Bacillus sp. R2 and Bacillus Cereus Immobilized ...

36 downloads 0 Views 1MB Size Report
R2 and Bacillus cereus immobilized amylases for glucose syrup production. Slimane Choubanea,k, Omar Khelila, Ben Amar Chebab. aLaboratory of Plant and ...

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect Procedia Technology 19 (2015) 972 – 979

WK,QWHUQDWLRQDO &RQIHUHQFH ,QWHUGLVFLSOLQDULW\LQ(QJLQHHULQJ,17(5(1* 2FWREHU 7LUJX0XUHV5RPDQLD

%DFLOOXVVS5DQG%DFLOOXVFHUHXVLPPRELOL]HGDP\ODVHVIRU JOXFRVHV\UXSSURGXFWLRQ 6OLPDQH&KRXEDQHD  2PDU.KHOLOD%HQ$PDU&KHEDE D

/DERUDWRU\RI3ODQWDQG0LFURELDO3URGXFWLRQVDQG9DOXDWLRQV /390 'HSDUWHPHQWRI%LRWHFKQRORJ\)DFXOW\RI1DWXUHDQG/LIH6FLHQFHV 8QLYHUVLW\RI6FLHQFHVDQG7HFKQRORJ\RI2UDQ0RKDPHG%RXGLDI%3$O0QDRXDU2UDQ$OJHULD E 'HSDUWHPHQWRI%LRWHFKQRORJ\)DFXOW\RI1DWXUHDQG/LIH6FLHQFHV8QLYHUVLW\RI6FLHQFHVDQG7HFKQRORJ\RI2UDQ0RKDPHG%RXGLDI%3 $O0QDRXDU2UDQ$OJHULD

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‹  The 7KH$XWKRUV3XEOLVKHGE\(OVHYLHU/WG © 2015 Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). 6HOHFWLRQDQGRUSHHUUHYLHZXQGHUUHVSRQVLELOLW\RI³3HWUX0DLRU´8QLYHUVLW\RI7LUJX0XUHV)DFXOW\RI(QJLQHHULQJ Peer-review under responsibility of “Petru Maior” University of Tirgu Mures, Faculty of Engineering .H\ZRUGV %DFLOOXVVS5%DFLOOXVFHUHXVDP\ODVHLPPRELOL]DWLRQDOJLQDWHEHDGVJOXFRVH V\UXS

&RUUHVSRQGLQJDXWKRU7HO  (PDLODGGUHVV VOLPDQHFKRXEDQH#JPDLOFRP

2212-0173 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer-review under responsibility of “Petru Maior” University of Tirgu Mures, Faculty of Engineering doi:10.1016/j.protcy.2015.02.139

