Bearded Vulture

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Características ecológicas y Biología de la Conservacion: 79-89. Coleccion. Técnica. Icona. Madrid. ... Un naturalista tra i grifoni. Bologna. RUIU, D. (1997).

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Bearded Vulture Reintroduction into the Alps

Annual Report 2004 Foundation for the Conservation of the Bearded Vulture

Frankfurt Zoological Society

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LIFE-Nature Project Nr.: 03NAT/F/000100 Program for the Bearded Vulture in the Alps

University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

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BG 444, Toto (right) and BG 436 in the VBU

Photo: KARL HOFBAUER-HÖFER, AUSTRIA

FOREWORD What twenty years ago still seemed a remote goal is to day a reality. In 2004 over a hundred Bearded Vultures are populating the Alps while five young successfully hatched in the wild and the trend is upwards. In this year also the newly developed strategy for the future was presented at FCBV‘s Annual Information Meeting in Haute Savoie. In future, efforts will be directed at linking the now present Alpine population with the autochthonous ones of the Pyrenees and Corsica to finally arrive at a homogeneous population in Western Europe. In 2005, it will be thirty years that I attended in Vienna my first meeting on the possibility of reintroducing the Bearded Vulture into the Alps starting from captive breeding. At the decisive conference in Morges in 1978, of which I had the honour to be the organizer, the preceding French-Swiss initiative was joined with the Austrian one, thus forming the basis for an undertaking encompassing the entire Alpine chain. This new project in turn received the solid support of numerous Zoological Gardens in Europe. In the years that followed I had the pleasure to preside over countless Board meetings, Annual Information Meetings and other manifestations characterized by their great diversity of nationalities, interests and outlooks, and yet united by the common goal. This goal now having been achieved I feel that the time has come to hand over, and in the autumn of 2005 the Foundation for the Conservation of the Bearded Vulture will have a new President who, if chosen as my successor, may well have been the youngest participant in the Morges Conference of 1978. I, personnally, shall take leave of FCBV‘s Board with the gratifying sentiment of "MISSION ACCOMPLISHED".

Dr. MAARTEN BIJLEVELD

VAN

LEXMOND

President of the Foundation for the Conservation of the Bearded Vulture

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Contents

Foreword

2004 1

Breeding Network Reproduction in 2004 Transfers - Increases - Deaths in 2004 EEP stock in 2004 Reproduction between 1978 and 2004 Age distribution in 2004

3 9 13 16 18

Report on Releases in 2004 Report on the release in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Kals 2004 Report on the release at the Haute Savoie site in 2004 Release in Martell Valley, Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio in 2004 Release in the Argentera-Mercantour site in 2004, and observations from the Argentera Nature Park Wing marks and ring colours from 1986 - 2004

19 27 28 30

Bearded Vulture Monitoring in Engadine, Switzerland in 2004 Satellite tracking of Bearded Vultures - the project „ Bearded Vulture on the move“ Hohe Tauern National Park - Breeding in the wild 2004 Austrian Bearded Vulture Monitoring 2004 Status of the Bearded Vulture in Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio in 2004 Evolution of the territorial pairs in the Western Italian Alps Actual situation of Territorial Bearded Vulture pairs identified in the Alps of Haute Savoie (F) and their conservation International Bearded Vulture Monitoring (IBM) in 2004 Supplement to 2003: An observation of one Bearded Vulture in The Netherlands

42 52 56 56 59 62

Release

31 34

Monitoring

63 66 68

Autochthonous Populations Bearded Vulture in the French Pyrenees - Results of the monitoring of 2004 The Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) population in the Spanish Pyrenees in 2004 Conservation of the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) in Corsica: monitoring 2004 Evaluation of the extinction risk and of conservation alternatives for a very small insular population: the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in Corsica Comments to the article: "Evaluation of the extinction risk and conservation alternatives for a very small insular population: the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in Corsica” Looking for Birds of Prey on Crete – November 2004 (A privatly undertaken research)

68 70 73 75 75 78

Miscellaneous Feasibility Study on the Reintroduction of the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) in Sardinia Bearded Vulture reintroduction project in Andalucia: results at the Breeding Centre Guadalentín The Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) reintroduction project in Andalusia Phylogeography, genetic structure and diversity in the endangered Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, L.) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA Annual Report of the Breeding Centre Natur- und Tierpark Goldau, Switzerland, 2004 Ecological requirements of reintroduced species and the implications for release policy: the case of the bearded vulture Remarks of the editors on Ecological requirements of reintroduced species etc. Status and conservation of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis in Lesotho Soaring to Extincton: The population status of the Bearded Vulture, Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis, in southern Africa The FCBV Annual Meeting Flute sounds, coming from a Bearded Vulture bone

80 105 110 112 113 114 114 115 120 124 125

Editorial 126

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Reproduction in 2004 by Hans Frey *

The Vienna Breeding Unit In this breeding season, six pairs produced a clutch: BG 009 x BG 006019020 produced two eggs (14th and 19th/20th of December). The single egg of BG 014 x BG 133134135 was laid on the 13th od December. BG 105161162 x BG 178 had three eggs laid on the 19th/20th of December, on 26th of December and on 5th/6th of January. The first egg was abandoned in the morning of 25th of December, the other two died during incubation. The pair BG 017019021 x BG 070022023 produced two eggs (30th of December and 4th of January) which died during incubation. BG 199 x BG 107150151 laid one egg on 4th of January, which hatched on 4th of March (BG 440119107). BG 108065040 x BG 175152153 had produced two eggs (19th/20th and 25th of December). The first hatched in the nest on 11th of February (BG 433108175). The second was transferred to an incubator where it hatched on the 17h of February (BG 435108175). Because of the installation of VIDEO EQUIPMENT in each single Bearded Vulture facility, a variety of interesting observations could be made: ➛ Remarks on pair BG 009 x BG 006. We were lucky to observe egglaying on 14th of December 2003. Prior to incubation, female BG 006 rolled the egg approx. 25cm to one side and started to brood only 20 minutes later. Both eggs incubated by the pair and exchanged against dummy eggs on 4th of February. The bigger egg had died during incubation, the second was transferred to an incubator. Both birds continued brooding on the dummy eggs. The second egg did not hatch so it was opened in the evening of 13th of February. The embryo had died before pecking the shell. On the 22nd of February, the pair received BG 435108175 for rearing. The adoption took place without any difficulties and the nestling developed well. ➛ Remarks on pair BG 014 x BG 133134135. The pair cancelled brooding on the 7th/8th of March and did not react to offered eggs. On 13th of March, again two eggs were put into their nest, one of which was warmed by the male, the second was thrown out. On 16th of March, BG 441134135 was transferred from Prague Zoo to the VBU, where it was put into the nest of BG 014 x BG 133. The pair immediately started to take care of this young bird and reared it without any problems until 7th of April when this bigger nestling was exchanged against BG 444080081. Also this bird was adopted and raised without problems. ➛ Remarks on pair BG 105161162 x BG 178. The first egg was abandoned on 25th of December. In the morning of 27th of December, BG 105 stayed in the nest but the second egg was deposed at the edge of the nest! BG 105 toughed the egg twice with his bill but started to incubate in the empty trough. The still warm and unharmed egg was removed and transferred to MALE PAIR BG 204 X BG 065. They continued brooding on the dummy egg and the egg of BG 105 x BG 178. BG 178 returned to the empty nest and started to trough. On 8th of January the third egg rolled out of the nest! In the afternoon it was transferred to the nest of pair BG 014 x BG 133. On 4th of February female BG 178 was rather active working at the nest (troughing etc.). ➛ Remarks on pair BG 017019021 x BG 070022023. Both eggs removed on the 20th of February: both embryos had died during incubation! Two dummy eggs were put into the nest, one of which was thrown out by the female but the second one was warmed. On the next day both dummy eggs were in the nest and warmed by the pair. * Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Wien, Austria. [email protected]

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Table 1: Breeding pairs in 2004

AUSTRIA Alpenzoo Innsbruck BG 019 x BG 021

1st: 11th Jan 2nd:16th Jan 3rd: 23rd Feb 4th:28th Feb

broken broken embryo died embryo died

BG 201 x BG 044002003

1st: 31st Dec

embryo died

Tiergarten Schönbrunn

Vienna Breeding Unit BG 014 x BG 133134135 BG 009 x BG 006019020

1st: 13th Jan 1st: 14th Dec 2nd:19/20th Dec 1st: 4th Jan BG 199 x BG 107150151 2nd:9th Jan BG 017019021 x BG 070022023 1st: 30th Dec 2nd:4th Jan

broken died embryo died broken 4th Mar embryo died embryo died

BG 105161162 x BG 178

broken embryo died embryo died 11th Feb 17th Feb

1st: 19/20th Dec 2nd: 26th Dec 3rd: 5th/6th Jan BG 108065040 x BG 175152153 1st:19/20th Dec 2nd:25th Dec

FRANCE Breeding Centre Haute Savoie BG 054 x BG 087

2nd Jan

GERMANY Hannover Zoo BG 080019021 x BG 081004027 1st: 20st Jan 2nd:03rd Feb

15th Mar 30th Mar

BG 018019021 x BG 272161162 1st: 27th Dec 2nd:02nd Feb

broken broken

BG 043019021 x BG 040034035 1st:31st Dec 2nd:05th Jan

broken infertile

BG 156154155 x BG 157154155 1st: 2nd:

infertile or embryo died

Nuremberg Zoo

Wuppertal Zoo

KAZAKHSTAN Almaty Zoo ? ?

SPAIN Centro de Cría Guadalentín BG 124131132 x BG 041034035 1st: 24th Dec 2nd:30th Dec 3rd: 07th Jan BG 286 x BG 153 1st: 15th Dec 2nd:22nd Dec

infertile infertile 29th Feb embryo died 14th Feb

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SWITZERLAND Breeding Centre Goldau/Rigi BG 174134135 x BG 118154155 12th Feb BG 060034035 x BG 276199107 1st: 05th Jan 2nd:04th Jan La Garenne 04th Jan BG 034 x BG 130150151 Bern Zoo BG 148019021 x BG 142009041 11th Jan

04th Apr broken 29th Feb 28th Feb broken

TS-REPUBLIC Prague Zoo BG 134 x BG 135

10th Jan

04th Mar

BG 180161162 x BG 274

1st: 25th Dec 2nd:01st Jan

18th Feb 23rd Feb

Liberec Zoo

➛ Remarks on pair BG 199 x BG 107150151. The two infertile eggs of BG 017 x BG 070 were put into their nest for incubation on the 20th of February, whereas their own clutch was removed: the single egg of this pair proved to be fertile and developed and was transferred to an incubator for hatching where it was examined and detected that it was the second egg. Maybe the first egg was destroyed when the second egg was laid. The nestling BG 440199107 hatched in the incubator on 4th of March, being a very active little bird. The pair cancelled brooding on the 7th/8th of March and did not react to offered eggs. Two days later their own nestling BG 440 was returned to the pair, although they had cancelled incubation. The male approached the nestling short time afterwards, seemed to be a little bit insecure but with a friendly attitude. He toughed the nestling gently and moved his bill. The female approached the nest a little time later and also seemed to be a little at a loss and inecure. After 40 minutes, the female started to warm the offspring. From then on both birds took care very well without any disordered behaviour. ➛ Remarks on pair BG 108065040 x BG 175152153. During hatching of the first offspring (BG 433108175) on 11th of Febuary one half of the egg shell was put over the second egg! This egg was removed, the shell dislodged and the egg transferred to an incubator where it hatched on the 17th of February (BG 435108175). BG 433 was well raised by its parents and a rather active and agile nestling until 16th of February when it started to feed rather poorly. A strand of wool was winding around one wing and the bill and one eye was clotty with the fur of a rabbit. After cleaning the nestling again started to beg and feed and from this day on it developed rather well. ➛ Remarks on pair BG 031 x BG 003. On 31st of January the pair received two dummy eggs, which the male started to brood until 6th of April, when BG 44408081 was transferred into his nest. The male immediately started to take care for the nestling, the old female BG 003 behaved rather uninterested. When the male left the young on the next day for feeding the female did not take on. So it was removed and exchanged against the older and bigger nestling BG 441134135. From 8th of April on, BG 003 participated in rearing. ➛ Remarks on BG 297086104 and BG 137154155. On 20th of December 2003, the pair again had to be separated as the female fiercly chased the male. Female BG 137 had built a beautiful nest. ➛ Remarks on MALE PAIR BG 204, Oskar x BG 065 (Crete-Bird). Both males received a dummy egg on the 14th of December 2003. BG 065 picked the egg up with his bill and repeatedly rolled it from the edge of the nest to the middle of the trough. After 10 minutes the bird started to warm the dummy egg. BG 204 sat at the edge of the nest for the first day but shared brooding with BG 065 from the second day on. In the morning of 27th of December BG 204 X BG 065 received the egg of BG 105 x BG 178. Both males continued brooding on the dummy egg and the egg of the pair.

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On 9th of January, only one egg was found in the trough. In the morning of 12th of January, the egg was found outside the nest, the trough did not exist anymore. After restoring the swale the egg was returned and both birds continued incubation. BG 204 continued incubation until at least 17th of March.

➛ Summary - Vienna Breeding Unit Six pairs laid 11 eggs (at least). Five young hatched, nearly all of them in the incubator. After a maximum of seven days of handrearing, the nestlings were adopted by their parents or foster parents. Three of them fledged successfully, two died.

Breeding Station Haute-Savoie After the return of BG 054 x BG 087 to Haute Savoie on 11th of November 2003 (see Annual Report 2003, page 6), the laid one egg on 2nd of January. It was infertile or the embryo died at an early stage of development.

Breeding Centre Goldau/Rigi, Switzerland Two pairs are kept in the Swiss Breeding centre in 2004, each of which produced a clutch (see also p. 113). Hans and Macha (BG 174134135 x BG 118154155) were put together after the death of male Caesar, BG 122014010 (Annual Report 2003, p. 11) and produced their egg on the 12th of February. BG 446174118 hatched on the 4th of April. Felix (BG 060034035), paired with the subadult female BG 276199107, had their first clutch on 14th of January. This egg broke the same day. The pair continued mating and produced a second clutch (again one egg) on the 4th of February This one hatched on the 29th of March but the nestling BG 445060276 was killed by the male short time later.

Breeding Centre Centro de Cría Guadalentín (CCG), Spain BG 124131132 x BG 041034035 had their first egg on the 24th of December, the second on the 30th of December, both failed. which was found cold and neglected in the nest, although both birds stayed in the nest during the night. A third egg, laid on the 7th of January was incubated only by the male for 24 days and then transferred to the incubator where it hatched on 28th of February (BG 439124041). Pair BG 286 x BG 153 laid two eggs on 15th and 22nd of December, one of which (the second) hatched on the 14th of February (BG 434286153). Unfortunately this one was killed by one of its parents, which crushed its head. No aggressive behaviour was observed, it was just an unfortune accident.

Wassenaar Wildlife Breeding Centre, The Netherlands BG 077022023 x BG 303009006 did not produce a clutch this year but copulations were heared and a nest was built in November 2003. The pair obviously has a rather harmonic relationship.

➛ Summary - other Breeding Centres Five pairs laid nine eggs. four young hatched, two of them survived. One pair did not reproduce.

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ZOOS AUSTRIA Alpenzoo Innsbruck The founder pair BG 019 x BG 021 laid the first egg on 11th of January. A replacement clutch was transferred to an incubator, but the pair ceased brooding in the beginning of March. No offspring this year. Tiergarten Schönbrunn BG 201 x BG 044002003 laid one egg on 31st of December 2003, which they incubated from the beginning on. The egg proved to be infertile. SWITZERLAND Bern Zoo Pair BG 148019021 x BG 142009041 produced one egg on the 12th of January. Both birds incubated without any disorder but, as in the previous year, the pair failed. La Garenne Zoo The single egg of pair BG 034 x BG 130150151 was produced on the 4th of January and hatched on the 28th of February (BG 438034130). GERMANY Hannover Zoo BG 080019021 x BG 081004027 laid two eggs on 20th of January and 3rd of February. BG 443080081 died during hatching on the 15th/16th of March. The egg had been found strongly undercooled and damaged. BG 444080081 (Toto) hatched on the 30th of March and was transferred to the VBU to be raised by foster parents on the 2nd of April. Nuremberg Zoo The pair BG 018019021 x BG 272161162, laid one egg on the 27th of December. It broke on 31st of December because of an investigation and actions of the criminal investigation department near the nest site (see page 9, Annual Report 2003). A second clutch followed on the 2nd of February (one egg). It broke during incubation. TSECH REPUBLIK Prague Zoo This experienced founder pair (BG 134 x BG 135) laid one egg on the 10th of January, which hatched on the 4th of March (BG 441134135). This bird was transferred to the VBU for rearing on the 15th of March. The pair received BG 437180274 (born in Liberec Zoo) for raising on 2nd or March. Liberec Zoo The pair BG 180161162 x BG 274 laid two eggs (25th of December, 1st of January), which hatched on the 18th of February (BG 436180274) and 23rd of February (BG 437180274).

Pairs with no reproduction in 2004 Furthermore the following already adult pairs did not start reproduction: BG 129051049 x BG 212152153, Stuttgart Zoo, Germany, BG 190152153 x BG 233122118, Vogelpark Walsrode, Germany, BG 058019021 x BG 234086104, Antwerp Zoo, Belgium,

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Table 2: Offspring 2004

STUDBOOK No.

PARENTAGE

BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG

BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG

433 4341) 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 4432) 444 4453) 446

108 286 108 180 180 034 124 199 134 080 080 060 174

SEX 4)

BREEDING STATION/ZOO

m ? f f m m f f f ? m ? m

Vienna Breeding Unit Centro de Cría Guadalentín Vienna Breeding Unit Liberec Zoo Liberec Zoo La Garenne Zoo Centro de Cría Guadalentín Vienna Breeding Unit Prague Zoo Hannover Zoo Hannover Zoo Breeding Centre Goldau Breeding Centre Goldau

X BG 175 X BG 153 X BG 175 X BG 274 X BG 274 X BG 130 X BG 041 X BG 107 X BG 135 X BG 081 X BG 081 X BG 276 X BG 118

1) BG 434 died four days after hatching because of an accident. 2) BG 443 died during hatching.

3) BG 445 died short time after hatching, killed by its father. 4) Sex determination was done by Barbara Gautschi, University of Zurich, Switzerland

BG 161 x BG 125009041, Moscow Zoo, Russia, BG 047034035 x BG 209150151, San Diego Zoo, USA, BG 145131132 x BG 225031006, Basel Zoo, Switzerland, BG 207017070 x BG 227011054, Ostrava Zoo, Czech Republic, BG 179154155 x BG 281131132, Helsinki Zoo, Finland. ➛ Remarks on pair BG 179154155 x BG 281131132 in the Helsinki Zoo, Finland. As in the previous year, mating was observed as well as activities at the nest site. But so far no reproduction. ➛ Remarks on pair BG 207017070 X BG 227011054 in Ostrava Zoo, Czech Republic. Also in 2004 no pair bond took place. Therefore it was decided to exchange the female BG 227 with female BG 233122118 in the Vogelpark Walsrode, Germany. ➛ Remarks on pair BG 047034035 x BG 209150151 in San Diego Zoo, USA. The rather dominant female of this pair sometimes attacked her mate. Perfect nest construction, but again no egg production. A part of the dense vegetation in their fcility was reduced to allow the birds more space and possibilities for flight. ➛ Remarks on pair BG 058019021 x BG 234086104 in Antwerp Zoo, Belgium. The prepared nest was situated near the ground of the facility and was never used by the pair so far. Therefore it was proposed to offer a second nest site in the upper part of the breeding facility.

➛ Summary - Zoos 10 pairs laid 18 eggs. Six young hatched, five of which were successfully reared by their parents, one died due to aggressions of the father. Furthermore, eight adult pairs did not start reproduction up to now.

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Private collaborator The pair BG 203150151 x BG 218080081 kept by a private collaborator in Germany produced no eggs but had built a nest and copulations were observed too.

➛ Total Breeding Centres, Zoos and private collaborators 21 adult pairs, produced at least 38 eggs. 13 young hatched, of these 10 were reared successfully by their parents or foster parents.

New participants No new participants in 2004

TRANSFERS - INCREASES - DEATHS TRANSFERS BG 437180274, was transferred from Liberec Zoo, Czech Republic to Prague Zoo, Czech Republic for rearing on the 2nd of March. BG 441134135, hatched in Prague Zoo, Czech Republic was brought to the VBU, Austria, on the 15th of March for rearing. BG 444080081, hatched in Hannover Zoo, Germany was brought to the VBU, Austria on the 2nd of April for rearing and from there to Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, Tyrol, Austria for release on the 1st of July. This male was recaptured and brougth back to the VBU on 28th of December 2004. BG 145131132, male was transferred from Basel Zoo, Switzerland to the Breeding Centre Goldau, Switzerland on the 16th of April. BG 433108175 and BG 435108175 were transported from the VBU, Austria to Parco Naturale Alpi Marittime, Italy, for release on the 13th of May. BG 439124041 was transferred from CCG, Spain to the VBU, Austria on the 27th of May and again from the VBU to the release area Martell, Italy on the 6th of June. BG 440199107 and BG 441134135 were transported from the VBU, Austria to Doran, Haute Savoie, France for release on the 29th of May. BG 446174118 was transferred from Breeding Centre Goldau, Switzerland to Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, Tyrol, Austria for release on the 1st of July. BG 436180274 and BG 437180274 were transported from Liberec Zoo, Czech Republic to the Breeding Centre Goldau, Switzerland on the 12th of July. BG 156154155 was transferred from Almaty Zoo, Kazakhstan to the VBU, Austria on 7th of September. BG 297086104 was transported from VBU, Austria to Breeding Centre Haute Savoie, France on the 19th of September. BG 227011054 was transported from Ostrava Zoo, Czech Republik to Vogelpark Walsrode, Germany on the 7th of November 2004. BG 233122118 was transferred from Vogelpark Walsrode, Germany to Ostrava Zoo, Czech Republik on 8th of November 2004. BG 436180274 and BG 437180274 were transferred from Breeding Centre Goldau, Switzerland to the VBU, Austria on the 25th of November.

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INCREASES BG 115019021, Marie Antoinette, female, released on 1st of June 1989 in Haute Savoie, France, Panorama View of the Breeding Centre Haute Savoie - the new home of BG 115 Photo: Marie Zimmermann, ASTERS, France was recaptured on the 19th of May 2004 in Val d´Isere, Nationalpark Vanoise, France, because of an injured wing. After some months in a rehabilitation centre in france, the bird was transferred to the Bearded Vulture Breeding Centre of ASTERS in Haute Savoie, to be paired with male BG 297086104 from the VBU. BG 444080081, the male Toto, released on 1st of June 2004 in Kals, Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, Austria, was recaptured being too accustomed to humans and human buildings in Eastern Tyrol. The bird was transferred to the VBU on 28th of December 2004 (see page 57).

DEATHS * Male BG 086010014 died in the VBU, Austria, on the 31th of March 2004 with an age of 18 years. BG 086 hatched in the VBU without any problems or human help on 9th of Februar 1986. With an age of eight days the nestling was transferred to pair BG 002 x BG 003 to be reared, which happened without any problem. In November, BG 086 was transferred into a facility together with BG 071002003, a female hatched in 1984. Both birds, although very young, harmonized extremely well. In 1987, they liked to sit close to each other, to groom each others plumage and even started to build a nest in winter. A very early pair bonding was observed. In 1988, the young pair still harmonized very well and again built at the nest. BG 086 behaves rather familiar towards the keeper and regularly showed threat display at the fence of the aviary. On 17th of November 1989, female BG 071002003 had to be sent to Nuremberg Zoo, Germany, as a replacement for BG 011002003. So this young pair unfortunately had to be separated. BG 086 was transferred to another facility two days earlier, to female BG 104030026 (hatched in the VBU in 1988). Also in this case, a harmonic pair bond was formed rather quickly. In the course of 1990, the pair bond between these two young vultures deepened further and both settled in the new aviary rather well. BG 086 still behaved aggressive towards the keeper and tried to start a number of fights with the neighbouring BG 016, the imprinted male Mr. President (Annual Report 2000, p. 10-11) and his human partner at the fence of the facilities. The birds carried around a lot of nesting material but real nest building was not observed. In 1991, BG 086 has moulted nearly completely into adult plumage. The pair still harmonized very well. The same was observed in 1992. * The data on the whereabouts of the released offspring of the dead birds were generously provided by

IBM-International Bearded Vultue Monitoring NP Hohe Tauern - R.ZINK/EGS, A.S.T.E.R.S, PN Alpi Marittime, PN Stelvio, PN Vanoise, Stiftung Pro Bartgeier

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On 24th of January of 1993, first copulations were heared but no clutch was produced. Also in 1994, copulations were heared but again no egg was laid. The keeper constructed and renovated the eyrie, the birds themselves did not build a lot but still stayed together in great harmony. On 14th of February 1995, the first egg of this pair was laid. In the morning of this day, the female (then seven years old) was very busy working on wool in the nest and was not distracted from working in the through by activities of the keeper (feeding). Both adults brooded intensively. BG 234 hatched on the 9th of April in an incubator. BG 086 carried a huge amount of nesting material to the eyrie in the course of September, first copulations were observed as from October. Two eggs were laid in 1996, BG 265 and BG 267 hatched on the 15th and 20th of March respectively. Both nestlings died approx. 14 days after hatching. In 1997, again two eggs were laid, both hatched (BG 283 and BG 285) on the 18th and 24th of March respectively. In 1998, again two eggs were laid. BG 297 hatched on 8th of March, the second egg proved to be infertile. BG 297 hatched in an incubator but the pair, still being in reproductive mood, recieved BG 294017070 as foster nestling. The female BG 104 immediately started to feed but was a little bit too inexperienced (food dropped to the ground instead into the beak of the young, female left the eyrie with the screaming baby but returned immediately). So BG 294 was replaced by BG 292199107, which was three days older. The adoption of this young by the pair BG 086 x BG 104 worked very well and both adults eagerly participated in rearing the young bird. As in the years before also in 1999, two eggs were laid: BG 319 hatched on the 24th of February, BG 324 on the 2nd of March. The latter was rather weak for the first week of life but recovered and was successfully reared by foster parents (BG 201 x BG 044), while BG 086 and his mate reared BG 312011054, coming from Breeding Centre Haute Savoie, France. On 16th of March, BG 313009006 was added to the eyrie, which had to be divided by a beam. The raising of both nestlings happened without any problems. In 2000, again two eggs hatched (BG 352 on the 24th of February and BG 357 on the 3rd of March). The latter needed human help during hatching and was a rather weak bird but recovered after six days. In this year, the pair again reared two nestlings in the divided nest site (BG 349009006 and BG 350009006). Their own offspring were reared by foster pairs. Also in 2001, two nestlings hatched (BG 370 on the 16th of February and BG 373 on the 21st of February). The latter, again, proved to be very weak for the first 7 days of life and needed human help during hatching. The pair had abandoned brooding on the 12th of February, no foster nestlings were reared in 2001. As usual, two offspring hatched in 2002: BG 393 on the 2nd of March and BG 396 on the 9th of March. Unfortunately, the latter died during hatching. In 2003, again two eggs were laid, but only one hatched (BG 417 on the 27th of February in the nest of its parents), the other had died during incubation. Unfortunately, BG 417 was found dead six days after hatching. The small carcass gave a weak impression, although food was stored at the eyrie. On 1st of March it had seemed to be well fed and content. In October, BG 086 had fierce fightings at the fence with the male of the neighbouring aviary and from 2nd week of November on, BG 086 gave a rather sick impression. He rested at the feeding place, fed, showed threat behaviour but did not fly away or move. A close examination on 12th of November at the Veterinary Medical University of Vienna revealed nothing but the bird did not recover. On 12th of December he had to be separated from his female as she started to fiercly attack him. He fed well but seemed to be sick. In January he lost all primaries at the left wing, but recovered, was more active and also built at a nest. In the morning of 30th of March, BG 086 was found dead. Diagnosis: myocarditis, may be coming from a chronic sanious arthritis of the left carpal bones. In all, BG 086 had 15 young, five of which died as nestlings, six were released and four remained in the breeding network: BG 234086104, female, hatched on the 9th of April 1995 is kept in Antwerp Zoo, Belgium since 26th of May 1996.

