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California foraminiferal micropalaeontology KENNETH L. FINGER University of California Museum of Paleontology, Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, California, USA 90720-4780 (e-mail: [email protected]) Abstract: Foraminifera were of little interest in North America until 1923, when Joseph Cushman demonstrated how these microfossils could be used for subsurface geologic correlation. Word spread quickly throughout the oil industry and their sudden demand for foram workers prompted academia to provide the necessary training. For the next 60 years, industrial exploration and development played a major role in maintaining a large presence of foraminiferologists in California. Although the major oil companies employed most of them, a few found careers in the major universities or with the US Geological Survey. In the 1980s, the Californian oil industry became less reliant on biostratigraphy and the numbers of micropaleontologists rapidly declined. The heyday of foraminiferal micropaleontology had passed and by the time offshore exploration was abandoned in the early 1990s, few foraminiferologists remained in the state. Today only a handful of seasoned foraminiferologists can be found working in California. Supplementary material: Appendixes A –D are available at http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/ SUP18638

This chapter is a synopsis of work done on fossil and modern California Foraminifera from its inception to the present day. Much of it is based on the previous historical summaries, award announcements and memorials (Supplementary material, Appendix A). Locations mentioned in the text are indicated on Figure 1. A chronological bibliography (Supplementary material, Appendix B) comprises 493 publications on California Foraminifera, the vast majority having been written by those mentioned in the text. There have been many other publications by Californian foraminiferologists that are outside the realm of this chapter but which also serve as testimony to the tremendous contribution to the science that came out of this region. Much of this was fuelled by the petroleum industry beginning in the 1920s; the utility of foraminiferal biostratigraphy was demonstrated soon after and then applied primarily towards development of California’s hydrocarbon fields (Figs 1 & 2). Of the more than 100 workers who left their legacy in publication, 25 who played significant roles are shown in Plate 1. Acronyms used in this chapter are as follows: AAPG, American Association of Petroleum Geologists (Tulsa, Oklahoma); Amoco, American Oil Company; ARCO, Atlantic Richfield Oil Company; CAS, California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco); CIT, California Institute of Technology (Pasadena); COFRC, Chevron Oil Field Research Company (La Habra); CSU, California State University; LSJU, Leland Stanford Jr University (Palo Alto); LSU, Louisiana State University (Baton Rouge); MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge); NAMS, North American

Micropaleontology Section of SEPM; NCSU, North Carolina State University (Raleigh); NSF, National Science Foundation (Washington, DC); OC, Oil Company; ODP, Offshore Drilling Project; PG&E, Pacific Gas and Electric Company; PCJ, Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica; SEG, Society of Economic Geologists; SEPM, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, which in 1987 changed its name to SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology (Tulsa, Oklahoma); SIO, Scripps Institute of Oceanography (La Jolla); SJSU, San Jose State University; SOCAL, Standard Oil Company of California; SUNY, State University of New York; UCB, University of California, Berkeley; UCD, University of California, Davis; UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles; UCMP, University of California Museum of Paleontology; UCSB, University of California, Santa Barbara; UCSD, University of California, San Diego; UNOCAL, Union Oil Company of California; URI, University of Rhode Island (Kingston); USC, University of Southern California (Los Angeles); USGS, US Geological Survey (Menlo Park); USNM, US National Museum (Washington, DC); UT, University of Texas (Austin); UTD, University of Texas (Dallas); UW, University of Washington (Seattle); WHOI, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (Massachusetts).

The beginnings The story of micropalaeontology in California began in the mid-nineteenth century with a sample of diatomaceous shale from Monterey. Alexander

From: Bowden, A. J., Gregory, F. J. & Henderson, A. S. (eds) 2013. Landmarks in Foraminiferal Micropalaeontology: History and Development. The Micropalaeontological Society, Special Publications, Geological Society, London, 125– 144. # The Micropalaeontological Society 2013. Publishing disclaimer: www.geolsoc.org.uk/pub_ethics

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Fig. 1. Map of California showing its primary hydrocarbon-producing sedimentary basins and places referred to in the text. Grey areas within basins are oil or gas fields.

Smith Taylor (1817– 1876), an avid collector and historian who lived in the small coastal town, apparently sent samples of the rock to his European correspondents. From this material, Thomas Brightwell (1788– 1868), a naturalist in Norwich (England), became the first to name and describe a microfossil (a diatom) from California (Brightwell 1853). San Francisco physician John Boardman Trask (1824– 1879) described Taylor’s rock, mentioning its diatoms, and how it had been given to Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795–1876) of Friedrichs-Wilhelm Universita¨t (now Humboldt Universita¨t zu Berlin) and Jacob Whitman Bailey (1811–1857) of the West Point military academy in New York State (Trask 1854). Bailey (1854) made reference to this material. In 1854, Trask gave some of Taylor’s sample to William Phipps Blake (1826–1910), a Pacific Railroad Survey geologist, who then visited the locality. He proceeded to

describe the ‘Tertiary formation of Monterey’ (Blake 1856) (now known as the Monterey Formation) and its rich microflora (Blake 1857). Nearly half a century would pass before an older part of the unit revealed its classic foraminiferal fauna. In the interim, J. J. Freidrich (1889) was the first to mention the presence of Foraminifera in California, from a Quaternary marl that he collected seven miles (c. 11 km) south of Point Lobos (c. 14 miles south of Monterey). However, the first published identifications of California Foraminifera were those by Anthony Woodward (d. 1915) of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota in his preliminary list of 28 benthic Foraminifera from a sample taken from a coastal bluff near the wharf in Santa Barbara (Woodward 1889). Rufus Mather Bagg Jr (1869–1946) of the New Mexico School of Mines collected another sample from

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Fig. 2. Two postcards showing oil fields in southern California in the 1920s.

this locality from which he identified 39 species, while a second sample from a nearby hilltop added 13 species to his list (Bagg 1905a). These classic localities were later referred to as Bathhouse Beach and Packard’s Hill. Frederick Chapman (1864–1943), who was then at the Royal College of Science, London, already had documented some ostracods collected near Berkeley that he received from John C. Merriam (1869–1945) of the University of California (Chapman 1896) in March 1897. In November of the same year, Chapman received another sample from Merriam – a marl rich in Foraminifera simply labelled

‘Miocene (?) California’ – followed later that year by additional foraminiferal samples from a well in Santa Clara County, just south of San Francisco Bay. Chapman (1900) concluded that the samples had similar assemblages and they resembled those from the Monte Bartomco on the Lago di Garda, Italy that Egger (1895) referred to as ‘Older Pliocene’, and also those that d’Orbigny (1846) described from the Miocene of the Vienna Basin. Chapman also pointed out that the fauna had little in common with those described by Woodward (1887) and Bagg (1898) from Miocene beds on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States.

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[Erratum: Names for 20 & 21 are transposed.]

Plate 1. Some of those who played major roles in shaping the history of California foraminiferology: 1, Frederick Chapman; 2, Rufus M. Bagg, Jr; 3, Joseph A. Cushman; 4, G. Dallas Hanna; 5, Donald D. Hughes; 6, Paul P. Goudkoff; 7, Boris G. Laiming; 8, William F. Barbat; 9, Hubert G. Schenck; 10, Manley S. Natland; 11 Robert M. Kleinpell, 12 Irene A. McCulloch; 13 Stanley G. Wissler; 14 Milton N. Bramlette; 15, Earl H. Myers; 16, Orville L. Bandy, Jr; 17, V. Standish Mallory; 18, Alfred R. Loeblich, Jr; 19, Helen N. Tappan Loeblich; 20, William V. Sliter; 21, Robert G. Douglas; 22, Jere H. Lipps; 23, James C. Ingle, Jr; 24, Kristin McDougall; 25, Gregg H. Blake.

Bagg (1905b) also documented an assemblage of California Foraminifera in a mudstone sample collected from the Miocene Monterey Formation

along Graves Creek in Atascadero, San Luis Obispo County, by James Casper Branner (1850–1922) of Stanford University. The publication was the

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first substantial paper on California Foraminifera, but many of the figures on its 11 plates are taken from the European literature, as first noted by Kornfeld (1926). On the basis of its foraminiferal taxa, Bagg believed Chapman’s assemblage must have been from the same geological unit. Using samples that William D. Kleinpell (1898– 1959) collected for the Marland Oil Company from Highland School District to the south, Joseph A. Cushman (1881–1949) described three new species of Siphogenerina in 1925. Cushman (1926) then noted that he also had some of Branner’s Grave’s Creek material which ‘seemed to confirm’ that Bagg’s three species were synonymous with each other. Many years later, Finger et al. (1990) documented the more extensive foraminiferal fauna from multiple exposures along the creek. A year after joining the faculty at Lawrence College (Wisconsin), Bagg (1912) produced another publication that described Foraminifera from two areas in southern California. One locality was at Timms Point in San Pedro, Los Angeles County, which he referred to the Pliocene based on perceived similarities with the ‘Coralline’ Crag fauna of the St Erth beds in England (Jones et al. 1897), as well as the strata in the San Pedro area (Arnold & Arnold 1902; Arnold 1903). Bagg’s material was from the Delos Arnold collection at LSJU and its source is now recognized as the middle Pleistocene Timms Point Formation, recently dated as 400 –200 ka (Ponti 2008). His other assemblages were obtained from the Santa Barbara material that he had previously worked on (Bagg 1905a). He ascribed the sampled horizons to the Pleistocene based on their stratigraphic position unconformably above beds he correlated with those at Timms Point. The exposures are of the Santa Barbara Formation and rather than being younger than those at Timms Point, as Bagg had deduced, they were recently dated between 790 –400 ka (Powell et al. 2002).

The California oil industry Initially, tar seeps were a telltale sign of subsurface oil. Geologists then assumed hills were likely to contain anticlinal traps, and that led to the discovery of numerous large and several giant oil fields in the Los Angeles Basin and southern San Joaquin Valley between the late 1800s and early 1900s (see Fig. 1). California’s ‘black gold’ rush went into overdrive in the late nineteenth century, when the first three of the world’s giant oil fields (.×109 BBL recoverable) were discovered in Kern County in the southern San Joaquin Valley: Midway-Sunset in 1884, Coalinga in 1887 and Kern River in 1899 (see Fig. 1). In 1911, two

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additional giants were discovered in the region: South Belridge and Elk Hills. Between 1909 and 1919, the first four of the 28 oil fields in the Los Angeles Basin were discovered: West Coyote (1909), Montebello (1917), Richfield and Santa Fe Springs (1921). Several large oil fields were also discovered in Ventura County. All played a significant role in thrusting California to the forefront of the American petroleum industry. During that time, most exploration had been on topographic highs assumed likely to be anticlinal or domal structures that could trap oil, but all of those terrains had been explored by the early 1920s and more sophisticated methods were needed for searching elsewhere. Once most surficial indications were explored, the role of exploration geologists became increasingly important in deciphering subsurface structure and stratigraphy. As the foundation of the geological timescale, palaeontologists and geologists knew fossils were useful in correlating strata, but the oil industry was unaware of just how useful Foraminifera could be until the exploration boom that followed World War I. The first study of foraminifers from an oil well in the United States appears to be that of Hopkins in New Orleans, Louisiana (Hilgard & Hopkins 1878). During 1908–1911, J. A. Udden (1859– 1932) did likewise with water and oil wells in Illinois. Joseph A. Cushman, who had been working on subsurface samples from the Atlantic Coastal Plain for the USGS in 1912, had his list and ecological interpretation of Foraminifera included in a brief report by Stephenson in 1914. Udden headed south and joined the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, where he trained Wallace Bostic of the Rio Bravo OC (Houston) who appears to have been the first to apply micropalaeontology in the Texas oil industry. It is unclear, however, whether this was before or after October 1919, when Edwin Call Brown (1870– 1943) of the California Petroleum Company studied foraminifers in well cuttings from the Huntington Beach oil field. Regardless, the first industrial micropalaeontology labs in the USA were soon established in Houston by Esther Richards (UCB graduate soon to become E. R. Applin; 1895–1972) in September 1920 at the Rio Bravo OC and Alva C. Ellisor two months later at Humble, followed by Hedwig T. Kniker (who had been working for Udden) in 1921 at the Texas OC (Martin 2013). The tectonic imprint on California stratigraphy presented a new challenge to the American oil companies, who were eager to try new methods that could possibly enhance their odds of finding more ‘black gold’. With a grant from several oil companies, Frederics G. Tickell (1886–1976) began studying microfossils at LSJU in the autumn of 1921 under the direction of Professor James Perrin

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‘J. P.’ Smith (1864– 1931), and he continued his research at CAS through May 1923. His findings convinced both the Pacific OC and Associated OC that more extensive investigations were warranted. In June 1921, PG&E began drilling a deep test well east of Suisun (c. 40 km NE of Berkeley) with LSJU geology students Ralph Copley, David Anderson and Thomas Radcliffe (later replaced by Thomas F. Stipp) on site as microscopists (Russell 1970; Stuckey 1978; Olien & Olien 2002) and, within a couple of years, the value of microfossils in exploration firmly established itself throughout the industry. Oil magnate Ernest Whitworth ‘E. W.’ Marland (1874–1941) was seeking innovative approaches when Cushman proposed using foraminifers, which he had been doing for T. Wayland Vaughan (1870– 1952) at the USGS in Washington, DC. Marland made an offer Cushman couldn’t refuse. This was also around the time that ‘Brick’ Elliott, chief geologist at Shell Company of California in San Francisco, was to adapt the European double-barrel core drill to the loosely consolidated sediments in California. Business in the California oil fields was on the verge of change. Drilling in Mexico in 1923, Marland successfully combined the modified core drill with Cushman’s new expertise, after which Cushman returned to Sharon, Massachusetts with sufficient earnings to build the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research in the backyard of his home. On 23 April 1924, Tidewater Associated Oil Company opened the first California company palaeo lab in San Francisco, led by G. Dallas Hanna (1887–1970) (who later married Cushman’s illustrator Margaret Moore and became California’s foremost expert on diatoms). Other companies in the state soon followed, notably Marland, Milham, Pacific Western, Richfield, Texas, Standard Oil of California, Shell and Union, undoubtedly assisted by the laboratory template of Dallas Hanna & Driver (1924). Within two years, 23 micropalaeontologists were employed by seven of the largest oil companies on the West Coast. Around this time, Cushman began accepting graduate students from Harvard, Radcliffe and MIT and it was not long before several invertebrate palaeontologists were teaching university courses in micropalaeontology. In 1923, the first formal courses devoted solely to microfossils (i.e. Foraminifera) were offered by Jesse James Galloway (1882–1962) at Columbia University (New York City) and Francis L. Whitney (1878– 1962) at the University of Texas (Austin); they were followed in 1924 by Hubert G. Schenck (1897– 1960) at LSJU and Henry V. Howe (1896–1972) at LSU, and in 1928 by Carey Croneis (1901–1972) at the University of Chicago.

