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Rehabilitation Technology;. The applicability of Smart materials. Arjan Buis, PhD. .... Translation into Rehabilitation Technology. Prosthetics. &. Orthotics ...

Dr. Arjan Buis


Rehabilitation Technology; The applicability of Smart materials Arjan Buis, PhD. Biomedical engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK

Overview o Biomedical engineering at Strathclyde o Introduction to Smart materials.

o Transducers, Sensors & Actuators. o Translation into Rehabilitation technology.

Biomedical Engineering

Activity Scope (research)

Rehabilitation Engineering

Introduction to Smart materials o What do we mean by “Smart”

o Definition of Smart Material behaviour. Material that has the intrinsic or extrinsic capabilities to respond to an external stimulus in a functionally useful, reliable, reproducible and usually reversible manner. Smart behaviour is the reaction of a material to stimuli from its environment, no material can be Smart in isolation, it must be a part of a structure or system such as your mobile phone, the coffee mug or a leg prosthesis.

Types of Smart materials o o o o o o o

Chromogenic. Halo-chromic . Shape Memory; Alloys , Polymers. Piezoelectric. Magneto-strictive. Smart fluids. Smart Fabrics.

Chromogenic Materials o Chromogenic materials change colour in response to external stimuli: o Electrical

o Optical (i.e. light intensity) o Thermal changes. images5DON186U thermochromic-urinal_zTLKJ_58

Halochromic materials; o Colour change as a result of changing acidity


Shape Memory materials; Alloys Nitinol (Ni-Ti) One-way SME Two-way SME Pseudo-elasticity


Ag-Cd 44/49 at.% Cd Au-Cd 46.5/50 at.% Cd Cu-Al-Ni 14/14.5 wt.% Al and 3/4.5 wt.% Ni Cu-Sn approx. 15 at.% Sn Cu-Zn 38.5/41.5 wt.% Zn Cu-Zn-X (X = Si, Al, Sn) Fe-Pt approx. 25 at.% Pt Mn-Cu 5/35 at.% Cu Fe-Mn-Si Pt alloys Co-Ni-Al Co-Ni-Ga Ni-Fe-Ga Ti-Pd in various concentrations Ni-Ti (~55% Ni) Ni-Ti-Nb Ni-Mn-Ga

o Stimuli responsive polymers (plastics) Applications; drug delivery, textiles, artificial muscles etc. Jani, J. M.; Leary, M.; Subic, A.; Gibson, M. A. (2013). "A Review of Shape Memory Alloy Research, Applications and Opportunities". Materials & Design.

Piezoelectric materials; o Produces a voltage when stress is applied

Magnetostrictive materials o Magnetostrictive materials can convert magnetic energy into kinetic energy, or the reverse, and are used to build actuators and sensors.


Smart fluids o A smart fluid is a fluid whose properties (for example the viscosity) can be changed by applying an magnetic field or a electric field .

Transducers, Sensors and Actuators Sensor(s) oA sensor is a device, which responds to an input quantity by generating signals proportional to the changing measurand, usually in the form of an electrical or optical signal. Transducer(s) oA transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another. When a transducer converts a measurable quantity (sound pressure level, optical intensity, magnetic field, etc) to an electrical voltage or an electrical current we call it a sensor. Actuator(s) oWhen the transducer converts an electrical signal into another form of energy, such as sound, mechanical movement, it is called an Actuator.‎

Transducers, Sensors and Actuators linear actuator

Transducers, Sensors and Actuators linear actuator

Translation into Rehabilitation Technology

Prosthetics & Orthotics

Prosthetic examples

Orthotic examples



Prosthetics & Smart materials Prosthetic components

Otto Bock healthcare gmbh Ossur ltd

Prosthetics Body/device interface; What can smart materials contribute? o Issues: Quantification of socket fit. 

    

Interface pressure and shear Bone movement Activity Temperature Blood flow Volume management

Prosthetics Interface pressure and shear

Boundary shear


Shear stress level

Pressure level

Prosthetics Bone movement






Hydro Cast




Ischial Containment

Prosthetics o Activity

o Temperature o Blood flow

o Volume management

Future developments Sensor(s)

o Toward ubiquitous mobility solutions for body sensor networks on Healthcare. o Dynamic adaptable prosthetic sockets. o Dynamic adaptable orthotics. o Powered prosthesis/orthosis using artificial muscle concepts. o Self healing components.

Thank you!