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2004

BG 265086104, hatched on the 15th of March 1996 but died on 28th of March from an umbilical infection. BG 267086104 hatched on the 20th of March 1996 but died on 2nd of April from an overall bacterial infection (umbilical?). BG 283086104, male, hatched on the 18th of March 1997. The bird was released as „Tell“ in Swiss Nationalpark Engadine on the 20th of June. „Tell“ was last seen in Samnaun, Italy, on the 23rd of December 2003. From 1999 to 2002 he and his sister BG 285 formed PAIR SINESTRA in Switzerland. For more insight in „Tell´s“ life see AR 1999, p. 46; AR 2000, p. 44-45; AR 2001, p. 46-47; AR 2002, p. 47-49; AR 2003, p. 50. BG 285086104, female, hatched on the 24th of March 1997 with some human help. On 3rd of April, the nestling was transferred to Alpenzoo Innsbruck, Austria, to be raised by the foster pair BG 019 x BG 021. The bird, „Sina“, was transferred to Swiss NP Engadine on 19th of June to be released with her sibling BG 283. The last observation of „Sina“ was made in Ramosch, Switzerland on 9th of February 2003. For more insight in „Sina´s“ life see AR 1999, p. 46; AR 2000, p. 44-45; AR 2001, p. 46-47; AR 2002, p. 47-49; AR 2003, p. 50. BG 297086104, male, hatched on the 8th of March 1998. On 9th of December 1998, BG 297 was transferred to Vogelpark Walsrode, Germany to be partner of BG 300080081, hatched in Hannover Zoo, Germany. On 14th of February 2002, both birds were transported to Wildpark Luneburger Heide, Germany. After the death of BG 300 on 2nd of June 2002, BG 297 returned to the VBU, Austria on 29th of September 2002. On 19th of September 2004, BG 297 was transferred to the Breeding centre Haute Savoie, France, to be the partner of BG 115019021, „Marie Antoinette“ (see p. 10). BG 319086104, female, hatched on the 24th of February 1998. On the 23rd of December it was transferred to Tel Aviv University Zoo, Israel to be paired with BG 326080081. BG 324086104, male, hatched on the 2nd of March 1999. For the first seven days of life it was a rather weak bird and did not develop well. From 8th day on, it developed normally. Nevertheless, the bird died on 18th of August 1999 from Aspergillosis. BG 352086104, female hatched on the 24th of February 2000 and was transferred to Jerez Zoo, Spain, together with male BG 351017070 on the 16th of November 2000. BG 357086104, female, hatched with human help on the 3rd of March 2000. This was bird was released as „Retia“ in Martell valley, NP Stelvio, Italy on the 3rd of June 2000. BG 370086104, female, hatched on the 16th of February 2001 and was released as „Roure“ in NP Mercantour, France on the 15th of May 2001. BG 373086104, female, hatched with a little human help on the 21st of February 2001 and was released as „Christa“ in NP Hohe Tauern, Austria on the 23rd of May 2001. BG 393086104, female, hatched on the 2nd of March 2002 and was released as „Stift“ in NP Stelvio, Italy on the 1st of June 2002. BG 396086104 hatched on the 9th of March 2002. This bird died during hatching. BG 417086104 hatched on the 25th of February 2002 and died in the nest of its parents on 5th of March 2002.

Special thanks go to all collaborators of the breeding network of the EEP and those of the Reintroduction Project, who helped entirely benevolently.

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2004

Breeding Network

13

Table 3. EEP Stock in December 2004 No (m/f)

LOCATION

Age

Age

m

f

PARENTAGE {m/f}/{m/f}

GENERATION m/f

310/157

Almaty

11

30

wildcaught/{154/155}

parent/F1

159/270

Almaty

25

25

wildcaught/wildcaught

parent/parent

/432

Almaty

6

/wildcaught

/parent

347/

Almaty

6

wildcaught/

parent/

handraised/

058/234

Antwerp Zoo

23

10

{019/021}/{086/104}

F1/F2

294/292

Berlin Friedrichsfelde

7

7

{017/070}/{199/107}

F1/F1

298/320

Berlin Zoo

7

6

{122/118}/{018/272}

F2/F2

148/142

Bern

14

14

{019/021}/{009/041}

F1/(F1/F2)

286/153

CCG

?

?

wildcaught/wildcaught

parent/parent

124/041

CCG

15

25*

{131/132}/{034/035}

F1/F1

362/278

CCG

5

8

{080/081}/{065/074}

F2/(F1/F2)

337/317

CCG

6

6

{201/044}/{017/070}

(F1/F2)/F2

313/330

CCG

6

6

{009/006}/{108/119}

(F1/F2)/(F3/F2)

172/290

CCG

13

7

{031/006}/{134/135}

(F1/F2)/F1

232/329

CCG

?

6

wildcaught/{043/040}

parent/F2

/103

CCG

17

/{065/040}

217/ /360

CCG

11*

CCG

{051/049}/ 5

* handraised

/(F1/F2) F2/

* handraised

/{018/272}

/F2

368/

CCG

5*

{159/270}/

F1/

371/

CCG

4

{105/178}/

(F2/F1)/

391/

CCG

3

{124/041}/

F2/

223/132

CCG

10

38

{014/010}/wildcaught

F1/parent

410/412

CCG

2

2

{286/153}/wildcaught

F1/parent

340/338

Chomutov

6

{018/272}/{134/135}

(F2/F1)/F 1

160/

6

{154/155}/

* handraised

Faucounery du Puy

23

145/091

Goldau

14

19

{131/132}/{005/006}

F1/F2

060/276

Goldau

22

8

{034/035}/{199/107}

F1/(F1/F2)

174/118

Goldau

13

16

{134/135}/{154/155}

F1/F1

046/

Grünau

25

{022/023}/

REMARKS

F1/

F1/

handraised

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14

Breeding Network

No (m/f)

LOCATION

2004

Age

Age

m

f

PARENTAGE {m/f}/{m/f}

GENERATION m/f

080/081

Hannover

20

20

{019/021}/{004/027}

F1/F1

087/054

Haute-Savoie

19

23

{014/010}/{034/035}

F1/F1

297/115

Haute-Savoie

7

15

{086/104}/{019/021}

F1/F1

179/281

Helsinki

24

8

{154/155}/{131/132}

F1/F1

202/

Hochlehnert

17

203/218

Hochlehnert

15

11

{150/151}/{080/081}

F1/F2

019/021

Innsbruck

39

39

wildcaught/wildcaught

parent/parent

351/352

Jerez

5

5

034/130

La Garenne

35

14

wildcaught/{150/151}

parent/F1

180/274

Liberec

20

14

{161/162}/wildcaught

F1/parent

394/397

Liberec

3

3

{034/130}/{201/044}

(F1/F2/(F1/F2

161/125

Moscow

36

15

wildcaught/{009/041}

parent/(F1/F2)

342

Moscow

6

6

{159/270}

F1

018/272

Nuremberg

26

20

{019/021}/{161/162}

F1/F1

325/322

Ostrava

6

6

{017/070}/{152/153}

F2/F1

207/233

Ostrava

11

10

{017/070}/{122/118}

F2/F2

134/135

Prague

36

36

wildcaught/wildcaught

parent/parent

328/336

Poznan

6

6

{080/081}/{201/044}

F2/(F1/F2)

4

/{159/270}

/381

Riga

{150/151}/

{017/070}/{086/104}

F1

handraised

F2/F2

both handraised

/F1

San Diego

24*

11

{034/035}/{150/151}

F1/F1

129/212

Stuttgart

15

11

{051/049}/{152/153}

F2/F1

201/044

Schönbrunn, Vienna

17

25

wildcaught/{002/003}

parent/F1

/319

Tallin

5

Tel Aviv, Univ.

wildcaught/

parent/

handraised

/{086/104}

/F2

031/003

VBU

45

43

wildcaught/wildcaught

parent/parent

014/133

VBU

38

16

wildcaught/{134/135}

parent/F1

009/006

VBU

33

27

wildcaught/{019/020}

parent/F1

065/ 204/

VBU

33 ?

199/107

VBU

?

17

wildcaught/{150/151}

handraised * handraised

6

wildcaught/ wildcaught

both handraised

handraised

047/209

431/

REMARKS

parent/ parent parent/F1

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2004 No (m/f)

Breeding Network LOCATION

15

Age

Age

m

f

PARENTAGE {m/f}/{m/f}

GENERATION m/f

26

21

{019/021}/{022/023}

F1/F1

17

/{030/026}

017/070

VBU

/104

VBU

105/178

VBU

17

32

{161/162}/wildcaught

F1/parent

108/175

VBU

16

13

{065/040}/{152/153}

(F1/F2)/F1

/137

VBU

20

/{154/155}

/F1

327/314

VBU

6

6

{105/178}/{009/006}

(F2/F1)/(F1/F2)

376/

VBU

4

{180/274}|

F2/F1/

/389

VBU

3

/F1

/{199/197}

/{F1/F2}

399/

VBU

3

{159/270}|

F1/

414/

VBU

2

{105/178}/

F2/F1/

/436

VBU

1

/{180/274}

/F1/F2

437/

VBU

1

{180274}/

F1/F2/

444/

VBU

1

{080081}/

F2/

190/227

Walsrode

12

10

{152/153}/{011/054}

F1/F2

076/303

Wassenaar

20

7

{022/023}/{009/006}

F1/{F1/F2}

043/040

Wuppertal

25*

25

{019/021}/{034/035}

F1/F1

BG 444, Toto, in the VBU

Photo: KARL HOFBAUER - HÖFER, AUSTRIA

REMARKS

* handraised

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16

Seite 18

Breeding Network 228

236

237

246

249

257

250

242

2004

053

061

068

079

085

097

251

055

063

069

082

090

252

057

243

073

083

253

120

141

171

098

221

248

176

235

247

177

254

187 198 222

Drawing: Ueli Iff, Switzerlanmd

255

Table 4: Reproduction between 1978 and 2004 4.9.1 244 133

6.2.1

119

5.6

6.5

6.4

118

203

149

5.4.1

202

11 7

130

148

175

046

163

3.3

180

3.3

2.3.1

105

11 4

127

145

172

045

052

074

137

091

256

104

11 3

126

144

170

3.0.1

044

051

072

081

089

096

103

11 2

125

143

169

241

043

050

2.1

2.1

071

080

088

095

1 0 2 111

124

142

168

1.1

018

042

049

058

064

070

078

087

094

1 0 1 11 0

123

140

167

006

017

041

048

056

062

067

077

086

093

100 109

122

139

166

005

011

040

047

054

060

066

076

084

092

099

108 1 2 1

138

165 1992

173

1991

146

1990

128

1989

1 0 6 11 5

1988

272

1987

164

1986

160

1985

174

1984

147

1983

129

1982

11 6

1981

107

1980

3.4.1

1979

179

1978

4.4

5 (1)

8 (3)

9 (5)

10 (4)

10 (4)

9 (4)

12 (4)

13 (7)

13 (4)

16 (4)

17 (8)

19 (10)

19 (9)

22 (8)

22 (9)

Number of egg laying pairs (Number of successfully reproducing pairs) nnn

For breeding

n n n Released

nnn

Died as juvenile, immature or adult

n n n Released and dead or lost

nnn

Died as nestling

n.n.n male.female.sex unknown

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2004

Breeding Network

189

211

192

224

262

280

293

344

358

226

265

282

295

343

267

284

302

333

194

379

396

428

445

356

390

423

443

353

385

421 *

434

384

419

332 *

269

17

331

417

318

416

315 11.13.1 342 340 339 338 337 336 Drawing: Ueli Iff, Switzerland

8.8.1

335 330

307

329

306

328

9.6

7.6.2

7.6.1

7.7

305

327

368

408*

200

220

304

326

364

405

197

219

303

325

363

5.5.2 4 0 2

196

218

301

324

362

381

399

195

217

300

323

361

380

398

3.7

5.5

193

216

299

322

360

378 *

397

426

446

191

215

190

214

188

297

320

357

376

394

422

441

213

234

266

283

296

319

355

375

393

420

440

186

212

233

264

281

294

317

354

374

392

418

439

185

210

231

263

279

292

316

352

373

391

415

438

184

209

229

261

278

291

314

351

372

389

414

437

183

208

227

2 6 0 277 *

290

313

350

371

388

413

436

182

207

225

259

276

289

312

349

370

387

4 11

435

181

206

223

258

275

288

3 11

348

369

386

410

433 2004

285

2003

268

2002

2.5

2001

444

2000

424

1999

395

1998

377

1997

359

1996

321

1995

298

1994

2.5.1

1993

2.3.3

21 (11)

18 (12)

18 (7)

18 (6)

23 (6)

23 (13)

23 (17)

24 (11)

24 (11)

24 (11)

22 (11)

21 (10)

Number of egg laying pairs (Number of successfully reproducing pairs) nnn

stolen

nnn

given to a zoo outside the EEP

nnn * given to a commercial falconry station

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Breeding Network

2004

Table 5: Age distribution of Bearded Vultures within the breeding network as on 31 December 2004

Age in years 031 45 44 43 003

males

42

females

41 40 019

39

021

014

38

132

37 161 134 034

36

135

35 34 065 009

33 32 178 31 30 157

156

29 28 27 006

018 017 159 046 043

26 25 040 041 044 270

179 047

24

160 058

23 054

199 060

22 21 070

180 080 076

20

081 137 272

087

19

091

18

nnn

Studbooknumber

202 201 105

17

103 104 107

108

16

118 133 115

203 129 124

15

125 130

148 145

14

142 274

174 172

13

175

190

12

217 207

11

209 212 218

223

10

225 227 233 234

9 8 276 278 281 298 297 294 347 342 340 337 328 327 326 325 313 368 362 351 376 371 398 399 394 391

7 290 292 303 307 6 314 317 319 320 322 329 330 336 338 342 347 5 352 360 4 381 3 389 397 398

414 410

2

444 437

1

436

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2004

Breeding Network

19

Report on Releases in 2004 by Hans Frey *

In the year 2004, eight young Bearded Vultures were to be released, two at each of four release sites (NP Hohe Tauern, Haute Savoie, NP Argentera and Martell). These were: BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG

433 435 438 439 440 441 444 446

male female male female female female male male

born born born born born born born born

in in in in in in in in

the VBU, Austria the VBU, Austria la Garenne Zoo, Switzerland the CCG, Spain the VBU, Austria Prague Zoo, Czech Republik Hannover Zoo, Germany the Breeding Centre Goldau, Switzerland

In all, four females and four males. The studbooknumber, sex, name, ring and feather marks of the released birds are shown in FIGURE 1. Figure 1: Markings 2004.

BG 433, male, Blangíar

wing left: 4-5 tail left: 2-3

wing left: 11-12; 21-23

BG 435, female, Palanfré ring:right talon: red; left talon: black

ring:right talon: red; left talon: blue

wing left: 2-3; 13-14 tail right: 3-4

BG 438, male, Culan ring:right talon: red; left talon: gold

wing right: 14-15 tail left: 2-3

BG 439, female, Ortler ring:right talon: red; left talon: green

* Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Wien, Austria. [email protected]

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Seite 22

Release

wing right: 2-3; 12-13; 21-22

BG 440, female, Gilbert ring:right talon: red; left talon: copper

2004

wing right: 5-6 wing left: 3-4 tail left: 3-4

BG 441, female, Bella Cha ring:right talon: red; left talon: red

wing right: 4-6 tail left: 1-5

wing right: 4-5; 16-17

BG 444, male, Toto

BG 446, male, Hubertus 2

ring:right talon: red; left talon: violet

ring:right talon: red; left talon: silver

recaptured on 28th of December 2004

Bearded Vultures released in the period 1986 to 2004 Rauris, Mallnitz, Gschlöß, Gastein & Kals Between 1986 and 2004, 39 Bearded Vultures were released in the NATIONAL PARK HOHE TAUERN: 16 males, 23 females. They are the offspring of 17 different breeding pairs. One female was shot (Nina, BG 096034035, in France, at the age of seven years in 1993), one female died in an avalanche (Jackpot, BG 214034035, in Austria, being one year old in 1995), two females and one male had to be recaptured (Winnie, BG 091005006, in Austria, being one year old in 1986, Keno, BG 329043040 in 1999, some days after her first flight at the release site and Hubsi, BG 121065040, at the release site in 1990). Five birds are missing (Heinz, BG 092022023, since 1987, Ulli, BG 102002003, since 1992, Bernhard, BG 167017070, since 1992, Winfried, BG 191065040, since 1993 and Paradatsch, BG 106005006, since 1997).

Haute-Savoie 37 Bearded Vultures have been released since 1987: 15 males, 19 females and three birds of unknown sex. They derive from 18 different breeding pairs. Six males and three females died (Robespierre, BG 114002003 in its first year of life through collision with a power line in 1989, BG 147011054 and BG 377080081, Europa Life, because of illness at the nest site in 1991 and in 2001 respectively, Republic 7, BG 219065040 killed at the nest site by a fox in 1994, Danton, BG 113022023, in its seventh year of life as a result of colliding with a power line in 1996 in France, the female Mélusine, BG 093022023, in its third year, killed by an avalanche in 1989 in Switzerland and the female Republic 5, BG 182002003 shot in 1997 in Wallis, Switzerland). Another adult bird was found dead in 1997. Sex determination based on feathers of the dead bird proved that it is Republic, BG 144051049. The ring with the studbooknumber was missing, leaving only the second ring. The latter indicated only the release site of Haute-Savoie and the year of release (1991), so the examination of the feathers revealed the identity of the Bearded Vulture. An additional male, Saturnin, BG 094019021 is missing as from 1987. Recently, some evidence has come to light indicating that this bird was already shot not far from its release site in the summer of 1987. Averell, BG 140009041 was found dead in the

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2004

Release

21

Lechtal (Austria) in 2002. The reason of death still is not documented (see AR 2002, p. 64 - 65). Marie Antoinette (BG 115019021), released in 1989 and one of the partners of the trio of Val d´Isere, had to recaptured on the 19th of May. The bird was rather weak and one wing injured - it will never be re-released anymore. After some weeks of husbandry in a rehabilitation centre in Haute Savoie, BG 115 was transferred to the Breeding Centre Haute Savoie end of August. The first vulture born in the wild and named Phénix Alp Action (BGW 01) fledged successfully in Haute Savoie in 1997 followed by the second one, named Dominique (BGW 03) in 1998. Also in 1999 the pair Assignat (BG 111) x Balthazar (BG 099) bred successfully, producing BGW 05 (Rhonealp) and in 2000 BGW 06 (Reposoir). In 2001, this pair ceased brooding, in 2002 one young hatched (BGW 15, Clarins) but died falling from the rock with parts of the eyrie with an age of 2.5 months. Two additionally young fledged in Termignon (BGW14, Arpont) and Val d´Isere (BGW 16, Free Ride) in 2002. In 2003, the French pairs were not so successful, only one young fledged (BGW18, Cross-Border) in Val d´Isere on 28th of July. The „old“ breeding pair of Bargy again had a young, but this one died before fledging (BGW19). In 2004, again two offspring fledged, BGW21, Pelvio in Termignon and BGW25, Morsulaz deriving from the Bargy pair.

Engadin/Nationalpark Stelvio Between 1991 and 2004, 28 Bearded Vultures were released in the Swiss National Park and Stelvio Nationalpark: 14 males and 14 females. They are the offspring of 18 different pairs. A male (Felix, BG 193009041) was shot at the age of one year on the border between Austria and Italy in 1994. Another, Roseg, BG 374034130 disappeared short time after fledging. A young bird (Stelvio, BGW 02) was born in the wild not far from the release site, near the ItalianSwiss border in 1998. In 2000, two pairs, one in Bormio, the second in Livigno (both territories near the Italian-Swiss border) successfuly reared BGW 07 (Diana Stelvio) and BGW 08 (Livigno) respectively. In 2001 again one young was born in Bormio, BGW 09 (Stelvio 01), which successfully fledged, whereas the young of pair Livigno (BGW 10) died on the 1st of June. In 2002, three young vultures were reared in the wild: BGW 11, Moische-Livigno in Livigno, BGW 12, Zebru in Val Zebru and BGW 13, Beverin-Stelvio in Bormio. In 2003, two young were born: BGW17, Regina-Livigno, fledged on the 22nd of July in Dardaligno and BGW20, which died before flegding in Zebru. Again in 2004, three offspring became reared successfully: BGW22, Silva-Zebru in Zebru, BGW23, TommyLivigno in Livigno and BGW24, Gerry-Stelvio in Bormio.

Argentera/Mercantour Since 1993, 25 Bearded Vultures, being the offspring of ten breeding pairs, have been released: 13 (five males, seven females and one bird of unknown sex) in the Mercantour N.P. and 12 (seven males and five females) in Argentera Parco Naturale Alpi Marittime. They are the offspring of 13 different pairs. One female (Geo, BG 227011054) had to be recaptured in 1995, one male, Mounier (BG 196131132) was found dead, shot in 2000 and one female, Mercantour (BG 213031006) is missing.

TOTAL Within the framework of the Bearded Vulture Project a total of 129 young Bearded Vultures have been released into the Alps since 1986: 57 males, 68 females and 4 birds of unknown sex. They are the offspring of 33 different pairs. Five young Bearded Vultures had to be returned into the breeding network (Winnie, BG 091005006, Hubsi, BG 121065040, Geo, BG 227011054, Keno, BG 329043040, Toto, BG 444080081) and one adult (Marie Antoinette, BG 115019021). Thirteen, possibly 15, died (Mélusine, BG 093022023, Nina, BG 096034035, Danton, BG 113022023, Robespierre, BG 114002003, Averell, BG 1400090041, Republic, BG 144051049, BG 147011054, Republic 5, BG 182002003, Felix, BG 193009041, Jackpot, BG 214034035, Republic 7, BG 219065040, Saturnin, BG 094019021 {?}, Mounier, BG 196131132), EuropaLife, BG 377080081, Roseg, BG 374034130 {?}), while six are missing (Heinz, BG 092022023, Ulli, BG 102002003, Paradatsch, BG 106005006, Bernhard, BG 167017070, Winfried, BG 191065040, Mercantour, BG 213031006). At present at least 90 Bearded Vultures are living in the wild.

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Site RAURIS 1986

1987 1988

1989

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

BG 084 022 023 BG 088 019 021 BG 089 019 021 BG 091 005 019 020/006 019 020 BG 092 022 023 BG 096 034 035 BG 100 019 021 BG 102 002 003 BG 106 005 019 020/006 019 020 BG 109 065/040 034 035 BG 110 002 003 BG 112 019 021 BG 117 017 019 021/070 022 023 BG 121 065/040 034 035 BG 123 002 003 BG 138 065/040 034 035 BG 139 065/040 034 035 BG 167 017 019 021/070 022 023 BG 168 150 151 BG 183 002 003 BG 191 065/040 034 035 BG 208 002 003 BG 214 034 035 no release took place BG 260 019 021 BG 261 150 151 no release took place BG 291 019 021 BG 296 199 107 150 151 BG 316 019 021 BG 329 043 019 021/040 034 035

Hans Fritz Ellen Winnie Heinz Nina Alexa Ulli Paradatsch Karl Joey Colleen Baselisk Hubertus Lotte Nicola Diana Bernhard Fulvio Helmut Winfried Hans Rupert Jackpot

m f f f recaptured m lost f shot f m lost f lost f m f f m recaptured f f f m lost m m m lost f f dead

Wassenaar Alpenzoo Innsbruck Alpenzoo Innsbruck Grünau Wassenaar La Garenne Zoo Alpenzoo Innsbruck Vienna Breeding Unit Grünau Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Alpenzoo Innsbruck Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Berlin Friedrichsfelde Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit La Garenne Zoo

Andreas Hofer Marga

f f

Alpenzoo Innsbruck Berlin Friedrichsfelde

Daniel Jackpot 3 Zonta Keno

m m f f recaptured

Alpenzoo Innsbruck Vienna Breeding Unit Alpenzoo Innsbruck Wuppertal Zoo

TOTAL 1986 - 1999

29

11.18

Site MALLNITZ 2000 2003

BG 350 009/006 019 021 BG 355 034/130 150 151 BG 420 124 131 132/041 034 035 BG 422 080 019 021/ 081 004 027

TOTAL 2003

Bingo Georg Joker Kasati

f m f m

4

Vienna Breeding Unit La Garenne Centro de Cria Guadalentin Hannover Zoo

2.2

Site GSCHLÖß 2001

BG 372 017 019 021/070 022 023 BG 373 086 010 014/104 030 026

TOTAL 2001

El Dorado Christa

2

f f

Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit

0.2

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Release

23

Site GASTEIN 2002

BG 387 134 135 BG 392 017 019 021/070 022 023

TOTAL 2003

Franz Ambo

m f

Prague Vienna Breeding Unit

2

1.1

Site KALS 2004

BG 444 080 019 021/ 081 004 027 BG 446 174 134 135/118 154 155

TOTAL 2004

Toto Hubertus 2

m m

recaptured

2

TOTAL 1986 - 2004

Hannover Zoo Breeding Centre Goldau

2.0

39

16.23

Site HAUTE-SAVOIE 1987

1988 1989

1990 1991

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

1999 2000 2001

BG 093 022 023 BG 094 019 021 BG 095 019 021 BG 099 022 023 BG 101 019 021 BG 111 034 035 BG 113 022 023 BG 114 002 003 BG 115 019 021 BG 116 005 019 020/006 019 020 BG 126 017 019 021/070 022 023 BG 127 017 019 021/070 022 023 BG 140 009/041 034 035 BG 144 051 002 003/049 019 021 BG 147 011 002 003/054 034 035 BG 165 011 002 003/054 034 035 BG 166 009/041 034 035 BG 181 011 002 003/054 034 035 BG 182 002 003 BG 216 009/041 034 035 BG 219 065/040 034 035 no release took place BG 258 011 002 003/054 034 035 BG 259 150 151 no release took place BG 288 011 002 003/054 034 035 BG 289 019 021

Mélusine Saturnin Marie Paradis Balthazar Melchior Assignat Danton Robespierre Marie-Antoinette Charlotte Yvan Robin Averell Republic Republic 2 Republic 3 Republic 4 Republic 5 Republic 6 Republic 7

f dead m lost (dead?) f m m f m dead m dead f recaptured f f f m dead f dead m dead ? m f f shot f m dead

Wassenaar Alpenzoo Innsbruck Alpenzoo Innsbruck Wassenaar Alpenzoo Innsbruck La Garenne Zoo Wassenaar Vienna Breeding Unit Alpenzoo Innsbruck Wildpark Grünau Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Dortmund Zoo

Republic 8 Republic 9

f ?

Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie

Berlin Friedrichsfelde

Republic 11 Crystal

f f

Alpenzoo Innsbruck

BG BG BG BG BG BG

Republic 13 Doran Pablo Montblanc EuropaLife Natura Mate

m m m m m f

Dortmund Zoo Prague Zoo Hannover Zoo Hannover Zoo Wuppertal Zoo

335 339 359 361 377 380

087 014 010/173 051 049 051 002 003/151 134 135 080 019 021/081 004 027 080 019 021/081 004 027 043 019 021/040 034 035

Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie

Vienna Breeding Unit Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie

Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit

Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie

Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie

dead

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Site HAUTE-SAVOIE 2002 2003 2004

BG BG BG BG BG BG

402 108 065 040/175 152 153 405 180 161 162/274 415 017 019 021/070 022 023 418 199/107 150 151 440 199/107 150 151 441 134 135

TOTAL 1987 - 2004

Life Aravis Sadri Transalpaete Gilbert Bella Cha

m m f f f f

37

Vienna Breeding Liberec Zoo Vienna Breeding Vienna Breeding Vienna Breeding Prague Zoo

Unit Unit Unit Unit

15.19.3

Site ENGADIN 1991

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

BG 143 002 003 BG 146 017 019 021/070 022 023 BG 149 150 151 BG 169 017 019 021/070 022 023 BG 170 060 034 035/074 004 027 BG 186 051 002 003/049 019 021 BG 193 009/041 034 035 BG 210 051 002 003/049 019 021 BG 220 048 034 035/045 002 003 no release took place BG 263 060 034 035/003 BG 264 131 132 BG 283 086 014 010/104 030 026 BG 285 086 014 010/104 030 026 BG 299 034/130 150 151 BG 301 080 019 021/081 004 027 BG 321 034/130 150151 BG 323 043 019 021/040 034 035 BG 363 172 031 006/091 005 006 BG 364 019 021 BG 374 034/130 150 151 BG 375 199/107 150 151 no release took place BG 424 122 010 014/118 154 155 no release took place

Settschient Moische Margunet Jo Ivraina Cic Felix Pisoc Valimosch

m f m f f m m shot m m

Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Berlin Friedrichsfelde Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Dortmund Zoo Vienna Breeding Unit Dortmund Zoo Tel Aviv Zoo

Berna Mauritio Tell Sina Gildo Diana-Valais Veronika Sempach Christelle Louis Roseg Felice

m m m f f m f f f m m lost (dead?) f

Vienna Breeding Unit Dresden Zoo Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit La Garenne Zoo Hannover Zoo La Garenne Zoo Wuppertal Zoo Breeding Centre Goldau Alpenzoo Innsbruck La Garenne Zoo Vienna Breeding Unit

Thuri

Breeding Centre Goldau

TOTAL 1991 - 2004

22

12.10

Site MARTELL 2000 2002 2004

BG 354 134 135 BG 357 086 010 014/ 104 030 026 BG 393 086 010 014/ 104 030 026 BG 395 122 010 014/ 118 154 155 BG 438 034/130 150151 BG 439 124 131 132/041 034 035

TOTAL 2000 - 2004

Interreg Rätia Stift Martell Culan Ortler

6

m f f f m f

Prague Zoo Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit Breeding Centre Goldau La Garenne Zoo Centro de Cria Guadalentin

2.4

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Site MERCANTOUR 1993

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

BG 195 060 034 035/074 004 027 BG 196 131 132 BG 197 131 132 no release took place BG 227 011 002 003/054 034 035 BG 229 051 002 003/049 019 021 no release took place BG 275 018 019 021/272 161 162 BG 279 152 153 no release took place BG 311 011 002 003/054 034 035 BG 312 011 002 003/054 034 035 no release took place BG 369 009/006 019 020 BG 370 086 010 014/ 104 030 026 no release took place BG 411 180 161 162/274 BG 413 180 161 162/274 no release took place

Argentera Mounier Florent

f m dead m (?) *

Vienna Breeding Unit Dresden Zoo Dresden Zoo

Geo Firmin

f recaptured m

Dortmund Zoo

Pelat Gelas

m f

Nuremberg Zoo Berlin Friedrichsfelde

Roubion Péone

m f

Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie

Larche Roure

m f

Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit

Guillaumes Jausiers

f f

Liberec Zoo Liberec Zoo

TOTAL 1993 - 2004

13

Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie

5.7.1

Site ARGENTERA 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

BG 213 031/006 019 020 BG 215 131 132 no release took place BG 266 017 019 021/070 022 023 BG 268 131 132 no release took place BG 304 152 153 BG 305 152 153 no release took place BG 348 011 002 003/054 034 035 BG 349 009/006 019 020 no release took place BG 386 199/ 107150 151 BG 388 017 019 021/070 022 023 no release took place BG 433 108 065 040/175 152 153 BG 435 108 065 040/175 152 153

Mercantour Topolino

f lost m

Vienna Breeding Unit Dresden Zoo

Entrague Valdieri

m f

Vienna Breeding Unit Dresden Zoo

Aisone Vernante

m m

Berlin Friedrichsfelde Berlin Friedrichsfelde

Sereno Ciabri

m f

Breeding Centre Haute-Savoie

Vienna Breeding Unit

Alpidoc Paolo Peila

f m

Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit

Blangiar Palanfré

m f

Vienna Breeding Unit Vienna Breeding Unit

TOTAL 1994 - 2004

12

m (?) */f (?) * = sex assumed according only to the body size.

7.5

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Age distribution of released Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) as on 31 December 2004

year

male

2004

age

446 444* 438

No of released birds

female

433

1

435

439

440

441

422

2

411

413

415

418

388

387

3

386

392

393

395

374 377

369

4

370

372

373

375

355

354

348

5

349

350

357

363

339

335

311

6

312

316

321

323 329*

301

296

291

7

288

289

299

283

275

8

279

285

2 6 4 263

259

9

258

259

229

10

227*

210

11

208

2 1 3 2 1 4 216

8

1 9 6 1 9 3 1 9 1 1 8 6 183

12

181

1 8 2 195

9

1992

168

165

13

165

1 6 9 170

6

1991

149 147 143 140

14

138

139 144 146

8

1990

121*

15

123

126

127

4

112

2003 2002

405

2001 2000

364

361

359

1999 305

1998

304

402

1997 266

1996 1995

220 2 1 9

1994 1993

197

215

1 6 7 166

8 420

424

7 8

380

8 10 8 8 4

260

261

268

8 2

197

1989

11 4 11 3

110

16

109

111

1988

1 0 2 101

099

17

100

106

1987

094 092

18

0 9 3 095

1986

084

19

088

Total

61

72

undetermined

(4)

(4)

dead

8

5

recaptured

2

3

maturity

nnn

lost

nnn

sex not determined

breeding pairs

nnn

dead

nnn*

recaptured

nnn

115

116

117

9 5

096

5

089 091*

4

129

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Report on the release in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Kals 2004

by Michael Knollseisen* & Robert Eksic **

In the course of the project for the reintroduction of the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) into the Alps, two young Bearded Vultures (BG 372017070, El Dorado and BG 373086104, Christa) were released in the Tyrol part of the Nationalpark Hohe Tauern for the first time in 2001 (see Annual Report 2001, p. 26-27). In 2004, the release was transferred from Matrei to Kals with the aim to integrate other municipalities into the project and to rise public interest. Relating to the area, Kals am Großglockner is the second largest Nationalpark- community in Eastern Tyrol. Beside Heiligenblut, Kals is an important starting point for the ascent of the highest mountain of Austria, the Großglockner (3798m). Due to intense preparation, the hunter association of Kals, landowners and the municipality could be attained as project partners. Despite heavy rainfall, about 500 visitors accompanied the young Bearded Vultures Toto (BG 444, born in Hannover Zoo/Germany) and Hubertus 2 (BG 446, born in the Breeding Centre Goldau/CH) on the 2nd of July to their release. Toto was sponsored by the AUSTRIAN LOTTERIES, Hubertus 2 by the TYROLEAN HUNTER ASSOCIATION. The birds were placed into a little cave, situated at 2170 m altitude, underneath the Figerhorn in the Kalser Ködnitztal (12o 41´/ 47o 01´). On the hiking trail through the Ködnitztal, the Nationalpark Hohe Tauern erected in cooperation with the project partners EGS Austria and the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, a Bearded Vulture observation- and information stand, which attracted 25.000 visitors during the summer, until the beginning of October. From the release on, the behaviour patterns of the two young birds were recorded in order to reco-

TOTO BG 444, male, born on 30th of March 2004 born at Hannover Zoo (BG 080019021 x BG 081004027) feather marks: right wing 4 to 5; 16 to 17 rings: right red, left violet recaptured on 28th of December 2004

HUBERTUS 2 BG 446, male, born on 4th of April 2004 born at Breeding Centre Goldau (BG 174134135 x BG118154155) feather marks: right wing 4 to 6 left tail 1 to 5 rings: right red, left silver

* EGS Österreich, Untertauern 3, A-9844 Heiligenblut, Austria, [email protected] ** Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, Nationalparkverwaltung, Kirchplatz 2, A-9971 Matrei , Austria

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gnise any kind of developmental irregularity, and to compare the behaviour of Toto and Hubertus 2 with the one of earlier released Bearded Vultures. In the cave, feeding took place until the bird's first flight, which Toto started on the 26th of July, and Hubertus 2 on the 6th of August. Afterwards, food (sheep bones and remains of game) was distributed over an ever expanding area in order to stimulate the young birds to an active search for food. The bones were put in ditches with avalanche debris, as naturally, crashed down animals are often found in such places. Some cable yardings, erected for supplying the mountain huts on the Großglockner, turned out to put no severe risk on the two young birds during the first weeks after release. Hopefully, the early contact with those, for large raptors highly dangerous, cable yardings, will help the young birds to securely circle through the wired Alps. A more severe disturbance factor turned out to be the heavy helicopter traffic, which was necessary for construction works at the Erzherzog Johann Hütte. In the beginning, the two young birds were freaked out; they almost completely stopped their flying activities, and consequently had trouble in finding enough food. Luckily, due to bad weather conditions on the Großglockner, the helicopters had to limit their flights during the critical developmental stage of the young vultures (the first weeks after their first flight). Concerning the helicopter routes, a compromise could be achieved between the helicopter team and the Bearded Vulture team. But because of a lack of necessary laws, the direct surroundings of the release site could not be sufficiently secured. As the summer passed, a certain kind of habituation of the young birds to flying objects could be noticed. Four weeks after their first flight, Toto and Hubertus 2 began to explore the further surroundings of the release site. Again and again, they were observed finding their food independently. Therefore, parallel to the development of their ability to find food themselves, feeding was reduced stepwise, and stopped by the end of September. Due to numerous visitors in the Ködnitztal, and consequently many publications about the Bearded Vulture project in local press, public interest in the development of the two young birds was high. So, with the aid of various observation reports, Toto and Hubertus 2 could be pursued on their way through the Hohe Tauern during the last weeks. Until the beginning of November, Toto was still regularly seen in Kals, whereas Hubertus 2 is observed in the eastern Tauern (60 km from Kals). In November Toto started to travel around eastern Tyrol, several time togheter with Joker (BG 420124041, Mallnitz 2003). As the capture of Culan, BG 438034130 (satellite telemetry experiment NP Stilfser Joch) failed, some attempts were made in cooperation with the Stiftung Pro Bartgeier (CH) in order to catch, and to affix a radio transmitter to Toto, from the end of August on. But because of the short preparation time, this telemetry experiment was stopped after a few weeks.

Report on the release at the Haute Savoie site in 2004 by Marie Zimmermann *, Patrick Gardet * & Jérôme Déthes *

Under a cloudy day the two birds, Gilbert (BG 440199107) and Bella Cha (BG 441134135) have been released the 2nd of June 2004 on the Doran site in Haute-Savoy. Numbers of Bearded Vulture's friends were present: GILBERT AMIGUES, the French Ministry, the Rhône-Alps Region, the HauteSavoy department, observers, climbers, paragliders, hunters… Bella Cha is a female, born on the 4th of March 2004 in the Prague Zoo, Czech Republic. She is named after a mountain next to the release site. She flew for the first time on 28th of June with an age of 117 days. Gilbert is a female too, born on 4th of March 2004 in the Vienna Breeding Unit. She is named in honour to GILBERT AMIGUES, at the origin of the reintroduction's idea. She undertook her first flight on 3rd of July with an age of 122 days. * ASTERS, 278 avenue de Saint-Martin, 74700 Sallanches, FRANCE [email protected] or [email protected]

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The birds have been followed by a trainee team who have focused on the criteria of the Monitoring protocol common in the French Alps, as the flapping wing cumulated (before the first flight), the flying time cumulated, the quality of the night roof and the relationship between the two birds and with other. Gilbert was dominant overBella Cha, which fell down the cave a few days after the release, fortunately without damage. Bella Cha was again removed to the cave at the opposite side of Gilbert, so she could feed normally and in peace. Just a few days before the first flight of Bella Cha, Gilbert got contact to her and again behaved rather dominant. Bella Cha flew away the first time (on 28th of June) after having been pushed by Gilbert. She wouldn´t fly again in the whole day. Gilbert showed good emancipation and flew by her own the 3rd of July. She was already efficient as she had a flying model (Bella Cha) and as she was older than the flying average age (122 days). After their first flight, the birds became inseparable, always Photo: JULES HEURET, France flying, feeding and perching together, no more dominant behaviour has been observed. Eight Bearded Vultures have been in contact with the released ones without aggression: the Bargy pair, Melchior (BG 101) and Assignat (BG 111), Phenix Alp Action (BGW 01) and Gildo (BG 299), the sub adults, Haute-Savoie-Mont-Blanc (BG 361), Georg (BG 355), Christelle (BG 363), and a second year immature bird: Life (BG 402). At the end of the monitoring, the two birds showed a good emancipation and we could observe attempts of breaking bones. This release season has been a success. 37 birds have been released in Haute-Savoy so far. But we observe potential disturbance by the paragliding, and motor flying over. Seven Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) were also observed during the release season.

GILBERT BG 440, female, born on 4th of March 2004 born at Vienna Breeding Unit (BG 199 x BG 107150151) feather marks: right wing 2 to 3; 12 to 13; 21 to 22 rings: right red, left copper

BELLA CHA BG 441, female, born on 4th of March 2004 born at Prague Zoo (BG 134 x BG 135) feather marks: left wing 5 to 6 right wing 3 to 4 left tail 3 to 4 rings: right red, left red

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Release in Martell Valley, Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio in 2004 by Daniel Hegglin*

On 5th of June 2004, the two Bearded Vultures Culan (BG 438, male) and Ortler 1804 (BG 439, female) were released in the Martelltal of the Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio both at an age of 98 days. Culan originates from the Zoo de la Garenne, Switzerland, and Ortler 1804 from the Centro de Cría del Guadalentín, Spain. After some aggressive interactions during the first days after the release, the juveniles interacted frequently in a friendly manner. They showed a normal behaviour and normal development. Culan fledged on 25th of June (at an age of 118 days) and Ortler 1804 on 28th June (121 days old). Two subadult, unmarked Bearded Vultures were observed at the release site. A one year old bird for a period of seven days and a two to three year old bird during one day. Mainly Ortler, but also Culan spent much time flying together with these two birds. For more information see also the article on the project «Bearded Vultures on the Move» (p. 52 - 56).

CULAN BG 438, male, born on 27th of February 2004 born at La Garenne Zoo (BG 034 x BG 130150151) feather marks: right wing 14 to 15 left tail 2 to 3 rings: right red, left gold

ORTLER BG 439, female, born on 28th of February 2004 born at Centro de Cria Guadalentin (BG 124131132 x BG 041034035) feather marks: left wing 2 to 3; 13 to 14 rigth tail 3 to 4 rings: right red, left green

Transport of Culan and Ortler to the release site in the Martelltal of the Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio. Photo: DANIEL HEGGLIN, Switzerland

* Stiftung Pro Bartgeier, 7530 Zernez & SWILD – urban ecology & wildlife research, Wuhrstr. 12, CH-8003 Zürich, Switzerland. [email protected]

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Release in the Argentera-Mercantour site in 2004, and observations from the Argentera Nature Park by Laura Martinelli * & Luca Giraudo *

In this year the PARCO NATURALE ALPI MARITTIME did a lot of work on the monitoring of the Bearded Vulture population, formed by immature, subadult and adult birds, and on the release of two new young birds. The year 2004 was important for the PARCO NATURALE ALPI MARITTIME, because it was the 10th year of release in Vallone della Barra, the site where the last eight young Bearded Vultures have been released. The field work for the release went very well, without particularly problems. The birds, called Blangiàr (BG 433) and Palanfrè (BG 435), both coming from the Vienna Breeding Unit, arrived at San Giacomo on 15th of May and were monitored from this day on until the 15th of August, by the stuff coordinated by ROBERTO TOFFOLi.

BLANGIAR BG 433, male, born on 11th of February 2004 born at Vienna Breeding Unit (BG 108065040 x BG 175152153) feather marks: left wing 4 to 5 left tail 2 to 3 rings: right red, left blue

PALANFRÉ BG 435, female, born on 17th of February 2004 born at Vienna Breeding Unit (BG 108065040 x BG 175152153) feather marks: left wing 11 to 12; 21 to 23 rings: right red, left black The two young birds developed well, which is shown as an example in FIGURE 1 & FIGURE 2 („total flight time“) as well as in FIGURE 3 („choice of roost“). Blangiàr fledged on 16th of June, at an age of 126 days, Palanfrè on 19th of June, with an age of 123 days. Blangiàr remained close to the release cave until 27th of July, while Palanfrè stayed in the surrounding until 8th of August. At the end of July Paolo Peila (BG 388; released at the same site in 2002) returned and stayed until the end of August. During the following weeks, Blangiàr was observed in Gesso Valley, in western direction in the valleys of Vermenagna and Roya and also in the East, in Tanaro Valley. At the end of this year it was detected in Maira Valley, North-West of the release site. In contrast, Palanfrè wasn’t observed anymore after the end of August. * Parco Naturale Alpi Marittime, Piazza Regina Elena n. 30, I-12010 Valdieri, Italy. [email protected]

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Release

2004 Figure 1. Cumulative flight times for Blangiar, BG 433

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Figure 2. Cumulative flight times for Palanfré, BG 435

2,50 2,00 1,50

Figure 3:

1,00

ROOST VALUATION : 0: bird sleeping in the release cave 1: access easy for a terrestrial predator 2: access difficult or very difficult for a terrestrial predator 3: bird not accessible for a terrestrial predator 4: birds not accessible for a terrestrial predator and protected against bad weather.

Blangiar Palanfrè

0,50 0,00

The monitoring in 2004, done by our Park rangers, other ornithologists and by the Osservatori Alpi Occidentali Netwok, resulted in 135 obervations, which were included into our database. At least 14 different bird could be detected: 4 adult birds 2 subadult Bearded Vultures 3 immature birds 5-9 marked young Bearded Vultures

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2004

Release

33

The following young birds were identified: Guillaumes (BG 411180274, released in Mercantour in 2003) was observed from 24th of January to 6th of March in Stura Valley and on 4th of March in Pellice Valley. Jausiers (BG 413180274, released in Mercantour in 2003) was observed in Stura and Varaita Valley from 21st of January to 29th of March. Life (BG 402108175, released in Haute Savoie in 2002) was observed from 6th of February to 15th of February in Stura Valley and on 22nd of February in Susa Valley. Paolo Peila (BG 388017070, released in Argentera in 2002) was observed from 28th of January to 23rd of December in the Valleys of Gesso, Stura and Maira. Sadri (BG 415017070, released in Haute Savoie in 2003) was observed on 12th of May in Susa Valley and Blangiàr (BG 433) was observed in Gesso Valley, in the valleys of Vermenagna and Roya, in Tanaro Valley and in Maira Valley at the end of the year (see above). The identification of the other marked young birds was rather doubtful: Thuri (BG 424122118, released in Engadine in 2003). Transalpaete (BG 418199107, released in Haute Savoie in 2003). Alpidoc-Paolo Peila (BG 386199107 - BG 388017070, released in Argentera in 2002). Martell (BG 395122118, released in Martell Valley in 2002) Roure (BG 370086104, released in Mercantour in 2001). The third field of work about the Bearded Vultures in Cuneo Province was focused on the monitoring of the wild population. During the past 4 to 5 years only a few birds were present on the „hot spots“, but on the wide territory at the same time. This monitoring work resulted in the identification of 3-4 adult, 2 subabdult and 2-3 immature vultures but, that attended the two „hot spots“ of Stura and Maira Valley. Another adult bird was observed from 21st of February to 7th of August in Gesso Valley, but was not seen during the last months. In the first site (Stura Valley), a pair was present from 1999 to 2000, but both adult birds weren´t the same during all the years and other, younger birds stayed close to them. In 2004, a trio was formed by two adult vultures and one immature bird (third winter of age), but during this time one adult disappeared (the harmony between the birds wasn’t very good anymore, in particular between the two adult partners). At the end of winter, another adult bird (maybe Valdieri BG 268131132, released in Argentera in 1996) was present close to the pairs in another little valley, but could not be observed anymore in autumn 2004. In the last two months, the pair was formed by an adult male, perhaps Firmin (BG 229051049, released in Mercantour in 1995) and one subadult, now in its fourth winter, that seems to be a female. We were not able to identify this bird up to now. A number of copulations were observed and also nest building, and we are looking foreward to a possible brooding in 2005. In Maira Valley, one adult bird was present in the past winter, together with another immature, and we observed two birds (one adult male and one subadult female in her fourth winter) in the last week of 2004. A few copulations could be observed and perhaps they are going to build a nest. Also with respect to this pair, we are curious for the next brooding season.

