(cannabis sativa l.) in management of landfill leachate

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The environmental impacts of the many existing landfills cannot be ignored. ... waste, as well as by local factors such as hydrogeological conditions, climate, and height and type of landfill (Koda et ..... Waste and Biomass Valorization, [Online].

November 8–9, 2017, Brno, Czech Republic

24 years

USE OF HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L.) IN MANAGEMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE: PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS AND REACTION ON LEACHATE IRRIGATIONS JAN ZLOCH1, PETER MENDEL2, DANA ADAMCOVA1, TOMAS VYHNANEK2, VACLAV TROJAN2, JAN WINKLER2%,/-$1$Ĉ25Ĉ(9,C2, MARIE BJELKOVA4, MAJA RADZIEMSKA5, MARTIN BRTNICKY3, MAGDALENA DARIA VAVERKOVA1 1 Department of Applied and Landscape Ecology 2 Department of Plant Biology 3 Department of Geology and Pedology Mendel University in Brno Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno 4 Agritec, Research, Breeding and Services, Ltd. Zemedelska 2550/16, 787 01 Sumperk CZECH REPUBLIC 5 Department of Environmental Improvement Warsaw University of Life Sciences Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw POLAND [email protected] Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills constitute one of the largest sources of anthropogenic pollutions. Landfill sites act as biological reactors, in which waste undergoes physical, chemical and biological transformation. Significant problem associated to landfills is the production of leachates. Leachate is an emergent source of pollutants. Leachate handling typically involves treatment either on site or at a wastewater treatment plants but phytoremediation, using plants is cost-effective andsustainable remediation strategies for removing or detoxifying contaminants. The present study is a part of a larger project on assessing the potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) for phytoremediation of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) from leachate. The principal aim of this paper is to describe preliminary analysis and reaction of hemp on leachate irrigations in a real condition experiment. For the experiment were chosen two varieties of Cannabis sativa L., Bialobrzeskie and Monoica. During the measurement, the Bialobrzeskie varieties watered with rainwater were 26% taller on average, and the Monoica varieties were up to 34% taller than plants watered with leachate. The leachate does not stimulate plant growth, which is why the growth was much smaller. Key words: municipal solid waste, Cannabis sativa L., heavy metals, remediation strategies INTRODUCTION As people's quality of life has improved, the volume of municipal solid waste generated has increased concurrently. A large amount of MSW is generated everyday around the world 9DYHUNRYiHWDOD9REČUNRYiHWDO DQGODQGILOOVDUHVWLOOWKHPRst prevalent waste disposal method. MSW landfills constitute one of the largest sources of anthropogenic pollutions 9DYHUNRYi DQG $GDPFRYi  *ZRUHN HW DO  KoGD HW DO  $GDPFRYi HW DO 2016a, Koda et al. 2017, $GDPFRYiHWDOVaverkoYiHWDOD5RQJHWDO 2017, Wang et al. 2017). MSW (without significant recycling activity) predominantly includes food wastes, market wastes, yard wastes, plastic containers and product packaging materials, and other miscellaneous solid wastes from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources (Rong et al. 2017). Landfill sites act

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as biological reactors, in which refuse undergoes physical, chemical and biological transformation (Samadder et al. 2017). The environmental impacts of the many existing landfills cannot be ignored. Many studies have proved that landfill leachate is a significant source of pollutants as a consequence of the leaching of hazardous substances (Li at al. 2012, Melnyk et al. 2014, Gworek HWDO$GDPFRYiHWDO 2016a, Koda et al. 2017, Rong et al. 2017, Samadder et al. 2017). Landfill leachates are complex; heavy metal components are undoubtedly the most harmful because of their persistence and toxicity (Aronsson et al. 2010, Rong et al. 2017, Samadder et al. 2017). Control of heavy metals in leachates has therefore become a focus of landfill management. Moreover, the quantity and quality of leachate is primarily influenced by the amount, waste composition and its solubility, moisture content of the solid waste, as well as by local factors such as hydrogeological conditions, climate, and height and type of landfill (Koda et al. 2015, Samadder et al. 2017). Landfill leachate is generally a dark coloured liquid, with a strong smell, which carries a high organic and inorganic load (Yao 2017). Generally, landfill leachate contains substantial amounts of dissolved organics [(biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD)], inorganic salts, ammonia, heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) that are originated from personal care products, pharmaceuticals, industrial and household chemicals (Ghosh et al. 2017). Leachate handling typically involves treatment either on-site or at a wastewater treatment plants (Koda et al. 2013, 9DYHUNRYi HW DO E  EXW FRVW-effective and sustainable remediation strategies for removing or detoxifying contaminants in landfill leachate are urgently needed. Phytoremediation, using plants to eliminate leachate contaminants, is a cost-effective, reliable, and promising technology. Phytoremediation covers a wide range of pollutants like inorganic chemicals including heavy metals and metalloids, many organic substances including persistent organic pollutants and radioactive elements (Meagher 2000, Radziemska et al. 2013, Pandey et al. 2016, Yao 2017). In this case, plants grow on polluted medium, extract the toxic substances and accumulate them in the upper parts of the plant (Radziemska et al. 2017). They are then harvested, and consequently the medium is cleaned up (Ligner et al. 2002). The present study is a part of a larger project on assessing the potential of hemp for SK\WRUHPHGLDWLRQ RI KHDY\ PHWDOV IURP ODQGILOO OHDFKDWH 9DYHUNRYi HW DO E  7KH SODQW we chose for our approach was hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Hemp is one of the world's oldest cultivated annual crops (Salentijn et al. 2015). Hemp was found out to be effective in removing metals under model FRQGLWLRQV 9DYHUNRYi HW DO E  EXW LWV HYDOXDWLRQ LQ ILHOG FRQGLWLRQV LV PLVVLQJ Therefore, the principal aim of this paper is to describe preliminary analysis and reaction of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) on landfill leachate irrigations in a real condition experiment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Site description Zdounky-.XFK\ĖN\ ODQGILOO 1 (  KDVEHHQ LQ RSHUDWLRQ DVD GLVSRVDO facility, permitted to receive commercial and MSW, since 1996. This site is located in a triangular space GHOLPLWHG E\ PDLQ URDGV FRQQHFWLQJ WKH YLOODJHV RI =GRXQN\ 1ČWþLFH DQG 7URXEN\-Zdislavice (Figure 1) $GDPFRYiHWDO E9REČUNRYiHWDO  The site is based on cultivated soil, natural clay and semi-waterproof clay layer. Before the operation of the landfill site, the clay layer was pressed tightly, usually 1 ton/m3 in density, to prevent leachate movement. The dredge tubes were installed for collecting the leaching liquid, which was discharged out into the leachate collection pond. Landfill anatomy include several protective layers, such as: (1) prepared subgrade, (2) compact clay layer, (3) geomembranes of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), (4) leachate collection pipe system, (5) filter geotextile, (6) leachate collection layer. Each of these parts is designed to address specific problems that are encountered in a landfill.

