BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE BEAMS REINFORCED

0 downloads 0 Views 179KB Size Report
1-Exposure to attack by chlorides or other aggressive chemicals ..... because the reinforcement bars behaved linearly elastic up to failure. The bars either.

6WUXFWXUDO &RPSRVLWHV IRU ,QIUDVWUXFWXUH $SSOLFDWLRQV 'HFHPEHU   $VZDQ (J\SW

0(6&

%(+$9,285 2) &21&5(7( %($06 5(,1)25&(' 86,1* /2&$//< 352'8&(' *)53 %$56









$PU 5LDG  6KHULI $EG (OQDE\  *RXGD *KDQHP  DQG $PU 6DODPD  /HFWXUHU $VVLVWDQW (O$]KDU 8QLYHUVLW\ &DLUR (J\SW  $VVRFLDWH 3URI +HOZDQ 8QLYHUVLW\ &DLUR (J\SW  3URIHVVRU DQG 3UHVLGHQW RI +HOZDQ 8QLYHUVLW\ &DLUR (J\SW

$%675$&7

$ GHWDLOHG H[SHULPHQWDO LQYHVWLJDWLRQ RI WKH XVH RI ORFDOO\ PDQXIDFWXUHG *)53 EDUV LQ UHLQIRUFLQJ FRQFUHWH EHDPV LV FRQGXFWHG %HDPV ZHUH ORDGHG LQ IRXU SRLQW EHQGLQJ 7KH EHKDYLRXU ZDV PRQLWRUHG DQG WKH HIIHFW RI EDU GLDPHWHU UHLQIRUFHPHQW DUHD DV ZHOO DV GHYHORSPHQW OHQJWK ZDV FRQVLGHUHG 7KH UHVXOWV RI WKH LQYHVWLJDWLRQ VKRZ WKDW WKH XVHG EDUV SRVVHVV D ORZ VWUHQJWK DQG WKXV SUHYHQW WKH DSSOLFDWLRQ RI WKH UHFHQW DSSURDFK RI DFKLHYLQJ GXFWLOLW\ E\ GXFWLOH FRQFUHWH FUXVKLQJ ,Q DGGLWLRQ VKHDU VWUHQJWK RI WKH EHDPV ZDV IRXQG WR EH DIIHFWHG E\ WKH ORQJLWXGLQDO UHLQIRUFHPHQW UDWLR .H\ZRUGV *)53 %DUV )53 ± 5& %HDPV )ODQJHG %HDPV

,1752'8&7,21

*HQHUDO

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

KDV EHHQ XQGHUZD\ VLQFH  DW WKH )DFXOW\ RI (QJLQHHULQJ RI +HOZDQ 8QLYHUVLW\ LQ 0DWDUH\D ,Q WKDW SURJUDP *)53 EDUV KDYH EHHQ PDQXIDFWXUHG LQ WKH ODERUDWRU\ XVLQJ ORFDO PDWHULDOV DQG WKH\ ZHUH XVHG WR UHLQIRUFH FRQFUHWH EHDPV 7KH SUHVHQW SDSHU JLYHV WKH UHVXOWV RI WHVWLQJ WKH EHDPV XQGHU VWDWLF ORDG RQO\ 2EMHFWLYHV

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

%HDP 'LPHQVLRQV DQG 5HLQIRUFHPHQW

7KH H[SHULPHQWDO SURJUDP FRQVLVWHG RI QLQH EHDPV RI WKH VDPH OHQJWK DQG DOO KDYLQJ D 7VKDSHG FURVV VHFWLRQ 7KH EHDPV ZHUH GLYLGHG LQWR WKUHH VHWV 6HW , ZDV XVHG WR VWXG\ WKH HIIHFW RI ERQG VWUHQJWK VHW ,, ZDV XVHG WR VWXG\ WKH HIIHFW RI GHYHORSPHQW OHQJWK DQG VHW ,,, ZDV XVHG WR VWXG\ WKH LVVXH RI GXFWLOLW\ 2QH VWHHO UHLQIRUFHG EHDP ZDV DOVR WHVWHG IRU FRPSDULVRQ 7KH GHWDLOV RI WKH WHVWHG EHDPV DUH VKRZQ LQ )LJXUH  DQG LQ 7DEOH     

$



   



 



 



   

$

 

$ V 6K R Z Q % O

6 H F W LR Q $ $

 

 

 

% % 6

 ' LD  % ' /

 

% ' 

 ' LD  % ' / % % 6

% % 6

6HW ,

 ' LD  % % 6   ' LD  % ' /

6HW ,, )LJXUH  'HWDLOV RI 7HVWHG %HDPV

 

% % 6

% ' 

 