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Name, number, sex, place of release, wing marks and ring colours between 1986 Name Number Wing left Wing right Tail left Tail right Leg left Hans silver BG 084 Fritz BG 088 black Ellen BG 089 red Winnie BG 091 Heinz BG 092 green Melusine BG 093 Saturnin BG 094 green Marie Paradis BG 095 green Nina BG 096 Balthazar BG 099 Alexa BG 100 Melchior BG 101 Ulli BG 102 Paradatsch BG 106 Karl BG 109 gold Joey gold BG 110 Assignat BG 111 gold Colleen BG 112 gold Danton BG 113 Robespierre BG 114 Marie-Antoinette BG 115 gold Charlotte BG 116 gold Baselisk BG 117 gold Hubertus BG 121 Lotte BG 123 Yvan BG 126 Robin BG 127 Nicola blue BG 138 Diana BG 139 blue Averell BG 140 blue Settschient BG 143 blue Republic BG 144 Moische BG 146 blue xxx BG 147 Margunet BG 149 blue Republic 2 BG 165 Republic 3 BG 166 Bernhard BG 167 Fulvio BG 168 Jo BG 169 Ivraina BG 170 Republic 4 pink BG 181 Republic 5 BG 182 Helmut pink BG 183 CIC pink BG 186

2004 2004 Leg right red red red silver silver silver silver silver black black black violett violett violett violett violett violett -

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2004

Place of release Rauris, A Rauris, A Rauris, A Rauris, A Rauris, A Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Rauris, A Rauris, A Rauris, A Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Rauris, A Rauris, A Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Rauris, A Haute-Savoie, A Engadine, CH Haute-Savoie, F Engadine, CH Haute-Savoie, F Engadine, CH Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Rauris, A Engadine, A Engadine, A Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Engadine, CH

Seite 37

Release

Sex Remarks m f f f recaptured m f dead m f f dead m f m m f m? m f f m dead m dead f f f m recaptured f f f f f m m ? dead f ? dead m ? m m m f f f f dead m m -

Date of birth 14 feb 86 17 feb 86 23 feb 86 03 apr 86 10 feb 87 14 feb 87 19 feb 87 24 feb 87 04 feb 87 17 feb 88 18 feb 88 23 feb 88 23 feb 88 03 apr 88 12 feb 89 12 feb 89 01 apr 89 19 feb 89 21 feb 89 22 feb 89 27 feb 89 25 mar 89 30 mar 89 03 feb 90 20 feb 90 15 mar 90 23 mar 90 05 feb 91 12 feb 91 23 feb 91 28 feb 91 05 mar 91 13 mar 91 18 mar 91 28 feb 91 13 feb 92 21 feb 92 29 feb 92 22 feb 92 09 mar 92 09 mar 92 06 feb 93 14 feb 93 20 feb 93 02 mar 93

35

Date of release 25 may 86 25 may 86 25 may 86 06 jul 86 16 may 87 25 may 87 25 may 87 25 may 87 16 may 87 28 may 88 01 may 88 28 may 88 01 may 88 26 jun 88 17 may 89 17 may 89 11 jul 89 17 may 89 01 jun 89 01 jun 89 01 jun 89 11 jul 89 29 jun 89 24 may 90 24 may 90 01 jun 90 01 jun 90 17 may 91 17 may 91 07 jun 91 05 jun 91 07 jun 91 03 jun 91 07 jun 91 03 jun 91 27 may 92 27 may 92 31 may 92 31 may 92 04 jun 92 04 jun 92 18 may 93 18 may 93 30 may 93 04 jun 93

Date of death 30 jul 89 01 aug 93 22 apr 96 01 nov 89 10 jul 97 23 jun 91 04 nov 97 -

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Name Winfried Felix Argentera Mounier Florent Hans Rupert Pisoc Mercantour Jackpot 1 Topolino Republic 6 Republic 7 Valimosch Geo Firmin Republic 8 Republic 9 Andreas Hofer Marga Berna Mauritio Entraque Valdieri Pelat Gelas Tell Sina Phénix Republic 11 Crystal Daniel Jackpot 3 Gildo Diana Valais Aisone Vernante Stelvio Dominique Roubion Péone Zonta Veronika Sempach Keno Republic 13

Seite 38

Release

Number Wing left BG 191 BG 193 BG 195 BG 196 BG 197 BG 208 BG 210 BG 213 BG 214 BG 215 BG 216 BG 219 BG 220 BG 227 BG 229 BG 258 BG 259 BG 260 BG 261 BG 263 BG 264 BG 266 BG 268 BG 275 BG 279 BG 283 BG 285 BGW 01 BG 288 BG 289 BG 291 BG 296 BG 299 BG 301 BG 304 BG 305 BGW 02 BGW 03 BG 311 BG 312 BG 316 BG 321 BG 323 BG 329 BG 335 -

Wing right -

2004

Tail left Tail right -

Leg left pink pink pink light violet gold blue black brown green black copper red violett grey gold black blue black blue black green gold copper red violet silver gold green blue black blue black violet green gold copper

Leg right red red red red red red silver green green green green green green green green dark-copper dark-copper dark-copper dark-copper silver silver silver silver silver silver silver silver gold gold gold gold gold gold

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2004

Place of release Rauris, A Engadine, CH Mercantour, F Mercantour, F Mercantour, F Rauris, A Engadine, CH Argentera, I Rauris, A Argentera, I Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Engadine, CH Mercantour, F Mercantour, F Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Rauris, A Engadine, CH Engadine, CH Argentera, I Argentera, I Mercantour, F Mercantour, F Engadine, CH Engadine, CH Le Reposoir, F Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Rauris, A Rauris,A Engadin, CH Engadin, CH Argentera, I Argentera, I Bormio, I Le Reposoir, F Mercantour, F Mercantour, F Rauris, A Engadin, CH Engadin, CH Rauris, A Haute-Savoie, F

Release

Sex Remarks m m dead f f dead m f m f f dead m f m dead m f recaptured m f ? m f m ? m f m f m f m wild f f m m f m m m ? wild ? wild m f f f f f recaptured m -

Date of birth 07 mar 93 09 mar 93 21 mar 93 22 mar 93 28 mar 93 18 feb 94 03 mar 94 11 mar 94 15 feb 94 14 mar 94 20 mar 94 28 mar 94 27 feb 94 16 feb 95 01 mar 95 04 feb 96 24 feb 96 26 feb 96 29 feb 96 04 mar 96 08 mar 96 17 mar 96 20 mar 96 12 feb 97 04 mar 97 18 mar 97 24 mar 97 12 apr 97 28 feb 98 24 feb 98 02 mar 98 23 feb 98 13 mar 98 13 mar 98 18 mar 98 26 mar 98 08 apr 98 19 apr 98 05 feb 99 11 feb 99 19 feb 99 22 feb 99 27 feb 99 07 mar 99 19 mar 99

* the date of release for the wild born birds means the date of fledging

37

Date of release 30 may 93 04 jun 93 28 jun 93 28 jun 93 28 jun 93 14 may 94 09 jun 94 14 jun 94 14 may 94 14 jun 94 25 jun 94 25 jun 94 09 jun 94 01 jun 95 01 jun 95 12 may 96 12 may 96 27 may 96 27 may 96 07 jun 96 07 jun 96 15 jun 96 15 jun 96 22 may 97 22 may 97 20 jun 97 20 jun 97 05 aug 97 * 20 may 98 20 may 98 02 jun 98 02 jun 98 04 jun 98 04 jun 98 20 jun 98 20 jun 98 18 jul 98 * 13 aug 98 * 11 may 99 11 may 99 27 may 99 02 jun 99 02 jun 99 27 may 99 29 jun 99

Date of death 23 mar 94 11 mar 00 22 may 95 07 jul 94 -

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Release

Name

Number Doran BG 339 Rhonealp BGW 05 Sereno BG 348 Ciabri BG 349 Bingo BG 350 Interreg BG 354 Georg BG 355 Rätia BG 357 Pablo BG 359 Montblanc BG 361 Christelle BG 363 Louis BG 364 Reposoir BGW 06 Diana Stelvio BGW 07 Livigno BGW 08 Larche BG 369 Roure BG 370 El Dorado BG 372 Christa BG 373 Roseg BG 374 Felice BG 375 EuropaLife BG 377 Natura mate BG 380 Stelvio 01 BGW 09 Alpidoc BG 386 Franz BG 387 Paolo Peila BG 388 Ambo BG 392 Stift BG 393 Martell BG 395 Life BG 402 Aravis BG 405 MoischeBGW 11 Livigno Zebru

Wing left 3-4 2-3 3-4; 20-21 20-22 4-5; 14-15 -

BGW 12 BGW 13

-

BGW 14 Free-Ride BGW 16 Guillaumes BG 411 Jausiers BG 413 Sadri BG 415 Transalpae- BG 418 Joker BG 420

-

BeverinStelvio Arpont

Seite 40

3-4 23-24 5-6 4-5; 20-21

Wing right 2-3; 19-21 21-23 3-4; 20-21 12-14; 21-23 3-4; 10-11 14-16 2-3; 23-25 20-21 -

2004

Tail left Tail right 2-3 3-4 2-3 1-2 2-3 2-3 -

Leg left Leg right red gold blue blue black blue violet blue pink blue silver blue blue copper blue red blue gold blue green blue blue pink black pink violet pink silver pink gold pink green pink copper pink red pink blue black violet black black black silver black gold black green black copper black red black -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

violet violet violet violet violet

3-4 2-3 -

gold green copper red violet

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Place of release Haute-Savoie, F Le Reposoir, F Argentera, I Argentera, I Mallnitz, A Martell, I Mallnitz, A Martell, I Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Engadine, CH Engadine, CH Le Reposoir, F Bormio, I Bormio, I Mercantour, F Mercantour, F Gschlöß, A Gschlöß, A Engadine, CH Engadine, CH Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Bormio, I Argentera, I Gastein, A Argentera, A Gastein, A Martell, I Martell, I Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Livigno, I

Seite 41

Release

Sex Remarks m ? wild m f f m m f m m f m ? wild ? wild ? wild m f f f m f m dead ? ? wild f m m f f f m m ? wild

Date of birth 02 apr 99 16 apr 99 03 feb 00 07 feb 00 13 feb 00 28 feb 00 18 feb 00 03 mar 00 04 mar 00 12 mar 00 23 mar 00 12 mar 00 01 apr 00 16 mar 00 30 mar 00 05 feb 01 16 feb 01 18 feb 01 21 feb 01 23 feb 01 02 mar 01 10 mar 01 13 mar 01 06 apr 01 17 Feb 02 26 feb 02 21 feb 02 27 feb 02 02 mar 02 08 mar 02 07 apr 02 16 apr 02 24 mar 02

39

Date of release 29 jun 99 08 aug 99 * 13 may 00 13 may 00 25 may 00 03 jun 00 25 may 00 03 jun 00 14 jun 00 14 jun 00 04 jul 00 04 jul 00 26 jul 00 * 21 jul 00 * 28 jul 00 * 15 may 01 15 may 01 23 may 01 23 may 01 07 jun 01 07 jun 01 15 jun 01 15 jun 01 18 may 02 31 may 02 18 may 02 31 may 02 01 jun 02 01 jun 02 10 jul 02 10 jul 02 15 jul 02 *

Date of death 2nd jul 01 -

Zebru, I Bormio, I

? ?

wild wild

17-20 mar 02 21-25 mar 02

09 jul 02 * 07 jul 02 *

-

Termigno, F Val d´Isere, F Mercantour, F Mercantour, F Haute-Savoie, F Haute-Savoie, F Mallnitz, A

? ? f f f f f

wild wild -

01 apr 02 01 mar 02 17 feb 03 23 feb 03 25 feb 03 04 mar 03 05 mar 03

? ? 23 may 03 23 may 03 02 jun 03 02 jun 03 06 jun 03

-

* the date of release for the wild born birds means the date of fledging

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Name Kasati Thuri ReginaLivigno CrossBorder Blangiar Palanfré Culan Ortler Gilbert

Release

Number Wing left BG 422 24-25 BG 424 21-23 BGW 17 BGW 18

Wing right 12-13 5-6 -

-

BGW 19 BGW 20 BG 433 4-5 BG 435 11-12; 21-23 BG 438 BG 439 2-3; 13-14 BG 440 -

Bella Cha Toto

BG 441 3-4 BG 444 Hubertus 2 BG 446 Pelvio BGW 21 Silva-Zebru BGW 22 Tommy BGW 23 Livigno Gerry Stelvio Morsulaz

Seite 42

-

2004

Tail left Tail right 2-3 -

Leg left Leg right silver violet blue violet -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14-15

2-3

2-3

-

blue black gold green copper

3-4

-

-

red violet silver -

2-3

2-3;12-13; 21-22 5-6 4-5; 16-17 4-6 -

-

3-4

1-5

red red red red red red red red -

BGW 24

-

-

-

-

-

-

BGW 25

-

-

-

-

-

-

BG 388 BG 386

BG 392 BG 387

BG 405 BG 402

View from below!

BG 395 BG 393

BG 413 BG 411

BG 418 BG 415

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Place of release Mallnitz, A Engadine, CH Dardaligno

Sex Remarks m f ? wild

Date of birth 08 mar 03 07 mar 03 28 mar 03

41

Date of release * Date of death 06 jun 03 07 jun 03 22 jul 03 -

Val d´Isere

?

wild

30 mar 03

28 jul 03

-

Bargy Zebru Argentera, I Argentera, I Martell, I Martell, I Doran, F

? ? m f m f f

wild wild -

04 apr 03 29 mar 03 11 feb 04 17 feb 04 28 feb 04 28 feb 04 04 mar 04

15 may 04 15 may 04 05 jun 04 05 jun 04 02 jun 04

24th apr 03 28th apr 03 -

Doran, F Kals, A Kals, A Termignon Zebru Livigno

f m m ? ? ?

02 jun 04 02 jul 04 02 jul 04 01 jul 04 05/06 jul 04 22 jul 04

-

Bormio

?

wild

15/17 mar 04

10/12 jul 04

-

Bargy

?

wild

05 apr 04

31 jul 04

04 mar 04 recaptured 30 mar 04 04 apr 04 wild 02/03 mar 04 wild 14/15 mar 04 wild 28 mar 04

-

BG 422 BG 420

BG 435 BG 424

BG 439 BG 438

BG 433

BG 441

BG 446

BG 440

Individual marks of Bearded Vultures 2002 - 2004

* the date of release for the wild born birds means the date of fledging

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Monitoring

2004

Bearded Vulture Monitoring in Engadine, Switzerland in 2004 by David Jenny *

As in the last two years, all three pairs of Nationalpark Stilfserjoch reared one offspring each. A total of 11 young fledged from these parent-birds, which mostly were released in NP Engadine, Switzerland (PAIR LIVIGNO four, PAIR BORMIO five, PAIR ZEBRU two). PAIR SINESTRA was present in 2004, but the partners of this pair did not stay continuously together. In the course of summer, a new Swiss pair formed in Val Foraz within the boarders of Swiss National Park.

Methods In the course of 2004, 113 observations were made within 201 observation hours. The hot spots of observations were Val Sinestra (71 hrs), Livigno (33 hrs), Bormio (18 hrs), Foraz (21 hrs) and Zebru (11 hrs). During the winter months, more observation time was spent in the middle Engadine (10 hrs) and in surrounding areas (39 hrs). As in former years the brood of Livigno was watched by employees of CORPO FORESTALE DI LEVIGNO AND BRAULIO and rangers of the SWISS NATIONALPARK. The observation time covered middle of February to beginning of April. The survey of the eyries of Bormio and Zebru was done selectively by staff of Corpo Forestale di Bormio. Observations, made by ordinary people, were collected in the CENTRE OF SWISS NATIONAL PARK (NATIONALPARKHAUS) and were used for pointed searches for new pairs and gave a good indication where singular birds stayed during the winter months. These "third hand" observations were added to the observations of the author. The name of the observer is given in the text. The photos were made by the author, only a few of them by other people. Their names too are given in the text. In addition to checks of the eyries in Livigno, Valle del Braulio and Valle dello Zebru, which were undertaken by employees of the Stilfserjoch Nationalpark, the author too checked on them. After fledging of the young birds, the eyries of Pair Livigno and the area below the roosts (Pair Sinestra) were checked for prey remains and moulted feathers. The latter were sent to BARBARA GAUTSCHI for analysis. R. REINALTER (Brail) added one feather, found near La Serra (Zernez) for examinations.

Results Winter 2003/2004 Winter 2003/2004 accorded to the usual mean values (with respect to the amount of snow). But the mean temperature values (December to February) were much lower than the values of the past three years (-7.2°C vs. -2.3°C). Thus, the higher altitudes were much later free of snow. Snow melted not earlier than at the end of April in the bottom parts of valleys (airport Samedan, Swiss Meterological Centre). The numbers of carcasses was lower than the past year, a high appearance of immature Golden Eagles and Bearded Vultures was not observed (as in the extreme winter 2000/2001; see Annual Report 2002, p. 42). REGION ZERNEZ - OVA SPIN: There were no signs of pair formation. A higher number of observations in the area of Spöl may be caused by deposed carcasses (G. DENOTH and D. CLAVUOT). In the course of winter (and until May), Martell (BG 395, released 2002) stayed in the area of Ova Spin - Zernez. On 14th January, Martell was observed near Ova - Spin, together with one unmarked, immature bird. In February, an additional adult Bearded Vulture was seen several times near La Serra, also together with Martell. Game warden G. DENOTH observed Martell and one adult bird,

* Suot Aquadotas, CH-7524 Zuoz, Schweiz, [email protected]

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which approached him and his two dogs in the middle of February. In the course of this event, Martell landed only 10m beside Mr. DENOTH. On 13th and 14th of February, one adult bird passed the street of Ofenpass. The identification of this bird is still not clear. R. REINALTER found one moulted left primary which belonged to Martell (analysis of B. GAUTSCHI). On 4th of April, two immature birds flew above Sursassa/Zernez: Martell and one unmarked vulture. They continuously attacked two immature Golden Eagles. On 18th, 22nd and 23rd of May, Martell was observed feeding on a carcass near Lavinars and in Val Bardi (G. DENOTH).

Rather few winter observations were made in MIDDLE ENGADINE. A. Á PORTA reported about one adult bird from Val Trupchun on 5th of January. On 14th of March, two Bearded Vultures of unknown age flew above Cinuos-chel in the front of Val Susauna (S. LUZI). On 28th of March, one unmarked immature bird landed at Piz d´Urezza (above Punt Nova) and a second, approx. 3 year old bird circled at Munt Blais at the front of Val Trupchun. On 14th of April, one immature bird was attacked by the Golden Eagle pair Chamuera in front of their Unidentified adult bird at the Ofenpass street, nest rock. On 25th of April, three Bearded Vultures were 13th February 2004 observed above Griatschouls (G. BLUMENTHAL). On 27th of April, one Bearded Vulture of unknown age landed close to a Golden Eagle at Piz Vaüglia/Val Trupchun. UPPER ENGADINE: as in 2003, N. AMITZBOELL (Denmark) again reported about one marked immature Bearded Vulture flying in Val Forno: probably Martell, flying at Piz Aela on 2nd of February. In the course of this day, this bird was also seen above Punt Muragl. On 12th of April, one adult Bearded Vulture left the valley between Plaun da Lej and Sils. Martell, BG 395, near the mountain station of Alp Trida

LOWER ENGADINE: game warden E. JENAL reported from Samnaun:"In the course of the winter months (until May) one Bearded Vulture was regularly seen near the mountain station of Alp Trida. It fed on deposed meat". This bird turned out to be Martell. AREA BERGÜN: At the beginning of March, two Bearded Vultures were observed at Piz Darlux (Bergün). The age of these birds could not be determined (M. RAFFEL). On 23rd of April, three Bearded Vultures could be watched at Piz Aela (W. HIRT).

PAIR LIVIGNO Also in 2004, PAIR LIVIGNO bred successfully in the eyrie Dardaligno. It was the fourth offspring of this pair. The centre of activity near Dardaligno at the left shore of the lake remained unchanged. Only the presence of the pair during the day was diminished when compared to past years. As in former years, a heated observation hut was established near the grit utility below Dardaligno as from February. The monitoring of the eyrie, done by Corpo Forestale di Livigno and wardens of Swiss National Park, lasted until beginning of April.

Photo:

UNKNOWN

PHOTOGRAPHER, Germany

On 11th of January (rather late), eyrie Dardaligno was seen to be newly enlarged for the first time. On this day, the pair flew south of the core area of its territory and disappeared near il Motto. On 28th of January, both partners of the pair approached the eyrie and stayed there for 12 minutes and worked on the nest. Later, they left and disappeared to the south. Egg laying obviously was immi-

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nent. On the next day (29th of January), CH. BUCHLI reported: "Moische was sitting in the eyrie for the whole day (observed by park warden R. SCHÖPF). Therefore it was assumed that Pair Livigno started to brood in the night from 28th to 29th of January Photo: DAVID JENNY, Switzerland 2004. A "normal" course of brooding was observed during the next weeks: checks were done by the author on 11th of February ("Moische brooding at 8:30"); on 13th of February ("relief at 12:00, Moische continued brooding until at least 14:00"); on 26th of February ("one relief at 12:20, CIC stayed until 16:05, afterwards Moische until at least 16:15. One unmarked, immature Bearded Vulture flew above the nest rock and crossed Lake Livigno towards Alpisella"). On 24th of March, CIC was seen fighting three Golden Eagles (two adult and 1 immature; H. ANGERER) and ravens in the area of the eyrie, while Moische continued Moische, BG 146, on 24th of March 2004 brooding. At 15:00, CIC was brooding, Moische approached from southern direction, turned in the most bottom part of Dardaligno, soared close to the main road towards the grit plant and landed in a distance of 20m beside the author. Short time later, she left, turned and landed again on this spot. After taking off, the plumage of the ventral side was newly coloured (wet and still sticky dark-red feathers). Afterwards Moische approached the eyrie and replaced CIC on the clutch. No hatching was confirmed on this day. On 26th of March, three employees of the Corpo forestale di Livigno (CFL) observed feeding movements by the parent birds for the first time. Feeding of a nestling was also observed on 27th and 28th of March (A. RICCI). So, the nestling obviously has hatched on 25th of March. During the nestling period, two checks were made: on 6th of April (Moische warmed the nestling) and on 18th of May (both adult birds roosted at rocks near the eyrie. Later, Moische approached the nest with nesting material and fed the young). R. SCHÖPF and H. ANGERER:" the young bird was seen several short times at the edge of the eyrie. On 16th of May, one raven flew into the nest and left it without being noticed nearby roosting parents. Close to Le Capré bones were broken." On 3rd and 16th of June, R. SCHÖPF reported about normal course of the nestling phase (approaches with food by the parents, feeding of the nestling, young bird rather big). First training of wings by the nearly grown up nestling was observed on 17th of June. On 4th of July, the young bird was seen allopreening for a longer period as well as flapping strongly its wings at the edge of the nest. The fledging was expected to happen soon but needed a few further days. On 13th of July, Ch. BUCHLI observed both adults flying together with an unmarked immature above Dardaligno. On 15th of July, H. ANGERER observed one adult bird breaking a bone and approaching the eyrie with a piece of it. In the morning of 22nd of July, the young was fed by one parent in the eyrie. In the evening, it had fledged. DATE OF FLEDGING: 22nd of July 2005. On 10th of August, the author climbed to the eyrie, to check for food remains and moulted feathers. CIC approached the author up to 20m. Moische landed at a rock face near Dardaligno and started to feed. The young Tommy-Livigno (BGW 23) soared in the upper Dardaligno, begged and landed close to Moische in the rock face. While the Photo: DAVID JENNY, Switzerland young bird fed, Moische and CIC soared above the lake and disappeared in south-east direction. On 11th of September, the young bird was seen in Val Trupchun (Switzerland), on 10th of September maybe together with Martell (A. Á. PORTA). In the evening of 12th of December, CIC approached the eyrie, which seemed to be newly enlarged. CIC worked in the nest and finally roosted close to the nesting site. CIC, BG 186, on 10th of August

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Brooding data of PAIR LIVIGNO in 2004

Clutch Hatching Fledging

29th of January 2004 25th of March 2004 (56 days) 22nd of July 2004 (119 days)

PAIR BORMIO This pair selected eyrie Palone a second time in a row and, in contrast to 2003, it was successful in 2004. Thus, five offspring were successfully reared by this pair (similar to PAIR BARGY in Haute Savoie, France). It was the second, fledged young in eyrie "Palone". Feather analysis, done by BARBARA GAUTSCHI, point to a shift of partners, obviously the male changed in the course of 2002/03 Margunet (BG 149, released in Engadine in 1991) was determined as male partner of PAIR SINESTRA in summer 2004. Two brooding birds were observed soaring around until 28th of January (A. RICCI), afterwards only one (estimated BEGINNING OF BROODING, based on observations of A. RICCI: 21st January 2004). On 20th and 25th of February, employees of the Nationalpark (F. GROSSI/F. RASTELLI) observed ravens, which flew in and out of the Bearded Vulture nest. They were present until March. At this point of time it was not clear if the eyrie was occupied. Only on 17th/18th of occupation of the eyrie and feeding of an offspring was observed (estimated HATCHING DATE: 17th of March 2004). One check on 6th of April proved the existence of one young: one adult bird warmed an offspring in the enlarged nest. In front of the eyrie, ravens chased one adult Golden Eagle, which did not cause any reaction of the brooding bird. At 10:00 one relief could be observed: the male landed, and Jo (BG 169, released in Engadien in 1992) left. The male started to feed the young. Later, one remarkable observation was made. Quote from the notebook: "The same Bearded Vulture (male) again landed in the nest, he stands left of the eyrie and looks down. At 10:37, he walks on a grass shelf left of the nesting platform, carrying some tiny thing, small, grey, which dangles from the beak - looks like a dead nestling. It is deposed left of the nest. Then he returns to the eyrie and starts to manipulated something with bowed head (feeding his offspring). 10:45 returns to the spot on the grass shelf and starts working on the little carcass. He feeds on a few pieces. After 3 minutes, he takes a tiny piece (of bone?), walks back to the nest-platform, disappears behind (feeding?). After 1 minute, he appears, walks to the front and stands there for a few minutes. At 10:55, he walks to the backside and disappears behind the platform. The top of his head can be seen moving at times (feeding). At 11:09 he returns to the spot where he had deposed the carcass of the nestling and starts intensely to pluck. He plucks off bunches of feathers (clusters of grey dunes fly clearly visible away in the wind). After 2 minutes of manipulating the carcass, he returns to the nest where he concentrates on feeding the young (assumption: dead offspring was fed to the surviving one). The feeding continues until 11:32 with a few short interruptions." The carcass of the nestling presumably was the second offspring. On 17th of May, A. RICCI observed the male Bearded Vulture feeding the young bird:"a number of ravens was present close to the nest but no fights were observed". On 16th of June, R. SCHÖPF saw the young standing at the edge of the nest. Mr. SCHÖPF had the impression "that the young was bigger than that of Livigno". The exact fledging date can only estimated, as the fledgling used to return to the nest for a few times. Ch. BUCHLI found "an empty eyrie" on 13th of July. Also M. AZZOLINI reported an empty nest on 16th of July. On 19th of July, A. PIROVANO observed the young bird (Gerry-Stelvio, BGW 24) standing in the nest for more than 2 hours. On 20th of July, the authour observed no occupation of the nest. The young bird flew very skilful high and elegant above the nest rock, below the circling parents. Later, Jo landed on a rock, carrying a bone and started to feed. She rose with the bone, broke it and landed again with the bone on a rock. The young bird landed beside Jo and started to beg (opening and closing of the beak). At early afternoon, the young vulture approached the nest and laid down to roost. After 2.5 hours, the young bird left. In the morning of 21st of July, the eyrie was empty (obviously the young had not spent the night in the nest), in the evening it again stayed in the eyrie. ESTIMATED

DATE OF FLEDGING:

approx. 10th of July 2004.

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In the course of October, one marked Bearded Vulture was observed by Nationalpark wardens in Valle dell Braulio: it was Ortler (BG 439; this observation correlated with telemetry data of DANIEL HEGGLIN).

2004 Photo: DAVID JENNY, Switzerland

On 20th of December, Nationalpark ranger A. PIROVANO, observed copulations of the pair.

Jo, BG 169, on 20th of July

Brooding data of PAIR BORMIO in 2004

Clutch Hatching Fledging

21st of January 2004 15th to 17th of March 2004 (54 - 56 days) 10th to 12th of July 2004 (115 - 119 days)

PAIR ZEBRU After the abandonment of brooding in 2003, the pair of Valle dello Zebru reared its second young in 2004. Although ravens brooded rather close to the Bearded Vultures, the brooding and rearing of the young bird happened without any interruptions and accidents. On 27th of January, wardens of the Nationalpark detected a brooding bird in an old eyrie of Golden Eagles (eyrie Val Corta). ESTIMATED DATE OF EGG LAYING: 20th to 27th of January (A. RICCI). As in 2003, a selective survey was organised by National Park wardens at the office of the National Park near Zebru di fiori. On 15th of March, feeding of one offspring was observed (the hatching may have occurred a few days earlier: 13th to 15th of March). On 6th of April, the female was observed warming the nestling without interruptions for at least three hours. She too fed an (unseen) young twice (10 minutes duration for each feeding). Twice, the male landed close to the nest and showed extensive comfort behaviour. The eyrie of ravens, seven metres above the Bearded Vulture nest, was occupied as in 2003. Twice, one raven flew close above the heads of the Bearded Vultures causing no reaction of the larger birds. As from end of April, one young could be observed by the National Park wardens. The observation of regularly feedings of the young pointed to a normal development. The successful raven brood above the Bearded Vulture eyrie had no bad influence (in contrast to 2003). On 21st of May, the young bird was observed feeding (A.RICCI) and it seemed to be bigger than the nestlings of PAIR BORMIO and PAIR LIVIGNO. Both adult birds were seen at the nest on this day. Similar to PAIR BORMIO, it is difficult to tell the exact date of fledging, as also this young tended to return to its nest several times after fledging. On 13th of July, three Bearded Vulture flew close to the nest site area: one unmarked immature, one adult and the young. All three landed near the nest (Ch. BUCHLI). National Park warden S. ZALA observed the young vulture already flying on 6th of July. Fledging may have happened short time before: 5th to 6th of July (A. RICCI). At 21st of July, the author climbed the opposing rock slope, while the pair, together with the young bird Silva-Zebru (BGW 22) flew around. All three landed at a rock below Monte Cristallo. The young bird begged intensely while flying and seemed to be very skilful with respect to maneuvering.

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End of December, both adult birds were seen near the eyrie by Nationalpark wardens (A. RICCI). A. PIROVANO observed the pair on a different Golden Eagle eyrie, which points to another possible brooding in 2005.