As a graduate student at UCB in the early 1920s, Schenck directed several students who went on to become pioneers in industrial micropalaeontology. Whereas petroleum geologist ‘Brick’ Elliott had previously joined the faculty at LSJU, and several students had already done some work on microfossils under the guidance of J. P. Smith (1864–1931), Schenck was hired to teach a formal course in 1924. He must have been inspired when he came across Donald D. Hughes’ recently completed thesis, Microscopic Methods in the Correlation of Oil-Field Sediments, and he frequently consulted G. Dallas Hanna for guidance in designing his laboratory and course for those eager to fill the urgent need for micropalaeontologists in the oil industry. With so little micropalaeontological expertise available in the early 1920s, oil companies appointed geologists to start up their labs and learn the new specialty. Perhaps the two most interesting paths taken were those of two refugees of the Russian Revolution who were to become micropalaeontological pioneers in the California oil industry: Paul P. Goudkoff (1881– 1955) and Boris G. Laiming (1897–1981). Prior to emigrating to California, Goudkoff had been a university professor in Siberia with a specialty in iron-ore geology. He had no knowledge of palaeontology when he accepted an offer to become Milham Exploration’s first micropalaeontologist. The title of his 1926 paper was the first appearance of the word micropalaeontology in the literature. Laiming, the son of a general in the Czar’s army, was raised in the Kremlin and had been pursuing a law degree in St Petersburg when he escaped the Bolsheviks and eventually found himself assisting on Milham field surveys in California, and then screenwashing well samples for Goudkoff before doing likewise for Donald D. Hughes (1893–1946) at Marland Oil Company. Hughes and Laiming later joined The Texas Company in Los Angeles, where Laiming developed his expertise on Foraminifera and formed a working relationship with Cushman that culminated in their landmark study (Cushman & Laiming 1931) of the Los Sauces Creek section in Ventura County. When exploration in California first embraced micropalaeontology in 1923, five of the state’s six giant oil fields had already been discovered. Although major companies augmented their arsenals with well logging in 1929 and seismography in 1936, it was a relatively small ‘unarmed’ company (Ranger OC) that discovered the sixth (Wilmington Field in Los Angeles) in 1932 by drilling the anticlinal structure. Nevertheless, it was an exciting time for micropalaeontologists in California, who had quickly risen to superstar status in the industry as their findings indicated where in

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existing oil fields to drill new wells, the depths where the producing zones would be found (i.e. when to set casing) and which ‘dry’ wells had been prematurely abandoned. Even the magazine Popular Mechanics (Anonymous 1932) ran a story glorifying the ‘bug-men’ of the industry, with several photographs of Wilbur Rankin in Texas OC’s Los Angeles lab and one of Laiming at a well site, although neither they nor their company were identified in the article (Supplementary material, Appendix C). From about 1925 to 1995, companies would merge and change names while their palaeontologists developed expertise in other microfossil groups, switched companies or became independent consultants. As exploration and development prospects changed, palaeo labs appeared, relocated, expanded, contracted and disappeared. As of 1940, 14 of 17 commercial micropalaeontology labs that had been established in California were still active with c. 100 staff annually working c. 100 000 samples (Croneis 1941). Fierce competition between companies kept their palaeontologists working under a veil of secrecy, and each group developed its own proprietary biostratigraphic database. However, a verbal agreement was made between oil companies in the late 1920s where each worked up an outcrop section and presented a paper at the annual Pacific Section SEPM meeting (Supplementary material, Appendix D). Most became classic sections that eventually found their way into formal publication, but not necessarily by those same authors. Later, commercial biostratigraphers integrated data from published works, particularly the tomes of Kleinpell (1938) on the Miocene, and Mallory (1959) on the Lower Tertiary, but habit and the need for encryption left many taxa identified by genus and number instead of species. Not surprisingly, publications by industrial micropalaeontologists were relatively limited in both number and detail. Biostratigraphic correlations were based exclusively on benthic Foraminifera until Caribbean zonations based on planktonic Foraminifera were published (Bolli 1957a, b; Banner & Blow 1959, 1965; Eames et al. 1962; Blow 1969; see CarrBrown 2008 for summary), which afforded much greater accuracy and precision in interregional correlation. Similar zonations were developed for other microfossils, including diatoms, radiolarians, calcareous nannoplankton and palynomorphs. To work these ‘new’ disciplines, industrial palaeo labs hired new graduates familiar with them while some benthic foram workers were retrained. The integration of different biostratigraphic data sources inevitably challenged the integrity of each specialist and specialty, but ultimately led to a much more accurate and useful framework for stratigraphic

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correlation. The planktonics revealed that the stages based on benthic fossils (molluscs, foraminifers) transgressed time. Understandably, some workers devoted to the California benthics found it difficult to accept the inherent drawbacks of their beloved ‘bugs’, especially after the bottom-dwellers had repeatedly proven themselves to be an indispensable and efficient exploration tool for the petroleum geologist. Furthermore, planktonic forams were intermittent and of low diversity in many sections, and many of the indices useful in lower latitudes were rare or absent in California. New technologies enabled drilling in deep water farther offshore and geologists began relying mostly on electric logs and seismographs for interpreting subsurface relationships, sometimes incorporating palaeontology as an extra measure only if it confirmed their preconceived interpretations. Although the last significant oil field on the West Coast was discovered off Point Arguello in the early 1980s without the assistance of palaeontology, palaeontologists had found solace in the new-found popularity of sequence stratigraphy that was first developed at Exxon, which demonstrated a synergy between palaeontological data and seismic interpretations. In 1985, California reached its all-time high of annual production with 424 × 106 BBL (Miller 2009), but palaeontology was not applicable ‘downstream’ of exploration and development; furthermore, by the 1990s 3D seismic and computer modelling had become the new panacea for subsurface correlations. Exploratory drilling in California was becoming more difficult, more expensive and less successful. Environmental issues stalled the issuing of state and federal permits for offshore drilling, where the lag time between discovery and production had already stretched to 10 years. Most of the oil fields were well past their prime, and many of those in the Los Angeles Basin were on land that real estate developers were eager to obtain. The black-gold rush of the west had run its course. The oil companies began reducing their exploration groups in California in the mid-1980s, around the time they were beginning to consolidate the industry. The largest mergers (e.g. Exxon-Mobil in 1998; Chevron’s absorption of Gulf in 1984, Texaco in 2001 and Unocal in 2005; British Petroleum’s takeover of Sohio in 1987, ARCO in 1990 and Amoco in 1998) created ‘new’ companies with fattened reserves and swollen ranks that left many explorationists, especially those on the West Coast, facing the prospect of unemployment. By the turn of the century, all oil companies had abandoned palaeontology on the West Coast. Those retained had been relocated, mostly in Texas, but many of them eventually lost their jobs as the mergers continued and companies figured that it

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would be more economical to contract consultants. Only a handful of seasoned foraminiferologists in academia or consulting remained active in California. Biostratigraphy and basic micropalaeontology courses were no longer in demand and the focus of academic research involving foraminifers had shifted away from the geological realm toward palaeoclimatology, biology and environmental studies. The glory days of applied micropalaeontology on the West Coast had spanned about 70 years, during which time more than a dozen oil companies had foram micropalaeontologists working in California as summarized below. Information relating to years, locations and lesser-known people is wanting, and much of it may be gone forever. Most of the following is based on the historical accounts of Croneis (1941) and Kleinpell (1971, 1972), but other sources of information included published memorials and research papers in scientific journals, old membership directories of Pacific Sections AAPG-SEPM-SEG, conversations with retirees and innumerable internet searches. Summaries of the primary oil companies that had micropalaeontology laboratories in California are presented below in alphabetical order. The palaeo rosters for each include those known to have worked primarily on California Foraminifera, particularly if they created their scientific legacies in publication. California Petroleum Corporation was the first in the state to begin micropalaeontological work, commencing in October 1919 with E. Call Brown. The company was acquired by the Texas OC in 1928. Gulf Oil was not as active in California micropalaeontology as most of the other large companies. USC graduate Dorothy Moyer was their California micropalaeontologist for many years. Humble Oil and Refining Company (Esso, Exxon) opened their California palaeo lab after the Second World War. It was first located in Chico and relocated to Castaic Junction (south of Bakersfield) by the early 1960s. Andrew W. Marianos led the group that included Jay G. Marks, Rex Olsen, James L. Lamb and Charles E. Pflum (1933–2009). By 1980, those in the group had been relocated to Denver and Houston. Marland Oil Company opened their California micropalaeontology lab in June 1924 with LSJU graduate Donald D. Hughes in charge. Hughes trained Boris Laiming, Wilbur Rankin, James M. Hamill, James P. Bailey (1899–1986), Ralph D. Reed (1889–1940), Clifford C. Church (1899– 1989) and Carlton M. ‘Kit’ Carson (1898–1972). After Marland was taken over by the Continental OC in 1929, Hughes, Laiming, Rankin and Hamill moved over to the Texas OC. Continental kept

Carson on retainer for many years until he hired on with Richmond Petroleum in Venezuela before returning to California to work for Associated Oil in Ventura; in 1952, he became an independent consultant, mostly for SOCAL. Milham Exploration Company began using palaeontology in June 1924 with Galloway student George H. Doane (1897–1968) and Paul P. Goudkoff in Los Angeles, but the lab was abandoned in 1928. Both became independent consultants, although Doane later worked for Shell. Mobiloil was the last major company to join the micropalaeo community in California. In the 1960s, it had a palaeo lab in Santa Fe Springs (east of Los Angeles) with Albert D. ‘A. D.’ Warren (1929– 2008) supervising a group that included Kingsley Nash, Ann Tipton, Daniel R. McKeel, Michael B. Mickey (1945–2007) and Richard S. Boettcher. Warren, McKeel, Mickey and Boettcher joined forces with Richard Anderson and others in forming the largest palaeontological consulting firm on the West Coast in the 1970s (which evolved over time from Anderson & Wilcoxon to Anderson & Warren to Micropaleo Consultants). McKeel and Boettcher have recently been carrying out contract micropalaeontology for Occidental Petroleum in Bakersfield. Pacific Western Oil Company Stanley S. Siegfus (1901–1986) worked in Los Angeles for the short-lived (1928–1931) Pacific Western OC before moving on to Getty OC. Like many others, he finished his career as an independent consultant. Richfield Oil Company (Atlantic-Richfield Company, ARCO) had been a subsidiary of Sinclair. In 1937, it became next-to-last to open a palaeo lab in California. Manley L. ‘Nat’ Natland (1906–1991), who came over from Shell, ran its group in Long Beach that included W. Thomas Rothwell (1912–1984) and later Richard L. Pierce (1922–1972). R. Stanley Beck (1906–1984) oversaw the Bakersfield lab that included Max B. Payne (1910–1994), James L. Lamb (1925–2004) and Robert L. Hickernell Sr (b. 1926). Pierce transferred to the Bakersfield lab in 1957, but joined the USGS in 1966. Payne moved on to Signal Oil and Gas Company in the early 1950s and then the Norris Oil Company in the 1960s, both in Bakersfield. Lamb later worked for Humble while Beck became a very successful consultant in the Bakersfield area. In the 1970s, ARCO opened their Los Angeles headquarters in a new building in downtown Los Angeles with Natland still in charge of palaeo. Natland pioneered foraminiferal palaeoecology with his 1933 publication ‘Temperature and depth distribution of Recent and fossil Foraminifera, southern California region’. This was based on his 1932 USC Masters thesis, in which he collected foram samples from the Santa Monica

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basin off Los Angeles, recording depth data to nearly 3000 feet with a homemade spooling contraption, and then used the modern depth distributions of species to infer the palaeobathymetric sequence of Pliocene assemblages collected from an exposed section in the Ventura basin. Later, Natland (1957) divided the Pliocene into three stages (Fig. 3). When ARCO downsized in the early 1970s, Natland became a consultant for Union’s research facility in Brea, where he delved deeper into his research on the dynamics of turbidity currents which explained the mixed-depth foram assemblages and deep-water deposition that characterized much of the California Neogene. Always the risk-taker and innovator, Natland filmed

Epoch Pleistocene

Stage

his experiments including the dumping of sediments into his swimming pool (which conveniently had subsurface side windows). ARCO, absorbed by British Petroleum in 1990, donated its West Coast collection of 25 000 slides and 2.5 million residues from .13 000 wells to UCMP. Shell Oil Company was also involved in pioneering applied micropalaeontology in the 1920s. Former mining geologist Robert Overbeck, who observed abundant foraminifers in sediment samples from the giant oil field at Signal Hill in Long Beach (Fig. 2) while studying mineral grains, encouraged others to use them for subsurface correlation. Shell opened its Long Beach palaeo lab in 1924 and another in Bakersfield in 1935. Among

Zone

Hallian

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Author

Region

Elphidium crispum Uvigerina aff. tenuistriata

Wheelerian

upper

Venturian

middle

Repettian

lower

Cibicides mckannai Gyroidina altiformis Uvigerina peregrina

Pliocene

Natland (1952, 1957) stages

Bulimina subacuminata Cibicides mckannai Plectofrondicularia californica

Southern California

Wissler (1943) zones

Karreriella milleri Liebusella pliocenica

Delmontian

Mohnian

upper

(unnamed)

lower

Bolivina obliqua

upper

Bolivina hughesi

middle

Bulimina uvigerinformis

lower upper

Miocene

Luisian

Relizian

Saucesian

Zemorrian

Oligocene Eocene

lower upper

Bolivina modeloensis Siphogenerina collomi Siphogenerina nuciformis Siphogenerina reedi Siphogenerina branneri Siphogenerina hughesi

lower

Uvigerinellina obesa

upper

Plectofrondicularia miocenica

lower

Uvigerinella sparsicostata

upper

Uvigerina gallowayi

lower

(unnamed) (unnamed)

Narizian Ulatsian

Amphimorphina californica

Bulitian

Paleocene Ynezian

California Province

Siphogenerina transversa

Refugian

Penutian

Kleinpell (1933, 1938)

Schenck & Kleinpell (1936)

Bulimina corrugata upper

Alabamina wilcoxensis

lower

Plectofrondicularia kerni

upper

Valvulineria wilcoxensis

lower

Bulimina bradburyi

upper

Bulimina excavata

lower

Silicosigmoilina californica

Mallory (1959)

Fig. 3. Composite Cenozoic benthic foraminiferal zonation of California according to original correlations. Later studies by others modified the relative stratigraphic positions of the stages and recognized time-transgressive stages and zones.

