BIOFUEL DEVELOPMENT: INDONESIA

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APEC Workshop on Establishment of the Guidelines for the. Development of Biodiesel Standards in the APEC Region. 16-18 July 2008, Taipei. Andi Novianto .

BIOFUEL DEVELOPMENT: INDONESIA

APEC Workshop on Establishment of the Guidelines for the Development of Biodiesel Standards in the APEC Region 16-18 July 2008, Taipei Andi Novianto Assistant to Deputy Minister - Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs/ Chairman, Alternative Energy Technical Team

Energy Mix Situation Hydro Power 3.7%

Geothermal Other Renewable 3.0% Energy 0.2%

Coal 21.5%

Oil 52.5%

Natural Gas 19.0%

Target Energy Mix 2025 Bioetanol Biooil Biodiesel Other Renew able Energy 5%

Geothermal 5%

Coal Liquefac tion 2% Natural Gas 30%

Biofuel 5%

Oil 20%

Coal 33%

Energy Planning to 2025 PopulationIncrease: Increase: --Population IncreaseininEconomic Economic --Increase Growth: Growth: IncreaseininLiving LivingStandard Standard --Increase

EnergyDemand DemandIncrease Increase - -Energy ElectricityDemand DemandIncrease Increase --Electricity

EnvironmentalIssue: Issue: Environmental GlobalWarming Warming - -Global AirPollution Pollution - -Air AcidRain Rain - -Acid Health - -Health

TYPE OF ENERGY SELECTION Environment

INFRASTRUCTUR

ENERGY RESOURCES

COAL

GEOPOLITIC

ECONOMY

NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY

Fosil Energy

OIL

SOCIAL-CULTURE

Gas

BASED ON NATURAL RESOURCES

Nuclear

Hiydro, Microhydro

Solar, wind, biofuel, geothermal, hidrogen, FC

BASED ON TECHNOLOGY BPPT, 2007

Vision and Mission of Biofuel Vision: Poverty alleviation and employment creation through development of biofuel as alternative energy to increase people’s welfare. Mission: Creating employment opportunities (feedstock supply, industry, infrastructure, supporting activities). Increasing rural community independency (Energy Self-sufficiency Village). Increasing the role of private sector involvement. Regulating biofuel business, feedstock supply, and utilization. Developing business climate through incentives.

Current Conditions High potency for biofuel feed stock supply and land availability that suitable for biofuel plantation. Proven biofuel technology by local potency. Biofuel industry allows community participation, including farmers. Opportunity in exporting biofuel products. Local government has opportunity in increasing its economic development.

Biofuel Development Strategy Energy Self Sufficient Village

Fast Track

Each Region Developing its Biofuel Potential SPECIAL BIOFUEL ZONE

SHORT RUN

LONG RUN

Create Job

Energy

Poverty Alleviation

7 National Team Biofuel, 2007

Characteristics of Biofuel Sources The sources will not be vanished in a very long period of time. The physical and economical aspects according to the plantation area and the climate. Responsive toward the demand growth. Environmentally friendly. Impact on food supplies.

AARD-MOA, 2007

Main Sources

Oil Palm Area: 5.6 106 Ha CPO yield: 14 106 tons Local consumption: 3.5 106 tons Export: 8-10 106 tons The preparation of palm oil for biofuel production is relatively ready. However, the needs for cooking oil in the country and for export should be considered From the 5,6 million palm oil plantation 53,7% is run by private companies, 34,2% owned by the local farmers, and state owned enterprises about 12,1%

AARD-MOA, 2007

Jatropha Curcas Jatropha is another option in creating biofuel based on some considerations, which are the limited usage of the plant other than the benefit as a biofuel. The preparation of Crude Jatropha Oil is limited by the availability of high yielding clones. In 2006 three Improved Population Seeds have been released. It is estimated that: 9 14.2 mill ha very suitable 9 5.5 mill ha suitable 9 29.7 mill ha: marginally suitable for Jatropha planting AARD-MOA, 2007

Yield Improvement IP1- P

IP1- M

IP1- A

IP-1(2006) : Esti. yield : year 1 ~ 0.5 - 0.6 ton/ha year 5 ~ 4.5 – 5.0 ton/ha IP-2(2007) : Esti. yield : year 1 ~ 0.9 – 1.0 ton/ha year 5 ~ 7- 8 ton/ha

AARD-MOA, 2007

Coconut Coconut is predicted to attract community’s attention especially to provide alternative energy to replace diesel fuel. Area: 3.8 106 ha, 97% are small-holder, scattered throughout the country Æ including small islands and remote areas About 20-30% coconut plantation in Indonesia should be renewed because the coconut trees are already old. However, the potential is very promising. The obstacle to develop coconut so far is related to plants distribution and low sosialization of the benefits from it.

AARD-MOA, 2007

Cassava The varieties of cassava crop for bioethanol production are available. Area: 1.2 106 ha. The yield of three recommended varieties of cassava 30 – 40 t/ha, while national average of productivity 15,9 t/ha. The production of cassava nationally is about 20 million tons of fresh casssava.