Photo: DAVID JENNY, Switzerland

Silva-Zebru, BGW 22, on 21st of July

Brooding data of PAIR ZEBRU in 2004

Clutch Hatching Fledging

20th to 27th of January 2004 14th to 15th of March 2004 (47 - 55 days) 5th to 6th of July 2004 (112 - 114 days)

PAIR SINESTRA As in the past two years, PAIR SINESTRA was not continuously present in its territory. During the first half of 2004, both Bearded Vultures (Retia, BG 357, released in Martell Valley in 2000) and one unknown adult bird (Margunet, BG 149, released in Engadine in 1991; determined by feather analysis) were observed in the core area and close to the eyrie of the past year on an irregular basis. During autumn, only one of both birds could be observed definitely. On 4th of January, one adult circled above herds of ibex during the whole day. Close to the timber line fierce chases between the vulture and two ravens were seen. In the evening, the bird landed on a rock shelf close to the eyrie and fed for a longer period. On 17th of January, the younger Retia was also observed circling around. On 8th February, three Bearded Vultures were observed by CH. MISCHOL. On 15th of February, Martell, BG 395, flew high above one of the mountain peaks. During February and March, the number of observations declined (not one bird observed during fulltime checks on 8th of February and 9th of March). Both birds were observed again on 13th of April. The older one was seen drinking in a gorge, and Retia was observed flying very low. On 24th of April, the adult bird fed. On 19th of May, the adult vulture had a conflict with an immature Golden Eagle: both birds chased each other without real attacks. Both vultures stood side by side at the "middle roost" while it was raining on 12th of June. As from July, it was nearly impossible anymore to distinguish both birds from each other as also Retia had moulted to adult plumage. On 11th of July, one of the birds sat in the eyrie and preened its plumage. On 9th of August, not one bird was observed. On 29th of August, the author observed both birds for the last time together: they followed each other, coming from western direction towards the core area of the territory. Later, one unmarked immature bird appeared far in the north close to the Austrian border. No observations were made during September (not one single sighting during a full time check on 19th of September).

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On 4th of October, the adult bird was observed soaring by P. MOLLET. On 13th of October, one of the birds circled, while the author checked the bottom of the roosting rock ("middle roost") for moulted feathers. In November (one full time check on 14th of November) and December (full time check on 4th of December), not one observation was made by the author, but one of the birds was seen on 14th of November (G. BROSI: landing below Mont da Luf; high presence of ravens) and on 8th of December (Ch. MICHAEL: one adult bird at Piz Ot). The number of observations from Val Sinestra (three) is still decreasing. Two reasons make a brooding unlikely: - the female bird Retia, identified in 2003, is still too young for brooding (4.5 years). - the actual presence of both birds in the area is uncertain, evidences for pair bonding are missing since summer 2004. Feather analysis Five feathers were found below the "middle roost" on 13th of October. Three of them are from Retia (female, BG 357, released in Martell Valley, Italy in 2000) and two to an adult male, which was confirmed as partner of PAIR BORMIO from 1998 to 2001 - most probably Margunet (male, BG 149, released in Engadine in 1991), which is characterized by a continuous collar.

PAIR FORAZ In the course of spring 2004, the number of observations of Bearded Vultures increased in the area of Val S-charl. Most of the time, one adult and/or one still immature bird were seen. In August, fishery inspector R. GRITTI observed nesting activities for the first time in Val Foraz. Later, it became clear that a new pair had formed, but with one still immature partner. The newly built nest was situated in a rock cave, which was used by Golden Eagles years ago (H. HALLER). On 24th of April, one unmarked immature Bearded Vulture chased an immature Golden Eagle above Mot San Jon in front of Val S-charl. In the course of May, the number of observations of Bearded Vultures increased distinctively. On 2nd of May, two Bearded Vultures flew at Piz Lischana and disappeared into Val Sesvanna (one immature and one bird of undetermined age). On 21st of May, two Bearded Vultures were observed by Ch. MICHAEL (1 adult, 1 immature), which had a fierce fight with an immature Golden Eagle. On 23rd of May, one adult bird flew above Sur il Foss and disappeared in Val Foraz. On 24th of May, one immature Bearded Vulture was observed together with two adult Golden Eagles flying from S-charl towards Tamangur. The crucial observation was made by R. GRITTI on 13th and 15th of August: at 11:00, one adult bird came from Grat Tavrü/Foraz and flew in and out in Val Foraz, carrying a branch (13th of August). The bird approached a cave at the left side of the valley at least 5 times, entered and started to work on the nest. Later, the Bearded Vulture approached Mr. GRITTI (with dog) up to a distance of 100m. On 15th of August, Mr. GRITTI observed the same adult bird approaching the cave at least 4 times and entering the eyrie with nesting material. The bird stayed there working for 1.5 hrs. Later, it landed at a road close to the eyrie. Mr. GRITTI always observed only one bird. On 25th of August, one immature Bearded Vulture (black head, 3 years old), close to the ground above the nest rock in Val Foraz close to a herd of deer. The bird disappeared in Val Minger. The eyrie, which was detected by R. GRITTI, seemed to be newly enlarged. On 26th of August, National Park warden C. FLORINETH reported one immature Bearded Vulture, which was present on a regular basis in the area of S-charl. On 31st of August, one adult bird was observed feeding on the carcass of a chamois close to Sur il Foss (R. HALLER, Swiss National Park). Later, one immature bird flew north of Piz Foraz together with Golden Eagles. On 7th of September, Ch. MICHAEL observed a fight of one Bearded Vulture and one Golden Eagle in Val Tavrü. On 9th of September, two wanderers observed both birds in Val Foraz, one of them was adult for sure (R. BAI). On 18th of September, both birds were seen with nesting activities for at least 2 hrs. Both birds carried nesting material to the eyrie, sat side by side in the cave and billed.

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Later, the immature bird fed on some food close to the eyrie for a longer period. Both birds were seen braking bones. On the next day, the author could not watch one single bird in the same area. On 21st of September, tourists observed three Bearded Vultures near Alp Atsras/Tamangur (V. GOSTELI). In the evening of 23rd of October, both birds flew at the East Side of Piz Minger/Piz dals Cotschens and fiercely chased and attacked an immature Golden Eagle. Afterwards, they approached a roost, which showed traces of faeces. The roost is situated in an East exposed rock close to Sur il Foss. On 7th of November, the adult bird "paddled" in the below part of Val Foraz in snow flurry and disappeared in the area of the nest rock. C. FLORINETH observed both birds flying at Mot Madlain above S-charl on 11th and 12th of December. On 21st of December, he again observed the immature partner leaving the valley. In the course of December, one to two Bearded Vultures were repeatedly seen by wardens of the National Park in the area Margunet - Ofenpass (A. á. Porta). It is presumed that these birds were partners of the pair. Activities at the nest site as well as obvious signs of pair bonding point to a new pair. The identification of the vultures was not possible up to now. Only if once rings will be seen or moulted feathers can be collected and analysed, we will know which vultures form the pair. Not even useful photos could be made up to now. The adult bird is at least 5 years old, the younger is estimate to be approx. 3.5 years old.

FURTHER

OBSERVATIONS SINCE SPRING

There are no hints to further pair formation in other areas but observations of immature or subadult Bearded Vultures in two areas point to longer phases of presence. Observations of singular immature or subadult birds come mainly from middle Engadine. The total number of recorded Bearded Vulture was slightly lower than in 2003.

Middle Engadine, in particular Val Trupchun Martell (BG 395, released in Martell Valley/Italy in 2002) was seen in particular in Val Trupchun until September. Afterwards its immature plumage was totally moulted. On 22nd/23rd of May, Martell was observed feeding on bones close to Zernez in Val da Bareli (game warden G. DENOTH). Most of the observations made in Val Trupchun were made by A. á PORTA (15th, 17th, 27th of August; 7th, 10th, 25th of September). Culan (BG 438, released in Martell Valley/Italy in 2004): on 24th of September, Culan was observed together with an adult bird close to Ova Spin (R. FLÜCKIGER). Two days later it was seen near Lü in Münster Valley (J. LAMPRECHT). On 2nd of October, Culan flew at Piz Cotchen above Ardez. Transalpaete (BG 418, released in Haute Savoie/France in 2003), was seen twice by game warden P. SCHANIEL (on 12th of September close to Madulain and on 18th of October in Val Chamuera. Hubertus 2 (BG 446 released in Hohe Tauern/Austria in 2004), was seen near Macun on 9th of September (M. RAUCH). Ortler (BG 439 released in Martrell Valley/Italy in 2004; transmitter). This bird returned in October, after an excursion to the Reschenpass, and was observed in Valle del Braulio. At the beginning of November, it was recorded in the area of the Berninapass. In the middle of November it was located close to Tirano and afterwards in National Park Stelvio, near San Giacomo/Fraele. In the middle of December, the bird made an excursion to the Lechtal/Tyrol (Austria) and returned to Il Fuorn on 20th of December. All informations were given by satellite tracking (see also the report of DANIEL HEGGLIN). Thuri (BG 424, released in Engadine/Switzerland in 2003), was regularly observed in Val Chamuera as from September (see the following detailed report). In the course of the hunting season, the observations of Bearded Vultures increased remarkable in the area of Val Chamuera/La Punt. Bearded Vultures were regularly seen after the shooting of a strong male deer above Chamues-ch on 17th of September. On 21st of September, a double

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sighting (two birds?) was made by C. RAUCH after the shooting of one chamois. The shooting of two deer near Flins/Cinuos-chel middle of November was in remarkable connection to observations of Bearded Vultures in the same area: one adult flew close above Chapella (J. HEUSCHERT) on 20th of November. On 21st and 22nd of November one single adult was seen on each day and two Bearded Vultures were observed above Cinuos-chel on 27th of November (R. FLÜCKIGER). Obviously, the Bearded Vultures took advantage of deposed bowels of shot deer.

VAL CHAMUERA In the area of Val Chamuera/La Punt, Bearded Subadult Bearded Vulture, October 2004 Vultures obviously remained even after the hunting season. Two Bearded Vultures flew above the entrance of Val Chamuera and Alp Müsella: one adult and Transalpaete (BG 418). On the same day, P. SCHANIEL observed three birds (one added adult bird). On 23rd of September, one unmarked immature flew at Piz Mezzaun. Thuri (BG 424) was observed at Piz Mezzaun for the first time on 20th of September (P. SCHANIEL) and since then on a regular basis often together with an immature/subadult in the area of Val Chamuera/La Punt. Most of the observations were made by game warden P. SCHANIEL.

BALANCE Its much too early to speak about pair formation in Val Chamuera. The birds are 3.5 and 1.5 years old (Thuri, BG 424). The identification of the older birds is not totally clear. Maybe it is Louis (BG 364, released in Engadine in 2000; Ring left: BLUE - ring right: GREEN). Obviously this region is well suited as Bearded Vulture habitat, which is shown by the long continuous presence of both birds. Photo: K. WEISSTHANNER, Switzerland

Three sightings of Bearded Vultures were made in the area of the Es-cha Alpine hut above Zuoz: End of June (E. MÜLLER), on 10th of August one unmarked immature Bearded Vulture (K. WEISSTANNER, photo) and on 22nd of September one immature bird (observer unknown). Not far from these spots, close to Arets above Zuoz, one Bearded Vulture was observed on the 26th of June and on the 18th of July (G. BLUMENTHAL). One observation was made close to Alp Laret on the 9th of September (B. JENNY). W. BÜRKLI observed one Bearded Vulture in Val Fain on the 5th of August and D. GODLI reported one observation made by a herdsman in the same valley (date unknown). One adult bird was seen in a gorge below Piz Lagrev close to Sils Baselgias (R. FLÜCKIGER). Otherwise, observations were made rather rarely (except Val Chamuera), in particular in the area of Berninapass.

More than 3-year old bird on 10th of August

UNTERENGADINE

BELOW

ZERNEZ

Aside of three observations of Val Sinestra (PAIR SINESTRA) and those of Val S-charl (PAIR FORAZ), only four reports came in from the area Scuol, Ardez and Val Tuoi. Adult birds were seen thrice: close to Marangun (Scuol) on 20th of May, at Piz Cotschen (Ardez) on 24th of June and near Scuol on 7th of September. On 2nd of September, two Bearded Vultures, sitting on the ground close to Alp Sarsura were seen by the pilot of a helicopter (G. DENOTH).

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MARGUNET

Rather few Bearded Vultures were observed in the area of the release site Stabelchod (maybe because no release took place in 2004 in Switzerland). On 28th of July (M. JENNY) and on 15th of November (A. á PORTA) one single adult bird was seen and immature birds on 21st of July and on 9th of November (A. á PORTA).

OUTSIDE ENGADINE Area Bergün: On 20th of August, two Bearded Vultures were seen in Val Tuors. W. BÜRKLI observed one immature bird in the back part of Val d´Err/Tinizong on 25th of July. Avers Game warden S. JÄGER reported three observations of one adult Bearded Vulture: one on 3rd of May near Juppa, one on 30th of June near Mugnol/Leidabach and one on 6th of July near Bergalga. Weisstannental In the behind part of the Weisstannental (SG) one to two Bearded Vultures were regularly observed as from summer 2004. R. KUNZ (Dübendorf) made several trips to this area to take photos. He himself observed five times Bearded Vultures. The herdsman of Obersiezsäss told him about the "every day appearance" of the Bearded Vultures. On 12th, 27th and 30th of October, R. KUNZ observed one Bearded Vulture on each day - but these observations concerned two different individuals: one adult and one immature/subadult bird (approx. 3.5 years old). Both birds together could not be observed until now but interactions with Golden Eagles were reported. BALANCE Also in this case, it is much too early to speak about pair formation. Pair flights or sitting close side by side was not observed up to now. In addition, one of the birds obviously is still immature. But the Weissentannental may be a very suitable habitat for a future Bearded Vulture territory (rich in game, rich in sheep, three pairs of Golden Eagle!).

SUMMARY AND

PROSPECT

PAIR LIVIGNO raised its fourth offspring (the third in a row, which fledged from the same eyrie at the left side of Lake Livigno above the grit plant). As in former years, the brooding was watched by employees of Corpo Forestale di Livigno/Bormio and game wardens of the Swiss National Park. The brooding happened without any accident. The partners of the experienced pair are CIC (BG 186) and Moische (BG 146).They obviously have definitely established their territory in the core area of Dardaligno. Date of fledging was the 22nd of July (as in 2003). As from September, the young bird (Tommy-Livigno, BGW 23) was also seen in the bordering Val Trupchun. In December, the birds again started to enlarge the eyrie Dardaligno. PAIR BORMIO raised its 5th offspring in 2004 (Gerry-Stelvio, BGW 24). Although ravens gave reason for continuous interference, the brooding continued without any disturbance. The exact date of fledging, from the west-situated eyrie Palone, could not be determined, as the young bird tended to return to the eyrie after fledging. The use of one nestling as fodder for its sibling was observed. PAIR ZEBRU, being rather young, was successful too. The second young of this pair fledged on 5th or 6th of July (Silva-Zebru, BGW 22). Also this young vulture returned several times to the eyrie after fledging. As in 2003, one pair of ravens successfully brooded in close vicinity. In 2004, the Bearded Vultures did not take notice of the ravens (habituation?). In December, the pair was observed at another eyrie of Golden Eagles, which maybe will be enlarged by the vultures (A. PIROVANO). The situation of PAIR SINESTRA was similar to 2003. Both partners of the pair were present in the core area of the territory but there were phases where only one bird or no bird at all was observed. FEATHER ANALYSES REVEALED A SURPRISING RESULT: the male bird could be Margunet (BG 149), the former partner of Pair Bormio. The eyrie, enlarged in November 2003, was continuously extended in 2004 and also used as a roost several times. Since August, only one bird was observed.

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In the course of spring/summer, a new pair established its territory in Val S-charl. The birds built a nest in Val Foraz and were subsequently called PAIR FORAZ. Nest building activities and clearly visible pair bonding behaviour proved pair formation. The younger bird is still immature/subadult, its age was estimated as three years. The birds were not continuously present in the core area (similar to Pair Sinestra) and some roosts were selected in rather remote areas in the region of S-charl. A total of 11 offspring was produced by the three reproducing pairs (Bormio: 0.71; Livigno: 0.67; Zebru: 0.67). These are clearly higher values as in the Pyrenees (0.57 between 1986 and 1990; 231 checked pairs in R. HEREDIA 1991: El Quebrantahuesos en los Pireneos, I. C. O. N. A., Madrid). No brooding at all did not happen up to now, but breaking off was observed five times (twice during brooding, thrice in early stage of nestling development). In 2004, a total of five young Bearded Vultures were reared in the Alpine range (one in Bargy, Haute-Savoie, France and one in Les Vanoises (Termignon). Alltogether, 20 offspring fledged in the wild, of which 11 (55%) are descending from birds, released in the Engadine. Five pairs (out of 17 known and checked ones) are living in the area Engadine - Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio. Established pairs obviously have strengthened their pair bond and new pairs are in formation. Difficulties with respect to the continuity of partners in newly formed pairs point to the fact that maybe the optimal brooding habitats are occupied in the meantime (taking philopatric behaviour into consideration). This may be an explanation for the still rather low number of reproducing pairs (six) compared with the quickly increasing number of known and checked pairs (17).

Satellite tracking of Bearded Vultures the project «BEARDED VULTURE ON THE MOVE» by Daniel Hegglin*, Martin Wehrle** & Adrian Aebischer ***

Immature and subadult Bearded Vultures travel for long distances through the Alps and sometimes even leave this region. Knowledge about the movements of these birds depends mainly on the direct sightings that are collected in the central database of the International Bearded Vulture Monitoring. Satellite telemetry allows the regular location of animals and can provide additional, more detailed data about the spatial behaviour of single floating Bearded Vultures. Hence, satellite telemetry could be used as a tool to supplement the Bearded Vulture Monitoring. This year the project «BEARDED VULTURES ON THE MOVE» was initiated with the aim to investigate the floating behaviour of young Bearded Vultures by marking single released birds with satellite tags. EVALUATION

OF DIFFERENT MOUNTING TECHNIQUES



PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Before marking free living Bearded Vultures with satellite tags, we had to find a save mounting technique that does not disturb or even harm the marked animals. Satellite tags can be mounted on tailfeathers, on legs, on wings, with a harness on the body of the bird or as implants (e.g. KENWARD 2001). For our purpose tail-mounts (FIGURE 1A) and backpacks (conventional harnesses: FIGURE 1B; leg-harnesses: FIGURE 1C) seemed to be the most promising techniques to attach the satellite tags on Bearded Vultures (HEGGLIN et al. 2002). Figure 1: Mounting devices tested on captive juvenile and adult Bearded Vultures in the Natur- and Tierpark Goldau, Switzerland. grey: transmitter; dark grey: harness built with a Silicon rope mantled with a Teflon band. (A) Tail mount: the transmitter is taped on the base of a central tail feather; (B) backpack with conventional harness (C) backpack with leg-harness. *Stiftung Pro Bartgeier, 7530 Zernez & SWILD – urban ecology & wildlife research, Wuhrstr. 12, CH-8003 Zürich, Switzerland, [email protected] **Nature and Animal Park Goldau, Parkstr. 40, CH-6410 Goldau, Switzerland, [email protected] ***Conservation Biology, Zoological Institute, University of Berne, Erlachstrasse 9a, CH - 3012 Bern, Switzerland, [email protected]

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Therefore we evaluated these techniques on 10 captive Bearded Vultures in the Natur– und Tierpark Goldau, Switzerland, between July 2002 and December 2004. The behaviour of each of the investigated animals was recorded in detail before and after mounting the dummy-transmitters per eight hours a day during six to nine days. Additionally, the marked Bearded Vultures were regularly checked for skin lesions or other signs of disturbance by the veterinarian of the breeding station. We observed only few behavioural reactions of the marked birds for all types of investigated mounting-devices. During the first three days after mounting the tags, some birds showed a trend towards more frequent comfort behaviour. Direct manipulations at the mounting-devices were rare and mainly observed during the first three days after mounting the tags (see TABLE 1). Table 1: Frequency of intervals during which the marked Bearded Vultures manipulated their mounting devices one to three days and 30-80 days after mounting. BV: Bearded Vulture; age: A=adult, J=juvenile; n intervals: number of observed 20 sec. intervals, n manipulation: number of 20 sec. intervals with a bird manipulating its mounting device; % manipulation: percentage of 20 sec. intervals with a bird manipulating its mounting device.

mounting technique tail mount conv. harness tail mount & Rappole harness

BV

age

JQL FLX HNS GRN SCB INB BSL WNN CZ1 CZ2

A A A J J J A A J J

1-3 days after mounting n intern mani% manivalls pulation pulation 286 5 1,7% 261 3 1,1% 592 14 2,4% 259 0 0,0% 275 7 2,5% 246 2 0,8% 265 4 1,5% 291 1 0,3% 295 4 1,4% 295 7 2,4%

30-80 days after mounting n intern mani% manivalls pulation pulation 845 0 0,0% 280 0 0,0% no data 811 1 0,1% 295 0 0,0% no data 235 0 0,0% 238 0 0,0% 284 0 0,0% 284 0 0,0%

The systematic ethological observations and veterinary health examinations of the marked Bearded Vultures strongly suggest that tail-mounts (FIGURE 1A) do not negatively affect juvenile and adult Bearded Vultures. The harnesses for the backpacks consisted of a stable Teflon band in which an elastic silicon string was inserted. The conventional harnesses (FIGURE 1B) used for two juvenile birds were not flexible enough to cope with the growth of the animals. In addition, a bare patch developed beyond a dummy-transmitter of an adult bird that was marked with a conventional harness (FIGURE 1B). Therefore we removed these three backpacks and used thereafter on recommendation of Naef-Daenzer (personal comm. and 2001) a modified leg-harness (FIGURE 1C) shaped according to RAPPOLE and TIPPTON (1991). This type of harness has several advantages: (a) it is easy to mount and to adjust to the size of the bird, (b) it can break at any place without having the risk that the broken leg-harness will not solve from the bird, (c) it does not embrace the chest where a harness can interfere negatively with still growing breast muscles of juvenile birds and (d) the transmitter lies on the rump and not above the chest where long spinous processes can provoke pressure points. In 2003 one adult and in 2004 two juvenile Bearded Vultures were marked with leg-harnesses. All birds accepted the harnesses readily. Also the adult bird that carries the leg-harness for 17 months up to now does not show any skin irritations or other kind of adverse effects. Furthermore, the harnesses coped easily with the growth of the juvenile birds from 5.2 to 6.6 kg and from 5.4 to 7.5 kg, respectively. First results of the project «BEARDED VULTURES

ON THE

MOVE»

In June 2004, the two young Bearded Vultures Culan (BG 438, male) and Ortler 1804 (BG 439, female) released in the Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio, Italy, were marked with tail-mounted satellite tags just before fledging. As expected, the satellite tags dropped off after a short period (28-32 days) because the tail feathers were not fully developed at the time of fledging.

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Monitoring

2004

Ortler could be trapped and marked again at the age of 146 days (FIGURE 2). Up to present (December 2004), the satellite transmitter provides regular data on the movements of the marked juvenile Bearded Vulture (FIGURE 3). In a first phase, Ortler remained in the near surrounding of the release site in the Martelltal of the Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio (41 (9)

ARRIGONI

1921-1945

20-10

65-35

>21 (3)

STEMMLER, 1932; MOLTONI, 1949; FOSCHI, 1984; present study

1946-1966

10-2

35-5

>10

BEZZEL, 1957; SCHENK, 1974; 1976, 1977; RUIU, 1981; SCHENK & GENERO, 1996; present study

>10 killed by poisoned baits?

1

1967

3 CAUSES

0

ODDI, 1929; 1931; MARTORELLI, 1960; present study

DEGLI

5?

?

SCHENK, 1974; 1976; 1977; RUIU, 1981; SCHENK & GENERO, 1996; present study

1-2?

?

individuals from Corsica and/or the Alps?

(last breeding attempt 1969?)

1968-2002

BROOKE, 1873; GIGLIOLI, 1886; present study

OF EXTINCTION

SALMEN (1980) and KLEMM & KOHL (1988) documented the extinction process of the BV in Rumania (cf. GLUTZ V. BLOTZ1971) attributing the population crash in the 19th century principally to persecution by hunters and the extirpation in the final phase to the use of poisoned baits (strychnine) for predator control.

HEIM ET AL.,

For the western Alps (France, Italy) MINGOZZI & ESTÈVE (1997) and MINGOZZI & BALLETTO (1996) discussed historical data on the former range and the extirpation causes of the BV based on bibliography and museum and private collection samples. At the beginning of the 20th century the species was still present in only 5 areas. The last breeding records are from about 1910 while the species probably survived for further 15-20 years; the last reliable observations are from 1924 and 1930. The causes of extinction were attributed mainly to persecution (collection for taxidermy and pest control). MINGOZZI & ESTÈVE (l.c.) however are of the opinion that their data analysed are still insufficient to confirm persecution as the major cause of extirpation, even though the evidence suggests this hypothesis (cf. FASCE & FASCE 1992).

The direct human-induced causes of decline and extinction of the BV in Sardinia are principally harvesting (collection of skins, eggs, trophies), followed by hunting, poaching, occasional killing and plundering of eyries; among indirect human induced causes of extinction the use of poisoned baits (strychnine; arsenic compounds; DDT) for pest control (Vulpes vulpes, feral dogs; locusts; Anopheles labranchiae – the malaria vector) probably played a major role during the 1950s. These principal causes have been accompanied by a general decline in livestock mortality, a progressive increase in the human population and roads, which together augmented human pressure on the last wilderness areas of the island (SCHENK, 1976; SCHENK & GENERO, 1996). 3.1 COLLECTION In TABLE 3 and FIGURE 4 data are summarized concerning samples of BV from natural museum and private Italian, European and North-American collections. Collection appears to have been the main cause of the strong decline in the Sardinian population during the 1870-1934 period: 93 specimens killed (comprising 5 pulli) and 15 eggs collected – all legally, with a total of 108 samples or 84.4% of the 128 dated samples. Particularly "profitable” was the 1901-10 period with 47 samples (41 specimens; 6 eggs), corresponding to 36.7% of the 128 dated samples (cf. also HIRALDO ET AL., 1979). The 8 specimens (6.3%) dated between 1939 and 1962 have been collected illegally, because the BV has been legally protected in Italy since 1939 (CONDER, 1977). The geographical distribution of 79 samples collected in the Sardinian breeding range of the BV is shown in FIGURE 5. The Supramonte, Ogliastra and Gennargentu range, the key-area of the species, "produced” 43 samples (54.4%), followed by the Sulcis area (13 samples), the Iglesiente mountains (8 samples) and the other breeding areas. Out of the 72 individuals shot (1821–1962) of which the sex is known (including also undated samples), 47 (65.3%) were males and 25 (34.7%) females. Thus the sex ratio was 1:0.53 showing nearly a two-fold incidence of killed males in relation to females. This difference is statistically significant according to the chi-squared test (_2 = 6,72; P = 1945?

ad.

fide Tolu

Randazzo -pu

1956

M, ad.