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the first group of Shell micropalaeontologists were George H. Doane, John D. Gilboe (1898– 1965), Arturo R. May (1893–1948), Guy E. ‘Doc’ Miller (1900–1994), Manley S. Natland, Eros M. Savage (1899–1990), Mosca W. E. Monical and George A. Kuffel (1902– 1971). Shell’s next generation included George Lutz, Edwin H. Stinemeyer Jr (1909–2006), Robert Steinart, Lois Martin, Sonja B. Mulvane, Fred W. ‘Ted’ Bergen, James L. Lamb, Gene L. Shaw and John L. Browning. Standard Oil Company of California (SOCAL, Chevron) began using micropalaeontology in February 1925. In 1926, UCB graduate William F. Barbat (1905–1996) was assigned to Taft, located near the southwestern San Joaquin Valley oil fields that had recently been acquired upon its merger with Pacific OC. Geologist William S. W. Kew (1890–1961) recognized the value of research and recommended that his palaeontologists devote 25% of their time to it. In 1936–1937, the lab in Taft moved east to Oildale (just north of Bakersfield) and employed Jack Bainton (1911– 2000), Robert C. Blaisdell (1929–1999) and Bill Barlow. After another move relocated them a few miles south to Bakersfield, the lab added Keith D. Berry (1925–2005), E. W. ‘Chris’ Christiansen, Gene W. Gregory, William J. Lewis, Morton Polugar (1921–1999), Chester H. ‘Chet’ Rudel (1918– 1986), Gene Molander, Paul R. Wesendunk (1931– 1999) and Jackson Wong (1926–1984). Barlow was the head of the group until his life was cut short by a car crash, whereupon Blaisdell took over. SOCAL’s southern region field office was east of Los Angeles in La Habra, at the foot of the West Coyote Hills oil field. The first micropalaeontological lab there was established in 1926 and supervised by William H. Holman and Herschel L. Driver (1896–1976). Early workers included Frank Tolman, G. R. Elliott, Victor Davenport, Harold M. Horton and E. C. Meek, who were succeeded by William E. ‘Eddie’ Hendrix (1916– 1987), Gene E. Molander, John W. Ruth, Mark M. White (1913– 1981) and Ed Bolin. SOCAL eventually consolidated its West Coast exploration palaeontologists in northern California, first in San Francisco and later across the bay in Concord, where Peter L. Miller joined them and eventually succeeded Blaisdell. Later additions were Thomas W. Dignes (b. 1951) from Exxon and the late Dana B. Wagner (1946– 2003). Chevron’s Western Division settled into a new campus in nearby San Ramon in the 1980s, where they dissolved their palaeo group in the following decade. Their West Coast foraminiferal collection now resides at the CAS in San Francisco. The La Habra laboratory of California Research Corporation was established in 1947, and changed its name a year later to Chevron Research

Company. Alfred R. Loeblich Jr (1914–1994), who had been at the USNM, was hired in 1958 and developed the lab’s palaeontology programme by adding specialists to research other types of microfossils. He often worked in tandem with his wife, Helen Tappan, and they rapidly rose to prominence in foraminiferal micropalaeontology and then palynology. Their immense contribution to foraminiferology was firmly established by their 1964 landmark volume for the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. In 1979, just prior to Loeblich’s retirement, Kenneth L. Finger transferred from Chevron’s operations unit in New Orleans to the La Habra facility, which had been renamed Chevron Oil Field Research Company in 1968. Finger’s entry into California biostratigraphy commenced with a study on ostracodes in the lower part of the Los Sauces Creek section (Finger 1983) where Cushman & Laiming (1931) had noted their occurrence. Chevron’s 1981 discovery of the offshore Point Arguello oil field prompted Finger to re-examine the Miocene foraminiferal fauna that had been documented by Kleinpell (1938). This was in anticipation of continued exploration in the region, and it resulted in a trilogy of atlases (Finger 1990, 1992, 1995). After the merger with Gulf in the mid-1980s, COFRC’s palaeontologists dwindled in number. In 1992 the company was reorganized into a new business unit (Chevron Information Technology Unit) that excluded palaeontology from its repertoire. Seven years later, the 365 000-square-foot beautifully landscaped campus with seven buildings and worldclass laboratories, as well as most of the adjacent West Coyote Hills Oil Field, gave way to suburban development. Superior Oil Company operated a palaeo lab in Bakersfield from 1931 –1959. The lab was established by Robert B. Hutcheson (1899–1979), who had been Wissler’s first assistant at Union. Among its employees were Glenn C. Ferguson (1906– 2001), Harold Billman, Louis J. Simon (1912– 1996), Nick Nicholeris and Alvin A. Almgren (b. 1920). After the lab was shut down, Ferguson, Billman and Almgren found employment at Union’s lab in Bakersfield, Simon joined Texas OC’s lab in Los Angeles and Nicholeris settled permanently in Ventura as an independent consultant. Texas Oil Company opened its Los Angeles palaeo lab in 1929 under the direction of Donald D. Hughes and Boris Laiming, who were among several micropalaeontologists that came from Marland OC (see above). Texas OC absorbed Seaboard OC, formerly known as Milham OC, and it adopted the Texaco acronym after the war. Among those who joined the group over the years were Wilbur D. Rankin (1903–1985), James M. Hamill, Bradford C. Adams (1902–1994),

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Lorin B. Snedden (1908–1991), Frank Bell, Paul P. Goudkoff, T. A. Baldwin, Frank Tolman, E. R. Baddley, J. A. Smith, Harold W. Hoots (1889– 1979), L. E. Nelson, A. J. MacMillan Jr, Donald K. Sherman (1928–2000), Roseann Carlson and Kristin McDougall. Laiming’s successor was Louis J. Simon, who was followed by William R. White. When Texaco and Chevron merged in 2001, neither had a palaeontologist remaining in California. Texaco donated their West Coast microfossil collection estimated at 66 700 slides and 235 000 washed residues to UCMP. Tidewater Associated Oil Company opened a palaeo lab in San Francisco in May 1923 under the direction of G. Dallas Hanna, who was a zoologist and part-time associate at the CAS. He was assisted by T. F. Stipp and soon hired Herschel L. Driver, who was educated as a petroleum engineer and later joined SOCAL, and Clifford C. Church, who was previously with Marland OC. After Tidewater was taken over by Getty in 1952, Church was transferred to Bakersfield. Charlie E. Sturz (1920–1988), who had been in Ventura, was also transferred to Bakersfield and both Church and Sturz were eventually transferred to Los Angeles. Carlton ‘Kit’ M. Carson (see below) also had a stint with the company in the early 1950s. Union Oil Company (UNOCAL) opened its first palaeo lab in Los Angeles at the beginning of 1925 with Galloway student Stanley G. Wissler (1900–1990) in command. Their paper on the Lomita Marl (Galloway & Wissler 1927) is a landmark, being the first modern study of California Cenozoic foraminifers, as well as the first publication by the newly founded SEPM in its Journal of Paleontology. Wissler firmly demonstrated the value of benthic foram correlations with great success in the Dominguez oil field, and at one point his staff there numbered more than 40. Among those working on Foraminifera were Frank E. ‘Frenchy’ Dreyer (1902–1980), Charles R. Canfield (1908–1978), Glenn C. Ferguson (1906– 2001), Robert Hutcheson, Scout Harvey Lee, Elizabeth Watson and Aden Hughes. Others that followed included Douglas Crawford and Bradford Jones in Dominguez; that lab later moved to Sante Fe Springs. Although Wissler became Union’s Chief Geologist, his most celebrated moment is said to be the time another company’s geologist asked him for some help with a core and the ‘bugs’ revealed that a three-foot section had been mistakenly tagged upside-down (as later confirmed by the driller). No doubt, every industrial micropalaeontologist dreamed of doing likewise! When Superior’s lab closed in 1959, Alvin A. Almgren stayed in Bakersfield where he went to work in Union’s lab under the supervision of Charles Cary. Edward Marx was also there for a

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few years before Union sent him off to Texas. Upon closure of the Bakersfield lab, Union transferred Almgren to its palaeo lab led by Grosvenor C. ‘Butch’ Brown in Santa Fe Springs. His new co-workers were Charles L. Roberts III, William G. Reay, David Ford, Roy Fulwider, Kristin McDougall, Gregg H. Blake, Hal Heitman and Mary Lou Cotton. Union moved the group to Ventura in 1972 in anticipation of the 1975 offshore bidding. In the 1980s, Garry Jones and Leonard Tjalsma researched non-Californian foraminifers at Unocal’s Fred L. Hartley Research Center, located adjacent to the Brea-Olinda oil field and just a few miles NE of Chevron’s research campus in La Habra. Within a few years, however, the oil companies began to divest themselves from West Coast exploration and most retracted to Texas. Reay, Blake, Heitman and Jones continued with Unocal in Houston. Unocal closed its Ventura lab in 1986 and, after Chevron took over the company a decade later, the Brea facility was replaced by a housing development.

The universities When the oil industry blossomed in California after World War I, the state’s universities were eager to have faculty at the forefront of applied research who could train the next generation of micropalaeontologists to help quench the country’s exponentially increasing thirst for oil; they produced many of those who found careers interpreting the past through a pair of oculars. (In the following, subsequent employment is indicated in parentheses following the name of each graduate student.) Unlike the channelled research in industry, university research had no bounds and micropalaeontologists there explored areas and topics well beyond the realm of California foraminiferal biostratigraphy.

Stanford University (Leland Stanford Jr University, LSJU), Palo Alto Hubert Schenck (1897–1960) was an invertebrate palaeontologist and professor at Stanford who in 1924 offered the first course on Foraminifera to fill the sudden demands of the state’s oil industry. He also initiated the student-edited Micropaleontology Bulletin (1926–1933) hoping that it would be primarily an outlet for West Coast studies, although it included anything related to microfossils as well as translations of foreign papers. Schenck’s research interests expanded to include larger foraminifers from Baja California to Alaska. Among his students were Robert M. Kleinpell (1905–1986) and Hollis D. Hedberg (1903– 1988), who went on to

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become prominent stratigraphers with diametrically opposing views on biozonation (see Walsh 2005). Others were Earl H. Myers (d. 1975), who researched foraminiferal biology at Stanford’s Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove and was the first to demonstrate alternation of generations in Foraminifera using time-lapse photography, and Louis J. Simon (Superior OC, Texas OC). After World War II, Hans E. Thalmann (1899– 1975) succeeded Schenck. His research interests were outside the realm of California, however. Thalmann served as the West Coast envoy to the American Museum’s The Micropaleontologist newsletter (the precursor to the journal Micropaleontology) and for many years he compiled foraminiferal bibliographies and taxonomic indices that served the scientific community well. Joseph J. Graham (1909–1967) received his PhD from UCB in 1947 then joined the Stanford faculty in 1948, where he researched California Cretaceous and modern Philippine (with R. Kleinpell) foraminifers until his untimely passing. In 1967, James C. Ingle Jr filled the void left by Graham and remained at Stanford for four decades, where he focused much of his attention on the Neogene Foraminifera of California and the Pacific Rim. He was a prote´ge´ of Orville Bandy at USC, and his graduate students in the 1980s included Gerta Keller (Princeton University), the late Martin Lagoe (ARCO, Anchorage; UT Austin), Hillary C. Olson (Mobil; UT Austin), Robert Milam (Exxon, Houston) and Patricia A. McCrory (USGS, Menlo Park). Ingle’s 1980 paper on California Cenozoic Foraminifera continued on the paths forged by Natland and Bandy by delving into the palaeobathymetric relationships of fossil Foraminifera in the borderland basins of California. Its comprehensive tally of palaeobathymetric index species has been the crux of many subsequent studies. Ingle also led well-attended field trips to classic Miocene outcrops in the state, including one memorable excursion in 1981 (the first NAMS field trip) that this author went on to examine outcrops on both sides of the San Andreas fault in which a busload of thirsty geologists eagerly volunteered themselves as imbibers for an enological comparison of the North American and Pacific plates. After his retirement in 2005 Ingle transferred the LSJU collection of more than 5000 foraminiferal slides, and Schenck’s collection of larger fossil foraminifers, to UCMP.

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Milton N. Bramlette (1896–1977), a USGS geologist since 1921, began the foraminiferal

micropalaeontology programme at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1940. ‘Bram’s’ students included Alvin A. Almgren (Union), Dana B. Braislin Jr (Union), Edward Wheeler (Shell) and Manley S. Natland (Shell, Richfield). Among Bramlette’s most important publications were his USGS Professional Papers on the Monterey Formation (Bramlette 1946), the Palos Verdes Hills (Woodring et al. 1946) and the Santa Maria District (Woodring & Bramlette 1950), all of which presented foraminiferal data provided by others. In 1951, Bramlette relocated to SIO in La Jolla, where he devoted himself to studies on calcareous nannoplankton. Natland’s 1952 doctoral thesis introduced the stage names for the Pliocene and Pleistocene of southern California that he published in 1957 (Fig. 3). Next in line was Helen N. Tappan (1917–2004), who met Alfred R. Loeblich Jr at the University of Oklahoma. After they married, both journeyed north to pursue PhDs at the University of Chicago under Croneis which they received in 1942 and 1941, respectively. They moved south to Tulane University (New Orleans) where Al was on the faculty and Helen took over his teaching assignments while he served in the military. When Al returned in 1946, they relocated to Washington, DC where the USNM hired him as Associate Curator of Invertebrate Paleontology and Helen was a USGS consultant working on Cretaceous Foraminifera from Alaska. After Cushman’s passing in 1949, they procured his collection for the USNM and were instrumental in creating the foundation that bears his name. Helen Tappan, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Cushman were distantly related to each other. Each traced their lineage to Robert Cushman who was one of the Puritans that, for religious freedom, left England in 1620 aboard the Speedwell which accompanied the Mayflower (Cushman had arranged its leasing). On their journey across the Atlantic, leakage forced the Speedwell back to England while the Mayflower sailed on to become the symbol of European colonization of what was to become the USA in 1776. Robert Cushman made it to the new colony with his son Thomas several months later (in 1621), but soon thereafter returned to England to promote the interests of the colony in which his son remained and raised a family. In 1958, distant descendant Helen Tappan joined the Earth Sciences Department at UCLA as a lecturer (her significant other had already settled into his position with Chevron Research in La Habra). Her first students of Foraminifera to receive their doctorates were Robert G. Douglas (USC), William V. Sliter (USGS) and Jere H. Lipps (UCD, UCB), all of whom completed dissertations on planktonic foraminifers from California in 1966. Douglas and Sliter followed their

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professor’s interest in the Cretaceous, while Lipps delved into the Miocene. As a team, Loeblich and Tappan co-authored hundreds of papers on microfossils, but none were focused on California Foraminifera. Nevertheless, their contributions to foraminiferal systematics and taxonomy were major, particularly those of the 1957 USNM Bulletin 215 Studies in Foraminifera that was a landmark compilation of papers on planktonic foraminifers, their 1964 two-volume Treatise of Invertebrate Paleontology (Protista) and their 1987 two-volume monograph on all known foraminiferal genera. The latter two have been indispensable references for all foraminiferologists. Loeblich and Tappan collected nearly 12 000 microfossil samples during their careers; their bulk samples, washed residues and slides are now part of the UCMP collection.