6HW ,,,

7DEOH  6XPPDU\ IRU ([SHULPHQWDO 3URJUDP 1R 6HW %HDP %RWWRP 1RWHV ,QYHVWLJDWHG 3DUDPHWHU  5HLQIRUFHPHQW  , %6WHHO  'LD  PP 6WHHO $OO 5HLQIRUFHPHQW  $OO %%6  'LD  PP 5HIHUHQFH %HDP $OO IRU DOO VHWV  , %%6  'LD  PP %RQG  , %%6  'LD  PP %RQG  ,, %'/  'LD  PP ' /  'HYHORSPHQW /HQJWK  ,, %'/  'LD  PP ' /  PP 'HYHORSPHQW /HQJWK  ,, %'/  'LD  PP '/  PP 'HYHORSPHQW /HQJWK  PP LQ DLU  ,,, %'  'LD  PP 8QGHU UHLQIRUFHG 'XFWLOLW\  ,,, %'  'LD  PP 2YHU UHLQIRUFHG 'XFWLOLW\ '/ 'HYHORSPHQW /HQJWK 8VHG 0DWHULDOV

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











3UHSDUDWLRQ RI WKH %HDPV

:RRGHQ IRUPV ZHUH XVHG DQG WKH FRQFUHWH ZDV PL[HG PHFKDQLFDOO\ 7KH EHDP ZHE ZDV SRXUHG ILUVW DQG FRPSDFWHG DQG DIWHU WKDW WKH IODQJH ZDV FDVW DQG FRPSDFWHG $ PHFKDQLFDO YLEUDWRU ZDV XVHG WR HQVXUHG IXOO FRPSDFWLRQ RI FRQFUHWH 7KH EHDPV ZHUH OHIW IRU RQH ZHHN LQ WKH ZRRGHQ IRUPV DQG ZHUH FXUHG E\ VSULQNOLQJ ZDWHU WZLFH D GD\ IRU WKH ILUVW ZHHN DQG RQFH D GD\ IRU DQRWKHU ZHHN 7KH EHDPV ZHUH OHIW IRU DW OHDVW WZHQW\ HLJKW GD\V EHIRUH WHVWLQJ





)LJXUH  /RDGLQJ 6HWXS 7HVWLQJ )UDPH DQG 6XSSRUWLQJ (OHPHQWV

7KH VWUXFWXUDO WHVWLQJ IUDPH LQ WKH 0DWHULDOV 7HVWLQJ /DERUDWRU\ RI WKH )DFXOW\ RI (QJLQHHULQJ RI +HOZDQ 8QLYHUVLW\ LQ 0DWDUH\D ZDV XVHG IRU WHVWLQJ 7KH WHVWLQJ IUDPH DQG WKH ORDGLQJ VHWXS DUH VKRZQ LQ )LJXUH  

6LGH 9LHZ

(OHYDWLRQ

'HPHF 3RLQWV RQ &RQFUHWH 6XUIDFH 6WUDLQ *DXJHV RQ 5HLQIRUFHPHQW

'LDO *DXJH IRU 3ODQ

'HIRUPDWLRQ

)LJXUH  'HWDLOV RI 0HDVXUHPHQWV 0HDVXUHPHQWV

(OHFWULFDO VWUDLQ JDXJHV ZHUH XVHG WR PHDVXUH VWUDLQV LQ VWHHO DQG *)53UHLQIRUFLQJ EDUV ,Q DGGLWLRQ 'HPHF SRLQWV ZHUH JOXHG RQ WKH FRQFUHWH VXUIDFH WR PHDVXUH FRQFUHWH VWUDLQV DW HDFK ORDG LQFUHPHQW 2QH GLDO JDXJH ZDV XVHG WR PHDVXUH WKH YHUWLFDO GHIOHFWLRQ DW PLG VSDQ )LJXUH  VKRZV WKH ORFDWLRQV RI WKH HOHFWULFDO VWUDLQ JDXJHV WKH 'HPHF SRLQWV DQG WKH YHUWLFDO GLDO JDXJH RQ WKH EHDPV 7HVWLQJ WKH %HDPV

/RDGLQJ ZDV DSSOLHG LQFUHPHQWDOO\ XS WR IDLOXUH $W HDFK LQFUHPHQW GHIOHFWLRQ EDU VWUDLQ DQG FRQFUHWH VWUDLQ ZHUH PHDVXUHG LQ WKH ORFDWLRQV VKRZQ EHIRUH LQ )LJXUH   7KH ORDG DQG ORFDWLRQ RI WKH ILUVW FUDFN ZHUH UHFRUGHG DQG WKH SURJUHVVLRQ RI FUDFNLQJ ZDV WUDFHG XQWLO WKH EHDP FROODSVHG 5(68/76 $1' ',6&866,21