Slimane Choubane et al. / Procedia Technology 19 (2015) 972 – 979

973

 ,QWURGXFWLRQ 7KHRQO\QDWXUDOUHQHZDEOHFDUERQUHVRXUFHNQRZQWKDWLVODUJHHQRXJKWREHXVHGDVDVXEVWLWXWHIRUIRVVLOIXHOV LVELRPDVV>@6WDUFK &+2 Q LVRQHRIWKHPRVWDQFLHQWDQGGLVWULEXWHGELRSRO\PHUVLQZRUOG,WLVDYHJHWDO UHVHUYH FRQVLGHUHG DV WKH VHFRQG PRVW LPSRUWDQW ELRPDVV DIWHU OLJQRFHOOXORVHV 7KLV ELRSRO\PHU LV K\GURO\]HG E\ DP\ODVHV (&   D VWDUFKGHJUDGLQJ HQ]\PHV WKH\ DUH ZLGHO\ GLVWULEXWHG LQ PLFURELDO SODQW DQG DQLPDO NLQJGRPV>@7KH\GHJUDGHVWDUFKDQGUHODWHGSRO\PHUVWRGLYHUVHSURGXFWVDVGH[WULQVDQGSURJUHVVLYHO\VPDOOHU SRO\PHUVWRILQDOO\REWDLQJOXFRVHXQLWV &+2 $OSKDDP\ODVHVKDYHGLYHUVHDSSOLFDWLRQVLQ DZLGHYDULHW\RI LQGXVWULHV VXFK DV PHGLFLQDO FKHPLVWU\ IRRG WH[WLOH SDSHU DQG GHWHUJHQW UHSUHVHQWLQJ DSSUR[LPDWHO\  RI WKH ZRUOG HQ]\PH SURGXFWLRQ >@ 7KH LPPRELOL]DWLRQ RI HQ]\PHV LV D WHFKQLTXH WKDW FDQ EH XVHG HYHQ XQGHU URXJK HQYLURQPHQWDO FRQGLWLRQV GXH WR WKH VWDELOL]DWLRQ RI HQ]\PH VWUXFWXUH 7KXV LW DOORZV WKHLU UHXVH HQKDQFHPHQW RI FDWDO\WLFDFWLYLW\XVHLQFRQWLQXRXVDQGXVHDVELRVHQVRU7KHVWDEOHLPPRELOL]HGHQ]\PHUHTXLUHVOHVVHQHUJ\DQG JLYHVWKHUHIRUHEHWWHUFDWDO\WLFDFWLYLW\ (Q]\PHV ZHUH SURGXFHG E\ WZR %DFLOOXV VWUDLQV 7KLV JHQXV VSHFLHV FRQWLQXH WR EH GRPLQDQW EDFWHULDO ZRUNKRUVHVLQPLFURELDOIHUPHQWDWLRQVGXHWRWKHLUVHFUHWLRQRIODUJHTXDQWLWLHVRIH[WUDFHOOXODUHQ]\PHDQGWRWKHLU DELOLW\WRIHUPHQWLQWKHDFLGQHXWUDODQGDONDOLQHS+UDQJHVFRPELQHG ZLWKWKHSUHVHQFHRIWKHUPRSKLOHVLQWKH JHQXV>@ ,Q SUHYLRXV VWXG\ VHYHUDO VWDUFKULFK VXEVWUDWHV ZHUH WHVWHG IRU DP\ODVH SURGXFWLRQ :KHDW EUDQ ZDV VHOHFWHG DPRQJ WKH EHVW VXEVWUDWHV :KHDW EUDQ LV D E\SURGXFW RI WKH PLOOLQJ SURFHVV RI ZKHDW :KHDW NHUQHO QRUPDOO\ FRQWDLQV  EUDQ  HQGRVSHUP DQG  JHUP >@ 7KH KLVWRORJLFDO FRPSRVLWLRQ RI WKH ZKHDW JUDLQ LV VKRZHGLQ)LJ$SDUWIURPOLJQRFHOOXORVLFILEHUZKHDWEUDQDOVRFRQWDLQVSURWHLQVWDUFKPRLVWXUHDQGDVK2WKHU PLQRU FRPSRQHQWV DOVR DUH GRFXPHQWHG LQFOXGLQJ SKHQROLF DFLGV IODYRQRLGV OLJQDQV DQG SK\WLF DFLG >@7KH JHQHUDOZKHDWEUDQFRPSRVLWLRQLVLOOXVWUDWHGLQ7DEOH  7KH LQWHQWLRQ RI WKH SUHVHQW VWXG\ ZDV WR DVVHVV WKH DFWLYLW\ RI LPPRELOL]HG ĮDP\ODVH SURGXFHG E\ %DFLOOXV FHUHXVDQG%DFLOOXVVS5LQVXEPHUJHGIHUPHQWDWLRQDQGFRPSDUHWKH\LHOGVRIWKHWZRVWUDLQV7KHDFWLYLWLHVRI WKHLPPRELOL]HGHQ]\PHVZHUHGHWHUPLQHGDQGFRPSDUHGZLWKWKRVHRIIUHHHQ]\PHV3URGXFWSURILOHRIZKHDW EUDQ K\GURO\]HGE\DP\ODVHKDVEHHQGHWHUPLQHGE\WKLQOD\HUFKURPDWRJUDSK\7/&

)LJ /RQJLWXGLQDOVHFWLRQRIDJUDLQRIZKHDWVKRZLQJLWVKLVWRORJLFDOFRPSRVLWLRQ>@

1RPHQFODWXUH 7/& '16 %6$

7KLQ/D\HU&KURPDWRJUDSK\ 'LQLWURVDOLF\OLF$FLG %RYLQH 6HUXP$OEXPLQ

974

Slimane Choubane et al. / Procedia Technology 19 (2015) 972 – 979

7DEOH *HQHUDOFRPSRVLWLRQRIZKHDWEUDQ>@ &RPSRXQG

$PRXQW>@

:DWHU



3URWHLQ



)DW

 3K\WRVWHUROV



Į/LQROHQLFDFLG



7RWDOFDUERK\GUDWHV



6WDUFK



&HOOXORVH



7RWDO DUDELQR[\ODQV



7RWDOȕJOXFDQ



3KHQROLFDFLGV )HUXOLFDFLG

 

