata tardomedievale, Ceramica Graffita e Maiolica rinascimentale dai rinvenimenti di Cori (LT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335 LUCA PESANTE, Ceramiche medievali del Lazio settentrionale. Note sulle prime produzioni smaltate e invetriate . . . . . . .338 MARTINA PANTALEO, Nuove acquisizioni sulla diffusione ceramica nell’Abruzzo interno: il territorio aquilano . . . . . . . .341 SARA AIRÒ, MICHELA RIZZI, Cultura materiale da un sito rurale della Puglia centro-meridionale tra Tardoantico e Medioevo: il caso di Seppannibale Grande (Fasano, BR – Italia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346 PAOLO GÜLL, ELENA M. BIANCHI, VALERIA DELLA PENNA, EDA KULJA, PAOLA TAGLIENTE, I materiali ceramici degli scavi di Roca (Melendugno, Lecce): nuovi elementi per la conoscenza della ceramica tardomedievale nella Puglia meridionale . . . .349 SILVANA RAPUANO, Ceramica tardoantica dall’area dell’arco del Sacramento a Benevento. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352 PAOLO BARRESI, ELEONORA GASPARINI, GIUSEPPE PATERNICÒ, DANIELA PATTI, PATRIZIO PENSABENE, Ceramica arabo-normanna dai nuovi scavi dell’insediamento medievale sopra la Villa del Casale di Piazza Armerina . . . . .354 TATJANA BRADARA, Nuovi rinvenimenti di ceramica bassomedievale e rinascimentale a Pola (Croazia) . . . . . . . . . . . .358 TOMISLAV FABIJANIĆ, Early Medieval Pottery on the Eastern Adriatic in Context of Interaction between the Slavs and Autochthonous Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361 CATARINA TENTE, ANTÓNIO FAUSTINO CARVALHO, Pottery Manufacture in the High Mondego Basin (Centre of Portugal) during the Early Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363 ELENA SALINAS, Las producciones cerámicas de un alfar del siglo XII en Córdoba (España) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365 JESÚS-MANUEL MOLERO GARCÍA, DAVID GALLEGO VALLE, MIGUEL-ÁNGEL VALERO TÉVAR, Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento de la cerámica andalusí de la Meseta: las tenerías de Corrales de Mocheta (España) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369 PAU ARMENGOL MACHÍ, JOSEP VICENT LERMA ALEGRIA, Un conjunto de instrumentos cerámicos para la destilación de época califal procedente de Valencia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 RUGGERO G. LOMBARDI, Ciclo produttivo della ceramica per la tessitura: tecnica e prassi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375

VENEZIA E DINTORNI FRANCESCA SACCARDO, Mattoni sagomati a cornice tardogotica. Ricerche su una tipologia documentata a Venezia e nel suo territorio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381 LAURA ANGLANI, NICOLETTA MARTINELLI, OLIVIA PIGNATELLI, Materiali ceramici dalle arginature tardo medievali di S. Alvise, Venezia. I dati relativi alle strutture lignee più antiche del sito datate tramite la dendrocronologia e il radiocarbonio . 388 MICHELANGELO MUNARINI, Riflessioni sulla Graffita Arcaica Padana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395 LORENZO LAZZARINI, CRISTINA TONGHINI, Importazioni di ceramiche mamelucche a Venezia: nuovi dati . . . . . . . . . .402 PAMELA ARMSTRONG, Venetians and Ottomans in the East Mediterranean: Ceramic Residue of Systems of Trade from the Sphakia Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408

CERAMICA E CONTESTI SOCIALI CHRISTOPHER GERRARD, Mirada al Norte: los estudios de cerámica medieval desde una perspectiva británica. . . . . . . . .415 PLATON PÉTRIDIS, Céramique protobyzantine intentionnellement ou accessoirement funéraire? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423 HELENA CATARINO, SANDRA CAVACO, JAQUELINA COVANEIRO, ISABEL CRISTINA FERNANDES, ANA GOMES, SUSANA GÓMEZ, MARIA JOSÉ GONÇALVES, MATHIEU GRANGÉ, ISABEL INÁCIO, GONÇALO LOPES, CONSTANÇA DOS SANTOS, JACINTA BUGALHÃO, La céramique islamique du G.arb al-Andalus: contextes socio-territoriaux et distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429