University of California, Berkeley Few would debate that Robert M. Kleinpell was the most celebrated foraminiferal biostratigrapher in California. He was introduced to stratigraphy by his older brother William, who was a geologist engaged in field mapping for Marland OC. Having an undergraduate degree in archaeology and history from Occidental College (Los Angeles) in 1927, the younger Kleinpell pursued his Masters at Stanford where he was mentored by H. G. Schenck and J. P. Smith. His intent was to subdivide the Miocene Monterey Formation, which was a primary source and reservoir of petroleum, using the Reliz Canyon section as his primary target. Kleinpell followed geologist Ralph Reed’s (Texas OC) suggestion by using Oppel’s (1856– 1858) principles of biostratigraphic zonation to get around the problem of facies control on benthic species. The methodology, which he spent his career proselytizing (see Berry 2000, 2008), made practical sense because the thick deep-water deposits of the Monterey Formation contained mixeddepth foraminiferal assemblages. Kleinpell also was employed as a field geologist for the Richfield OC (1928– 1931) during this time, but the Depression gave him the option of either becoming a cost accountant for the company or returning to Stanford for his doctorate. Having chosen the latter, Kleinpell’s goal was to create a biostratigraphic zonation of the California Miocene based on benthic foraminifers. In his 1933 dissertation (approved in 1934), Kleinpell divided the Miocene into 6 stages and 15 zones, leaving the uppermost zone unnamed because it lacked foraminifers (Fig. 3). He then consulted as a field geologist for the Richfield labs in Bakersfield and as a palaeontologist for the General Petroleum Company. The AAPG published Kleinpell’s dissertation in 1938 as The Miocene Stratigraphy of California. The

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comprehensive book was timely and immediately adopted by everyone working in the realm of its title, particularly the many West Coast oil company palaeontologists who successfully applied it and its fundamental methodology in the search for hydrocarbons. Kleinpell was an adjunct professor at CIT in Pasadena from 1939– 1941, but left for the Philippines ‘to help start their oil industry’ by assisting the US Navy in searching for a strategic petroleum reserve. In 1942, he was incarcerated by the invading Japanese army. Having survived the harsh internment he returned to California in 1945 and resumed consulting for several oil companies, which he continued doing throughout his tenure at UCB (1946–1973). Kleinpell was a talented pianist and among his first graduates were two others that demonstrated a love of music: Zach M. Arnold (UCB), who studied living Foraminifera and their kin, and Victor Standish (‘Stan’) Mallory (UW). Arnold was a skilled tinkerer and self-taught musician who devised everything from his experimental apparatuses to the miniature harmonica for which he wrote and published compositions. Mallory led his own jazz band during his high school years in New Jersey, at which time he occasionally played alto saxophone with jazz great Duke Ellington. He later attended Oberlin College (Ohio) on a fouryear scholarship in piano and piano composition while majoring in geology, then headed west for graduate degrees in palaeontology under Kleinpell’s direction. His dissertation presented an Oppelian zonation of the Early Tertiary of California (Fig. 3), and it was published in a fashion similar to Kleinpell’s 1938 classic tome. These books were indispensable references that formed the foundation for subsequent taxonomic and biostratigraphic studies on California Tertiary Foraminifera. Both scientists later revisited their early works with revisions and additions (Mallory 1970; Kleinpell 1980). Among Kleinpell’s students were four foraminiferal micropalaeontologists who went on to careers with SOCAL: Bob Blaisdell, Charles Fulmer, Gene E. Molander and Paul R. Wesendunk. Others who worked or published on California Foraminifera after graduation were David Berry (Richfield OC, Long Beach; CSU Pomona), Richard D. Cifelli (Phillips OC, Centralia, Washington State; USNM), William W. Fairchild (Humble OC, Houston), Charles R. ‘Rusty’ Haller (Pan-American OC, Trinidad), Gordon Hornaday (SOCAL, UCMP), Donald W. Weaver (UCSB), William Weaver (Tropical OC, Columbia), Donald H. Dailey (Cities Service OC, Tulsa) and F. Jay Phillips (who joined the Denver-Alaska OC in Colorado before becoming the independent developer of a novel biostratigraphic computer program that many biostratigraphers adopted in the 1980s).

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By the time Kleinpell retired from UCB in 1973 (whereupon he relocated to UCSB), the California Tertiary had been divided into 15 benthic stages comprising more than 30 ‘Oppel’ zones which he based on associations of benthic Foraminifera, as opposed to zones defined by index fossil datums. The many that tried to apply the zonations to their own work had variable degrees of success. As workers struggled with variants and forms intermediate between described species, the easiest solution was to assign species identifications to fit the presumed age; after all, disciples of the Kleinpellian school of stratigraphy were reluctant to challenge its integrity. Over time, and with the development of planktonic biostratigraphies, the shortcomings of the benthic facies-controlled zones were exposed. However, even with intrinsic or introduced inaccuracies, benthic Foraminifera remain a useful tool when there are no other microfossils available for age determination, and especially when correlations are intrabasinal. Although many workers eventually abandoned the benthic foraminiferal zones, the stages have been retained as an integral part of the multidisciplinary, chronologic correlation charts that first appeared in the 1970s. Magnetostratigraphy, isotope chronostratigraphies and planktonic biostratigraphies have shown the tendency of some benthic stage boundaries to be time-transgressive or uncertain; some boundary lines are therefore drawn diagonally or dashed on those charts. For the most part, however, it is likely that abrupt faunal changes at the stage boundaries are due to hiatuses or condensed sections in the stratotypes that reflect lowstands of sea level resulting from local and regional tectonics. Protozoologist Zach M. Arnold researched the biology of living Foraminifera, following in the footsteps of Earl H. Myers (LSJU). He received his PhD in 1948 under Kleinpell, who realized the need for a better understanding of the living organism. Arnold joined the UCB faculty in 1957, where he stayed until retiring in 1978. His work shed light on the reproductive cycles of several taxa. His former PhD students are Don S. Steinker (recently retired from Bowling Green University, Ohio) and Susan T. Goldstein (University of Georgia), who specializes in shallow-water foraminiferal biology, ecology and taphonomy. The UCMP produced three dissertations on the Holocene Foraminifera of San Francisco Bay: Dana Wagner (Chevron) and Doris Sloan (b. 1930; UCB) were advised by William N. B. Berry, a graptolite specialist, and later Mary McGann (USGS) by Jere Lipps. All three women worked on California Foraminifera throughout their professional careers. Karen L. Wetmore (Grycewicz) was on the UCMP staff for the period 1991–2000, where she

managed the microfossil collections and researched aspects of foraminiferal evolution and morphology. Charlotte Brunner, a student of James P. Kennett at URI, was on of the UCB faculty during 1979– 1987. As many of Kennett’s students did, she considered herself a palaeoceanographer first and a micropalaeontologist second. Her California-based research was mostly on the turbidites of the Monterey fan and the Foraminifera of San Francisco Bay. After her UCB stint, Brunner assumed a position at the Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. Jere H. Lipps (b. 1939) transferred from UCD to UCB in 1988. Within a couple of years, the famous Department of Paleontology lost its autonomy when it was merged into the Department of Integrative Biology. With his wide interests in protists, marine biology and palaeobiology, Lipps was a perfect match for the new combination. His research at UCB has included a few studies on California Foraminifera, including those in modern marshes. Kenneth L. Finger joined the UCMP staff in 2002, and collaborated with Lipps on studies involving Miocene and Recent Foraminifera in California. Lipps has established himself as one of the world’s foremost and prolific foraminiferologists, and his devotion to science is likely to keep him productive well beyond his recent retirement from UCB in 2009.

University of California, Davis Emile A. Pessagno Jr, who received his PhD at Princeton University, was the first micropalaeontologist in the fledgling Geology Department at UCD in 1959, but he soon joined the faculty at UTD. In 1967, recent UCLA graduate Jere H. Lipps was appointed to the faculty as a palaeontologist. In his graduate work and early career, Lipps (1964, 1966, 1967a, b, 1972) sought out the planktonic markers in the California Miocene that had long been overlooked by others (partly due to their rarity or relatively minute size). He correlated his findings with the interregional zonations devised in the tropics by Bolli (1957a, b, 1966) and Banner & Blow (1965). His interests in protists and marine biology soon spread widely beyond that of California Foraminifera, however. Lipps later revisited the local Miocene Foraminifera with his first doctorate, Kenneth L. Finger (Finger et al. 1990, 2008). Lipps’s other prote´ge´s that continued working on Foraminifera were Drs Ted E. DeLaca (NSF), William J. Showers (NCSU), Malcolm G. Erskian (d. 1993), and Kenneth P. Severin (University of Alaska) and Masters students (who went on to earn their doctorates elsewhere) Laird B. Thompson (Mobil, Dallas) and Joan Bernhard (WHOI). Erskian and several others were among the few who, while students of Lipps, researched

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California Foraminifera. Finger and another one of his Masters students, Daniel R. McKeel (Mobil Oil, consultant), did not do so until they were in their professional careers. In 1988, Lipps left the UCD campus and moved (c. 80 km west) to the Department of Paleontology at UCB. Howard W. Spero filled the void at UCD, and his stable isotope research has included foraminifers from the Southern California Borderland.

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), La Jolla In addition to being an expert on larger Foraminifera and the one who hired Cushman at the USGS in 1912, T. Wayland Vaughan (1870–1952) directed SIO from 1924–1936. It was not until the arrival of Fred B Phleger (1909– 1993) as a visiting scientist (1949–1951) from Amherst College (Massachusetts) that micropalaeontology became associated with the institution. Phleger was already a prominent foraminiferologist and was joined by his colleague Frances L. Parker (1906– 2002) who accepted a staff position at SIO in 1950. Parker worked at the Cushman Lab in Amherst during 1930–1940, as did Phleger in 1934–1936, then put in several years with Shell OC in Houston before moving to La Jolla. Phleger and Parker established the SIO Marine Foraminifera Laboratory in 1950; the following year Phleger became SIO faculty and Milton N. Bramlette arrived from UCLA to begin researching calcareous nannoplankton. Phleger’s 1960 Ecology and Distribution of Foraminifera was the first book on the subject and it laid the groundwork for the subdiscipline of palaeoceanography. Among Phleger’s students were William R. Walton, John S. Bradshaw (1928–2010) and Wolfgang Berger. Walton (1952) introduced rose bengal as a histologic stain for distinguishing living foraminifers, Bradshaw studied foraminiferal biology and modern marsh foraminifers and Berger was interested primarily in palaeoceanography and the geochemistry of deep-sea carbonates. Bradshaw remained closely affiliated with SIO while Berger eventually joined the faculty. As a PhD student at UCSD in the 1970s, David B. Scott (b. 1947) studied modern foraminiferal distributions in marshes and lagoons of southern California under the guidance of Bradshaw and Phleger. Scott’s professional career developed at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, and he has published several papers on the brackish fauna of California. Between 1968 and 1983, SIO was headquarters for the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP). The research vessel Glomar Challenger completed 96 expeditions to 624 drill sites for the

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DSDP, which provided an incredible wealth of core data vital to the refinement of microfossil zonations and the construction of an integrated biochronostratigraphic framework for the past 200 Ma (see http://iodp.tamu.edu/publicinfo/glo mar_challenger.html). Among those who participated in these cruises when they were California micropalaeontologists were Wolf Berger (SIO), Gregg Blake (UNOCAL), Bob Douglas (USC), Bob Fleisher (USC), Gerta Keller (LSJU), Jere Lipps (UCD), Jim Ingle (LSJU), Kris McDougall (USGS), Fran Parker (SIO), Dick Poore (USGS) and Bill Sliter (USGS).

University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) Kleinpell’s UCB student Donald W. Weaver was the appropriate choice to start the micropalaeontology programme at UCSB, as he had several large publications on California Oligocene and Eocene foraminiferal biostratigraphy to his credit in the 1960s. His student Ann Tipton (aka Tipton Donnelly; Mobil) later worked on the additional California sections from the same epochs. In retirement, Kleinpell moved to Santa Barbara and affiliated himself with UCSB. James P. Kennett (b. 1940) became the Director of the Marine Studies Program at UCSB in 1987. Following his post-doctoral studies with Bandy at USC in 1966, Kennett had been on the faculty at Florida State University. He accepted a position at the University of Rhode Island in 1970 where he established himself at the forefront of palaeoceanography and trained the majority of students who went on to academic careers happily pulverizing foraminiferal tests for their isotopic signatures. In 1987, Kennett became the Director of the Marine Studies Program at UCSB. His palaeoclimate research on the ODP site in the Santa Barbara Channel showed multiple, abrupt warming episodes during the Quaternary that correlated with his previous findings in Greenland and Antarctica, and which he later attributed to rapid methane releases from the ocean floor.

University of Southern California (USC) Irene A. McCulloch (1887–1987) joined USC as a marine biologist in 1924 and spent her long career (well past her 1952 retirement) working on Foraminifera in the extensive sample collection resulting from G. Allan Hancock’s expeditions, mostly in the East Pacific. In 1944, she convinced Hancock to donate his immense natural history collection to USC. However, USC did not become a major centre of foraminiferal research until

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Orville Bandy (1917–1973) joined the Geology faculty in 1948. Bandy had worked briefly on Gulf Coast Foraminifera for Humble in Houston before pursuing his doctorate in 1946 under Galloway, who had relocated from Columbia University to Indiana University. At USC, Bandy began working on Recent benthic foraminiferal distributions and ecology off southern California. His 1953 papers Ecology and paleoecology of some California Foraminifera (Parts 1 & 2; 1953a, b, respectively) followed in the footsteps of Natland (1933) in clearly demonstrating how benthic Foraminifera can be used to interpret palaeobathymetry, but additionally showed how they revealed rates of subsidence and sedimentation. Bandy was fond of putting cumulative frequency diagrams in his publications, and these ‘bandygrams’ popularized applications of quantitative analysis. His 1959 article on Neogloboquadrina pachyderma coiling was among the first to demonstrate that planktonic foram distributions were controlled by surface water masses and surface temperatures. Bandy’s work attracted many students, including Lewis Martin, William R. White (Texaco), Robert E. Arnal (SJSU), Robert C. Wright (Exxon, Houston), Richard E. Casey (Rice University, Houston), James C. Ingle Jr, (LSJU), Johanna Resig (University of Hawaii), Edith Vincent (SIO), Fritz Theyer (University of Hawaii), Robert L. Fleischer (Exxon, Houston; Gulf, Houston; Chevron, San Ramon, Houston), Robert C. Wright (Exxon, Houston), Ronald J. Echols (Mobil, Dallas), Ronald L. Kolpack (CSU Long Beach), Paul Lewis Steineck (SUNY at Purchase), Kristin McDougall (Union; USGS), Michael Mickey (Mobil, Sante Fe Springs), Richard Boettcher (Mobil, Sante Fe Springs) and post-doctoral James P. Kennett (URI; UCSB). The paper by Bandy & Arnal (1969) was a landmark study on the Foraminifera of the southern San Joaquin Valley, as the extensive data gathered there by oil companies was kept proprietary. Studies by Bandy et al. (1964a, b, 1965a, b) on benthic foraminifers at sewage outfalls along the southern California coastline were among the first documents on foraminiferal responses to pollutants, now a popular subject of investigation. With a doctorate from UCLA, Robert G. Douglas (b. 1937) took a position at Case Western University in Ohio, only to return to Los Angeles to fill the vacancy at USC left by Orville Bandy’s untimely passing in 1973. Douglas continued researching Cretaceous planktonic foraminifers, but eventually shifted towards the modern Southern California Borderland and the deep sea. He mentored Bandy’s remaining graduate students as well as those who followed, including Fay Woodruff (USC Associate Researcher) and the UNOCAL crew of Gregg Blake, Mary Lou Cotton

and Hal Heitman. Douglas has been succeeded by Lowell D. Stott who has done some work on California Foraminifera, but his research mostly involves using stable isotopes in palaeoclimatology.

Other California universities Merle C. Israelsky (1901–1977) was at the California Institute of Technology in 1953 and is best known for his work on the Eocene Lodo Formation. Much of his early career was in the Gulf Coast oil industry however, and he delved into a wide array of palaeontological and geological topics. Robert Arnal, who had several papers on Foraminifera to his credit when he was a student at USC, joined the faculty at SJSU in the latter 1960s. His student Paula Quinterno went on to work for the USGS in Menlo Park. Calvin H. Stevens joined CSU East Bay (the former CSU Hayward) in 1963. Although recently retired, he continues his long record of being the only one in California who is active in research on the state’s fusulinids. William Miller III of Humboldt State University has focused his foraminiferal research on the genus Bathysiphon, particularly specimens found in the rocks of California.

The US Geological Survey The USGS western headquarters is located in Menlo Park, not far from Stanford University. Its first foram researchers in the 1950s: Merle C. Israelsky and later Patsy B. Smith (d. 1971). Israelsky’s main contribution was his work on the Eocene Lodo Formation, whereas Smith focused on the California Miocene until she took her own life. She was replaced in 1973 by William V. Sliter (d. 1977), who completed his PhD in 1966 as a student of Helen Tappan at UCLA. Sliter’s professional career began with Esso Production Research in Houston, which he left for the Canadian Geological Survey in Calgary followed by the USGS in Menlo Park, interrupted by a brief stint as Branch Chief in Reston, Virginia. He is best known for his research on Cretaceous foraminifers, particularly those studied in thin-sections, and he produced numerous publications on those from California. Richard Z. Poore joined the Menlo Park group in 1974 before transferring to Reston, Virginia. During his time in California he worked on planktonic foraminifers of the region, leaving the benthic fauna to Kristin McDougall. McDougall came to the USGS in 1975 with a most impressive history, having completed her undergraduate and Masters studies under Mallory at UW and her PhD under Bandy and Douglas at USC. After several

[Erratum:1977 should be 1997.]