Massa, in litt. Sorrenti, in litt.; Schenk, 1976

Sardinia

56

1

Supramonte

57

1

Gennargentu

58

1

Limbara

59

1

Monti di Alà

60

1

(Italy?) - pr?

1956

?

Monti di Alà

61

1

Sassari - pr

1959

ad.

Sanciu, in litt.

Supramonte

62

1

(Italy?) - pu?

1959

?

Bassu, in litt; Schenk, 1976

Monti di Alà

63

1

(Italy?) - pr ?

1960

?

fide Meloni; Schenk, 1977

Supramonte

64

1

(Catania?) - pr

1961/62

?

fide Meloni; Schenk, 1976

Sardinia

65

1

Sassari -pu

undated

ad.

fide Delitala

Sardinia

66

1

Genova - pu

undated

?

Doria, in litt

Sardinia

67

1

Genova - pu

undated

immat.

Doria, in litt Van den Elzen, in litt.

TOTAL SPECIMEN

62

ITALY

Belvi - pr

5

1)

67

Sardinia

68

1

Bonn - pu

1900

M

Ogliastra

69

1

Bonn - pu

1900

pullus

Van den Elzen, in litt.

Sarrabus?

70

1

Bonn - pu

1902

M

Kleinschmidt, 1935-38

Supramonte

71

1

Bonn - pu

1903

F, ad.

Kleinschmidt, 1935-38

Sardinia

72

1

Kiel -pu

1903

?

Dreyer, in litt.

Sardinia

73

1

Berlin -pu

1904

M, juv.

Frahnert, in litt

Sardinia

74

1

Berlin -pu

1904

F, juv.

Frahnert, in litt

Sardinia

75

1

Berlin -pu

1905

F, juv.

Frahnert, in litt

Sardinia

76

1

Hamburg -pu

1905 ?

?

Haas, in litt.

Sardinia

77

1

(Bonn?) -pu

1905

?

Gautschi et al., 2003 ; lacking ?

Sardinia

78

1

(Bonn?) -pu

1905

?

Gautschi et al., 2003 ; lacking ?

Ogliastra

79

1

Bonn -pu

1906

?

Van den Elzen, in litt.

Ogliastra

80

1

Bonn -pu

1906

?

Van den Elzen, in litt.

Sardinia

81

1

Bonn -pu

1900 - 09 ?

?

Kleinschmidt, 1935-38

Sardinia

82

1

Bonn -pu

1900 - 09 ?

?

Kleinschmidt, 1935-38

Sardinia

83

1

Bonn -pu

1900 - 09

?

Kleinschmidt, 1935-38

Sardinia

84

1

Bonn -pu

1900 - 09 ?

F

Van den Elzen, in litt.

Supramonte

85

1

(Bonn?) -pu

1915

F, ad.

Hiraldo et al., 1979; lacking?

Sardinia

86

1

(Bonn?) -pu

1925

M, juv.

Hiraldo et al., 1979; lacking?

Sardinia

87

1

Münster - pu

1925 ?

immat.

Terlutter, in litt.

Sardinia

88

1

Berlin -pu

undated

M

Frahnert, in litt.

Supramonte

89

1

Magdeburg -pu

undated

F

Pellmann, in litt.

Sardinia

90

1

(Magdeburg) -pu

undated

M

Pellmann, in litt.; lacking

Wilmington -pu

1854

-

Woods, in litt.

New York -pu

1902

F

Capainolo, in litt.

TOTAL SPECIMEN

GERMANY

23

1

23

Monti di Alà?

91

-

Supramonte

92

1

Sulcis

93

1

UNITED

New York -pu

1903

M

Capainolo, in litt.

1

STATES

New York -pu

1903

M, ad.

Capainolo, in litt.

Iglesiente 1)

94

A recent control revealed that the stuffed BV is not more present in the collection (N. MARRAS); further investigations are going on.

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COLLECTION AREA

NUMBER

SKIN,

EGGS COUNTRY

2004

MUSEUM COLLECTION

COLLECTION

SEX, AGE,

SKELETON

(pu=public; pr=private)

YEAR

CLASS

MOUNTED

NOTES

Iglesiente

95

1

New York -pu

1903

F, ad.

Capainolo, in litt.

Gennargentu

96

1

New York -pu

1903

M

Capainolo, in litt.

Sardinia

97

1

New York -pu

1903

F

Capainolo, in litt.

UNITED

Wilmington -pu

1905

-

Woods, in litt.

STATES

New York -pu

1907

F

Capainolo, in litt.

Sardinia

98/99

-

Iglesiente

100

1

2

Sulcis

101

-

1

Wilmington -pu

1912

-

Woods, in litt.

Supramonte

102/103

-

2

Wilmington -pu

1932

-

Woods, in litt.

Supramonte

104

-

1

Wilmington -pu

1934

-

Woods, in litt.

Sardinia

105

1

New York -pu

undated

?

Capainolo, in litt.

8

7

Sardinia

106

-

1

Bern -pu

1866

-

Blöchlinger, in litt.

Sardinia

107

1

St. Gallen -pu

1873

M, ad. ?

Girtanner, 1878; Barandun, in litt.

Sardinia

108

1

(St. Gallen?) -pu

1876

immat.

Girtanner, 1878

Sardinia

109

1

Bern -pu

1888

M, subad.

Blöchlinger, in litt.

Sulcis

110

1

Lausanne - pu

1912

M, ad.

(MZL 5467); Glaizot, in litt.

Sardinia

111

1

SWITZER-

Lausanne - pu

1915

M, juv.

(MZL 5535); Glaizot, in litt.

Ogliastra

112

1

LAND

Schaffhausen - pr

1921

F, ad.

Stemmler, 1932

Ogliastra

113

1

Schaffhausen - pr

1922

F, subad.

Stemmler, 1932

Sardinia

114

1

Basel -pu

< 1926

F, ad.

Stemmler, 1932; Winkler, in litt.

Ogliastra

115

1

Schaffhausen - pr

< 1932

M, juv.

Stemmler, 1932

Sardinia

116

1

Schaffhausen - pr

< 1932

F, ad.

Stemmler, 1932

Sardinia

117

1

Winterthur -pu

undated

M, ad.

Stemmler, 1932

Sardinia

118

1

Winterthur -pu

undated

F, ad.

Stemmler, 1932

TOTAL SPECIMEN

TOTAL SPECIMEN

12

1

15

13

Sardinia

119

1

London -pu

1871

pullus

Adams, in litt.

Gennargentu

120

1

UNITED

Liverpool - pu

1893

F, ad.

Parker, in litt.; Picchi, 1904

Sardinia

121

1

KINGDOM

London -pu

1850-99?

ad.

Adams, in litt.

Ogliastra

122/123

-

2

London -pu

1904

-

Adams, in litt.; lacking

124/125 Sassarese TOTAL SPECIMEN

3

2 4

London -pu

1920

-

Adams, in litt.

7

Sardinia

126

1

Grenoble -pu

1906

?

Gautschi et al., 2003

Sardinia

127

1

Grenoble -pu

1907

?

Gautschi et al., 2003

Sardinia

128

1

Paris -pu

1911

?

Pasquet, in litt.

Sardinia

129

1

Grenoble -pu

1912

?

Gautschi, 2001

Sulcis

130

1

Grenoble -pu

1913

?

Gautschi et al., 2003

Sardinia

131

1

Grenoble -pu

1925

?

Gautschi et al., 2003

Sardinia

132

1

Grenoble -pu

undated

?

Gautschi et al., 2003

TOTAL SPECIMEN

7

FRANCE

-

7

Sardinia

133

1

THE

Leiden -pu

1825-35

ad.

Van Grouw, in litt.

Sardinia

134

1

NETHER-

Leiden -pu

1825-35

juv.

Van Grouw, in litt.

Sardinia

135

1

LANDS

Amsterdam -pu

undated

F, ad.

Roselaar, in litt.

TOTAL SPECIMEN

3

-

3

Sulcis

136

1

SWEDEN

Stockholm -pu

1907

ad.

Frisk, in litt.

Supramonte

137

1

HUNGARY

(Budapest?) - pu?

1926

pullus

Stemmler, 1932

Ogliastra

138

1

UNKNOWN

?

< 1923

ad.

Stemmler, 1932

Gennargentu

139

1

UNKNOWN

Collezione Picchi ?

1896

M, ad.

Mingozzi, in litt.; Picchi, 1904

TOTAL SPECIMEN

122

17

139

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101

Annex 2. Feasibility evaluation of the reintroduction of the Bearded Vulture in 7 geographical areas of Sardinia/Italy, 1995-2004. GEOGRAFICAL AREAS CHARACTERISTICS - QUALITY (C) AND

SCORE (P)

CRITERIA A MONTE LIMBARA

B MONTI DI ALÀ

C MONTE ALBO

D SUPRA-

E

MONTE

GENNARGENTU c

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

150

1

300

2

150

gra

2

gra

2

lim, gra, sci

1

900

3

lim, gra, sci

dom, clf

3

dom, tab, clf

3

clf, can, dom

3

4001.362

2

5001.094

2

4001.127

1

cwq, mq

1

cwq, mq

SARRABUS GERREI QUIRRA

F MONTE LINAS

c

p

c

p

7

450

4

320

3

gra, mro, lim

3

sci, gra, lim

clf, can, dom, tab

3

clf, cue, tab, can

3

2

0-1.834

3

5001.069

1

mst,ma,cwq mq,fom

3

cwq, mq, fom

G SULCIS

c

p

3

300

2

3

gra, sci

2

clf, can, dom

3

clf, dom, can

3

2

4001.236

2

4001.116

2

1

mst, cwq, mq

1

mst, cwq

PHYSICAL CRITERIA surface (km2) geology

1)

2)

morphology

3)

altitudinal gradient (m)

4)

Partial score CLIMATE

5)

Partial score

8 mst, mq, cwq

1

9

1

9

16

1

3

12

1

11

1

9 1

1

1) SURFACE: up to 200 km2 (1 score); from 201 to 300 km2 (2 scores); from 301 to 400 km2 (3 scores); from 401 to 500 km2 (4 scores); from 501 to 600 km2 (5 scores); from 601 to 700 km2 (6 scores); > 700 km2 (7 scores). 2) GEOLOGY: lim = limestone; gra = granite; mro = metamorfic rocks; sci = schist: lim dominant: 3 scores; gra and mro dominant: 2 scores; sci dominant: 1 score; 3) MORPHOLOGY: clf = hill-ridge with high cliffs; canyons = can; cue = cuestas; sclf = seacliffs; dom = hill-ridge with gentle forms; tab = tableland; clf and can dominant: 3 scores; cue and sclf dominant: 2 scores; tab dominant: 1 score; 4) ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT: > 1.000 m (3 scores); 500-1.000 m (2 scores); < 500 m (1 score); 5) CLIMATE: ma = horizon of the littoral woodlands and "maquis”; fom = horizon of the mixed forests of evergreen sclerophills in the southern hot-dry sectors; mq = mesophylous horizon of the Quercus ilex forests; cwq = cold-wet horizon of the moun tain Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens forests, with relicts elements of the Quercus-Tilia-Acer and Laurocerasus belts; mst = climax of prostrate shrubs of Mediterranean mountain steppes, on the higher ridge beyond the timberline: 1-3 horizons (1 score); >3 horizons (3 scores).

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2004 Annex 2(2)

GEOGRAFICAL AREAS CHARACTERISTICS - QUALITY (C) AND

SCORE (P)

CRITERIA A MONTE LIMBARA

150KM2

B MONTI DI ALÀ 300KM2

C MONTE ALBO 150KM2

D SUPRA-

E

MONTE

GENNARGENTU 900KM2

SARRABUS GERREI QUIRRA 450KM2

F MONTE LINAS 320KM2

G SULCIS 300KM2

c

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

natural (nearly) ecosystems in % 6)

< 10

2

15

4

> 20

5

> 10

3

> 20

5

> 20

5

7)

< 70

3

> 50

2

< 80

3

< 70

3

> 70

3

> 70

3

> 70

3

transformed ecosystems 8)

> 20

-2

> 40

-2

10

-1

> 10

-2

20% (5 scores);

up to 30% (1 score); 30 to 60% (2 scores); >60% (3 scores);

ECOSYSTEMS:

HABITAT

11

(availabilty): h = high (5 scores); m = medium (3 scores); l = low (1 score);

after 1960 (3 scores); 1951 -1960 (2 scores); between 1940 and 1950 (1 score);

14) PRESENCE

OF

GRIFFON VULTURE: reg = regular (3 scores); irr = irregular (1 score); abs = absent (0 score);

15) PRESENCE

OF

GOLDEN EAGLE: up to 2 pairs (1 score); 3 - 4 pairs (2 scores); 5 - 6 pairs (3 scores); > 6 pairs (4 scores);

16) CARRYING

CAPACITY:

1 pair (1 score); 2 pairs (2 scores); 3 pairs (3 scores); 4 pairs (4 scores); >4 pairs (5 scores).

18

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Miscellaneous

103 Annex 2(3)

GEOGRAFICAL AREAS CHARACTERISTICS - QUALITY (C) AND

SCORE (P)

CRITERIA A MONTE LIMBARA

150KM2

B MONTI DI ALÀ 300KM2

C MONTE ALBO 150KM2

D SUPRA-

E

MONTE

GENNARGENTU 900KM2

SARRABUS GERREI QUIRRA 450KM2

F MONTE LINAS 320KM2

G SULCIS 300KM2

c

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

l

-1

mh

-3

l

2

ml

-1

ml

-1

l

2

ml

-1

l

-1

l

-1

l

-1

m

-2

l

-1

l

-1

l

-1

hunting 19)

l

-1

m

-2

l

-1

h

-3

m

-2

l

-1

h

-3

powerlines and windparks 20) poisoned baits 21)

m

-3

l

-1

abs

3

abs

3

abs

3

abs

3

abs

3

-2

irr

-3

ukn

-2

irr

-3

irr

-3

ukn

-2

ukn

-2

ACTUAL IMPACTS roads (density) 17) tourism

18)

ukn -8

Partial score

1

-10

-6

-4

1

-4

FUTURE IMPACTS l

-1

m

-2

abs

3

m

-2

l

-1

l

-1

l

-1

agriculture and forest transformations 23)

l

-1

l

-1

l

-1

l

-1

l

-1

l

-1

l

-1

tourism (new infrastructures) 24)

l

-1

abs

3

abs

3

m

-2

l

-1

l

-1

l

-1

hunting 25)

l

-1

m

-2

l

-1

m

.2

m

-2

l

-1

h

-3

new powerlines and windparks 26)

l

-1

h

-5

abs

3

abs

3

m

-3

abs

3

abs

3

ukn

-2

ukn

-2

ukn

-2

ukn

-2

ukn

-2

ukn

-2

ukn

-2

new roads

22)

poisoned baits

27)

Partial score

-7

-9

5

-6

-10

-3

17) ROADS (density): vh = very high (-5 scores); mh = medium-high = (-3 scores); ml = medium-low (-1 score); l = low (2 scores). 18) TOURISM: h = high impact (-3 scores); m = medium impact (-2 scores); l = low impact (-1 scores). 19) HUNTING: h = high impact (-3 scores); m = medium impact (-2 scores); l = low impact (-1 score). 20) POWERLINES AND 21) POISONED 22) NEW

BAITS:

ROADS:

WINDPARKS:

h = high impact (-5 scores); m = medium impact (-3 scores); l = low impact (-1 score); abs=absent (3 scores).

irr = irregular (-3 scores); ukn = unknown (-2 score).

h = high impact (-3 scores); m = medium impact (-2 scores); l = low impact (-1 score); abs = absent (3 scores).

23) AGRICULTURAL AND

FOREST TRANSFORMATIONS:

h = high impact (-3 scores); m = medium impact (-2 scores); l = low impact (-1 score).

24) TOURISM (new infrastructures): h = high impact (-3 scores); m = medium impact (-2 scores); l = low impact (-1 score); abs = absent (3 scores). 25) HUNTING: h = high impact (-3 scores); m = medium impact (-2 scores); l = low impact (-1 score); abs = hunting absent (3 scores). 26) NEW

POWERLINES AND WINDPARKS:

27) POISONED

BAITS:

h = high impact (-5 scores); m = medium impact (-3 scores); l = low impact (-1 score); abs = absent (3 scores).

ukn = unknown (-2 score).

-5

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2004 Annex 2(4)

GEOGRAFICAL AREAS CHARACTERISTICS - QUALITY (C) AND

SCORE (P)

CRITERIA A MONTE LIMBARA

150KM2

B MONTI DI ALÀ 300KM2

C MONTE ALBO 150KM2

D SUPRA-

E SARRABUS GERREI QUIRRA 450KM2

MONTE

GENNARGENTU 900KM2

c

p

c

p

c

p

msp

3

msp

3

mvu

1

ind

1

ind

1

ind

1

m

2

l

1

m

2

m

F MONTE LINAS 320KM2

G SULCIS 300KM2

p

c

p

c

p

c

p

msp

3

msp

3

mvu

1

mvu

1

ind/neg

-2

ind

1

ind

1

ind

1

2

m

2

m

2

m

2

c

SOCIOCULTURAL CRITERIA knowledge of the species

attitude to vultures

28)

29)

probable cooperation 30) Partial score

6

4

5

3

6

4

4

ACTUAL STRUCTURES ENTE FORESTE SARDEGNA 31)

pre

3

pre

3

pre

3

pre

3

pre

3

pre

3

pre

3

N.G.Os.32) Partial score

pre

3

abs

0

pre

3

pre

3

pre

3

pre

3

pre

3

6

6

3

6

6

6

6

LEGAL INSTITUTIONS 33)

oap, zor, zau

6

oap, zor, zau

6

zau

1

oap, zor, zau

6

oap, zor, zau

6

oap, zor, zau

6

oap zor, zau

6

environmental planning 34)

idr land

1 3

idr

1

idr land

1 3

idr land

1 3

idr land

1 3

Idr land

1 3

idr land

1 3

protected areas 35)

pSCI, (RP)

5 1

abs

0

pSCI, NRI

5 1

pSCI, (SPAp), (PN)

5 1 1

pSCI, (SPAp), (RP)

5 1 1

pSCI, (RP)

5 1

pSIC ZPS, (RP)

5 3 1

hunting institutions

Partial score

16

28) KNOWLEDGE

OF THE SPECIES:

29) ATTITUDE TO

VULTURES:

30) PROBABLE

DELLA

11

17

17

16

19

msp = memory of the species (3 scores); mvu = memory of vultures (1 score);

pos = positive (3 scores); ind = indifferent (1 score); ind/neg = indifferent-negative (-2 scores); neg = negative (-3 scores);

COOPERATION

31) ENTE FORESTE

7

(local): h = high (4 scores); m = medium (2 scores); l = low (1 score);

SARDEGNA: pre = present (3 scores); abs = absent (0 score);

32) N.G.O.s. (non governmental organizations): pre = present (3 scores); abs = absent (0 score); 33) HUNTING INSTITUTIONS: oap = oasi faunistica permanente (4 scores); zor = zona di ripopolamento e cattura (1 score); zau = zona in concessione autogestita (1 score). 34) ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING: idr = idrogeological legislation (1 score); vpa = landscape legislation (3 scores); 35) PROTECTED AREAS: pSCI = proposed Site of Community Importance (5 scores); SPA= Special Protection Area (3 scores); SPAp = Special Protection Areas proposed (1 scores); PN = National Park-instituted but not functioning (1 score); RP = regional park to be established (1 score); NRI= natural reserve to be established (1score); abs = absent (0 score).

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Bearded Vulture reintroduction project in Andalucia: results at the Breeding Centre Guadalentín by Alejandro Llopis *, Miguel Ángel Simón**, Fernando Bautista, Manuel del Barco, Elena Macías, Alfonso Godino, Antonio Lucio Carrasco, Francisco J. Hernández & Miguel Ángel Hortelano.

1. REPRODUCTION 2003/04: The CCG has worked with the same two reproductive pairs as in the 2002/03 breeding season: BG 124 x BG 041 and BG 186 x BG 153. Breeding related behaviour (copulations, incubation process and chick-rearing) was analysed using the same methodology as before.

COPULATING

BEHAVIOUR

As in previous years, copulations were divided into 3 I. II. III.

GROUPS:

Successful copulations: copulations with cloacal contact. Unsuccessful copulations: copulations without cloacal contact. Unclassified copulations: copulations which could not be directly observed.

BG 124, JOSEPH and BG 041, ZUMETA The different copulation-related parameters were analysed using this classification, in order to detect any possible anomaly which could lead to the loss of new chicks. Of all the parameters analysed, the following are highlighted: 2003/04

BREEDING SEASON Copulation period

5/11/03-6/01/04

No. of days with copulations

63 days

Percentage of daylight observation

93.6 % (35246 minutes)

Start of copulation-day before egg laying 49 days Successful copulations

223 (77.2%)

Unsuccessful copulations Unclassified copulations

43 (14.9%) 23 (7.9%)

Total no. Recorded copulations

289

No. Copulations/day

4.6

No. Copulations/hour

0.49

Min-max, No. Copulations/day

0-10

The pattern observed in the daily number of copulations was similar to that described in previous years, showing an increase in the number of successful copulations during the 2 to 3 weeks prior to laying. The percentage of the number of successful copulations (83.83%), which takes into account only the number of observed copulations (266), was also similar to the average from all cycles from 1998/99 until 2003/04 (83.82±6.18%; n=1438 observed copulations).

Fundación Gypaetus, Plaza de Santa María s/n, Apartado de Correos 15, 23470 Cazorla (Jaén). Spain *[email protected] , ** [email protected] WEB PAGE: www.gypaetus.org

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BG 286, CABÚS and BG 153, CORBA The same parameters relating to copulating behaviour were analysed for this pair: 2003/04

BREEDING SEASON Copulation period

9/10/03-21/12/04

No. of days with copulations

84 days

Percentage of daylight observation

87.6 % (44714 minutes)

Start of copulation-day before egg laying 67 days Successful copulations

114 (23.4%)

Unsuccessful copulations Unclassified copulations

304 (62.4%) 69 (14.2%)

Total no. Recorded copulations

487

No. Copulations/day

5.8

No. Copulations/hour

0.65

Min-max, No. Copulations/day

0-13

As in the previous year, substantial differences were detected between the two pairs: the pair formed by BG 286 and BG 153 showed a significantly lower percentage in the number of successful copulations (only 57.1% of a total of 98 observed) and showed increase in the number of successful copulations during the last 2 to 3 weeks prior to laying. The distribution of daily copulations follows a Gauss curve, the laying of the first egg coinciding with the lowest values for copulation (FIGURE 1), demonstrating, as in the previous year, that just one successful copulation per day is sufficient for an egg to be fertilized. In contrast, the first egg laid by the pair formed by BG 124 and BG 041 always coincides with the highest frequency of daily copulations (Report 2002, 2003).

18

100

16

90

14

80 70

12

60

10

50

8

40

6

30

4

20

2

10

0

0 Day

successful copulations unsuccessful copulations tendency of the total copulations / % of observation

Unclassified copulations % of observation

Figure 1. Number of registered copulations per day during the period 2003/04 (n=487). Black square: laying day.

CLUTCHES BG 124, JOSEPH and BG 041, ZUMETA The first egg was laid on 24th December 2003, within the normal date range (24th December ±5.46 days; n=12 clutches). The egg was removed the same day for artificial incubation. After 34 days, inspection with the ovoscope showed that the egg did not contain an embryo, so it was emptied and cleaned ready for storage. The same occurred with the second egg, which was laid on 30th December. The egg was also removed the same day for artificial incubation. After 28 days, inspection with the ovoscope showed that the egg contained no embryo, so it was also emptied and cleaned ready for storage. The third egg was laid on 7th January 2004. Immediately the female was removed from the aviary and the egg’s incubation was entrusted entirely to the male, who completed the process succes-

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sfully for a third consecutive year. After 24 days of incubation by Joseph, the egg was removed and substituted by a dummy egg, as Joseph had been observed manipulating the egg incorrectly. At 11:02 that morning, Joseph had interrupted the incubation for 7 minutes, he then entered the nest, lifted the egg in his beak and threw it against the side of the cage. He demonstrated his intention to resume incubating after a total of 8’50’’ by rearranging the wool in the nest. At this moment, the egg was removed. This proved to contain an embryo and was immediately incubated artificially until hatching, on 29th February. Zumeta, BG 041 manipulating an egg

BG 286 CABÚS and BG 153, CORBA The first egg was laid on 15th December and the second egg on the 23rd December 2003. Both eggs were incubated naturally until 3rd February 2004. On their removal from the nest, they were substituted by two dummy eggs. The first egg was rotten but the second contained an embryo, which hatched on 14th February.

INCUBATING BEHAVIOUR BG 124, JOSEPH and BG 041, ZUMETA As in the previous two years, the male incubated alone, although this time only for 24 days. The egg was removed after this time because the male was observed to manipulate it incorrectly. However, the incubation was closely monitored and all parameters were analysed, in particular the trend in the time spent not incubating each day and the number of daily interruptions, as in other years. During this period the percentage of non-incubating time and the number of interruptions per hour were higher than the in last two breeding seasons. However, this is due to the fact that the incubation period only lasted 24 days. At the beginning of the incubation period, the number of interruptions per hour is higher and does not stabilize until the second or third week (Report 2003). Likewise, the percentage of non-incubating time per day did not increase gradually as the incubation process progressed as in other years, because the period analysed was too short. Nevertheless, although the incubation period during this year was shorter, the trend in the mean length of interruptions was similar in all years. JOSEPH 01/02 JOSEPH 02/03 JOSEPH 03/04 Observation time in minutes

18708

22201

12387

No. of observation days

40

45

25

No. of interruptions

764

877

640

% time of non-incubation

8.73%

8.34%

10.9%

Average duration of the interruption

2.14 minutes

2.11 minutes

2.1 minutes

No. of interruptions per hour Variation of interruptions

2.25 7.51

2.34 8.24

3.1 7.28

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BG 286 CABÚS and BG 153, CORBA As in the previous year, it was the male who incubated for the most part of the day, as shown by the following table: BG 286

X

2003/2004

2002/2003

BG 153

Observation time in minutes

26040

25259

Breeding time for CABÚS in minutes

15953 (61.3%)

15890 (62.9%)

Breeding time for CORBA in minutes

8309 (31.9%)

7281 (28.8%)

No. of observation days

50

50

No. of interruptions

965

1304

% time of non-incubation

6.8%

8.3%

Average duration of the interruption

1.84 minutes

1.6 minutes

No. of interruptions per hour Variation of interruptions

2.22 2.28

3.1 1.51

The trends in the percentage of non-incubating time per day, in the number of interruptions per hour and day, and in the mean length of interruptions per day, were similar to those shown in the previous year, the highest values for the first two parameters being observed during the first few days of incubation, and values for the latter being stable throughout the incubation period.