JOÃO MARQUES, SUSANA GÓMEZ, CAROLINA GRILO, ROCÍO ÁLVARO, GONÇALO LOPES, Cerâmica e povoamento rural medieval no troço médio-inferior do vale do Guadiana (Alentejo, Portugal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442 YASMINA CÁCERES GUTIÉRREZ, PATRICE CRESSIER, JORGE DE JUAN ARES, MARÍA DEL CRISTO GONZÁLEZ MARRERO, MIGUEL ÁNGEL HERVÁS HERRERA, ¿Almohades en el Marruecos presahariano?: el ajuar cerámico de la fortaleza de Dâr al-Sultân (Tarjicht, provincia de Guelmim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449 JUAN ZOZAYA STABEL-HANSEN, Muerte y transfiguración en la cerámica islámica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 M. CARMEN RIU DE MARTÍN, Notas sobre la condición socioecónomica de los ceramistas barceloneses del siglo XV . . . . . .461 ALEJANDRA GUTIERREZ, Cerámica española en el extranjero: un caso inglés . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 ERICA D’AMICO, Byzantine Finewares in Italy (10th to 14th Centuries AD): Social and Economic Contexts in the Mediterranean World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473 PASQUALE FAVIA, Produzioni e consumi ceramici nei contesti insediativi della Capitanata medievale . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 ADELE COSCARELLA, GIUSEPPE ROMA, Rocca Imperiale (CS): tipologie di ceramica d’uso comune da un sito medievale della Calabria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487 OLATZ VILLANUEVA ZUBIZARRETA, BLAS CABRERA GONZÁLEZ, JORGE DÍAZ DE LA TORRE, JAVIER JIMÉNEZ GADEA, La loza dorada en la Corte de Arévalo (Ávila, España). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .495 GUERGANA GUIONOVA, ANDRÉ CONSTANT, La céramique du Xe siècle en contexte castral pyrénéen (Ultréra-Argelès-sur-Mer 66): première présentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .498 ISABELLE COMMANDRÉ, FRANCK MARTIN, Éléments de connaissance du mobilier médiéval tardif roussillonnais: le vaisselier des Grands Carmes de Perpignan à la fin du XVIe s.-début XVIIe s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501 MONICA BALDASSARRI, MARCELLA GIORGIO, IRENE TROMBETTA, Vita di comunità ed identità sociale: il vasellame degli scavi di San Matteo in Pisa, dal monastero benedettino al carcere cittadino (XII-XIX secolo) . . . . . . . . .503 GIORGIO GATTIGLIA, MARCELLA GIORGIO, I fabbri pisani: una ricca classe di imprenditori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .506 MARIA RAFFAELLA CATALDO, Aspetti della produzione da fuoco fra Tardoantico e Altomedioevo: manufatti da Benevento, Rocca San Felice e Montella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509 FRANCESCO A. CUTERI, MARIA TERESA IANNELLI, GIUSEPPE HYERACI, PASQUALE SALAMIDA, Le ceramiche dai butti medievali di Vibo Valentia (Calabria – Italia). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512 MARISA TINELLI, Produzione e circolazione della ceramica invetriata policroma in Terra d’Otranto: nuovi dati dal Salento . .515 SOUNDÈS GRAGUEB, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE TRÉGLIA, Un ensemble de céramiques fatimides provenant d’un contexte clos découvert à Sabra al-Mansūriya (Kairouan, Tunisie) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518

CERAMICHE PER LE ARCHITETTURE FABIO REDI, L’inserimento di ceramiche nelle architetture. Problemi metodologici e censimento per un “Corpus” delle decorazioni ceramiche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .523 FRANCESCO A. CUTERI, ELENA DI FEDE, Bacini e vasi acustici nelle chiese del territorio di Megara (Attica – Grecia) . . . . .529 CLARA ILHAM ÁLVAREZ DOPICO, De Talavera de la Reina à Qallaline. La datation de la production tunisoise à partir des importations céramiques espagnoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536 ANGELIKI PANOPOULOU, Figulini dal casal Thrapsano. Documenti sulla figulina a Creta (secoli XVI-XVII) . . . . . . . . .542 GIORGIO GATTIGLIA, MARCELLA GIORGIO, L’uso dei tubi fittili nella Pisa medievale e post-medievale . . . . . . . . . . . .546 SILVIA BELTRAMO, Le terrecotte decorate nel marchesato di Saluzzo (Piemonte, Italia) tra XIII e XV secolo . . . . . . . . . .549 SIMONA PANNUZI, Ceramiche per architetture nel Lazio meridionale: i bacini del campanile della chiesa di S. Oliva a Cori (LT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .552