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years in industry with Texaco and with UNOCAL, she joined the USGS where she applied her expertise on the benthic Foraminifera of the West Coast Tertiary in many studies throughout the region. Having moved to Arizona in the 1990s, McDougall (-Reid) is still employed by the USGS and remains active in California projects. Mary McGann in the Marine Geology group at Menlo Park received her doctorate at UCB. Her research on California foraminifers has been mostly on modern assemblages in California bays and offshore basins, and the introduction of foreign and sometimes invasive species from the ballast water of cargo ships.

Joseph A. Cushman’s role As with all those who followed in his footsteps, those in California benefited greatly from Cushman’s role in developing foraminiferology. Most notable of Cushman’s achievements are: (1) in 1923, he convincingly demonstrated that Foraminifera were a valuable tool in the search for oil; (2) in 1925, he initiated Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research; in its first two years, he was the sole author of six papers devoted to California Foraminifera, after which he assumed senior authorship on more than two dozen contributions by California colleagues; and (3) in 1928, he wrote the first major reference book on Foraminifera that included systematics and descriptions of all supraspecific ranks, as well as illustrations of species representing all genera. Because it filled a huge void, it was immediately adopted by most workers. (The unsavoury tactic of getting it published prior to Galloway’s (1933) book created a permanent rift between the two most prominent foraminiferologists in America, however. Galloway, an SEPM founder, found a little solace in the subsequent impeachment of SEPM President Cushman in 1931.)

Epilogue The oil industry ignited foraminiferal micropalaeontology and fuelled the careers of the majority of foraminiferologists in California. When they abandoned the exploration side of the business on the West Coast, the market for these microscopists largely ended. Tenured faculty retained their positions, but few students viewed micropalaeontology as a promising career path. Within a decade, retirements, out-of-state transfers, unemployment and career changes had brought the California ‘bug-men’ to the brink of extinction. The latest generation of geoscientists in California that study Foraminifera have only a minor interest in the taxonomy and biostratigraphy of the West Coast

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fauna, as they are the palaeoceanographers or palaeoclimatologists who religiously sacrifice the calcareous tests of relatively few selected species for stable isotope analysis or the palaeobiologists studying evolutionary relationships by means of extracting and sequencing foraminiferal DNA. Since 1925, more than 100 professional scientists have worked on California Foraminifera, vast majority while employed in the state, and together they produced more than 500 publications on the regional modern and fossil faunas. Their legacy includes 100s of 1000s of slides, 1000s of outcrop samples, and millions of washed residues (mostly from oil well cuttings) that have thwarted the dumpsters and found refuge in two museums (UCMP and CAS). Although California is no longer a centre of activity for foraminiferal micropalaeontology, the historic and scientific value of the amassed collections must be preserved. They are a treasure trove of data that are a product of unfathomable amounts of time, effort and cost, and most of the materials are irreplaceable. Typical of museum collections, they are preserved for the benefit of future generations for research applications that have yet to be realized. I thank A. Almgren, D. Haman and J. Lipps for letting me tap their memories on the subject of this chapter. Prereviews of the manuscript were kindly provided by J. Lipps, J. Ingle and K. McDougall. The sources of the portrait photographs (figures) in Plate 1 are: 1, Royal Society of New Zealand; 2, USGS; 3, 5, SEPM; 4, Monterey Bay Paleontological Society, 6– 8, 13, Journal of the West; 9, Smithsonian Institution; 10, 16, 18–20, Cushman Foundation, 11, UCMP; 12, USC; 14, 21, National Academy of Sciences; 15, 23, Stanford University; 17, Burke Museum; 22, Jere Lipps; 24, Kris McDougall; 25, Gregg Blake.

References ANON. 1932. ‘Bug-men’ lead hunt for black gold: searching for oil with a microscope. Popular Mechanics, March, 370– 374. Arnold, D. & Arnold, R. 1902. The marine Pliocene and Pleistocene stratigraphy of the coast of southern California. Journal of Geology, 10, 117 –138. Arnold, R. 1903. The paleontology and stratigraphy of the marine Pliocene and Pleistocene of San Pedro, California. Memoir of the California Academy of Science, 3, 420. Bagg, R. M., Jr. 1898. The Tertiary and Pleistocene Foraminifera of the middle Atlantic slope. Bulletin of American Paleontology, 2, 153. Bagg, R. M., Jr. 1905a. Foraminifera collected from the bluffs at Santa Barbara, California. American Geologist, 35, 123– 124. Bagg, R. M., Jr. 1905b. Miocene Foraminifera from the Monterey Shale of California with a few species from the Tejon Formation. US Geological Survey

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CALIFORNIA FORAMINIFERAL MICROPALAEONTOLOGY Finger, K. L. 1983. Ostracoda from the lower Rincon Formation (Oligo-Miocene) of southern California. Micropaleontology, 29, 78–109. Finger, K. L. 1990. Atlas of California Neogene Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation Special Publication, 28, 271. Finger, K. L. 1992. Atlas of Miocene Foraminifera from the Monterey and Modelo formations, central and southern California. Cushman Foundation Special Publication, 29, 179. Finger, K. L. 1995. Recognition of middle Miocene foraminifers in highly indurated rocks of the Monterey Formation, coastal Santa Maria Province. US Geological Survey Bulletin, 1995-L, 30 + 46 pls. Finger, K. L., Weaver, J. C. B., Lipps, J. H. & Miller, P. L. 1990. Biostratigraphy and depositional paleoenvironments of calcareous microfossils in the lower Monterey Formation (Miocene), Graves Creek area, central California. Micropaleontology, 36, 1 –55. Finger, K. L., Flenniken, M. M. & Lipps, J. H. 2008. Foraminifera used in the construction of Miocene polychaete tubes, Monterey Formation, California, USA. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 38, 277–291. Galloway, J. J. 1933. A Manual of Foraminifera. Principia Press, Bloomington, Indiana. Galloway, J. J. & Wissler, S. G. 1927. Pleistocene Foraminifera from the Lomita Quarry, Palos Verdes Hills, California. Journal of Paleontology, 1, 35–87. Goudkoff, P. P. 1926. Correlative value of the microlithology and micropaleontology of the oil-bearing formations of the Sunset-Midway and Kern River oil fields. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 10, 482–494. Hilgard, E. W. & Hopkins, F. V. 1878. Reports upon the specimens obtained from borings made in 1874, between the Mississippi River and Lake Borgne at the site proposed for an outlet for flood waters. Engineer Bureau of the United States Army, Washington, DC, 49. Ingle, J. C., Jr. 1980. Cenozoic paleobathymetry and depositional history of selected sequences within the southern California continental borderland. In: Sliter, W. V. (ed.) Studies in Marine Micropaleontology and Paleoecology. A Memorial Volume to Orville L. Bandy. Cushman Foundation Special Publication, Washington, DC, 19, 163 –195. Jones, T. R., Parker, W. K. & Brady, H. B. 1897. A Monograph of the Foraminifera of the Crag. Part IV. Palaeontographical Society, London, 15–402. Kleinpell, R. M. 1933. Miocene Foraminifera from Reliz Canyon, Monterey County, California. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 44, 165. Kleinpell, R. M. 1938. Miocene Stratigraphy of California. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Kleinpell, R. M. 1971. California’s early ‘oil bug’ profession. Journal of the West, 10, 72–101. Kleinpell, R. M. 1972. Some of the historical context in which a micropaleontological stage classification of the Pacific Coast middle Tertiary has developed. In: Stinemeyer, E. W. (ed.) Proceedings of the Pacific Coast Miocene Biostratigraphic Symposium, the 47th Annual Pacific Section S.E.P.M.

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APPENDIX A. SUPPLEMENTAL BIOGRAPHICAL & HISTORICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY Almgren, A.A. & Stinemeyer, E.H. 1989. Clifford Carl Church (1899–1989). AAPG Bulletin, 73: 1445. Anonymous. 1998. A biographical sketch of V. Standish Mallory. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to paleontology of the West Coast: in honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Research Report, 6: xi–xiii Arnold, Z.M., Berry, W.B.N. & Weaver, D. 1993. University of California: In memoriam. Robert Minssen Kleinpell, Paleontology: Berkeley. Calisphere. World Wide Web Address:http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=hb0h4n99rb&chunk.id=div00038&bra nd=calisphere&doc.view=entire_text Barbat W.F. 1971. G Dallas Hanna (18871970). Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 5: 757758. Barbat, W.N. 1997. Memorial to William Franklin Barbat 19051996. Geological Society of America Memorials, 28, November. ftp://rock.geosociety.org/pub/Memorials/v28/barbat.pdf Bean, E.F. 1948. Memorial to Rufus Mather Bagg [18691948]. Proceedings of the Geological Society of America, May 1948: 105–107. Berry, W.B.N. & Carroll, N.P. 1997. Louis Joseph Simon (19121996). AAPG Bulletin, 81: 13361337. Crawford, F.D. & Moran, W.R. 1992. Stanley G. Wissler (19001990). AAPG Bulletin, 76: 126128. Church, C.C. 1968. Memorial: Dr. Joseph John Graham. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 19: 81−84. Cutler, W.W. 1955. Paul Pavel Goudkoff (18801955). AAPG Bulletin, 39: 21092112. Davis, T.H. 2007. Profile of James P. Kennett. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 104: 1751–1753. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0609142104 Easton, W.H. 1977. Memorial to Orville L. Bandy, 19171973. Geological Society of America Memorials 5. Finger, K.L. 1992. Memorial to Dr. Manley L. Natland. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 22: 7173. Gilully, J. 1977. Milton N. Bramlette. Nature 270 (December): 459460. [Obituary] Gilully, J. 1980. Milton Nunn Bramlette, 18961977. National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, 52: 7992. Hanna, G D. 1924. Smaller Foraminifera in stratigraphy. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 8: 246250. Hanna, G D. 1926. Microscopical research in California petroleum fields. Oil and Gas Journal, 24: 96. Hanna, G D. 1928. The Monterey Shale of California at its type locality with a summary of its fauna and flora. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 12: 969983. Hanna, G D. & Driver, H.L. 1924. The study of subsurface formations in California oil-field development. In Summary of Operations, California Oil Fields, Annual Report of the State Oil and Gas Supervisor, 10(3): 526. Howard, A.D., Keen, M. & Myers, G.S. 1968. Memorial Resolution. Joseph John Graham (1909–1967). Stanford Historical Society (http://histsoc.stanford.edu). Hutcheson, R.B. 1931. Micropaleontology: an important development in geological science. Oil Bulletin, 17: 119121. Krauskopf, K.B. 1961. Memorial [of H. G. Schenck]. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 45: 438440. Laiming, B.G., Thalmann, H.E. & Tunell, G. 1956. Memorial to Paul Pavel Goudkoff (18801955). Proceedings of the Geological Society of America, July 1956: 127131. Lipps, J.H. 1981. What, if anything, is micropaleontology? Paleobiology, 7: 167199.

2 Lipps, J.H. 2004. Success story: the history and development of the Museum of Paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley. Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences, 55 (Suppl. I): 209243. Lipps, J.H., Douglas, R.G. & Sliter, W.V. 1983. The 1982 Joseph A. Cushman Award: Helen N. Tappan and Alfred R. Loeblich, Jr. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 13: 151–153. Loeblich, E. 2005. In memorium [Dr. Helen Nina Tappan Loeblich]. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 35: 8689. Meyerhoff, A.A. 1987. Memorial [of R.M. Kleinpell]. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 71: 226227. Moran, W.R. & Crawford, F.D. 1992. Memorial to Stanley G. Wissler, 19001990. Geological Society of America Memorials, 22: 8184. Muller, S.W., Keen, M. & Sokal, A.E. Memorial resolution. Hubert G. Schenck (18971960). Stanford Historical Society (http://histsoc.stanford.edu/pdfmem/SchenckH.pdf). Myers, D.B. 1930. Paleontology, an aid to petroleum geology. Union Oil Bulletin, 11(5): 1–4. Reed, R.D. 1931. Microscopic subsurface work in oil fields of United States. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 15: 731734. Schenck, H.G. 1928. The biostratigraphic aspect of micropaleontology. Journal of Paleontology, 2: 158– 165. Schenck, H.G. 1939. Fossils in petroleum geology. In: Finding and producing oil. American Petroleum Institute, New York, 3738. Schenck, H.G., Keen, A.M. & Martin, L.T. 1932. Development of applied micropaleontology in California. Oil and Gas Journal, 39: 40–41. Sliter, W.V., Ingle, J.C., Jr., Kennett, J.P., Kolpack, R. & Vincent, E. Memorial: Orville Lee Bandy (19171973). In: Sliter, W.V. (Ed.), Studies in marine micropaleontology and paleoecology: A memorial volume to Orville L. Bandy. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication, 19: 713. Taber, G. 1948. Especially Father: Macrae-Smith-Company, Philadelphia, 253 p. (The author recounts her life with her father, Rufus Mather Bagg.) Thompson, T.G. 1958. Thomas Wayland Vaughan 1870–1952. National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoir: 398–437. Todd, R. 1950. Joseph Augustine Cushman. Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, Memorial Volume, 516. Vincent, E. 1974. Memorial. Orville Lee Bandy, 19171973. Micropaleontology 20: 116117. Vincent, E. 1982. The Joseph A. Cushman award to Frances L. Parker. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 12: 9395 Wadman, R.E. 1959. Robert Minssen Kleinpell (19051986). History of UCMP. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/about/history/rmkleinpell.php Wicander, R. 2005. Helen N. Tappan (1917–2004). Journal of Paleontology, 79: 207208.

3 APPENDIX B. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CALIFORNIA FORAMINIFERA A chronologic listing intended to include all of the early and the most significant publications on California Foraminifera. Excluded are unpublished theses and dissertations (with the notable exception of Natland, 1952.

Annual distribution of the 493 post-1900 publications listed in this bibliography. 1855. Blake, W.P. Notice of remarkable strata containing the remains of Infusoria and Polythalamia in the Tertiary formation of Monterey, California. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, April 15, 1855, 3 pp. 1857. Blake, W.P. Part II, Geological report; routes in California, to connect with the routes near the thirty-fifth and thirty-second parallels, explored by Lieut. R.S. Williamson, corps topographical engineers, in 1853, 370 p. In: Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, made under the direction of the Secretary of War, in 18534, according to acts of Congress of March 3, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854: Vol. V, 1856: House of Representatives Executive Document 91, 33d Congress, 2d Session, A.O.P. Nicholson, Washington. 1889. Friedrich, J.J., On some new species of protozoolites, Quaternary and Tertiary, from California, and on the importance of protozoa as rock building agents. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 9, 188990, 3236. 1889. Woodward, A. Foraminifera from post-Pliocene sand at Santa Barbara, California. Journal of the New York Microscopical Society, 5: 2425. 1900. Chapman, F. Foraminifera from the Tertiary of California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Geology 1: 241258. 1905. Bagg, R.M., Jr. Foraminifera collected from the bluffs at Santa Barbara, California. American Geologist, 35: 123124. 1905. Bagg, R.M., Jr. Miocene Foraminifera from the Monterey Shale of California, with a few species from the Tejon Formation. Bulletin of the U.S. Geological Survey, 268, 78 pp. 1912. Bagg, R.M., Jr. Pliocene and Pleistocene Foraminifera from southern California. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin, 513, 153 pp. 1918. Dumble, E.T. Geology of the northern end of the Temblor embayment area. Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences., ser. 4, 8: 113–156 1923. Hanna, G D. Some Eocene Foraminifera near Vacaville, California. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, Bulletin, 14: 319328.