3K\WLFDFLG



$VK



 0DWHULDOVDQGPHWKRGV $OOFKHPLFDOVXVHGLQWKLVVWXG\DUHRIWHFKQLFDOJUDGHDQGREWDLQHGIURPFRPPHUFLDOVRXUFHV  %DFWHULDO VWUDLQVDQGFXOWXUHFRQGLWLRQV x %DFLOOXVVS 5 ZDVLVRODWHGIURPUHGVHDZDWHU +XUJKDGD(J\SW E\0U&+(%$%HQ$PDUDQGUHJLVWHUHGLQ *HQ%DQNGDWDEDVHZLWKWKHDFFHVVLRQQXPEHU'4 x %DFLOOXVFHUHXV $7&& 7KHVWUDLQV ZHUH FXOWXUHGRQQXWULHQWEURWKDQGFRQVHUYHGLQJO\FHURODW ƒ&  $P\ODVHSURGXFWLRQDQGH[WUDFWLRQ 7KH VWUDLQV ZHUH FXOWXUHG RQ PHGLD FRQWDLQLQJ WHFKQLFDO JUDGH SRWDWR VWDUFK 3DQUHDF 6SDLQ  DQG RSWLPL]HG DFFRUGLQJWRHDFKVWUDLQRSWLPDOJURZLQJFRQGLWLRQV $P\ODVHSURGXFWLRQPHGLXPVFRPSRVLWLRQZDVSRWDWRVWDUFK1D12VHDZDWHUDQGSRWDWR VWDUFK1D&O0J62IRU %DFLOOXVVS5 DQG %DFLOOXVFHUHXV UHVSHFWLYHO\ 7KHHQ]\PHSURGXFWLRQZDVSHUIRUPHGGXULQJKDWƒ&XQGHUVKDNLQJDWUSP7KHFUXGHHQ]\PHVZHUH UHFRYHUHGDIWHUFHQWULIXJDWLRQDWUSPIRUPLQDWƒ&DQGNHSWDW ƒ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

Slimane Choubane et al. / Procedia Technology 19 (2015) 972 – 979

975

 *OXFRVHV\UXSSURGXFWLRQ 7KHDOJLQDWHEHDGVZHUHSXWLQWRFROXPQZLWK FORJJHGERWWRP :KHDWEUDQZDVVLHYHGDQGDVROXWLRQRIZDV SUHSDUHGDQGILOOHGLQWRWKHFROXPQ6DPSOHVZHUHFROOHFWHGDIWHUKKKKKKDQGKRILQFXEDWLRQ DWƒ&7KHVFKHPDRIWKHGHYLFHLVVKRZQLQ)LJ$  $QDO\VLVPHWKRG  $P\ODVHDFWLYLW\ 7KHDP\ODVHDFWLYLW\ZDVDVVHVVHGDFFRUGLQJWKHPHWKRGRI0LOOHU  >@7KHUHDFWLRQPL[WXUHFRQVLVWHGRI POVHDZDWHUEXIIHUS+PL[HGZLWKSRWDWRVWDUFKDGGHGWR POHQ]\PH$IWHUPLQXWHRILQFXEDWLRQDW ƒ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

)LJ6FKHPDRIZKHDWEUDQVWDUFKK\GURO\VLVGHYLFHE\HQWUDSSHGDP\ODVH$ ,PPRELOL]DWLRQFROXPQ% $OJLQDWHEHDGVFRQWDLQLQJ LPPRELOL]HGDP\ODVH

976

Slimane Choubane et al. / Procedia Technology 19 (2015) 972 – 979

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Į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

E $P\ODVHDFWLYLW\8PO

$P\ODVHDFWLYLW\8PO

          &RQWURO





%DFLOOXVVS5









7LPH K %DFLOOXVFHUHXV



       

 

 

%DFLOOXVFHUHXV %DFLOOXVVS5 6WUDLQV )UHHDP\ODVH ,PPRELOL]HGDP\ODVH

)LJ D (IIHFWRILQFXEDWLRQWLPHRQDP\ODVHDFWLYLW\E $FWLYLWLHVRIIUHHDQGLPPRELOL]HG$P\ODVHRI%VS5DQG%FHUHXV DIWHUKRI LQFXEDWLRQ

Slimane Choubane et al. / Procedia Technology 19 (2015) 972 – 979

977

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Į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

        