DEL NOME, DELL’USO E DELLO SPAZIO VÉRONIQUE FRANÇOIS, «Dans les vieux pots, les bonnes soupes»: vaisselle d’usage culinaire à Byzance . . . . . . . . . . . . .557 IOSIF HADJIKYRIAKOS, Considerazioni generali sulla decorazione ceramica negli interni delle chiese di Cipro . . . . . . . . .564 SUSANA GÓMEZ MARTÍNEZ, VIRGÍLIO LOPES, Cerámicas del arrabal de Mértola (Portugal). Contexto y uso de los objetos en un espacio ribereño andalusí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566

Stefania S. Skartsis

CHLEMOUTSI: ITALIAN GLAZED POTTERY FROM A CRUSADER CASTLE IN THE PELOPONNESE (GREECE) Abstract: Chlemoutsi castle (Clermont) is located in the North-western Peloponnese (Greece). It was built by the Prince Geoffrey I Villehardouin in 12201223, following the Fourth Crusade and the establishment of the Principality of Achaea. In the beginning of the 15th century the castle passed to Charles I Tocco, Count Palatine of Cephalonia and Despot of Epirus. In 1428 it passed to the Palaiologoi and in 1460 it fell to the Ottomans. Following the fate of the Peloponnese, the castle remained in the hands of the Turks until the early 19th century, except for approximately three decades in the late 17th and the early 18th centuries (1687-1715), when Venice replaced the Turks as overlords of the Peloponnese.

From its strategic position, on the summit of a hill on the westernmost promontory of the Peloponnese, dominating the surrounding plains and offering an extensive view of the Ionian Sea, the castle secured control over the most important area of the Principality of Achaea, which included its capital Andravida, as well as its major port and commercial centre in Glarentza (the Frankish Clarence). Clermont functioned as a residence of the Prince and as a symbol of the authority and power of the Villehardouins. It was the only Frankish castle in the Peloponnese built according to a strict architectural plan, of Western character, which was not significantly altered later by the Turks (ANDREWS 1953; BON 1969). Chlemoutsi was located very close to Glarentza, the major port of the Franks for their communication with the West. Glarentza and Patras were the two Frankish ports of the North-western Peloponnese. Glarentza was founded by the Franks in the mid-13th century and became the most important economic and commercial centre of the Principality of Achaea, which soon obtained an equal administrative importance with the capital Andravida. Its economic growth is noted especially from the late 13th century onwards, when the Principality passed to the authority of Charles I of Anjou, king of Naples. (SARANTI MENDELOVICI 1980-81). Patras had been an important commercial centre since the Middle Byzantine period. The Venetians acquired a primary role in its trade, which grew significantly during the 14th century (SARANTI MENDELOVICI 1980). It has been suggested that the prosperity of the two ports of the North-western Peloponnese largely depended on Venice: Patras’ commerce showed a particular prosperity from the late 14th century onwards, as a result of the Venetians’ decision to transfer their interests there, a fact that marked the beginning of the decline of Glarentza (SCHMITT 1995). The pottery discussed here comes from several small-scale excavations conducted by the 6th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities during the 1980’s and the 1990’s. Most of it was unearthed during the excavations of the 1997-2000 period, which were carried out as part of a project for the restoration and enhancement of the castle (‘Restoration and enhancement of Chlemoutsi castle’, Operational Programme ‘Tourism-Culture’, 2nd European Support Framework 19942000). The pottery comes from several different parts of the castle (buildings of the inner and the outer enclosure, courtyards, gates) and it is representative of the whole period between the 13th and the early 19th centuries, during which the castle remained in use. What characterizes this pottery is the continuous and significant presence of imported wares from Italy. In the 13th century Italian ceramics, dominated by Southern Italian products, arrived in the Eastern Mediterranean as a result of a continuous movement of armies, pilgrims and