4 1925. Cushman, J.A. Three new species of Siphogenerina from the Miocene of California. Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 1: 23. 1925. Cushman, J.A. Some Textulariidae from the Miocene of California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 1: 2935. 1925. Cushman, J.A. Siphogenerina hughesi, a new species from California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 1: 36. 1925. Cushman, J.A. & Hughes, D.D. Some later Tertiary cassidulinas of California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 1: 1117. 1926. Cushman, J.A. Miocene species of Nonionina from California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 1: 8992. 1926. Cushman, J.A. Some Pliocene bolivinas from California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 2: 4047. 1926. Cushman, J.A. Foraminifera of the typical Monterey of California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 2: 5369. 1926. Cushman, J.A. & Stewart, R.E. A new Plectofrondicularia from the Pliocene of California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 2: 39. 1926. Farish, L. Tentative correlation of Miocene formations in San Luis Obispo County by the use of Foraminifera. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(1): 3–7. 1926. Goudkoff, P.P. Correlative value of the microlithology and micropaleontology of the oil-bearing formations of the Sunset-Midway and Kern River oil fields. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 10: 482494. 1926. Hanna, G D. Microscopical research in California petroleum fields. Oil and Gas Journal, 24: 96. 1926. Kornfeld, M.M. A review of the literature of the Cenozoic fossil Foraminifera of the West Coast. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(2): 4-11. 1926. Schenck, H.G. New records of Discocyclina in the Californian Eocene. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 3: 7279. 1926. Stipp, T.F. The relation of Foraminifera to the origin of California petroleum. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 10: 697702. 1926. Stipp, T.F. Foraminifera of the Eocene of the Marysville Buttes, Sutter County, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(1): 3. 1927. Cushman, J.A. Recent Foraminifera from off the West Coast of America. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Technical Series, 1: 119188. 1927. Cushman, J.A. & Grant, U.S., IV. Late Tertiary and Quaternary elphidiums, west coast of North America. San Diego Society of Natural History, Transactions, 5: 6982. 1927. Cushman, J.A. & Hanna, G D. Foraminifera from the Eocene near Coalinga, California. Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences., 4th ser., 16: 205228. 1927. Cushman, J.A. & Hanna, M.A. Foraminifera from the Eocene near San Diego, California. San Diego Society of Natural History, Transactions, 5: 4564. 1927. Galloway, J.J. & Wissler, S.G. Pleistocene Foraminifera from the Lomita Quarry, Palos Verdes Hills, California. Journal of Paleontology, 1: 3587. 1927. Hanna, G D. & Church, C.C. A collection of Recent Foraminifera taken off San Francisco Bay, California. Journal of Paleontology, 1: 195202. 1927. McArthur, D. Notes on the type locality of the Monterey Shale. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(5): 24. 1927. Schenck, H.G. "Orthophragmina" in California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(4): 79. 1927. Schenck, H.G. Discocyclina from Simi Valley, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(6): 13. 1928. Church, C.C. A new species of Bolivinita from the lower Pliocene of California. Journal of Paleontology, 1: 265268.

5 1928. Cushman, J.A. A Cretaceous Cyclammina from California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 4(3): 70, 71. 1928. Driver, H.L. Foraminiferal section along Adams Canyon, Ventura County, California. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 12: 753–756. 1928. Hanna, G D. The Monterey Shale of California at its type locality with a summary of its fauna and flora. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 12: 969983. 1928. Hanna, G D. & Church, C.C. A collection of Recent Foraminifera taken off San Francisco Bay, California. Journal of Paleontology, 1: 195202. 1928. Schenck, H.G. The biostratigraphic aspect of micropaleontology. Journal of Paleontology, 2: 158165. 1928. Wheeler, O.C. Zonal classification of the Pico Formation, Ventura County, California, on the basis of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(9): 14. 1929. Church, C.C. Some Recent shallow water Foraminifera dredged near Santa Catalina Island, California, Journal of Paleontology, 3: 302305. 1929. Church, C.C. Some observations on plastogamy in California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(11): 14. 1929. Church, C.C. The occurrence of Kyphopyxa in California. Journal of Paleontology, 3: 411. 1929. Cushman, J.A., Pliocene lagenas from California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 5(3): 6772. 1929. Cushman, J.A. & Church, C.C. Some Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from near Coalinga, California. Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences, 4th ser., 17: 497530. 1929. Johnson, F.L. Origin and relationships of the California Pliocene faunas. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(11): 1112. 1929. Moyer, D.A. Shallow water Foraminifera from off Point Firmin, San Pedro, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 1(11): 510. 1929. Schenck, H.G. Discocyclina in California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 5: 211240. 1929. Valentine, W.W. Notes on Foraminifera from the type locality of the San Lorenzo Formation. Micropaleontology Bulletin 1(8): 12. 1930. Barbat, W.F. Notes on subsurface methods employed in parts of San Joaquin Valley, California: Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: l2. 1930. Bush, J.B. Foraminifera of Tomales Bay, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: 3842. 1930. Condit, D.D. Age of the Kreyenhagen Shale in the Cantua Creek-Panoche Creek district, California. Journal of Paleontology., 4, 259262 1930. Cushman, J.A. & Barksdale, J.D. Eocene Foraminifera from Martinez, California. Contributions from the Department of Geology of Stanford University, 1: 5573. 1930. Cushman, J.A. & Moyer, D.A. Some Recent Foraminifera from off San Pedro, California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 6: 4962. 1930. Cushman, J.A. & Stewart, K.C. Post-Miocene Foraminifera from the Ventura Quadrangle, Ventura County, California. Journal of Paleontology, 4: 60–72. 1930. Cushman, J.A., Stewart, R.E. & Stewart, K.C. Tertiary Foraminifera from Humboldt County, California. A preliminary survey of the fauna. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 6: 41–94. 1930. Cushman, J.A. & Valentine, W.W. Shallow-water Foraminifera from the Channel Islands of southern California. Contributions from the Stanford University Department of Geology, 1: 5–51. 1930. Kleinpell, R.M. Zonal distribution of Miocene Foraminifera, Reliz Canyon, California: Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: 2732. 1930. Martin, L.T. Foraminifera from the intertidal zone of Monterey Bay, California. Microplaeontology Bulletin, 2: 5054.

6 1930. McDonald, J.A. & Diediker, P.L. A preliminary report on the Foraminifera of San Francisco Bay, California. Microplaeontology Bulletin, 2: 3337. 1930. Norton, R.D. Ecologic relations of some Foraminifera. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Technical Series, 2: 331388. 1930. Rankin, W.D. A method of subsurface correlation in the Los Angeles Basin. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: 34. 1930. Schenck, H.G. An additional occurrence of Amphistegina californica. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: 43. 1930. Smith, W.M. Some Foraminifera from the Elwood Field, Santa Barbara County. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: 57. 1930. Stewart, R.E. & Stewart, K.C. Post-Miocene Foraminifera from the Ventura Quadrangle, Ventura County, California. Journal of Paleontology, 4: 6072. 1930. Stewart, R.E. & Stewart, K.C. "Lower Pliocene" in eastern end of Puente Hills, San Bernadino County, California. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 14: 14451450. 1930. von Estorff, F.E. Kreyenhagen Shale at type locality, Fresno County, California. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 14: 13211336. 1930. Woodring, W.P. Upper Eocene orbitoid Foraminifera from the western Santa Ynez Range, California, and their stratigraphic significance. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 4, 145170. 1931. Barbat, W.F. & Weymouth, A.A. Stratigraphy of the Borophagus littoralis locality, California. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences, 21: 2536. 1931. Bush, J.B. A preliminary study of Foraminifera from some Monterey Shale beds, Santa Clara County, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: 99101. 1931. Church, C.C. Foraminifera of the Kreyenhagen Shale. Mining in California. California Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mines, Mineralogist’s Report, 27: 202213. 1931. Cushman, J.A. & Laiming, B. Miocene Foraminifera from Los Sauces Creek, Ventura County, California. Journal of Paleontology, 5: 79120. 1931. Cushman, J.A. & Parker, F.L. Miocene Foraminifera from the Temblor of the east side of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 7: 116. 1931. Galliher, E.W. Stratigraphic position of the Monterey Formation. Microplaeontology Bulletin, 2: 7174. 1931. Galliher, E.W. Some Foraminifera from the Faroes. Microplaeontology Bulletin, 2: 108109. 1931. Goudkoff, P.P. Age of producing horizon at Kettleman Hills, California. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 15: 839842. 1931. Martin, L.T. Foraminifera from the intertidal zone of Monterey Bay, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: 5054. 1931. Martin, L.T. Additional notes on the Foraminifera from the intertidal zone of Monterey Bay, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 3: 1314. 1931. Rankin, W.D. Some notes on the Foraminifera of Newport Lagoon. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: 75. 1931. Wilson, R.R. Miocene shales of the Adelaida Quadrangle, San Luis Obispo County, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 2: 102104. 1931. Woodring, W.P. Age of the orbitoid-bearing Eocene limestone and Turritella variata Zone of the western Santa Ynez Range, California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 6: 371388. 1932. Adams, B.C. An ecologic analysis of a Pliocene faunule from southern California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 3: 122127.

7 1932. Barbat, W. F. Age of producing horizon at Kettleman Hills, California: Discussion Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 16: 611, 612. 1932. Cunningham, G.M. and Barbat, W.F. Age of producing horizon at Kettleman Hills, California. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 16: 417- 421. 1932. Cushman, J.A. & Barbat, W.F. Notes on some arenaceous Foraminifera from the Temblor Formation of California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 8: 2940. 1932. Dorn, C.L. Report on a deep boring in Salinas Valley, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 3: 2829. 1932. Dusenbury, A.N., Jr. A faunule from the Poway Conglomerate, upper middle Eocene of San Diego County, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 3: 84–95. 1932. Hobson, H.D. The stratigraphic significance of Foraminifera from the type San Lorenzo Formation, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 3: 3040. 1932. Keenan, M.F. The Eocene Sierra Blanca Limestone at the type locality in Santa Barbara County, California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 7: 5384 1932. Martin, L.T. Additional notes on the Foraminifera from the intertidal zone of Monterey Bay, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 3: 1314. 1932. Snedden, L.B. Notes on the stratigraphy and micropaleontology of the Miocene formations in Los Sauces Creek, Ventura County, California. Micropaleontology Bulletin, 3: 4146. 1933. Barbat, W.F. & von Estorff, F.E. Lower Miocene Foraminifera from the southern San Joaquin Valley. Journal of Paleontology, 7: 164174. 1933. Kleinpell, R.M. Miocene Foraminifera from Reliz Canyon, Monterey County, California. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 44: 165. 1933. Natland, M.L. Temperature and depth distribution of Recent and fossil Foraminifera, southern California region. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Technical Series, 3: 225230. 1933. Stewart, R.E. & Stewart, K.C. Note on Foraminifera from the type Merced, Seven-Mile Beach, San Mateo County, California. San Diego Society of Natural History, Transactions, 7: 259272. 1933. Taliaferro, N.L. & Schenck, H.G. Lepidocyclina in California. American Journal of Science, Series 5, 25:7480. 1934. Barbat, W.F. & Johnson, F.L. Stratigraphy and Foraminifera, Reef Ridge Shale, upper Miocene, California. Journal of Paleontology, 8: 317. 1934. Cushman, J.A. & Dusenbury, A.N, Jr. Eocene Foraminifera from the Poway Conglomerate of California Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 10: 123. 1934. Cushman, J.A. & Kleinpell, R.M. New and unrecorded Foraminifera from the California Miocene. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 10: 123. 1934. Cushman, J.A. & Galliher, E.W. Additonal new Foraminifera, Miocene of California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 10: 2426. 1935. Atwill, E.R. Oligocene Tumey Formation of California. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 19: 11921204. 1935. Cushman, J.A. & Hobson, H.D. A foraminiferal faunule from the type San Lorenzo Formation, Santa Cruz County, California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 11: 5364. 1935. Cushman, J.A. & Martin, L.T. A new genus of Foraminifera, Discorbinella, from Monterey Bay, California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 11: 890 1935. Cushman, J.A. & Siegfus, S.S. New species of Foraminifera from the Kreyenhagen Shale of Fresno County, California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 11: 9095. 1936. Cushman, J.A. & McMasters, J.H. Middle Eocene Foraminifera from the Llajas Formation, Ventura County, California. Journal of Paleontology, 10: 497517.

8 1936. Schenck, H.G. & Kleinpell, R.M. The Refugian Stage of Pacific Coast Tertiary. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 20: 215225. 1938. Cushman, J.A. & LeRoy, L.W. A microfauna from the Vaqueros Formation, lower Miocene, Simi Valley, Ventura County, California. Journal of Paleontology, 12: 117126. 1938. Kleinpell, R.M. Miocene Stratigraphy of California. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, 450 pp. 1938. Natland, M.L. New species of Foraminifera from off the west coast of North America and from the later Tertiary of the Los Angeles Basin. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Technical Series, 4: 137164. 1939. Adams, B.C. Distribution of Bolivina, Cañada de Aliso, Ventura County. American Journal of Science, 237: 500511. 1939. Cushman, J.A. & McCulloch, I. A report on some arenaceous Foraminifera. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 6(1): 1113. 1939. Cushman, J.A. & Siegfus, S.S. Some new and interesting Foraminifera from the Kreyenhagen Shale of California. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 15: 2333. 1939. Laiming, B.G. Some foraminiferal correlations in the Eocene of San Joaquin Valley, California. Proceedings of the Sixth Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association, 2: 535568. 1940. Cushman, J.A. & McCulloch, I. Some Nonionidae in the collections of the Allan Hancock Foundation. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 6(3): 145178. 1940. Israelsky, M.C. Notes on some Foraminifera from Marysville Buttes, California. Proceedings of the Sixth Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association, July 24th-Aug 12, 1939, 2: 569595. 1940. Laiming, B. Foraminiferal correlations in Eocene of San Joaquin Valley, California. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 24: 19231939. 1940. Natland, M.L. New genus of Foraminifera from the latter Tertiary of California. Journal of Paleontology, 14: 568570. 1940. Schenck, H.G. Applied paleontology. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 24: 1752–1778. 1942. Cushman, J.A. & McCulloch, I. Some Virgulininae in the collections of the Allan Hancock Foundation. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 6(4): 179230. 1942. Cushman, J.A. & Schenck, H. G. Foraminifera from the type area of the Kreyenhagen shale of California: Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 9(34): 385-426. 1942. Cushman, J.A. & Siegfus, S.S. Foraminifera from the type area of the Kreyenhagen Shale of California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 9: 388426. 1942. Schenck, H.G. & Childer, T.S., Jr. Significance of Lepidocyclina californica, new species, Vaqueros Formation, California. Stanford University Publications in Geological Sciences, 3, 59 pp. 1943. Church, C.C. Description of Foraminifera. In: Geologic formations and economic development of the oil and gas fields of California. In: Jenkins, O.P. (Ed.), Geologic formations and economic development of the oil and gas fields of California. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin, 118: 182. 1943. Driver, H.L. Economic paleontology and mineralogy—an appraisal. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 27: 938-947. 1943. Ferguson, G.C. Correlation of oil field formations on east side San Joaquin Valley. In: Jenkins, O.P. (Ed.), Geologic formations and economic development of the oil and gas fields of California. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin, 118: 239246. 1943. Goudkoff, P.P. Correlation of oil field formations on west side of San Joaquin Valley. In: Geologic formations and economic development of the oil and gas fields of California. In: Jenkins, O.P. (Ed.), Geologic formations and economic development of the oil and gas fields of California. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin, 118: 247252.