AARD-MOA, 2007

Sugarcane The production crop of sugarcane for bioethanol is available. Area 382 103 ha. Production 31 103 ton. The problem to develop bioethanol from sugarcane are limited areas, quite high investment cost, and compete with sugar production.

AARD-MOA, 2007

Biofuel Utilization AVAILABILTY

FEEDSTOCK

BIOFUEL REFINERY

UTILIZATION TARGET UPTO 2010

BUSINESS/ COMPANY

USERS

B-10

TRANSPORTATION

E-10

TRANSPORTATION

O-10

HOUSEHOLD

O-50

POWER PLANT

O-100

POWER PLANT

Roadmap Biofuel Development Year

2005-2010

2011-2015

2016-2025

NATIONAL STANDARD OF BIOFUEL

Biofuel Utilization 2% of energy mix 5.29 mil. kL

Regulation

Policy

Initial Activities

Biofuel Utilization 3% of energy mix 9.84 mil kL

Improving Climate Invest.

Biofuel Utilization 5% energy mix 22.26 mil kL

Dissemination

Facilities and Incentives Government Regulation No. 8/2007 concerning Government Investment Minister of Finance Decree No. 117/PMK.06/2006 concerning Credit for Bioenergy Development and Revitalization of Plantation (KPEN-RP) Minister of Finance Decree No. 79/PMK.05/2007 concerning Credit for Food and Energy Security (KKPE).

18 AARD-MOA, 2007

Concept of Biofuel Zone

R&D

AGRIC

LA BI N D OF F UE OR L

INDUSTRY

PLN

AGRIC

BIOFUEL INDUSTRY

EXPORT

PERTAMINA

TRANSPORT

Bioethanol Production 2007: ± 160.000 kl/year BPPT Lampung 2.500 kl/year (Cassava)

TRIDAYA Cilegon 1.095 kl/year (Molases)

BLUE Balikpapan 73 kl/year (Molases, Sorghum)

Potensi Lahan Pengembangan Tebu BLUE & Rendah MONONUTU Minsel Sedang 2 x 73 kl/year Tinggi (Sugarpalm) Sangat Tinggi

SUGAR GROUP Lampung 70.000 kl/year (Molases, Integrated Industry) PANCA Cicurug 73 kl/year (Cassava & Molases)

BEKONANG, Solo 140 x 37 kl/year (Molases)

Molindo Raya Malang, East Java 50.000 kl/year (molases ex-PTPN)

Research Project Small and Medium Scale Enterprises Commercial Scale

20

National Team Biofuel, 2007

Biodiesel Production 2007: ± 2 million KL/th PTPN 4 & GANESHA ENERGI Medan 4.400 kl/year (CPO)

WILMAR GROUP Dumai 1.100.000 kl/year (CPO)

INDO BIOFUELS ENERGY Merak 111.000 kl/year(CPO)

PLATINUM Serang 22.000 kl/year (CPO)

MUSIM MAS Pekanbaru 300.000 kl/year (CPO) BPPT Serpong 330 kl/year (CPO) RAP Bintaro 1.830 kl/year (CPO) EAI Jakarta 550 kl/year (CPO)

SUMIASIH Bekasi & Lampung 111.000 kl/year(CPO)

DHARMEX 111.000 kl/yr (CPO)

ETERINDO Gresik & Tangerang 267.000 kl/year (CPO)

21 National Team Biofuel

R&D in Biodiesel Plant in Riau (BPPT)

BPPT , 2007

Investment Opportunity 9 9 9

Land availability: a number of companies have obtained reserved approval from Ministry of Forestry about 4 million ha, but they do not continue to release the area. unutilized plantation (grade V) about 302 thousands ha. inactive plantation about 2 million ha. Technological availability (i.e. seed development). Government support (regulations). Maximum area for Jatropha (50,000 ha), Coconut (25,000), Palm Oil (100,000 ha), Sugarcane (150,000). Foreign company should cooperate with Indonesian company.

Biodiesel Standard and Specification No. Quality Parameter

Unit

Value(s)

mg KOH/g

Max. 0.8

1

Acid value

2

Phosphorous content

mg/kg

Max. 10

3

Water & sediment content

%-v/v

Max. 0.05

4

Kinematic viscosity at 40 oC

mm2/s

2.3-6.0

5

Sulfated ash

%-m/m

Max. 0.02

6

Iodine value

%-m/m

Max. 115

7

Flash point (close cup)

oC

Min. 100

8

Carbon residue

%-m/m

Max. 0.3

9

Density at 40 oC

kg/m3

850 – 890

10

Cetane number

-

Min. 51

11

Sulfur content

mg/kg

Max. 100 24 Decree, Director General of Oil and Gas, 2006

Conclusion Government of Indonesia is supporting biofuel development program, as one alternative energy, with regulations, policies, and disseminations. There are a lot of potency for biofuel development using several commodities as feedstock in Indonesia. Feedstock from palm is ready to be used for biodiesel domestically, but it competes with cooking oil. While, Jatropha is still being developed, but seed technology is improving, and non-edible food as well. Land availability are abundant for biofuel development, without converting natural forest areas.

THANK YOU

THANK YOU

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