traders, which connected the West with the Latin states in the East (PRINGLE 1982). Most of the Southern Italian pottery originates from Apulia, especially from the area of the Salento in Southernmost Apulia (PATITUCCI UGGERI 1985; RIAVEZ 2000a-b). This pottery was widely distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean, particularly on coastal sites, and usually coexists with Venetian wares, because it was included in the Venetian commerce (GELICHI 1993). The direct connection between Italian ceramics and Latin population is particularly evident in their uneven distribution in Byzantium, in which Italian wares have been found exclusively in areas occupied by the Franks or retaining close relations with Italy: they form the main imports to Southern Greece, Epirus and the Greek Islands, while they are rare in Constantinople, Northern Greece, the North Aegean Islands, Turkey and the Black Sea (FRANÇOIS 1997). The most important evidence for the Italian pottery imported to the Frankish Peloponnese during the 13th and the early 14th centuries has been provided by the American excavations at Corinth, and most of the Italian pottery of this period found elsewhere in Greece has been dated with reference to the pottery found at Corinth. According to the excavators at Corinth, Protomaiolica started to appear before the middle of the 13th century, but the ware was not imported in bulk until the third quarter of this century, followed by a variety of Italian pottery types, such as RMR wares, Veneto (Roulette) ware and Archaic Maiolica (SANDERS 1987; WILLIAMS, ZERVOS 1995). From the later part of the 13th century a large part of the glazed pottery used in the city was imported from Italy (STILLWELL MACKAY 2003: 413). Terminus post quem for the ceramic material of Chlemoutsi is the date of the establishment of the castle, in 1220-1223. The glazed pottery of the period between the 13th and the 15th centuries consists mainly of Italian ceramics, while wares from Late Byzantine workshops are rare. Southern Italian pottery is by far predominant in the material. Protomaiolica (fig. 1) belongs mainly to the Brindisi type, a type common in Italy since the first half of the 13th century (PATITUCCI UGGERI 1979). Other types of Protomaiolica, such as those produced in Northern Apulia (Tavoliere) and Sicily, have been found at some sites in the Eastern Mediterranean, but the products of Brindisi in the Salento were the most widely distributed (RIAVEZ 2000a). These include only open forms (bowls and plates), made of a fine fabric, pale yellow to beige in colour. The decoration is in manganese brown, blue and less frequently yellow. Most of the pieces from Chlemoutsi bear the most characteristic decoration of the type, i.e. a grid-iron medallion surrounded by a chevron band in yellow-brown or in blue, and belong to the typical shape of hemispherical bowl with inwardly thickened rim and low ring foot with a small pendant cone on the underside (PATITUCCI UGGERI

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fig. 1 – Protomaiolica.

fig. 2 – RMR ware, handle fragments.

1979: fig. 1a; SANDERS 1987: fig. 3, pl. 22, no. 4). Another base fragment, decorated with a floral motif in dark brown, light blue and pale yellow (fig. 1, top right), belongs to a less frequent type of decoration and it must be among the earliest examples in Chlemoutsi. Most of the Southern Italian pottery belongs to the Leadglazed polychrome wares or RMR (figg. 2-4). This pottery is usually decorated in green, brown and red (Ramina, Manganese, Rosso), but only one or two of these colours may also occur. Production took place in Southern Apulia, in the area of Tavoliere in Northern Apulia, and in some other regions in South Italy (DUFOURNIER, FLAMBARD, NOYÉ 1986; PATTERSON, WHITEHOUSE 1992: 148; RIAVEZ 2000b). In the Salento production of RMR pottery started a little later than Protomaiolica and most probably in the same workshops, but its “mass production” dates from the period between the second half of the 13th and the end of the 14th century (TAGLIENTE 2000; D’AMICO 2005). Most of the finds in Greece and elsewhere in the Eastern Mediterranean have been dated to the period between the mid-13th and the mid14th century (RIAVEZ 2000b). The latest examples have been found in contexts of the end of the 14th-early 15th century (GREGORY 1989: 204; D’AMICO 2006: 75). RMR pottery is present in Chlemoutsi throughout the Frankish period. Many pieces belonging to late types of the ware have been found, which can be compared with some examples reported from other sites in the Peloponnese, indicating that RMR pottery continued to be imported to Southern Greece throughout the 14th and into the 15th century. The material includes both open and closed forms, usually including red in their decoration. The open forms are bowls,