&UDFNLQJ %HKDYLRXU

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

)LJXUH  'RZHO )DLOXUH %%6 )LJXUH  )OH[XUH ± 6KHDU )DLOXUH %%6 7DEOH  )DLOXUH &KDUDFWHULVWLFV RI 7HVWHG %HDPV %HDP )DLOXUH )DLOXUH 0RGH 1RWHV /RDG W %VWHHO  &UXVKLQJ RI FRQFUHWH FRPSUHVVLRQ @ ,I WKLV LV DFKLHYHG E\ RYHU UHLQIRUFHPHQW WR VXSSUHVV WKH EULWWOH IDLOXUH RI WKH EDUV FRQFUHWH PXVW EH PDGH PRUH GXFWLOH HLWKHU E\ ODWHUDO FRQILQHPHQW RU E\ UHLQIRUFLQJ LW ZLWK VKRUW UDQGRPO\ GLVWULEXWHG ILEHUV >@ 7KLV VKDOO DOVR LPSURYH WKH GXFWLOLW\ RI VKHDU IDLOXUH /RDG6WUDLQ 5HODWLRQVKLS

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





















%%6



%%6



%'



%'/



%'/

Load

/RDG WRQ

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

%%6







BD  BDL  BDL  BDL  Bsteel



 

BD 



%VWHHO 

BBS 



%'/



BBS 

 

%'



BBS 



6WUDLQ









      

Deflection (mm )

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

7KH IROORZLQJ FRQFOXVLRQV FDQ EH GUDZQ IURP WKLV VWXG\ 7KH FRQFOXVLRQV DUH EDVHG RQ WKH H[SHULPHQWDO UHVXOWV GHVFULEHG LQ WKLV VWXG\ DQG FRQILQHG WR WKH *)53 EDUV PDQXIDFWXUHG DW WKH 0DWHULDOV 7HVWLQJ /DERUDWRU\ DW 0DWDUH\D IRU WKLV UHVHDUFK 7KH IDLOXUH RI *)53 UHLQIRUFHPHQW EDUV PD\ EH HLWKHU EDU IUDFWXUH LQ IOH[XUH VSDQ RU EDU VKHDULQJ XQGHU FRPELQHG IOH[XUH DQG VKHDU DW VKHDU FUDFNV 7KH ODFN RI GXFWLOLW\ LQ EHDPV UHLQIRUFHG XVLQJ PDQXDOO\ PDQXIDFWXUHG ORZ VWUHQJWK EDUV LV YHU\ VHULRXV

7KH UHOLDQFH RQ GXFWLOH FRQFUHWH FUXVKLQJ LQ IODQJHG VHFWLRQV LV TXHVWLRQDEOH )RU WUDGLWLRQDO VSDQ WR GHSWK UDWLRV DSSOLHG ORFDOO\ EULWWOH VKHDU IDLOXUH VKDOO SUHYDLO LQ *)53 UHLQIRUFHG EHDPV GXH WR WKHLU ORZ D[LDO VWLIIQHVV 'HVLJQ JXLGHOLQHV IRU )53 UHLQIRUFHG FRQFUHWH VWUXFWXUHV PXVW EH EDVHG RQ D JOREDO YLHZ FRYHULQJ DOO PDWHULDO FRPELQDWLRQV DQG PDQXIDFWXULQJ WHFKQLTXHV 7KH IROORZLQJ UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV DUH JLYHQ WR JXLGH IXWXUH ZRUN ,W LV UHFRPPHQGHG WR LQYHVWLJDWH WKH LQWURGXFWLRQ RI SVHXGR GXFWLOLW\ LQ ORZ VWUHQJWK *)53 EDUV  ,W LV UHFRPPHQGHG WR VWXG\ LPSURYHPHQW RI WKH VKHDUIOH[XUH VWUHQJWK RI *)53 EDUV DQG KHQFH LWV GRZHO UHVLVWDQFH  ,W LV UHFRPPHQGHG WR GHYHORS RI JHQHUDO JXLGHOLQHV IRU VKHDU VWUHQJWK HVWLPDWLRQ IRU )53 UHLQIRUFHG FRQFUHWH EHDPV 5()(5(1&(6