9 1943. Kleinpell, R.M. & Kleinpell, W.D. Correlation chart of the Miocene of California. In: Jenkins, O.P. (Ed.), Geologic formations and economic development of the oil and gas fields of California. California Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mines and Geology, Bulletin, 118: 200. 1943. Laiming, B. Eocene foraminiferal correlations in California. In: Jenkins, O.P. (Ed.), Geologic formations and economic development of the oil and gas fields of California. California Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mines Bulletin, 118: 193198. 1943. Martin, L.T. Eocene Foraminifera from the type Lodo Formation, Fresno County, California. Stanford University Publications in Geological Sciences, 3: 91125. 1943. Myers, E.H. Life activities of Foraminifera in relation to marine ecology. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Papers in Astronomy, Botany, Geolology, Paleontology, and Zoology, 86: 439458. 1943. Wissler, S.G. Stratigraphic formations of the producing zones of the Los Angeles Basin oil fields. In: Jenkins, O.P. (Ed.), Geologic formations and economic development of the oil and gas fields of California. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin, 118: 209–234. 1943. Wissler, S.G. & Dreyer, F.E. Correlation of oil fields, Santa Maria district. In: Jenkins, O.P. (Ed.), Geologic formations and economic development of the oil and gas fields of California. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin, 118: 235238. 1944. Cushman, J.A. & Simonson, R.R. Foraminifera from the Tumey Formation, Fresno County, California. Journal of Paleontology, 18: 186203. 1945. Goudkoff, P.P. Stratigraphic relations of Upper Cretaceous in Great Valley, California. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 29: 9561007. 1946. Cushman, J.A. & Gray, H.B. A foraminiferal fauna from the Pliocene of Timms Point, California. Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication, 19, 46 pp. 1946. Thompson, M.L., Wheeler, H.E. & Hazzard, J.C. Permian fusulinids of California. Geological Society of America Memoir, 17: 37–53. 1948. Cushman, J.A. & McCulloch, I. The species of Bulimina and related genera in the collections of the Allan Hancock Foundation. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 6(5): 231294. 1950. Cushman, J.A. & McCulloch, I. Some Lagenidae in the collections of the Allan Hancock Foundation. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions , 6(6): 295364. 1950. Graham, J.J., New Foraminifera from the type Meganos formation (Eocene) of California. Journal of Paleontology, 24: 282286. 1951. Bandy, O.L. Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from the Carlsbad area, San Diego County, California. Journal of Paleontology, 25: 488513. 1951. Butcher, W.S. Foraminifera, Coronado Bank and vicinity, California. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Submarine Geology Report, 19: 20 pp. 1951. Crouch, R.C. Nodosarella verneuli (d’Orbigny) from the Pliocene of the Los Angeles Basin. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 2: 9, 10. 1951. Israelsky, M.C. Foraminifera of the Lodo Formation, central California. General information and Part —arenaceous Foraminifera. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 240-A: 129. 1951. Natland, M.L. & Kuenen, P.H. Sedimentary history, Ventura Basin, California, and the action of turbidity currents. SEPM Special Publication, 2: 76107. 1951. Payne, M.B. Type Moreno formation and overlying Eocene strata on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, Fresno and Merced counties, California. California Divison of Mines Special Report, 9: 129. 1952. Church, C.C. A new species of Foraminifera of the genus Discorbis dredged off the coast of California. California Academy of Sciences, 27: 375376 1952. Church, C.C. Cretaceous Foraminifera from the Franciscan Calera Limestone of California. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 3: 6870. 1952. Crouch, R.W. SIgnificance of temperature on Foraminifera from deep basins off southern California coast. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 36: 807843.

10 1952. Graham & Droofer, C.W. An occurrence of Miogypsina in California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 2: 21, 22. 1952. Martin, L. Some Pliocene Foraminifera, Los Angeles Basin. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 3: 107-141. 1952. Natland, M.L. Pleistocene and Pliocene stratigraphy of southern California. University of California, Los Angeles, Ph.D. dissertation, 165 pp. 1953. Bandy, O.L. Ecology and paleontology of some California Foraminifera. Part 1. The frequency distribution of Recent Foraminifera off California. Journal of Paleontology, 27: 161182. 1953. Bandy, O.L. Ecology and paleontology of some California Foraminifera. Part 2. Foraminiferal evidence of subsidence rates in the Ventura Basin. Journal of Paleontology, 27: 200203. 1954. Crouch, R.W. Paleontology and paleoecology, San Pedro shelf and vicinity. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 24: 182190. 1954. Goodwin, J.C. & Thomson, J.N. 1964. Purisima Pliocene Foraminifera from the Halfmoon Bay area, San Mateo County, California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 5: 170178. 1954. Natland, M.L. & Rothwell, W.T. Fossil Foraminifera, Los Angeles and Ventura regions. California Division of Mines and Geolology, Bulletin, 170: 3342. 1954. Wilson, E.J. Foraminifera from the Gaviota Formation east of Gaviota Creek, California. University of California Publication in Geological Sciences, 30: 103168. 1955. Bandy, O.L. Evidence of displaced Foraminifera in the Purisima Formation of the Halfmoon Bay area, California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 6: 5776. 1955. Bradshaw, J.S. Preliminary laboratory experiments on ecology of foraminiferal populations, Micropaleontology, 1: 351358. 1955. Graham, J.J. & Classen, W.J. A lower Eocene foraminiferal faunule from the Woodside area, San Mateo County, California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 6: 138. 1955. Israelsky, M.C. Foraminifera of the Lodo Formation, central California. Part 2—Calcareous Foraminifera (Miliolidae and Lagenidae). U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 240-B: 49 pp. 1955. Küpper, K. Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from the “Franciscan Series,” New Almaden District, California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 6: 112118. 1956. Harrington, G.L. Ammobaculties, migrant or recent introduction to California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 7: 2930. 1956. Pierce, R.L. Upper Miocene Foraminifera and fish, Los Angeles area, California. Journal of Paleontology, 30: 12881314. 1956, Resig, J.M. Foraminifera of Santa Cruz Basin. Journal of Paleontology, 30: 1026–1027. 1956. White, W.R. Pliocene and Miocene Foraminifera from the Capistrano Formation, Orange County, California: Journal of Paleontology, 30: 237270. 1956. Smith, H.P. Foraminifera from the Wagonwheel Formation, Devils Den District, California. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 32(2): 65126. 1957. Bandy, O.L. & Arnal, R.E. Distribution of Recent Foraminifera off the west coast of Central America. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 41: 20372053. 1957. Bandy, O.L. & Arnal, R.E. Some new Tertiary and Recent Foraminifera, California and the East Pacific. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 8: 5458. 1957. Natland, M.L. Paleoecology of West Coast Tertiary sediments. In: Ladd, H.S. (Ed.), Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology, v. 2, Geological Society of America Memoir, 67: 543572. 1957. Smith, B.Y. Lower Tertiary Foraminifera from Contra Costa County, California. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 32(3): 127242. 1958. Arnal, R.E. Rhizopoda from the Salton Sea, California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 9: 3645.

11 1958. Hendrix, W.E. Foraminiferal shell form, a key to sedimentary environment. Journal of Paleontology, 32: 649659. 1958. Lobue, J.F. Trends in the distribution of Foraminifera from Ballona Creek, California. The Compass, 35: 284286. 1958. Resig, J.M. Ecology of Foraminifera in the Santa Cruz Basin. Micropaleontology, 4: 287308. 1958. Wissler, S.G. Correlation chart of producing zones of Los Angeles Basin oil fields. In: Higgins, J.W. (Ed.), A guide to the geology and oil fields of the Los Angeles and Ventura regions. Pacific Section AAPG, Los Angeles, 59–61. 1959. Garrison, L.E. Miocene Foraminifera, Temblor Formation, north of Coalinga, California. Journal of Paleontology, 33: 662669. 1959. Mallory, V.M. Lower Tertiary biostratigraphy of the California Coast Ranges. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 416 pp. 1959. McGlasson, R.H. Foraminiferal biofacies around Santa Catalina Island, California. Micropaleontology, 5: 217240. 1959. Reiter, M. Seasonal variations in intertidal Foraminifera of Santa Monica Bay, California. Journal of Paleontology, 33: 606630. 1959. Zalesny, E.R. Foraminiferal ecology of Santa Monica Bay, California. Micropaleontology, 5: 151162. 1960. Graham, J.J. & Clark, D.K. Lacosteina paynei, a new species from the Upper Cretaceous of California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 11: 115, 116. 1960. Hamlin, W.H. Two new species of Foraminifera from the West Coast of the United States. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 11: 87, 88. 1960. Resig, J.M. Foraminiferal ecology around ocean outfalls off southern California. In: Pearson, E.A. (Ed.), Waste disposal in the marine environment. Pergamon Press, London 104121. 1960. Smith, P.B. Foraminifera of the Monterey Shale and Puente Formation, Santa Ana Mountains and San Juan Capistrano area, California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 294-M: 463495. 1960. Uchio, T. Ecology of living benthic Foraminifera, San Diego area. Cushman Foundation Special Publication, 5, 72 pp. 1961. Cooper, W.C. Intertidal Foraminifera of the California and Oregon coast. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation Foraminiferal Research, 12: 4763. 1961. Graham, J.J. & Clark, D.K. New evidence for the age of the “G-1 Zone” in the Upper Cretaceous of California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 12: 107−114. 1961. Hornaday, G.R. Foraminifera from the Sacate Formation south of Refugio Pass, Santa Barbara County, California. University of California Publications in the Geological Sciences, 37: 165230. 1961. Loeblich, A.R., Jr. & Tappan, H. A vindication of the Orbulina time surface in California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 12: 1−4. 1961. Watkins, J.G. Foraminiferal ecology around the Orange County, California, ocean sewer outfall. Micropaleontology, 7: 199206. 1962. Bullivant, J.S. The Bathhouse Beach assemblage. Southern California Academy of Science, Bulletin, 68(2): 86−95. 1962. Graham, J.J. A review of the planktonic Foraminifera from the Upper Cretaceous of California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 13: 100−109. 1962. Resig, J.M. The morphological development of Eponides repandus (Fichtel and Moll), 1798. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 13: 55−57. 1962. Sullivan, F.R. Foraminifera from the type section of the San Lorenzo Formation, Santa Cruz County, California. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 37: 295303. 1962. Weaver, D.W. Eocene Foraminifera from west of Refugio Pass. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 37: 353419. 1962. Weaver, W.R. & Weaver, D.W. Upper Eocene Foraminifera from the southwestern Santa Ynez Mountains, California. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 41, 965 pp.

12 1963. Bandy, O.L. Larger living Foraminifera of the continental borderland of southern California. Contrib. Cushman Foundation Foraminiferal Research, 14: 121126. 1963. Bandy, O.L. Dominant paralic Foraminifera of southern California and the Gulf of California. Contrib. Cushman Foundation Foraminiferal Research, 14: 127134. 1963. Bandy, O.L. & Kolpack, R.L. Foraminifera and sedimentary trends in the Tertiary section of Tecolote Tunnel, California. Micropaleontology, 9: 117170. 1963. Graham, J.J. & Church, C.C. Campanian Foraminifera from the Stanford University campus, California. Stanford University Publications in Geological Sciences, 8, 106 pp. 1963. Imbrie, J., and Phleger, F.B. Analysis por vectores de los Foraminíferos benthónicos del area de San Diego, California. Boletin de la Sociedad Geológica Méxicana, 26: 103105. 1963. Kleinpell, R.M. & Weaver, D.W. Oligocene biostratigraphy of the Santa Barbara embayment, California. University of California Publications in the Geological Sciences, 43, 250 pp. 1964. Arnold, Z.M. Biological observations on the foraminifer Spirillina hyalinea Schultze, University of California Publications in Zoology, 72, 93 pp. 1964. Bandy, O.L. Foraminiferal trends associated with deep-water sands, San Pedro and Santa Monica basins, California. Journal of Paleontology, 38: 138148. 1964. Bandy, O.L., Ingle, J.C., Jr. & Resig, J.M. Foraminiferal trends, Laguna Beach outfall area, California. Limnology and Oceanography, 9: 112123. 1964. Bandy, O.L., Ingle, J.C., Jr. & Resig, J.M. Foraminifera from the Los Angeles County outfall area, California. Limnology and Oceanography, 9: 124137. 1964. Harman, R.A. Distribution of Foraminifera, Santa Barbara Basin, California. Micropaleontology, 10: 8196. 1964. Lipps, J.H. A new species of Seabrookia (Foraminiferida) from the later Tertiary of southern California. Journal of Protozoology, 11: 242246. 1964. Lipps, J.H. Miocene planktonic Foraminifera from Newport Bay, California. Tulane Studies in Geology, 2: 109133. 1964. Lutze, G.F. Statistical investigations on the variability of Bolivina argentea. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research 15: 105116. 1964. Martin, L. Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Foraminifera from Fresno County, California. Jahrbuch. Geologische Bundesanstalt Wien, Jahrbuch, 9: 1–128. 1964. Resig, J.M. The southernmost occurrence of Elphidiella hannai (Cushman & Grant), 1927, off the west coast of North America. Journal of Paleontology, 38: 393396. 1964. Weaver, D.W. & Molander, G.E. The Eocene faunal sequence in the eastern Santa Rosa Hills, Santa Barbara County, California. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 41: 161248. 1965. Bandy, O.L., Ingle, J.C., Jr. & Resig, J.M. Foraminiferal trends, Hyperion outfall area, California. Limnology and Oceanography, 10: 314332. 1965. Bandy, O.L., Ingle, J.C., Jr. & Resig, J.M. Modification of foraminiferal distributions, Orange County outfall, California. Ocean Science and Ocean Engineering, Marine Technology Society, Transactions (1965): 5476. 1965. Blaisdell, R.C. Two new Eocene arenaceous Foraminifera from California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 16: 2728. 1965. Carson, C.M. The Rincon Formation in western Santa Ynez Mountains, Santa Barbara County, California. In: Carson, C. M., and Whaley, H. M. (Eds.), Western Santa Ynez Mountains, Santa Barbara County, California, Coast Geological Society-Pacific Section SEPM Guidebook: 3841. 1965. Hornaday, G.R. An Eocene foraminiferal faunule from the northwestern Santa Ynez Mountains, California. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 16: 2939. 1965. Lipps, J.H. Miocene planktonic Foraminifera from near Newport Beach, California, Tulane Studies in Geology, 2: 109–133.