usually with a low ring foot, and with rims of varied shape. Closed forms occur in almost equal numbers with open forms, but they are very fragmentary. The fabric shows some variation, indicating different workshops. A large group of handle fragments is decorated with a series of small oblique or S-like brown lines between two vertical red stripes (fig. 2). Similar handles have been found at Otranto in levels of the second or third quarter of the 13th and of the late 13th century (PATTERSON, WHITEHOUSE 1992: 149-50, fig. 6.22, nos. 647 and 651). The body fragments have geometrical or vegetal decoration. Handle and body fragments are often made of the same fabric and probably come from the same jugs. A bowl fragment and a few fragments of closed forms bear decoration of the “type of Taranto-Torre di Mare”, a type particularly connected to the coastal area from Northern Calabria to Basilicata and Southern Apulia (the fragments are similar to: DUFOURNIER, FLAMBARD, NOYÉ 1986: 272, fig. 6, no. 7; TAGLIENTE 2000: 173, fig. 4, nos. 15 and 16). Bowls of the “type of Taranto” have been reported from Patras and Argos in the Peloponnese and they have been dated between the late 13th and the late 14th century (MASTROKOSTAS 1962: 141, pl. 120, middle shelf, third bowl; ATHANASOULIS 2002: 345, fig. 112a; STILLWELL MACKAY 2003: 420, n. 119). The decoration preserved on the bowl from Chlemoutsi is closer to that of a bowl found in nearby Glarentza (ATHANASOULIS 2005, picture on p. 44, bottom right). A few bowls are decorated with a brown cross at the centre. The first type (fig. 3, top) is a brown cross inscribed in an irregular square and enriched with green dots between its arms. Similar finds in Italy have been connected with the production of Apulia (DUFOURNIER, FLAMBARD, NOYÉ 1986:

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fig. 4 – RMR ware, bowl decorated with a red floral motif and coloured bands.

fig. 3 – RMR ware, bowls decorated with crosses.

fig. 5 – Double-dipped ware.

fig. 6 – Archaic Maiolica.

271, fig. 9, no. 3). A similar complete bowl is included in a group of Italian pottery found during old excavations in the odeum at Patras (MASTROKOSTAS 1962: 141, pl. 120, middle self, first bowl). This group from Patras (which also includes some other RMR vessels, Double-dipped ware, Archaic Maiolica and a sgraffito bowl) has been dated to the later 14th-early 15th century (STILLWELL MACKAY 2003: 420, n. 119). The second type of cross (fig. 3, bottom) – a cross with elongated bars terminating in a series of small vertical lines

and enriched with small green bands between its arms – has close parallels at Glarentza (ATHANASOULIS 2005: picture on the middle of p. 46, top right). A large group of bowls is decorated with a red floral motif at the centre and bands of alternating colours on the wall (fig. 4). An identical complete bowl is included in the group of pottery from the odeum at Patras (MASTROKOSTAS 1962: 141, pl. 120, middle self, middle bowl). A similar example from Isthmia (Corinthia) has been dated, on numismatic

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fig. 8 – Sgraffito bowl (late 16th century).

fig. 7 – Sgraffito bowls (15th and 16th century).

fig. 10 – Maiolica from Montelupo (late 16th century).

fig. 9 – Renaissance Maiolica (second half of the 15th-early 16th century).

evidence, to the late 14th or the early 15th century (GREGORY 1989: 204, fig. 2). Similar bowl fragments have been found at Stari Bar in Montenegro, in a context of about the same date (D’AMICO 2005: 66, pls. 6.8 and 6.10). The Southern Italian pottery also includes a few examples of Apulian Double-dipped ware (fig. 5), dating from the end of the 14th-15th century (PATTERSON, WHITEHOUSE 1992: 147-8; TAGLIENTE 2000: 179). The vessels made using this technique (a doppio bagno) are glazed in two colours, each