>@ $EG (OQDE\ 6 ) 0  ³6WDWH 2I 7KH $UW 5HSRUW 2Q 7KH 8VH 2I )LEHU 5HLQIRUFHG 3RO\PHUV )RU 5HLQIRUFLQJ &RQFUHWH 6WUXFWXUDO (OHPHQWV´ 6XSUHPH &RXQFLO RI 8QLYHUVLWLHV >@ .RKO 0  ³7KH 8VH 2I *ODVV )LEHUV )RU 5HLQIRUFLQJ &RQFUHWH´ /D 7HFKQLTXH 0RGHUQH &RQVWUXFWLRQ 9RO 1R  >@ 1DZ\ (* 1HXZHUWK *( DQG 3KLOOLSV &-  ³%HKDYLRU 2I *ODVV )LEHU 5HLQIRUFHG &RQFUHWH %HDPV´ -RXUQDO 2I 7KH 6WUXFWXUDO 'LYLVLRQ $6&( 9RO 6HSW   SS  >@ 1DZ\ (* DQG 1HXZHUWK *(  ³)LEHU *ODVV 5HLQIRUFHG &RQFUHWH 6ODEV $QG %HDPV´ -RXUQDO 2I 7KH $6&( 6WUXFWXUDO 'LYLVLRQ )HE   SS >@ $&, &RPPLWWHH   ³6WDWH 2I 7KH $UW 5HSRUW 2Q )LEHU 5HLQIRUFHG 3ODVWLF 5HLQIRUFHPHQW )RU &RQFUHWH 6WUXFWXUHV´ $PHULFDQ &RQFUHWH ,QVWLWXWH  >@ $&, &RPPLWWHH   ³*XLGH )RU 7KH 'HVLJQ DQG &RQVWUXFWLRQ 2I &RQFUHWH 5HLQIRUFHG :LWK )53 %DUV´ $PHULFDQ &RQFUHWH ,QVWLWXWH -DQ  >@ (66  ³2UGLQDU\ 3RUWODQG &HPHQW $QG 5DSLG +DUGHQLQJ 3RUWODQG &HPHQW´ (J\SWLDQ 2UJDQL]DWLRQ )RU 6WDQGDUGL]DWLRQ DQG 4XDOLW\ &RQWURO &DLUR (J\SW >@ (66  ³1DWXUDO $JJUHJDWHV IRU &RQFUHWH´ (J\SWLDQ 2UJDQL]DWLRQ )RU 6WDQGDUGL]DWLRQ DQG 4XDOLW\ &RQWURO &DLUR (J\SW >@

(66



³6WHHO

%DUV

IRU

&RQFUHWH

5HLQIRUFHPHQW´

(J\SWLDQ

2UJDQL]DWLRQ

)RU

6WDQGDUGL]DWLRQ DQG 4XDOLW\ &RQWURO &DLUR (J\SW >@ (66  ³&RQFUHWH 7HVWLQJ 0HWKRGV´ (J\SWLDQ 2UJDQL]DWLRQ )RU 6WDQGDUGL]DWLRQ DQG 4XDOLW\ &RQWURO &DLUR (J\SW >@ %HQPRNUDQH % &KDDOODO 2 DQG 0DVPRXGL 5  ³)OH[XUDO 5HVSRQVH 2I &RQFUHWH %HDPV 5HLQIRUFHG :LWK )53 5HLQIRUFLQJ %DUV´ $&, 6WUXFWXUDO -RXUQDO 9RO 1R -DQ)HE   3 >@ /DUUDOGH - DQG 6LOYD5RGULJXH] 5  ³%RQG $QG 6OLS 2I )53 5HEDUV ,Q &RQFUHWH´ -RXUQDO 2I 0DWHULDOV ,Q &LYLO (QJLQHHULQJ 9RO  1R  )HEUXDU\   SS >@ +RXVLQJ DQG %XLOGLQJ 5HVHDUFK &HQWHU ³(J\SWLDQ &RGH 2I 3UDFWLFH )RU 7KH 'HVLJQ $QG ([HFXWLRQ 2I 5HLQIRUFHG &RQFUHWH &RQVWUXFWLRQV´ (&&6  >@ 6WUDWIRUG 7 DQG %XUJR\QH &  ³6KHDU $QDO\VLV RI &RQFUHWH :LWK %ULWWOH 5HLQIRUFHPHQW´ )LIWK ,QW 6\PS RQ )LEHU 5HLQIRUFHG 3RO\PHU IRU 5HLQIRUFHG &RQFUHWH 6WUXFWXUHV )535&6  7KRPDV 7HOIRUG /RQGRQ   >@ 3LODNRXWDV . *XDGDJQLQL0

DQG :DOGURQ 3  ³'HVLJQ 3KLORVRSK\ )RU 7KH 'HVLJQ RI

)53 5& (OHPHQWV´ 7KH ,QW :RUNVKRS RQ 6WUXFWXUDO &RPSRVLWHV IRU ,QIUDVWUXFWXUH $SSOLFDWLRQV +RXVLQJ DQG %XLOGLQJ 5HVHDUFK &HQWHU +%5&  &DLUR 0D\   S >@ %DQWKLD 1 $O$VDO\ 0 DQG 0D 6  ³,PSDFW 5HVLVWDQFH 2I &RQFUHWH 3ODWH 5HLQIRUFHG :LWK $ )LEHU5HLQIRUFHG 3ODVWLF *ULG´ $&, 0DWHULDOV -RXUQDO 9RO 1R -DQ)HE   3 >@ %DQN /& )URVWLJ

Suggest Documents