,QFXEDWLRQWLPH KRXUV %DFLOOXVFHUHXV

%DFLOOXVVS5

)LJ(IIHFWRISURWHLQFRQWHQWSURILOHDORQJWKHWLPH

7KHSUHVHQFHRIFHOORELRVHQRWLFHGDIWHUKDQGKIRU%DFLOOXVFHUHXVDQG%DFLOOXVVS5UHVSHFWLYHO\FRXOG DOVR EHGXHWRHQ]\PDWLFV\QWKHVLV,QIDFWWKHV\QWKHVLVRIFHOORELRVHIURPVWDUFKXVLQJSKRVSKRU\ODVHVDQGJOXFDQ SKRVSKRU\ODVHZDVUHSRUWHGE\FRQYHUVLRQRIJOXFRVHUHVLGXHVLQWKHVWDUFKPROHFXOH>@

978

Slimane Choubane et al. / Procedia Technology 19 (2015) 972 – 979

)LJ$P\ODVHK\GURO\VLVSURGXFWGHWHUPLQDWLRQE\ WKLQOD\HUFKURPDWRJUDSK\%DFLOOXVFHUHXV$K$K$K$K$K $K$K%DFLOOXVVS5%K%K%K% K%K%$K%K 7DEOH *HQHUDOFRPSRVLWLRQRIZKHDWEUDQ>@ 6DPSOHV

6WDQGDUGVXJDUV

%DFLOOXVFHUHXV

%DFLOOXVVS5

5HODWLYHPRELOLW\ 5P

0DOWRVH



*OXFRVH



+\GURO\VLVSURGXFW

;\ORVH



*DODFWRVH



&HOORELRVH



$UDELQRVH



K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH&HOORELRVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K

  

*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH&HOORELRVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

K



*OXFRVH;\ORVH

 &RQFOXVLRQ :KHDWEUDQVWDUFKVROXWLRQK\GURO\VLVZDVFRQGXFWHGZLWKVXFFHVVXVLQJĮDP\ODVHHQWUDSSHG LQFDOFLXPDOJLQDWH EHDGVDQGJOXFRVHV\UXSZDVREWDLQHG7KHLPPRELOL]HGHQ]\PHVJDYHLPSRUWDQWK\GURO\VLV \LHOGV:HFRQFOXGH WKDW DP\ODVH FDOFLXP DOJLQDWH LPPRELOL]DWLRQ LV YHU\ XVHIXO IRU FRQWLQXRXV VWDUFK K\GURO\VLV DQG FDQ EH XVHG LQ LQGXVWU\WRUHSODFHIUHHHQ]\PHK\GURO\VLVV\VWHPV ,QGHHGLPPRELOL]DWLRQFDQORZHUWKHFRVWVRIFHUWDLQHQ]\PH EDVHGSURFHVV VLJQLILFDQWO\ $QRSWLPL]HGLPPRELOL]DWLRQV\VWHPFRXSOHGZLWKHIILFLHQWPLFURRUJDQLVPVSURGXFLQJ KLJKOHYHOVRIHQ]\PHVPDNHVSRVVLEOHVDYLQJVLJQLILFDQWFRVWVDQGDOVRIDFLOLWDWHVWKHSURFHVVHVRIGHJUDGDWLRQGXH WRWKHHDVHRIHQ]\PHUHFRYHU\IURPWKHUHDFWLRQPHGLXPDQGWKHSRVVLELOLW\RIWKHLUUHXVHIRUVHYHUDOF\FOHV:KHDW

Slimane Choubane et al. / Procedia Technology 19 (2015) 972 – 979

979

EUDQFDQEHXVHGIRULQGXVWULDOSURGXFWLRQRIJOXFRVHV\UXSV LQSKDUPDFHXWLFDODQGIRRGLQGXVWULHV 7KLVVWXG\VKRXOG EHSXUVXHGE\DQRSWLPL]DWLRQRIWKHLPPRELOL]DWLRQFRQGLWLRQV,QIDFWWKHLPPRELOL]DWLRQHIILFLHQF\WKHDOJLQDWH EHDGVFRQFHQWUDWLRQWKHHIIHFWRIS+RQIUHHDQGLPPRELOL]HGDP\ODVHDFWLYLW\DUHLPSRUWDQWSDUDPHWHUVWRLPSURYH IRUDPD[LPXPVWDUFKK\GURO\VLV\LHOGV 5HIHUHQFHV >@ >@ >@ >@

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Į$P\ODVH %\ 3DHQLEDFLOOXVDP\ORO\WLFXV3DN-%RW >@ %DEX .5 6DW\DQDUD\DQD 7 Į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Į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ĮDP\ODVH IURP %DFLOOXV VXEWLOLV3URFHVV%LRFKHP >@ .RQVRXOD=/LDNRSRXOX.\ULDNLGHV07KHUPRVWDEOHĮ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

Suggest Documents