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covering half of the vessel. Similar pottery was probably made by Venetian potters in the end of the 13th century (GELICHI 1992). Apulian Double-dipped ware has been reported from Split and Stari Bar (BUERGER 1979: 36, 153-55; D’AMICO 2006: 73), as well as from the odeum at Patras (STILLWELL MACKAY 2003: 420, n. 119). Archaic Maiolica (fig. 6) is much less frequent in Chlemoutsi than the Southern Italian wares. The material includes only closed forms, which are rather fragmentary. Most pieces are decorated in green and brown and they preserve parts of motifs that are typical on Archaic Maiolica jugs of the 13th and the 14th centuries, such as panels with cross-hatched lines, brown framing lines and groups of small brown stripes. The latest examples can be dated to the late 14th-early 15th century and they include jugs decorated in green and brown (fig. 6, top right), as well as a few pieces of Blue Archaic Maiolica, on which the green colour is replaced by blue (GELICHI 1988: 65-6). The Archaic Maiolica reported from excavations in the Eastern Mediterranean, such as the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem and Stari Bar, have been dated after the middle of the 13th century (PRINGLE 1984: 109; D’AMICO 2005: 68). In Corinth Archaic Maiolica appears in the last third of the 13th century and the ware is still present in post-1312 levels (WILLIAMS, ZERVOS 1995: 21; WILLIAMS, ZERVOS 1992: 163). Some occasional reports of Archaic Maiolica from Patras and Methoni support the evidence provided by Chlemoutsi that this type of pottery continued to be imported to the Peloponnese until the late 14th-early 15th century (STILLWELL MACKAY 1996: 132, n. 4; ATHANASOULIS 2002: 345, pl. 112c). The pottery of Chlemoutsi also includes some distinctive groups of monochrome (plain glazed) wares, which are Italian or similar to Italian products. The most easily identifiable is the Metallic ware of the type known from Corinth, which dates from the late 13th or the early 14th century. The material includes only small fragments of open forms, which belong to typical shapes of the ware (SANDERS 1987: 175, fig. 4, no. 13; WILLIAMS, ZERVOS 1992: 156-8, fig. 12, C-35-191). Metallic ware has recently been reported from two new sites in the Peloponnese: Glarentza, as well as Ayios Stephanos in Laconia (ATHANASOULIS 2005: 49; SANDERS 2008: 395). Greece, North Italy and South Italy have been proposed as possible places of manufacture for this ware (BUERGER 1979: 35; GELICHI 1993: 16; ARTHUR 2007: 242). A monochrome bowl (covered with a white slip and a colourless lead glaze) belongs to the unrouletted version of the Roulette ware of the late 13th-early 14th century known from Corinth (SANDERS 1987: 174). The type has also been named Veneto ware after its place of manufacture (GELICHI 1986). The large group of pottery from Chlemoutsi discussed here includes only one example of the type. However, the sgraffito pottery from Venice and the Po valley becomes common by the 15th century and it continues well after the Ottoman conquest of the castle. The material includes many fragments of graffita arcaica padana and graffita arcaica padana tardiva (fig. 7) dating from the period between the late 14th and the late 15th century (GELICHI 1986; NEPOTI 1992). Some of them have close parallels in published examples from Rhodes, which have been dated to the 15th century, during which the island was occupied by the knights of St. John (MICHAILIDOU 1993: 335, figs. 1 and 3; 2000: 422, pl. 166, no. 12). Although Chlemoutsi was a Turkish castle for most of the period between 1460 and the early 19th century, Italian ceramics form the main imports of this period. Present are both tin-glazed and lead-glazed wares, which can be connected

with major production centres in Italy, such as Venice, Faenza, Montelupo, Pisa, Castelli, Liguria and Pesaro. Italian sgraffito pottery is present until the 16th-early 17th century. Among the latest examples there is a bowl decorated with a human bust (fig. 8) and another bowl with geometric incised decoration made with thin to large points (a punta e a stecca). On both these bowls, as well as on another bowl preserving part of an incised star (fig. 7, top right), the incised decoration is enriched with green, yellow and blue paint. Late sgraffito ware from Pisa (graffita tarda), which dates from the late 16th-early 17th century, is also represented in the material. Similarly to some other sites outside Italy (BERTI, TONGIORGI 1982: 163, n. 11), this ware occurs in Chlemoutsi in association with its contemporary Pisan Marbled ware. The earliest Renaissance Maiolica includes a large group of small jug fragments (fig. 9). Their lead-glazed or unglazed interior, the blue borders and the limited colour palette used for decoration (blue, brown, green and yellow) are features common on Maiolica jugs of the stile severo of the second half of the 15th-early 16th century (WHITEHOUSE 1975; GELICHI 1988). In addition, many pieces of Maiolica of the 16th-early 17th century have been found, which include various polychrome Maiolica (fig. 10), Maiolica alla porcellana, Maiolica of the compediario style and Maiolica berettina. Italian imports continue uninterrupted until the abandonment of the castle in the early 19th century. The latest pottery found in Chlemoutsi includes many pieces of monochrome Whitewares of the 18th century (monochromi bianchi), various types of polychrome painted Maiolica of the 18th-early 19th century similar to those known from many Greek sites (VROOM 2003: 177-8), as well as a few pieces of Tâches noires from Albisola (Black band ware) dating from the 18th century (similar to: BLAKE 1981: 116, figs. 8.11 and 8.12). It should be noted that Western imports other than Italian are uncommon. The earliest examples belong to a type of German stoneware decorated with a bearded face mask, or Bartmann jug (similar to: HURST, NEAL, BUENINGEN 1986: 216, fig. 106.335 and pl. 44), which, however, may have been brought to Chlemoutsi by German mercenaries in the Venetian armies of 1687.