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24 The Proterozoic biosphere: a multidisciplinary study. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1348 pp. [Precambrian foram Platysolenites in California.] 1992. Finger, K.L. Biostratigraphic atlas of Miocene Foraminifera from the Monterey and Modelo formations, central and southern California. Cushman Foundation Foraminiferal Research Special Publication, 29: 179 pp. 1992. Sliter, W.V. & McGann, M.L. Age and correlation of the Calera Limestone in the Permanente Terrane of northern California. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 92-306, 27 pp. 1993. Langer, M.R., Lipps, J.H. & Piller, W.E. Molecular paleobiology of protists: amplification and direct sequencing of foraminiferal DNA. Micropaleontology, 39: 63–68. [Used forams from Catalina Island, California.] 1993. Miller, W., III. Trace fossil zonation in Cretaceous turbidite facies, northern California, Ichnos, 3: 11–28. 1993. McDougall, K. Eocene benthic foraminiferal assemblages of the Palo Alto 7-1/2' quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 93-180, 93 pp. 1993. Sliter, W.V., McDougall, K., Murchey, B.L. & Kohnen, E.V. Mesozoic and Cenozoic microfossils from geologic units within the San Jose 1:100,000 quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 93-344, 119 pp. 1994. McCormick, J.M., Severin, K.P. & Lipps, J.H. Winter and summer distributions of Foraminifera in Tomales Bay, northern California. In: Sejrup, H.P. & Knudsen, K.L. (Eds.), Late Cenozoic benthic Foraminifera: taxonomy, ecology and stratigraphy. In honor of Rolf W. Feyling-Hanssen on his 75th birthday. July 24, 1993. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research Special Publication, 32: 69–101. 1995. Burke, S.K., Dunbar, R.B. & Berger, W.H. Benthic and pelagic Foraminifera of the Macoma layer, Santa Barbara Basin. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25: 117133 1995. Finger, K.L. Recognition of middle Miocene foraminifers in highly indurated rocks of the Monterey Formation, coastal Santa Maria Province. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1995-L, 30 pp. + 46 pls. 1995. Kaminski, M.A, Boersma, A., Tyszka, J. & Holbourn, A.E.L. Response of deep-water agglutinated foraminifera to dysoxic conditions in the California Borderland basins. In Kaminski, M.A. Geroch, S., & Gasinski, M.A. (Eds.), 1995. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera, Krakow Poland, September 12-19, 1993. Grzybowski Foundation Special Publication 3, 131140. 1995. Kennett, J.P. & Ingram, B.L. A 20,000-year record of ocean circulation and climate change from the Santa Barbara Basin, Nature 377, 510514. 1995. Langer, M.R., Lipps, J.H. & Moreno, G. Predation on Foraminifera by the dentalioid deep-sea scaphopod Fissidentalium megathyris. Deep-Sea Research, 42: 849–857. [Monterey Canyon] 1995. McGann, M. 3500-year B.P. record of climatic change in estuarine deposits of south San Francisco Bay, California. In: Sanginés, E.M., Anderson, D.W. & Buising, A.V. (Eds.), Recent Geologic Studies in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pacific Section SEPM, Fullerton, California, 76: 225–236. 1995. Miller, W., III. Examples of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Bathysiphon (Foraminiferida) from the Pacific Rim and the taxonomic status of Terebellina Ulrich, 1904, Journal of Paleontology, 69: 624–634. 1995. Sloan, D. Use of foraminiferal biostratigraphy in mitigating pollution and seismic problems, San Francisco, California. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25: 260–266. 1996. Boyd, H.A. Eocene Foraminifera from the "Vacaville Shale," California. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to Paleontology of the West Coast: in Honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Series, University of Washington Press, 115130. 1996. Browning, J.L., Grier, A.W., Kleinpell, R.M. & Mallory, V.S. An early Paleogene foraminiferal sequence from the Simi Valley, southeastern Ventura County, California. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to Paleontology of the West Coast: in Honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Series, University of Washington Press, 131162.

25 1996. Cifelli, R, Hornaday, G.R. & Kleinpell, R.M. The Paleogene foraminiferal sequence in the Point of RocksDevil's Den area, California. Part 1: The Mabury Hills sequence in the Point of Rocks area. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to Paleontology of the West Coast: In Honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Research Report, 6: 163174. 1996. Classen, W.J. & Hornaday, G.R. Eocene Foraminifera from the Vicinity of Las Cruces, Santa Barbara County, California. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to Paleontology of the West Coast: in Honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Research Report, 6: 175190. 1996. Cook, T.D., Hornaday, G.R. & Kleinpell, R.M. The Paleogene foraminiferal sequence in the Point of RocksDevil's Den area, California. Part 2: The More Northerly Sequence in the Devil's Den area. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to Paleontology of the West Coast: in Honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Research Report, 6: 191204. 1996. Fulmer, C.V. Distribution of Foraminifera in the Eocene Nortonville Formation, California. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to paleontology of the West Coast: in honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Research Report, 6: 205228. 1996. Kleinpell, R.M. & Mallory, V.S. The Paleogene foraminiferal sequence in the Point of RocksDevil’s Den area, California. Part 3: The upper Eocene, type Narizian Stage at Point of Rocks, Devil’s Den, Kern County, California. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to paleontology of the West Coast: in honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Research Report, 6: 229244. 1996. Lipps, J.H. & Rozanov, A.Yu. The Late Precambrian–Cambrian agglutinated fossil Platysolenites. Paleontological Journal, 30: 679–687. [Platysolenites is the earliest foram and it occurs in the WhiteInyo Mountains of California]. 1996. Mallory, V.S., Herlyn, H.T., Jr., Kleinpell, R.M. & Hornaday, G.R. The Anita Shale and the type Paleocene foraminiferal stages, Santa Barbara County, California. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to paleontology of the West Coast: in honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Research Report, 6: 245266. 1996. Martin, J.E. (Ed.). Contribution to Paleontology of the West Coast: in Honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Research Report, 6, 312 pp. 1996. Scott, D.B., Collins, E.S., Duggan, J., Asioli, A., Saito, T. & Hasegawa, S. 1996. Pacific rim marsh foraminiferal distributions: implications for sea-level studies. Journal of Coastal Research, 12(4): 850861. 1996. Stott, L.D., Hayden, T.P. & Griffith, J. Benthic Foraminifera at the Los Angeles County Whites Point outfall revisited. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 26: 357368. 1996. McGann, M. & Sloan, D. Recent Introduction of the foraminifer Trochammina hadai Uchio into San Francisco Bay, California, USA, Marine Micropaleontology, 28: 13. 1996. Wardle, W.C. & Kleinpell, R.M. The Eocene foraminiferal fauna from the type Lucia Shale. In: Martin, J.E. (Ed.), Contribution to Paleontology of the West Coast: in Honor of V. Standish Mallory. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Research Report, 6: 267284. 1996. Silva, K.A., Corliss, B.H., Rathburn, A.E., and Thunell, R.C. Seasonality of living benthic Foraminifera from the San Pedro Basin, California Borderland. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 26: 7193. 1997. Bernhard, J.M., Sen Gupta, B.K. & Borne, P.F. Benthic foraminiferal proxy to estimate dysoxic bottom-water oxygen concentrations; Santa Barbara Basin, U.S. Pacific continental margin. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 27: 301310. 1997. Loubere, P. Benthic foraminiferal assemblage formation, organic carbon flux and oxygen concentrations on the outer continental shelf and slope. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 27: 93100. 1999. Lipps, J.H., D’Antonio, C., Grove, K., Hickman, C., Mishler, B. & Wang, Z. Geology and natural history of the Central Coast Ranges: Berkeley to Bodega Head, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Special Publication, 119: 188–201. [Includes Pleistocene forams from the Miller-

26 ton Fm., Tomales Bay, California.] 1999. McDougall, K., Poore, R.Z., and Matti, J.C. Age and environment of the Imperial Formation near San Gorgonio Pass, California: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 29: 4–25. 1999. McGann, M. & Sloan, D. Benthic foraminifers in the regional monitoring program's San Francisco Bay estuary samples. In: 1997 annual report: San Francisco estuary regional monitoring program for trace substances. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Richmond, California, 249–258. 1999. Sliter, W.V. Cretaceous planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Calera Limestone, northern California: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 29: 318–339. 2000. McGann, M., Sloan, D. & Cohen, A.N. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America. Hydrobiologia, 421: 25–30. 2001. Rathburn, A.E., Perez, M.E. & Lange, C.B. Benthic-pelagic coupling in the Southern California Bight: Relationships between sinking organic material, diatoms and benthic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, 43: 261–271. 2002. Bemis, B.E., Spero, H.J. & Thunnell, R.C. Using species-specific paleotemperature equations with Foraminifera: a case study in the southern California bight. Marine Micropaleontology 46: 405–430. 2002. McGann, M., Sloan, D. & Wan, E. Biostratigraphy beneath central San Francisco Bay along the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge transect. In: Parsons, T. (Ed.), Crustal Structure of the Coastal and Marine San Francisco Bay Region, California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1658: 11–28. 2003. Hill, T., Kennett, J.P. & Spero, H. Foraminifera as indicators of methane-rich environments: A study of modern methane seeps in Santa Barbara Channel, California. Marine Micropaleontology, 49: 123–128. 2002. Pak, D.K. & Kennett, J.P. A foraminiferal isotopic proxy for upper water mass stratification. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 32: 319–327. 2003. Roark, E., Ingram, B., Southon, J. & Kennett, J.P. Holocene foraminiferal radiocarbon record of paleocirculation in the Santa Barbara Basin. Geology, 31: 379–384. 2003. McGann, M., Alexander, C.R. & Bay, S.M. Response of benthic foraminifers to sewer discharge and remediation in Santa Monica Bay, California. Marine Environmental Research, 56: 299342. 2004. Hill, T., Kennett, J.P. & Valentine, D. Isotopic evidence for the incorporation of methane-derived carbon into foraminifera from modern methane seeps, Hydrate Ridge, Northeast Pacific. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68: 4619–4627. 2004. Pak, D., Lea, D. & Kennett, J.P. Seasonal and interannual variation in Santa Barbara Basin water temperatures observed in sediment trap foraminiferal Mg/Ca. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 5(12): Q12008, doi: 10.1029/2004GC000760. 2005. Hawkes, A., Scott, D.B. & Lipps, J.H. Evidence of possible precursor events for mega-thrust earthquakes on the West Coast of North America. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 117: 996– 1008. [uses marsh forams] 2005. Miller, W., III. The largest foraminiferan: Bathysiphon aaltoi from the Cretaceous of California, USA, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte, 2005: 207–218. 2007. McGann, M., Foraminiferida, in Carlton, J.T. (Ed.), The Light and Smith manual (4th ed.): Intertidal invertebrates from central California to Oregon. University of California Press: 4669. 2007. Stevens, C.H. & Stone, P. The Pennsylvanianearly Permian Bird Spring carbonate shelf, southeastern California: fusulinid biostratigraphy, paleogeographic evolution, and tectonic implications. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 429, 82 pp. 2008. Anima, R.J., Chin, J.-L., Finlayson, D.P. McGann, M.L., & Wong, F.L. Interferometric sidescan bathymetry, sediment and foraminiferal analyses; a new look at Tomales Bay, California. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 2008-1237, 46 pp. 2008. Finger, K.L., Flenniken, M.M. & Lipps, J.H. Foraminifera used in the construction of Miocene polychaete tubes, Monterey Formation, California, USA. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 38: 277–291.

27 2008. McDougall, K. California Cenozoic Biostratigraphy—Paleogene. In: Scheirer, A.H. (Ed.), Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin province, California, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1713, Chapter 4, 56 pp. 2008. McGann, M. High-resolution foraminiferal, isotopic, and trace element records from Holocene estuarine deposits of San Francisco Bay, California. Journal of Coastal Research, 24: 10921109. 2008. Miller, W., III. A Bathysiphon (Foraminifera) ‘shell bed’ from the Cretaceous of northern California, USA: Example of a parautochthonous macro-skeletal deposit in deep-ocean turbidites. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 260: 342346. 2009. McGann, M. Review of impacts of contaminated sediment on microfaunal communities in the Southern California Bight. GSA Special Papers 2009, 454: 413-455. 2009, Ricketts, E.R., Kennett, J.P., Hill, T.M., & Barry, J.P. Effects of carbon dioxide sequestration on California margin deep-sea foraminiferal assemblages. Marine Micropaleontology, 72: 165–175. 2009. Saja, D.B., Pfefferkorn, H.W. & Phipps, S.P. Bathysiphon (Foraminiferida) at Pacheco Pass, California: a geopetal, paleocurrent, and paleobathymetric indicator in the Franciscan Complex. Palaios, 24: 181191. 2009. Stevens, C.H. & Stone, P. New Permian fusulinids from Conglomerate Mesa, southeastern Inyo Mountains, east-central California. Journal of Paleontology, 83: 929. 2010. Chin, J.L., Woodrow, D.L., McGann, Mary, Wong, F.L., Fregoso, Theresa, & Jaffe, B.E. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 2010-1130, 58 pp. 2010 Magana, A., Southon, J., Kennett, J.P., Roark, B., Sarnthein, M. & Stott, L. Resolving the cause of large differences between deglacial benthic foraminifera radiocarbon measurements in Santa Barbara Basin. Paleoceanography, 25: PA 4102, doi: 10.1029/2010PA002011 . 2011. Scott, D.B., Mudie, P.J. & Bradshaw, J.S. Coastal evolution of southern California as interpreted from benthic Foraminifera, ostracodes, and pollen. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 41: 285307.

APPENDIX C: Popular Mechanics (March 1932) article (Reprinted with permission of Popular

Mechanics)

28

29

30

31

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33 APPENDIX D. PS-SEPM PAPERS 19281931 Papers presented before the Pacific Section SEPM, 19281931, as part of a verbal agreement between oil companies where each company worked up a section and presented a paper annually. This may not be a complete list for the years indicated, as these comprise the bound set that belonged to one of the authors, Arthur R. May, which now resides in the UCMP Microfossil Collection. 1928 Doane, G.H. & Chambers, L.S. Foraminiferal section northwest of Santa Paula, Ventura County, California. Goudkoff, P. P. Foraminiferal section in Kalorama, Deep, and Hall canyons, central Ventura Basin. Hutcheson, R.B. & Kuffel, G.C. Malaga Cove section. Miller, G.E. & Savage, E.M. Foraminiferal study of a part of the section exposed along Newport Lagoon, Orange County, California. 1929 Goudkoff, P.P. 1929. A foraminiferal study of the type Pico. Hanna, G D. & Church, C.C. Foraminifera from the type Monterey, Monterey County, California. Hughes, D. 1929. Foraminifera from the Modelo of Modelo Canyon, Ventura County, California. Rankin, W.D. & Laiming, B.G. 1929. The Foraminifera of Timms Point and Deadman Island, San Pedro, California. Stewart, R.E. 1929. Foraminiferal study of the section exposed in Hall Canyon, Ventura County, California. 1930 Driver, H.L., Holman, W.H. & Ferrando, A. 1930. The micro-fauna of the Rincon Formation of Los Sauces Canyon, Ventura County, California. Driver, H.L., Holman, W.H. & Ferrando, A. Foraminiferal section in Repetto Hills, Los Angeles County, California. Hudson, F.S. Report on Eaton Canyon section , south flank of South Mountain, Ventura County, California. Natland, M.L., Savage, E.J. & Miller, G.E. 1930. The micro-fauna of the Olive Hills silts. Rankin, W.D. Foraminiferal study of the Modelo Formation exposed along the Topanga Canyon Road, Los Angeles County, California. Wissler, S.G. 1930. The Foraminifera of the Puente Formation. 1931 Goudkoff, P.P. & Hughes, D. Foraminifera from the Miocene shales exposed in Chico Martinez Creek, Kern County, California. Driver, H.L., Holman, W.H. & Ferrando, A. Pliocene of a part of the City of Los Angeles. May, A.R. & Gilboe, J.D. Foraminifera from the type section of the Temblor Formation, Carneros Creek area, Kern County, California. Rankin, W.D. Foraminifera from the Monterey shales exposed in Reliz Canyon, Monterey County, California. 1932 Hutcheson, R.B. Little Sespe Creek section, Piru quadrangle, Ventura County, California.