HATCHING BG 124, JOSEPH and BG 041, ZUMETA At 21:00 on February 27th, the chick punctured the shell. Two days later, at 14:50, BG 439 hatched, weighing 152g. BG 286 CABÚS and BG 153, CORBA The chick punctured the shell in the early hours of 14th February (00:30 a.m.). The same day, at 07:30, the chick began to break the shell and finally hatched 8 hours later. This chick, BG 434, weighed 159g.

RESULTS, ADOPTION AND RELEASE BG 434 On 18th February, weighing 207g, this chick was offered to his parents, BG 186 X BG 153, for adoption, and was immediately accepted by them. The chick could be observed clearly until 16.00, alive and well. Between 16:00 and 17:27 the chick could not be seen clearly, as the male, Cabús, did not get up completely. Later, during a change-over which lasted 2 minutes and 10 seconds, the chick was not seen to move, which is unusual in chicks of this age. A check was immediately carried out and the chick was found to be dead in the nest, though its parents continued brooding. It had a fractured occiput. Judging by the behaviour of both parents, it was concluded that the chick was killed accidentally. The dead chick was removed and substituted by two dummy eggs, in order to maintain the pair as possible foster parent for later adoptions. A muscle sample was sent to the Estación Biológica de Doñana in order to sex the dead chick, which was found to be female. BG 439 As his natural father Joseph has shown a certain aggressiveness with chicks offered for adoption, this chick was adopted by the pair formed by Cabús and Corba on 6th March at 11:40; it weighed 248g. As the adoption process proved to be progressing successfully, the last checks were made at dusk the following, when the chick was offered a supplementary feed, as had been done the previous day. The chick was monitored continuously from the laboratory, using video cameras, during the first 21 of its life (the most vulnerable period for this species).

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When it was 23 days old, the chick was weighed again. It was found to be developing normally and weighed 1395g. When 54 days old, it was removed from the cage to take a blood sample for sexing. It now weighed 5kg. Both the Estación Biológica de Doñana and the laboratory at the Faculty of Science in Zurich sexed the chick as female. On 26th May (at 87 days old), the chick was given another check up before being sent to Austria for release en Martell (Tirol del Sur, Italia). It weighed 6035g. BG 439 was released with the name Ortler on 5th June along with BG 438, a male from La Garenne Zoo (Switzerland; see pages 30 and 52-55, this issue).

BREEDING

BEHAVIOUR OF THE IMPRINTED MALE

BG 217, GUALAY

For the first two years of the project, Gualay was kept in the same cage as BG223 whose abnormal behaviour was calmed by the presence of the other bird. There were no other birds to pair BG223 with. As a consequence, attempts to pair Gualay with his carer did not begin until the 98/99 season. Each year, mainly during the breeding season, the only person who entered the cage to feed and remain with the bird was the carer who paired with him. As the bird began to get used to his carer, their relationship became closer and at the end of the breeding season he allowed his carer into the nest. Towards the end of the following breeding cycle, Gualay rebuilt the nest with his carer at his side, but still did not accept the warmed dummy eggs which were offered to him. There were no great changes during the following two cycles. Each time he continued to rebuild the nest with his carer at his side. He first showed an interest for the dummy eggs which were offered to him in the 02/03 breeding cycle, almost lying down on top of them. The following table summarizes the amount time that has been spent working with him during the different breeding seasons: BREEDING

SEASON

TIME

IN MINUTES

AVERAGE

IN MINUTES

1998/1999

5695

57.5

1999/2000

4300

44.8

2000/2001

4682

43

2001/2002

2561

59.6

2002/2003

3236

55.8

/

SPENDING DAY

During the 03/04 reproductive cycle, the intensive work with Gualay began on 20th October, when he was observed to have already rebuilt the nest. A total of 5542 minutes (59.6 minutes/day) were spent working with Gualay. He continued to rebuild the nest with his carer and copulated with him for the first time on 29th December. The number of copulations per day with the carer increased as the days went by, with a maximum of 6 in a two hour period. On 22nd January, at 10 years of age, he accepted a dummy egg for the first time and incubated it perfectly until 16th March, taking turns with his carer without incident. As there were no chicks for adoption, it was not possible to test Gualay’s capacity as a foster parent. However, experience with other human-imprinted birds in the EEP has proved to be positive, and therefore it can be assumed that Gualay is a potential candidate for future adoptions. Gualay could also incubate naturally the eggs taken from Zumeta in future cycles, as long as Zumeta’s egg-laying coincides with Gualay’s incubation, thus increasing the female’s reproductive success.

RESULTS

FROM THE NEWLY ESTABLISHED PAIRS DURING THE

2003/2004

REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

On 21st November 2003, a new female BG 132 arrived at the centre, from Dresden Zoo (Germany) after the death of her partner (18-05-02). She was at least 36 years old. This female had arrived in Dresden with her partner BG 131 on 24-8-73, from Tallin Zoo, as arranged by Moscow Zoo. During the period from 1987/88 until 1999/2000, the female laid 16 eggs, from which 10 chicks hatched, 9 of them surviving. With the arrival of this new female at the CCG, the unsuccessful attempts to form a breeding pair between BG 223 and BG 103 were halted and the male (BG 223) was paired with BG 132. 1. The pair formed by PINETA (BG 232) – a male from Aragon and member of the male pair – and KENO (BG 329), born in 1999, showed no sign of mating until the end of November 2003. They then both started showing an interest in the nest, bringing material, and preening each other.

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PINETA’S first interest in copulation was observed on 14th December, three weeks earlier than in the previous breeding season. There is much hope for this pair in the future. 2. The attempt to mate DAMA (BG 103), an adult female born in 1988, with a new adult male, TUS (BG 223), in the presence of the young female SALVIA, BG 360, was again unsuccessful. Using the same technique which had been apparently been successful with the female BG 278, TÍSCAR, of pairing her with a younger male, DAMA was paired with the young male TEJO (BG 371). The male has proved to be dominant from the very beginning. The results will not be evident until 2 or 3 breeding cycles have passed. 3. TUS (BG 223) was offered the recently arrived female BG 132, SEGURA. The female weighed only 5.5kg and showed signs of malnutrition, probably because she had been kept in a cage with other species of raptor in Dresden Zoo. Right from the start, the female demonstrated her dominance and ate all she could find in her cage. For the first month, the male slept away from the nest and out of the female’s field of vision, but from 17th December onwards, he started sleeping on a perch by the nest. The female has always slept in the nest. The attempt to offer them a dummy egg at the beginning of February was unsuccessful. The have more recently been observed lying in the nest together. 4. TEYO (BG 172) and SABINA (BG 290) have demonstrated the same behaviour as last year, sleeping at least two metres apart, thus showing initial signs of pair-bonding. However, the female is very dominant. 5. The pair bonding process between the young male LAZARO (BG 362) with the female TÍSCAR (BG 278), was very encouraging during the breeding season: the pair have been seen preening each other several times and they sleep less than half a metre apart. However, as soon as the male began to moult and develop his adult plumage, with white feathers appearing on his head, the female began to attack him and push him out of the nest. 6. BOROSA (BG 337) and TOBA (BG 317), both born in 1999, have again shown signs of nestbuilding, bringing materials and arranging them in the nest. There are great hopes for this pair in the future. 7. Also ELÍAS (BG 313) and VIOLA (BG 330), both born in 1999, have shown signs of mating behaviour, though not as clearly as the previous pair. 8. After rearing, the two chicks hatched in the previous cycle, TRANCO (BG 410, male of 50% pyrenean lineage) and MARRAC (BG 412, female of 100% pyrenean lineage), were placed in the same cage to encourage pairing.

The Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) reintroduction project in Andalusia by Miguel Simón (*), Francisco J. Hernández (*), Miguel Yanes (*), Alejandro Llopis (*), Antonio Carrasco (**), Mariló Romero (***), Alfonso Godino (*), José E. Gutiérrez (**), Antonio Valero (*), Francisco Molino (*), Ernesto Saenz (*), Fernando Bautista (*), Manuel del Barco (*), Elena Macías (*), Miguel Hortelano (*), Manuel López (**) & Esperanza Jiménez (**)

The last Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) was seen over the mountains of Cazorla in 1986; the following year there were no sightings. It was then that the Reintroduction Project for the species began. Following IUCN recommendations, the Project is divided into a series of activities:

* Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía, Fuente del Serbo, 3, 23009 Jaén (España), [email protected] ** Gypaetus Fundation: fundació[email protected]; www.gypaetus.org *** [email protected]

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FEASIBILITY STUDIES: First, GIS based models were used to identify potential areas in Andalusia, then systematic field sampling in these areas was undertaken to collect information on threats, possiblehacking sites, feeding areas, etc. THE FIGHT AGAINST POISONS AND OTHER THREATS: A specific strategy was initiated in 2004 to fight against the use of poisoned bait and to control other threats such as electricity cables, nuisances, etc. "GUADALENTÍN” BREEDING CENTRE (CENTRO DE CRÍA "GUADALENTÍN”) (CCG): which has 24 birds, 19 from the FCBV, which came from the Vienna Breeding Unit and other centres associated with the EEP, 3 from the Autonomous Regions in the Pyrenees and 2 which were born in the CCG. The CCG has also sent 2 of its chicks for release in the Alps Reintroduction Project (Hohe Tauern National Park, 2003 and Stelvio National Park, 2004). INFORMATIVE CAMPAIGNS: Campaigns intended to reach all sectors of the public affected (hunters, shepherds, school children, etc.) are being carried out in order to inform the local population about the Project and to encourage them to accept it as theirs. The Project has received 75% of its financing for the next 5 years (2004-2009) from the European Union through the Life Nature Programme. FEASIBILITY STUDIES: The Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) was a common species in Andalusian mountain chains, especially in the Penibetical mountain range in which they bred till beginnings of the XIX century. At the end of this century the population started to decrease (direct and indirect human persecution) until its extinction. The last Andalusian Bearded Vulture survived in the Natural Park of Cazorla, Segura y las Villas, Jaén, until middle of the 80ths in 1986. The feasibility studies carried out in 1991 in this Natural Park gave a positive results for its reintroduction, with an estimated loading capacity of 13 to 15 pairs. This study also recommended to include the rest of the Andalusian mountains as potential reintroduction areas to ensure the long-term viability of the future population. Thus, in 2001 and during two years, the Autonomical Government of Andalusia led the research of the rest of the Andalusian mountains. The aim of these studies were to detect the most favourable areas for the reintroduccion of the Bearded Vulture. For this purpose, statistical model on breeding site selection was applied to the andalusian territory with the help of Geographical Information Systems, GIS. In the areas selected by the statistical model any potential threats like use of poisons, power lines, public areas, roads, forest tracks, and any other potential infrastructure or human activitiy was collected during the field work. Food availability, broken bones sites, and hacking sites were evaluated as well. The areas selected by the statistical model were roughly the same known through historical data. Moreover, these areas are currently, and to a great extent, protected areas. Four of these protected areas were recommended as the most suitables areas to start the reintroducction program. All these areas are situated in eastern Andalusia. THE

FIGHT AGAINST POISONS AND OTHER THREATS:

Placing poisoned bait in the natural environment is still a relatively common practice in southern Europe. Hunters and farmers use poison to control abundant predators like foxes. However, several endangered species, particularly scavengers, also suffer the consequences of this illegal practice. To decrease the incidence of this problemn and facilitate a succesful reintroduction of the Bearded Vulture in Andalusia, the Andalusian Ministry of Environment has designed a "shock plan” called "Strategy for the erradication of illegal use of poisoned baits in Andalusia”. This strategy contains 61 specific actions and it entails an important level of coordination between the various National Administrations, including the executive, judiciary, and police levels. Among other questions, this initiative contemplates a better control of the sale of herbicides and pesticides that are likely to be used in baits, the creation of a team specialized in selective predator control,

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the creation of a dog-team trained to detect poisons, a widespread availability of toxicology tests and, specifically, toughening of all sanctioning procedures. The strategy is implemented regionally. It is being prepared for the whole of Andalusia, although it will be implemented with special intent in those counties where the Bearded Vulture reintroduction is inminent.

JUNTA DE ANDALUCIA

Consejería de Medio Ambiente

Phylogeography, genetic structure and diversity in the endangered Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, L.) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA by José A. Godoy*, Juan J. Negro**, Fernando Hiraldo**, José A. Donázar**

Bearded Vulture populations in the Western Palearctic have experienced a severe decline during the last two centuries that has led to the near extinction of the species in Europe. In this paper we analyze the sequence variation at the mitochondrial control region throughout the species range to infer its recent evolutionary and to evaluate the current genetic status of the species. This study became possible through the extensive use of museum specimens to study populations now extinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two divergent mitochondrial lineages, lineage A occurring mainly in Western European populations and lineage B in African, Eastern European and Central Asian populations. The relative frequencies of haplotypes belonging to each lineage in the different populations show a steep East-West clinal distribution with maximal mixture of the two lineages in the Alps and Greece populations. A genealogical signature for population growth found for lineage B but not for lineage A and the Clade B haplotypes in Western populations and clade A haplotypes in eastern populations are recently derived, as revealed by their peripheral location in median-joining haplotype networks. This phylogeographic pattern suggests allopatric differentiation of the two lineages in separate Mediterranean and African or Asian glacial refugia, followed by range expansion from the latter leading to two secondary contact suture zones in Central Europe and North Africa. High levels of among population differentiation were observed, although these were not correlated with geographical distance. Due to the marked genetic structure, extinction of Central European populations in the last century resulted in the loss of a major portion of the genetic diversity for the species. We also found direct evidence for the effect of drift altering the genetic composition of the remnant Pyrenean population after the demographic bottleneck of the last century. Our results argue for the management of the species as a single population, given the apparent ecological exchangeability of extant stocks, and support the ongoing reintroduction of mix ancestry birds in the Alps and planned reintroductions in Southern Spain. CENTRO

DE

CRÍA "GUADALENTÍN” (CCG):

The GUADALENTÍN BREEDING CENTRE (CCG), run by the Consejería de Medio Ambiente (CMA), Junta de Andalucía, is located in the Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas Natural Park (Jaén). The CCG came into operation on 8th December 1996 and now has 20 cages with 24 Bearded Vultures (13 males and 11 females): 18 from the Foundation for the Conservation of the Bearded Vulture (FCBV), one from the Aragonese government, two from the Catalan government, one from Jerez Zoo, and two which were born in the Centre itself. The Centre has formed part of the EEP since 1999; its main objectives are to form breeding pairs, to function as genetic reserve and as a refuge for individuals with physical disabilities or with behavioural problems, pairing these birds with the most suitable breeding partner, to work with human-imprinted birds and to adopt chicks from the possible excess of other Centres. Studies undertaken during the last six breeding seasons have involved 10.021 hours of observation of pair A, which includes a female with abnormal behaviour, and two other pairs (B, a natural pair and C, a pair of males). These have enabled the pair A male to incubate and rear three chicks on his own during the last three cycles, two of which have been released in the Alps. Pair B has also produced offspring, with one of their two chicks surviving, and four chicks of varying origins have been adopted. * Laboratory of Molecular Ecology. Estación Biológica Doñana, CSIC. Pabellón del Perú. Avda. María Luisa, s/n. 41013 Seville, Spain. ** Department of Applied Biology. Estación Biológica Doñana, CSIC. Pabellón del Perú. Avda. María Luisa, s/n. 41013 Seville, Spain. * Author for correspondence: e-mail: [email protected]; Fax: + 34 95 462 11 25

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DE DIVULGACIÓN:

The IUCN advises that a species should only be reintroduced when the factors which caused its extinction have been eliminated. Over 90% of Bearded Vulture deaths are caused by human factors, mainly by poisoning and shooting. In an effort to improve this situation, in January 2002 the FUNDACIÓN GYPAETUS initiated its Social Education Programme for the Bearded Vulture Reintroduction Project in Andalusia. In order to maximize the impact of the awareness campaigns the Programme divides the general public into different target groups, based on their supposed influence on the success of the Reintroduction Project, on their accessibility and on how effectively the Programme campaigners could achieve their objectives with them: primary and secondary school pupils, university students, teachers, forest wardens, the Civil Guard, the regional police force, public prosecutors, judges and magistrates, hunters, game wardens, game managers, stockbreeders, shepherds, local councils, environmental groups, rural tourism and outdoor pursuit ventures and journalists. A series of specific actions were then designed for each social and age group in each locality, along with other general actions on which all the others were based. More than 24,000 people have participated directly in these activities, in addition to those who have attended expositions, information stands, read related newspaper articles and radio and television audiences of programmes in which the Project has participated.

Annual Report of the Breeding Centre Naturund Tierpark Goldau, Switzerland, 2004 by Felix Weber *

BG 174134135 x BG 118154155 First egg on 12th of February 2004. Natural breeding and hatching on the 4th of April 2004 after 52 days. Offspring Hubertus BG 446 (male) was released in Kals on the 1st of July 2004 (p. 27-28, this issue). BG 060034035 x BG 276199107 One egg on 14th of January 2004, was found broken on the ground of the aviary. 2nd clutch on the 4th of February 2004, natural breeding and hatching on the 29th of March 2004 after 54 days. Both of the adults were extremely nervous (it was their first hatching). It seemed that they did not know what to do with the chick. The female started to take the chick out of the nest. We tried to put some meat on the rim of the nest, without success, the chick was killed by the male 30 minutes after hatching. On the 15th of April 2004, BG 145131132 (male) arrived from Basel Zoo to form a new pair with BG 091. Up to December 2004 both of the birds live together in good harmony. We are looking with hope to the next breeding season. TELEMETRIE-RESEARCH On the 13th of July 2004, two offspring arrived from Prag and Liberec for the final telemetry tests with the RAPPOLE-SYSTEM (see report of DANIEL HEGGLIN, p. 52-55), BG 436180274 and BG 437180274. Both of these birds were transported to Haringsee on the 25th of November 2004.

* Natur- und Tierpark Goldau am Rigi, Postfach 161, CH-6410 Goldau, Switzerland, [email protected]

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Ecological requirements of reintroduced species and the implications for release policy: the case of the bearded vulture Published in Journal of Applied Ecology 2004 41, 1103–1116 © 2004 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. by A. H. Hirzel*†, B. Posse ‡, P.-A. Oggier ‡, Y. Crettenand §, C. Glenz ¶ & R. Arletttaz *‡**

SUMMARY 1. Species undergoing reintroduction offer a unique opportunity for clarifying their specific niche requirements because they are likely, if sufficiently mobile, to colonize the most suitable habitats first. Information drawn from the individuals released first might thus be essential for optimizing species’ policy as reintroductions proceed. 2. Bearded Vultures were extirpated from the European Alps about a century ago. An international reintroduction programme using birds reared in captivity was launched in 1986; up to 2003, 121 individuals had been released at four different locations. Subsequent dispersion throughout the range has been far from homogeneous, resulting in a clumped occurrence of the first breeding pairs within three main zones that do not necessarily coincide with release areas. 3. In order to discern ecological requirements we performed a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of Bearded Vulture sightings collected in Valais (Swiss Alps) from 1987 to 2001. This area harbours no release site, is situated in the core of the Alpine range and has been visited by birds from all four release points. 4. During the prospecting phase (1987–94, mostly immature birds), the most important variable explaining Bearded Vulture distribution was ibex biomass. During the settling phase (1995 –2001), the presence of birds (mostly maturing subadults) correlated essentially with limestone substrates, while food abundance became secondary. 5. The selection of craggy limestone zones by maturing Bearded Vultures might reflect nesting sites that are well protected against adverse weather, as egg laying takes place in the winter. Limestone landscapes, in contrast to silicate substrates, also provide essential finely structured screes that are used for bone breaking and temporary food storage, particularly during chick rearing. Finally, limestone substrates provide the best thermal conditions for soaring. 6. Synthesis and applications. Extrapolated to the whole Alpine range, these findings might explain both the current distribution of the subadult/adult population and the absence of breeding records for Bearded Vultures around release sites in landscapes dominated by silicate substrates. As reintroduced Bearded Vultures tend to be philopatric, we suggest that population restoration would be more efficient if releases were concentrated within large limestone massifs. This case study of the Bearded Vulture illustrates the need for continual adaptive management in captive release programmes. CORRESPONDENCE: Raphaël Arlettaz, Zoological Institute, Division of Conservation Biology, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland (fax +41 31 631 45 35; e-mail [email protected]).

REMARKS OF THE EDITORS: In point 6, synthesis and applications, the authors suggest to shift release sites to landscapes with large limestone massifs. Consequently they assume a more efficient population restoration. The evaluation of release areas used so far was done after a careful research analysing a rather long list of criteria being important for the Bearded Vulture So all principle requirements have been taken into consideration (MUELLER & BUCHLI 1982). Amongst them there is one, being a „condition sine qua non“ for the functioning of the release technique used in our project (modified hacking back): the existence of a MAXIMUM OF NATURAL FOOD RESSOURCES in the release area (mainly wild ungulates and domestic ones, especially sheep). This is an indispensable requirement for the emancipation of the released juveniles. MÜLLER, J. P. & C. BUCHLI (1982): Zwischenbericht Projekt Bartgeier. Vergleich von fünf potentiellen Wiedereinbürgerungsgebieten im Alpenraum. WWF Projekt Nr. 1657, Frankfurter Zoologische Gesellschaft Nr. 832/78. p. 1-100.

* Zoological Institute–Conservation Biology, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland † Laboratory of Conservation Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ‡ Bearded Vulture Network Western Switzerland, Nature Centre, CH-3970 Salgesch, Switzerland § Game, Fishery and Wildlife Service, Canton of Valais, Rue de l’Industrie 14, CH-1950 Sion, Switzerland ¶ Laboratory of Ecosystem Management, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ** Swiss Ornithological Institute, Valais Field Station, Nature Centre, CH-3970 Salgesch, Switzerland

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Status and conservation of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis in Lesotho by Grzegorz Kopij *

BEARDED VULTURES

IN

AFRICA

The Bearded Vulture, or LAMMERGEIER (in Sesotho: NTSU), occurs in the southern Palaercitic and in the Afrotropical Region. In the latter area, its range is discontinuing. Relatively large and stable population occupies the Ethiopian Highlands, where in early 1990’s it was estimated at 1400-2200 pairs (FERGUSON-LEES & CHRISTIE 2001). Two other isolated populations, one in the Eastern African Plateau and the other in Drakensberg/Maloti Mountains, are much smaller and less stable. In Eastern African Plateau, a few pairs occupy each of the following inselbergs and mountains: Kilimanjaro, Mt. Meru, Mt. Elgons, Mt. Kenya, the Cheranganis and the Lolodaiga Hills. An estimate total of 20-30 pairs are left today in this region (BROWN ET AL. 1982, ZIMMERMAN et al. 1996). The remaining, most isolated African population is the second largest African population in this continent and occupies the Drakensberg/Maloti region of the Kwa-Zulu Natal, Eastern Cape, Free State and Lesotho. In early 1980’s the whole population was estimated at c. 200 pairs, 60% of which nested in Lesotho (BROWN 1992). The Lesotho population has however continually declined over the past 20 years. In this paper, I attempt to estimate its present status in this region. This estimate is based on my own records made during my stay in Lesotho in the years 1998-2002, and on other mainly unpublished reports from the second half of 1990’s. LESOTHO: A MAIN STRONGHOLD THERN AFRICAN POPULATION

OF

SOU-

Lesotho is an enclave within the Republic of South Africa. The lowest point is at 1388 m a. s. l., while the highest (Thabana Ntlenyana) at 3 482 m a. s. l. It is the only country in the world with all its land situated more than 1000 m a. s. l. Lesotho has a surface of 30 300 km2 which can be divided into four physical regions: the mountain, foothills, Senqu valley and the lowlands (Fig. 1). The basaltic mountains, called Maloti or Drakensberg (two-thirds of the total area), make up of five ranges: Drakensberg, Southern Border (these two form the Great Escarpment), Front, Thaba Putsoa and Central Range (FIGURE 1). The Lowlands (below 1 800 m a. s. l.) form the eastern part of the High Veld and falls entirely below the Figure 1. Physical regions in Lesotho, with marked areas, where Bearded Vulcreamy-white sandstone cliffs of the tures were counted during the years 1998-2002 (numbered as in Table 1). Grey Clarens Formation. The foothills zone – Senqu Valley; 17-20 – lowlands; 16 – foothills; 1-14 – mountains. (with the Makhaleng Valley) extends across mainly flat plateaus to steep slopes which rise to its eastern boundary on the watershed of the Front Range of the Maloti. The Senqu Valley with its mainly sedimentary rocks is actually the area within the Maloti below 1 800 m a. s. l., where summer wheat is not grown. The natural vegetation of the Lowlands and the lower Senqu Valley is the Highveld Grassland (also called Moist Cold Highveld Grassland or Cymbopogon-Themeda Veld), most of which is at present converted into cultivated fields. The Afroalpine Grasslands (called also Themeda-Festuca Alpine Veld) correspond to the summit plateau over 2 500 m a. s. l. The Afromontane Grasslands (called * Department of Zoology & Ecology, Agricultural University of Wroc_aw, ul. Ko_uchowska 5b, 51-631 Wroc_aw, Poland; [email protected]

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also Alti Mountain Grassland) consist of remainder of the Maloti, foothills and the upper Senqu Valley. PRESENT

STATUS OF THE

BEARDED VULTURE

IN

LESOTHO

The first literature record of the Bearded Vulture in Lesotho goes back to 1903 (CLANCEY 1966). A first very rough, but conservative estimate of the Lesotho population, at least 20 breeding pairs, has been made by CLANCEY (1966) in 1960’s. L. H. BROWN (1977) gave first reliable estimate of c. 100 breeding pairs for this country. C. J. BROWN (1992) confirmed this estimate in 1980’s. Based on more precise calculations, he arrived to the number – 122 breeding pairs. The estimate was, however, not so accurate as the precise number might suggest. Furthermore, a rapid population increase in 1980’s and 1990’s caused a decline of the Bearded Vulture, especially apparent in the Lowlands, Foothills and in the Senque Valley. Its present status needs therefore to be revised. Instead of a strict protection, the well- known site in the Maphotong Gorge in the Roma Valley has been disused from 1983 as a result of human disturbance (GUY 1974, KOPIJ 2001). In the second half of 1990’s only two other sites in the Lowlands were known to be still occupied: Bitso-Lebe (17 km E of Teyateyaneng) and Machache (25 km E of Maseru). In the Foothills, the Bearded Vulture population has also suffered a marked decline. In late 1990’s, only two pairs were known in this zone (TABLE 1). Also in the whole Senqu Valley, a few pairs only were left in late 1990’s (TABLE 1). Maphotong Gorge in the Roma Valley a former traditional breeding site of Bearded VultuAt present, about 90% of all breeres disused from 1983 as a result of human disturbance. ding pairs of Bearded Vultures inhabit the Highlands zone in Lesotho. In the course of surveys carried out in 13 places in this zone (FIGURE 1), 27-35 breeding sites have been recorded (TABLE 1). In the Malibamatso valley (today Katse Dam catchment area, with a surface of 1 600 m2), during the years 1991-92, 2-3 breeding pairs were recorded, i. e. 1.3-1.9 pairs per 1 000 km2. The area is located between 2 000 and 3 100 m a. s. l. and is deeply incised by the Malibamatso and Bokong rivers and their tributaries. The land is steeply sloping there and soil shallow. It is underlain by basalts of the Karoo Sequence. Annual rainfall increases there with the altitude from 600 to 1 200 mm. Summers are mild and wet, while winters cold and dry. Snow can occur at any time of the year. About 18 000 people inhabits the basin. One of the highest concentration of breeding Bearded Vultures in Lesotho is reported, however, from the other basin, the Jordane/Bekong/Senqunyane catchment area (planned as Mohale Dam basin), in habitat similar to that in the Katse Basin. During the years 1995-96, nine pairs (i. e. 8.0 pairs per 1 000 km2) were recorded as nesting there (ALLAN et al. 1996). Smaller areas with relatively high concentration of breeding Bearded Vultures were reported also from the Upper Quthing Valley (10.0 pairs per 1 000 km2), Sehonghong/Matabeng area (7.5 pairs per 1 000 km2) and the Upper Senque River (3.8 pairs per 1 000 km2). Based on densities recorded from the Katse and Mohales Dams basins (TABLE 1), an average 4.4 pairs per 1 000 km2 was calculated for these areas. This figure is however not representative for the whole Highlands. During the years 1986-89, OSBORNE & TIGAR (1990) did not record even the presence of any Bearded Vulture in 15 out of 33 quarter-degree square grids (each grid = 24 x 27.5 km, i. e. 660 km2) in the Highlands. In areas around Semonkong Thaba Tseka. Mafika/Lisiu,

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Table 1. Population size of the Bearded Vulture in selected areas in Lesotho during the years 1996-2002.