CONCLUSIONS The almost exclusive presence of Italian wares in the glazed pottery of the Frankish castle can be connected with a number of factors: the close political and commercial relations between the Principality of Achaea and Italy; the location of the castle in the most important area of the territories of the Prince of Achaea, which was characterized by its easy access to Italy through the Ionian Sea (especially through Glarentza); the tastes and demands of the groups of the Latin elite settled in the castle. Southern Italian pottery remains predominant throughout the Frankish period, while Venetian pottery seems to become common rather late in the Frankish castle. RMR wares are much more frequent than the Protomaiolica vessels, because the production of Protomaiolica in the Salento ceased early in the 14th century, while RMR vessels continued to be produced and probably became more readily available (D’AMICO 2006: 75). The material of Chlemoutsi indicates that Southern Italian imports to Southern Greece continued throughout the 14th and into the 15th century. Some reports of late RMR pottery and Double-dipped ware from Isthmia, Patras and Glarentza support this evidence. Chlemoutsi also

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indicates that after the end of the Frankish occupation and the Ottoman conquest of the Peloponnese the importation of Southern Italian pottery ceased, but pottery from further north in Italy continued to be available in the area. The main evidence for the Italian pottery imported to the Aegean between the late 14th and the 17th centuries comes from some occasional pieces of graffita arcaica and Maiolica reported from areas that were under Latin rule during this period, such as Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus and the Cyclades (STILLWELL MACKAY 1996: 127; VROOM 2007). In uninterrupted continuation of the Italian wares of the Frankish period, the material of Chlemoutsi includes many Italian imported ceramics dating from the period following the Ottoman conquest of the castle, and little of this pottery may be connected to the short period of Venetian occupation between 1687 and 1715. On the contrary, Islamic wares are notably rare. Clearly, Italian ceramics were more readily available or preferred to Islamic wares in this Turkish castle. The pottery of Chlemoutsi indicates that at least some of the areas that had become Italian-dominated markets during the period of Latin occupation remained open to Western trade and influences, even if they fell to the Ottomans as early as the 15th century. Sporadic evidence supporting this suggestion comes from some other sites or regions in Greece, such as Corinth, Patras, Boeotia and Epirus (STILLWELL MACKAY 1996: 132, n. 4; ATHANASOULIS 2002; VROOM 2003; VAVYLOPOULOU CHARITONIDOU 1994: 106, pls. 84-86). Of course, the picture of ceramic use in Chlemoutsi is quite different to that provided by the pottery of Istanbul, where Islamic pottery is abundant, while Western imports are limited (HAYES 1992). But Chlemoutsi represents a region of the periphery, located far from the centre of the Ottoman Empire in Istanbul and very close to Venetian interests and influences. The last Venetian possessions in the Peloponnese were not lost until 1540, while between 1687 and 1715 the entire peninsula was under Venetian occupation. The neighbouring Ionian Islands were under Latin rule since the 13th century and remained Venetian until 1797. The close political and commercial relations with Italy developed during the Frankish period, the Venetian interests in the Peloponnese, the long and continuous Latin occupation of the neighbouring Ionian Islands, and the proximity to the Ionian Sea and Italy, seem to provide some convincing explanations for the significant and continuous presence of Italian pottery in Chlemoutsi. The area must have remained for centuries open to Western, particularly Italian, trade and influences, through the Ionian Sea, which are reflected in the pottery of Chlemoutsi.

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