NO.

NAME

OF THE AREA

APPR. SIZE (KM2)

NUMBER OF PAIRS

SOURCE

HIGHLANDS

9020

27-35

1

Liqobong valley

100

1

2

Mafika-Lisiu arae

500

0

BARNES, 1998

3

Katse Dam catchment area

1600

2-3

ALLAN et al. 1996

4

Mohale Dam catchment area

1120

9

TARBOTON et al. 1996

5 6

Mokhotlong area Upper Senqu valley

800 800

2-3 3-5

G. KOPIJ BARNES, 1998

7

Thaba-Tseka area

700

1-2

G. KOPIJ

8

Sani Pass area

700

0

G. KOPIJ

BARNES, 1998

9

Sehonghong/Matabeng area

400

3-5

BARNES 1998, G. KOPIJ

10

Senqunyanye river from Marakabei to confluence with Senque

700

1

ALLAN et al. 1996

11

Semonkong area

1100

2

G. KOPIJ

12

Sehlabathebe National Park and neighbouring area

200

0

KOPIJ 2002

13

Upper Quthing valley

300

3-4

G. KOPIJ

SENQU VALLEY

3700

2

14

Lower Senqu valley

3000

1

G. KOPIJ

15

Middle Senqu valley from confluence of Senqunyane to Mt. Moorosi

700

1

ALLAN et al. 1996

16

FOOTHILLS Mahaleng valley

1500 1500

2-3 2-3

G. KOPIJ

17

LOWLANDS Butha Buthe/Leribe districst

6454 1 654

1-3 0-1

G. KOPIJ

18

Teyateyaneng district

1000

0-1

G. KOPIJ

19

Maseru district

2000

1-2

KOPIJ 2001, G. KOPIJ

20

Mafikeng/Mohale’s Hoek districts

1 800

0

G. KOPIJ

TOTAL

20664

32-43

Senqunyanye river from Marakabei to confluence with Senque, and especially in the Afroalpine Grasslands, Bearded Vultures breed in densities lower than one pair per 1000 km2. These areas occupy more than half of the Highlands zone (cf. Table 1). Taking this into account, the whole Highlands population of the Bearded Vulture can be estimated at 50-60 pairs, which gives an average density of 2.2-2.7 pairs per 1 000 km2. With the remaining 510 pairs in other parts of the country, the whole Lesotho Semonkong Gorge, a well-known breeding colony of Bearded Vultures, Bald Ibises, Black population can be therefore estiStorks and formerly Cape Vultures. mated at 55-70 breeding pairs. This constitutes roughly half of the number reported from1980’s

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2004 (BROWN 1992). The discrepancy between BROWN’S (1992) and the presented estimate is due mainly to a real decrease in the number of breeding Bearded Vultures over the past 20 years or so. BROWN (1992) could have also slightly overestimated the real number in 1980’s, if he had focused more on these areas in Lesotho, where Bearded Vultures bred in higher densities. CONSERVATION OF THE BEARDED VULTURE IN LESOTHO

In Lesotho, the Bearded Vulture is legally protected under the Proclamation of Monuments, Relics, Fauna and Flora (Legal Notice 36 of 1969; Laws of Lesotho 14 of 1969, p. 338-339). This proclamation is written in English

Upper Mahkaleng river valley near Machache, one of a few remaining breeding sites of the Bearded Vulture in the foothills.

Table 2. Estimated number of Bearded Vulture breeding pairs during the years 1996-2002 in various biomes in Lesotho.

AREA (KM2)

PROPORTION

OF

THE COUNTRY

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF BEARDED VULTURE PAIRS

Highveld Grassland

6941

23.5

2-5

Mountain Grassland

22607

76.5

53-65

15489

52.4

50-60

7118

24.1

0

4

0.0

0

29558

100.0

55-70

Afromountain Grassland Afroalpine Grassland Other biomes

TOTAL

and unfortunately has not been translated into Sesotho (the mother tongue of almost all Basotho which constitute 98% of Lesotho population). Furthermore, it is now out of print and so that only a few legal scholars know it today. If an ordinary villager knows about this proclamation, it may be because unwitting infringement and consequent punishment. For instance, in 1980, a man was arrested for possessing five skins of the Bearded Vulture and one each of the Cape Vulture and the Black Eagle, caught with a metal spring-trap baited with goat flesh. The skins had been brought from a shepherd who trapped the birds near Tsoafo, Leribe district (AMBROSE 1983). Resentment is understandable in such circumstances, and may prevent its implementation. The important Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was signed by Lesotho but never ratified simply for too high cost of its implementation. Lesotho has only one national park – Sehlabathebe (65 km2) and five small reserves. The total surface of these protected areas, 106 km2, is an equivalent to only 0.35% of Lesotho’s land. Even so, all breeding sites of the Bearded Vulture are outside these reserves and the park. As more than 60% of all Bearded Vultures in southern Africa occur in Lesotho, Basotho have an international responsibility for the welfare and protection of this charismatic species. Places with high concentrations of breeding pairs, such as the Mohale and Katse Basins, Upper Quthing and Senqu rivers, the Sehonghong/Matabeng area or the Semonkong Gorge should be protected as nature reserves or even as national parks (the Upper Senqu river, and the Mohales Dam).

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There are many other endangered and rare animal and plant species in these areas (BARNES 1998, KOPIJ 2001), although full documentation of their flora and fauna is still lacking. REFERENCES AMBROSE D. (1983). Lesotho’s Heritage in Jeopardy. Maseru: Protection and Preservation Commission. ALLAND D., SPOOTTISWOODE C. & WHITTINGTON P. (1996). Birds. pp.59-79. In: Lesotho Highland Water Project, final report, contract no. 1008, baseline biology survey and reserve development, In the past creamy-white sand-stone cliffs of the Clarens formation in the High Veled phase 1B, vol. 6: downstream studies. (lowlands) were also occupied by the Bearded Vultures. Darling (South Africa): AfriDev. Consultans. ALLAN D., JENKINS K., BARNES K. & WHITTINGTON P. (1996). Birds. pp.116-173. Lesotho Highland Water Project, final report, contract no. 1008, baseline biology survey and reserve development, phase 1B, vol. 3: Fauna. Darling (South Africa): AfriDev. Consultans. ALLAND D., SPOOTTISWOODE C. & WHITTINGTON P. (1996). Birds. pp.59-79. In: Lesotho Highland Water Project, final report, contract no. 1008, baseline biology survey and reserve development, phase 1B, vol. 6: downstream studies. Darling (South Africa): AfriDev. Consultans. BARNES K. N. (1998). Important bird areas of Lesotho. pp. 281-294. In: The Important Bird Areas of Southern Africa. Johannesburg: BirdLife South Africa. BONDE K. (1993). Birds of Lesotho: a guide distribution past and present. Pietermaritzburg: Natal Univ. Press. BROWN C. J. (1992). Distribution and status of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in southern Africa. Ostrich, 63(1): 1-9. BROWN L. H. (1977). The status, population structure and breeding dates of the African lammergeier, Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis. Raptor Research, 11(3): 49-58. CLANCE Y P. A. (1966). The lammergeier in South Africa. Bokmakierie, 18(3): 60. FERGUSON-LEES J. & CHRISTIE D. A. (2001). Raptors of the Worlds. London: Christopher Helm. GUY J. J. (1974). The lammergeyer (seoli) in Lesotho. Linonyana tsa Lesotho, 1(2): 4. KOPIJ G. (2001). Birds of Roma Valley, Lesotho. Roma (Lesotho): Department of Biology, National University of Lesotho. 40 pp. KOPIJ G. (2001). Areas Proposed for Environmental Education and Biodiversity Conservation in Maseru District, Lesotho. P.150-167. In: Mokuku T., Bitso L. and Lana A. F. (eds.). Environmental Education for Sustainable Development: African Perspectives. Maseru, October 2001. KOPIJ G. (2002). The birds of Sehlabathebe National Park, Lesotho. Koedoe, 45: 65-78. LOW A. B. & REBELO A. G. (1996). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Pretoria: Dept. of Environm. Affairs. ORBORNE P. E., TIGAR B. J. (1990). The status and distribution of birds in Lesotho. Unpubl. rep. TARBOTON W. R., VERON C. T., ALLAN D. & LITTLER R. M. (1993). Final Report: baseline biological survey, fauna and flora, Lesotho highlands Water Phase 1A, Contract no. 75, Vol. 7: Birds. Johannesburg: Loxton, Venn & Assoc. ZIMMERMAN D. A., TURNER D. A., & PEARSON D. J. (1996). Birds of Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Halfway House: Russel Firedman Books.

Photos were made by the author.

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Soaring to Extincton: The population status of the Bearded Vulture, Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis, in southern Africa by Sonja Krüger * & Douglas van Zyl

INTRODUCTION Study area The authors work for a provincial conservation body within the western part of the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN)province, which includes the Drakensberg escarpment. Most of the KZN section of the escarpment is a protected area called the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park. The Park is a World Heritage Site (WHS) and is part of a Transfrontier conservation area with Lesotho. The Park is a WHS for its biodiversity and cultural values. It has over 2000 species of plants of which 98 are endemic to the Park, and 119 species are internationally threatened. 300 bird species are recorded in the Park of which 10 are listed as globally threatened / endangered. 48 species of mammals occur in the Park. There are over 600 rock art sites within the park with over 35 000 San rock art images which are up to 2500 years old. The UDP is also part of the Maloti Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation area. The

VISION

of the Transfrontier Conservation Project is:

Establish a framework for co-operation between Lesotho and South Africa to ensure the protection and sustainable use of the natural and cultural heritage of the Maloti-Drakensberg Mountains for the benefit of present and future generations. The

OBJECTIVES

of the Transfrontier Conservation Project are:

Conserve globally significant biodiversity Conserve globally significant Cultural Heritage Contribute to community development through sustainable livelihoods VULTURE SPECIES The two vulture species that occur in the Drakensberg are the Cape Griffon Vulture, Gyps coprotheres and the Bearded Vulture, Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis. Although the presentation concentrates on the Bearded Vulture, the trends are similar for both species since they occupy the same niche in this environment. POPULATION

STATUS

The Bearded Vulture is endangered according to the IUCN categories of threat. It has been classified as such due to its small and declining population size, restricted range, range contraction, and susceptibility to several threats in Lesotho and South Africa. CHRISTOPHER BROWN found there to be 204 breeding pairs in the 1980’s; 122 in Lesotho, 42 in KwaZulu-Natal (37 in UDP), 17 in Eastern Cape, 6 in Free State, 4 in QwaQwa, 16 in North Eastern Cape. The Cape Griffon Vulture is classified as vulnerable. 90% of the world’s population occurs in southern Africa. The bird is extinct in some provinces and countries of Southern Africa and the population has shown major declines in the rest of its range. During the 20th century the number of Cape Griffon roosting and breeding sites has declined from 441 to 167. Its range has contracted throughout South Africa and Lesotho and approximately 3000 pairs remain. The species is declining by 0.75 birds per year. There has been a 20% population decline in last three generations, qualifying it as Vulnerable. Threats to the species include food * KZN Wildlife, P.O. Box 13053, Cascades, 3202, South Africa, [email protected]

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shortages, electrocutions, poisonings, drownings and disturbance at breeding and roosting sites. PREVIOUS RESEARCH Detailed research into the biology, population structure, distribution and feeding ecology of the Bearded Vulture was undertaken in the Drakensberg in the early 1980s by BROWN (1988). BROWN, in a later paper, documented the decline in the range of the species and the number of individuals, and listed several threats responsible for this (BROWN 1991). No further research or formal monitoring was undertaken until 2000. Results from recent surveys indicate that population numbers are still declining along the Drakensberg escarpment. Without the immediate implementation of conservation measures, this isolated population could soon become extinct in southern Africa. MONITORING PROGRAMME A monitoring programme was implemented in 2000. The programme aims to determine the status and distribution of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park and surrounding areas. DISTRIBUTION The African subspecies G. b. meridionalis, occurs south of the Tropic of Cancer. The race meridionalis has an isolated population in southern Africa whose breeding range is confined to about 35 000 km2 in the Drakensberg and Maloti mountains of the KwaZulu-Natal province and Lesotho (BARNES 2000). This race also occurs peripherally in the Eastern Cape and the Free State province. The foraging range of the Bearded Vulture in southern Africa is about three times larger than its breeding range, some 100 000 km2 (Brown 1992). Historically, the distribution of the Bearded Vulture in southern Africa was far more widespread (BROWN 1991). The species has lost 38% of its former breeding range, approximately 21 000 km2, mainly in the Eastern and Western Cape. The Bearded Vulture is currently extinct in Western Cape (c. 1940), it has declined dramatically in the Eastern Cape (VERNON & BOSHOFF 1997), and it no longer breeds in the Free State (COLAHAN & ESTERHUIZEN 1997). In Lesotho sightings in the lowlands are rare and some nesting sites are no longer used (MAPHISA 1997). Although the reasons for this large range contraction are not well understood, it is thought that displacement by humans and livestock at lower altitudes and the degeneration of many of its habitats were the main causes (MUNDY et al. 1992). POPULATION SIZE Apart from the aerial and ground surveys undertaken by Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife staff from 2001 to 2004, no formal surveys have been undertaken to determine the population status of the Bearded Vulture in southern Africa. KRÜGER and VAN ZYL (2004) estimate the UDP WHS population to be approximately 23 pairs, two-thirds of BROWN’S (1992) estimates. Overall in SA, the decline seems to be almost 50% because it no longer occurs in three of the six provinces where it used to occur in South Africa and numbers have declined drastically in the other two provinces where sightings re reported to be rare. Similar results are assumed for Lesotho based on results of limited surveys being undertaken there. Although the number of individuals is a minimum estimate, the indication is that there has been a dramatic decline in Bearded Vulture numbers since 1994. Trends for the Cape Griffon are similar to that of the Bearded Vulture indicating that the decline in numbers is continuing. Monitoring results indicate that there is definite evidence of continuing declines, the threats have not been addressed and new threats have been identified. A number of threats (listed below) are assumed to have negatively affected the breeding success and increased the mortality of the population.

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These include human disturbance and persecution, deliberate and unintentional poisoning coupled with limited conservation efforts/initiatives. THREATS Most Important Threats - Poisoning (Lesotho and South Africa) - Other forms of persecution - Food shortage as a result of habitat change & poverty Other Threats – Vulture restaurant management (including veterinary drugs) – Disturbance by air traffic (helicopters) – Disturbance at nests by climbers & stock farming – Powerline collisions – Limited conservation efforts – Traditional medicine BROWN (1991, 1997) found that poisoning accounted for a high percentage (68%) of known deaths, as well as certain animal population control methods (BROWN 1991). BROWN (1991) suggests that the injudicious use of poison by farmers was the driving force in the species becoming extinct from areas in which they used to occur. BROWN (1991) also reported disturbance during the breeding season where eggs were stolen and young birds attacked by vandals. MAPHISA (1997) reported similar trends in Lesotho, namely the direct persecution of adults and robbing nests of chicks and eggs. The deliberate shooting of vultures, for traditional medicine, food and ceremonial purposes, is a serious and increasing threat in Lesotho (MAPHISA 1997, MUNDY et al.1992). In the Eastern Cape (VERNON & BOSHOFF 1997) found stock farming to negatively impact the birds by disturbance at the nest. Although none of the above mentioned threats are recent reports (post 1997), they have not been adequately addressed over the past few years and there is no reason to suggest that they no longer pose a threat to the current population. Deliberate poisoning appears to be an ongoing threat in Lesotho. In South Africa, unintentional poisonings may pose a threat to Bearded Vulture feeding at vulture restaurants. The latter poisonings refer to the carcasses of stock that have been treated with certain veterinary drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that have been shown to be lethal to certain species of vultures. Disturbance by climbers and air traffic (in particular helicopters) has been known to cause nest site desertion and / or increased egg and chick predation by ravens and/or crows in Europe (MARGALIDA & GARCIA 1999). Although the impact of the above has not been quantified for the Drakensberg Escarpment, it does cause concern because these impacts may displace birds and force them to move into areas of unfavourable environmental conditions and higher human population densities which in turn may affect their breeding and the conservation of the species. Powerline collisions also account for a few deaths. WAY FORWARD Research – THREATS: Traditional medicine, poisonings Indiscriminate poisonings and nest disturbance must be addressed both within Lesotho and South Africa. The threats to the birds in terms of their use in traditional medicine need to be addressed as a matter of priority.

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– SATELLITE TRACKING of young birds (foraging range) A study on the foraging range of young birds would provide useful information which can be used to address the threats to this age class in an attempt to reduce the high mortality experienced by them. CONSERVATION INITIATIVES – Vulture restaurant management Restaurant management must be monitored continually and the establishment of new restaurants should be encouraged. It is however critical that the correct type of food is placed at these sites. – Extensive surveys in Lesotho & continue baseline survey in South Africa – Conservation areas in Lesotho The Maloti Drakensberg Transfrontier Project should be used as a vehicle to encourage conservation areas in Lesotho, suggested by BROWN (1989), which will protect the entire range of a few pairs. In addition, the project could facilitate future monitoring efforts such as road counts and nest site surveys, as well as initiatives aimed at addressing the threats to Bearded Vulture in Lesotho. – Develop conservation plans for both species CAPTIVE

BREEDING

& RE-INTRODUCTIONS

The southern African Bearded Vulture population is a small and isolated one which is habitat bound and therefore can be seriously affected by episodic events. To reduce the possibility of such events affecting the entire population, the possibility of establishing pairs in the areas of former occupation should be considered. However, re-introductions should only be considered if the original factors resulting in the bird’s extinction from the areas have been adressed. PHOTO: S. KRÜGER, SOUTHAFRICA

Douglas van Zyl at Greys Pass

CONCLUSION Although the presentation shows that data are not available for the entire southern Africa, the recent surveys indicate a decline in numbers, and that several threats to the population have not been adequately addressed. The Bearded Vulture is a specialised species in terms of its habitat requirements and food choice, and conservation areas cannot adequately contain a pair of Bearded Vulture nor provide sufficient food throughout the year (BROWN & PLUG 1990). Management and conservation of the population must therefore rely on partnerships between conservation organisations and landowners. These partnerships together with education and awareness programmes and a concerted effort to address the threats to the species will go a long way to ensuring their long-term survival. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge KZNW, the Wildlands Trust, Sasol through the Vulture Study Group and the MDTP for financial assistance with the monitoring programme.

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The FCBV Annual Meeting by Paolo & Laura Fasce*

On the 15th of October 2004, the FCBV Annual Meeting took place in Termignon, Savoie, Vanoise, France, where it was hosted by the National Park de la Vanoise. The President of FCBV, MAARTEN BIJLEVELD VAN LEXMOND, opened the meeting, and said to be happy to be able to see old as well as new friends of the Bearded Vulture. He especially welcomed the Directors of participating Zoological Gardens present, DR. FELIX WEBER of Goldau, Switzerland, and MATI KAAL, Tallinn Zoo, Estonia, and the South-African ornithologists SONJA KRÜGER and DOUGLAS VAN ZYL. The communications, which can be found in this same Bulletin, were presented as listed in the Agenda underneath: Morning Chairman: Maarten BIJLEVELD VAN LEXMOND, President of FCBV Results of breeding and reintroduction in 2004 FREY Hans (Austria): " The reproduction in the breeding centres " KNOLLSEISEN Michael (Austria): "The reintroduction in Kals and the breeding failure in the wild " HEGGLIN Daniel, SWILD-urban ecology & wildlife research (Switzerland): " The reintroduction in Martell, National Park Stelvio (Italy) " GARDET Patrick, ASTERS (France): "The reintroduction in Haute-Savoie (France) " MARTINELLI Laura & GIRAUDO Luca, Natural Park Alpi Marrittime. (Italy): "The reintroduction in Argentera (Italy)" The reproduction in the wild in 2004 GUNSCH Hanspeter (Italy): "The reproduction in Stelvio National Park (Italy) " ZIMMERMAN Marie, ASTERS (France): " The reproduction in Haute-Savoie (France) " DALIX Jean François, SURET Henri & SANTINI Joris, National Park de la Vanoise (France): " The reproduction in Vanoise " COULOUMY Christian, National Park Ecrins (France): " The Bearded Vulture in Hautes-Alpes and Isère (France) " FASCE Paolo, BERGESE Franco & BORNEY Stefano: " Evolution of territorial pairs in the Italian Western Alps " RAZIN Martine, Coordination Casseur d'os/LPO-FIR (Pyrenees, France): " The reproduction in the Pyrenees" Monitoring ZINK Richard, National Park Hohe Tauern (Austria) : "The results of monitoring " Afternoon – first part Chairman: Maarten BIJLEVELD VAN LEXMOND, President of FCBV FCBV’s strategy for the next 5-10 tears Paolo FASCE, Hans FREY & Michel TERRASSE: "FCBV’s future strategy for the conservation of the Bearded Vulture and the other European Vulture species in Europe "

* Via G. d´Annunzio 2/112, I-16121 Genova, ITALIA, [email protected]

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Afternoon – second part Chairman: Paolo FASCE, Secretary of FCBV SCHENK Helmar (Italy): "Feasibility study for the reintroduction of the Bearded Vulture in Sardinia " SEGUIN Jean François, Natural Regional Park Corsica (France): "Evaluation of the extinction risk and of conservation alternatives for the population of Bearded Vulture in Corsica " ARLETTAZ Raphaël, Swiss Ornithological Institute (Switzerland): " Ecological needs of reintroduced species and the implications of reintroduction strategies: the case of Bearded Vulture " HEGGLIN Daniel, SWILD-urban ecology & wildlife research (Switzerland) : " Monitoring Argos of the Bearded Vulture : tests of technical fixing on captive birds and first results with marked juveniles " PAOLO FASCE closed the meeting, warmly thanking the National Park Vanoise for the hospitality and the perfect organization of the Meeting, the attendants and the interpreters.

Flute sounds, coming from a Bearded Vulture bone by Friedrich Seeberger *

A special exhibition was opened in the Württembergisches Landesmuseum Stuttgart (Germany; http://www.landesmuseum-stuttgart.de/) on 4th of November 2004. The exhibition was named: „The Swan-Wing-Bone-Flute“. A variety of young-palaeolithical flutes, coming from Isturitz, French Pyrenees and from Grubgraben close to Kammern, Austria are shown, amongst them one found in Geißenklösterle, Schwäbische Alb, Germany, which is 35.000 years old. The flute found in Geißenklösterle, manufactured from the radius of a whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) and the one found in Grubgraben, made from a tibia of a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were the role models for playable replicas, which can be heared in the exhibition. It was of utmost interest to produce a playable replica of the best preserved flute of Isturitz, which is made from the ulna of a Bearded Vulture. In order to get the most true to original copy, we contacted the responsible persons of the Bearded Vulture Reintroduction Project in Austria, Switzerland, Spain and Germany. Thanks to DR. HANS FREY, from the Institute of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria, we received the ulna of a Bearded Vulture (BG 013, originating presumably from the former Sovjetunion, male, founder, received on 8th of May 1979 from Ouwehand Dierenpark Rhenen in the Netherlands. The bird died on 17th of December 1985). The replika was manufactured using the drawings of Dom. Buisson. The preserved distal end of the original flute shows that it was played as angular flute without any apparatus for blowing. This technique of playing a flute is used for the bone and wood flutes by herdsmen and nomads of the Mediterraneans up to present times. Such flutes are known under the names FLOJÉRA (Greek), NAY (Arabic) or KAVAL (Persian). The following sounds can be played on the „Bearded-Vulture-Bone-Flute“: F-sharp´´, G-sharp´´, Asharp´´, C-sharp´´´, D-sharp´´´, F´´´, G´´´, A´´´, C-sharp´´´, D´´´. The irregular gaps between the grip holes point to the fact that young-paleolithical constructors of flutes searched for acceptable sounds. The result of the playing on this replica showed that they found the sounds. The exhibition in the Württembergisches Landesmuseum is opened until 31st of January 2004. Afterwards it will be a moving exhibition with first stops in Switzerland.

* Württembergisches Landesmuseum Stuttgart, Schillerplatz 6, D-70173 Stuttgart, BRD. [email protected]

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BG 087 x BG 054 in the Breeding Centre Haute Savoie, France

Photo: MARIE ZIMMERMANN, ASTERS, FRANCE

Bearded Vulture Annual Report 2004 Publisher:

Foundation for the Conservation of the Bearded Vulture (F.C.B.V) Wassenaar, The Netherlands

Editors:

H. FREY*, G. SCHADEN* & M. BIJLEVELD VAN LEXMOND** * Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Wien, Austria. ** FCBV, 46, Pertuis - du - Sault, CH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland

Layout:

G. SCHADEN

Print:

GUGLER print & media Pielach 101, A-3390 Melk, Austria Copies available from Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Wien, Austria)

Copyright © by Foundation for the Conservation of the Bearded Vulture

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