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Figure 1 Location of Zdounky-.XFK\ĖN\ODQGILOODQGVXUURXQGLQJUHJLRQ

Setup of the experiment Two monoecious varieties of industrial hemp were chosen for the experiment ± Bialobrzeskie, a Polish variety registered in 1968 and Monoica, a Hungarian variety registered in 2006 %MHONRYi 6HHGVSURYLGHGE\$JULWHF3ODQW5HVHDUFK,QVWLWXWH/WGâumperk, Czech Republic (CR) were sown into trays with common horticultural substrate from AGRO CS Inc and left to germinate. After two weeks of regular watering in the greenhouse of Mendel University in Brno, newly grown seedlings (10±15 cm) were transported into 10-liter plastic pots with the same substrate. Four plants were put into each pot. There were 18 pots for each of four experimental groups created. Bialobrzeskie irrigated with landfill leachate and irrigated with rainwater, Monoica irrigated with leachate and with rainwater. All pots were labeled to be distinguished for the future measurements (Figure 2). Figure 2 Experiment set up in a real condition

On 18 May 2017, the plant seedlings were transported to the Zdounky-.XFK\ĖN\ MSW landfill. All the plants were placed on the paved concrete part of the leachate pond (Figure 3). The landfill leachate pond area is secured against the intrusion of unauthorized persons. This area has been marked with an information sign about the experiment. The plant pots were evenly distributed over the paved surface so as to avoid confusion when watering. Cannabis sativa L., in Monoica and Bialobrzeskie varieties intended for watering with contaminated leachate were placed on the left site, and the same plants intended for watering 509

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with rainwater were placed on the right site. The plants were watered with 2 liters of the required water regularly once a week. Depending on the weather, in order to prevent the substrate from drying and the plants from wilting, the plants were watered with extra rainwater. During the experiment, drainage plates were added to the pots to contain the water and prevent its deficiency. In the case of pots intended for watering with rainwater, the problem was that the substrate dried quickly and the weight of the pots was too low. In unfavorable and windy weather, the plant pots would fall, be blown away and fall into the seepage water basin. For this reason, certain safety measures were implemented. Moresubstrate was added to each pot, a supporting rod was added, and the plants were tied to the rod. The pots were weighed down with stones and the rail around the paved part of the basin was equipped with a protective net. Figure 3 Overview of the experiment activities

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Plant height measurement Double measurements of the highest plant in each pot were gradually performed, and the data was recorded in the recording sheet. Their relationship is graphically depicted in Figure 4. The pot that irreversibly fell into the basin was not included in the calculation of the average height. On the other hand, dead samples were also included, where the recorded height was zero. The experiment is still ongoing, and the samples will be further modified and prepared for additional procedures and analyses. Figure 4 Measured plant height 200 [cm]

Measured plant height

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Bialobrzeskie RW

Monoica - RW

1. measurement - average height

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100

83

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2. measurement - average height

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152

90

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Bialobrzeskie L

Monoica - L

Legend: RW ± rain water, L ± leachate

Landfill leachate toxicological evaluation is essential to examine the impact of leachate potentially discharged to the HQYLURQPHQW *KRVK  9DYHUNRYi HW DO E . Several studies highlight that leachate can induce both positive and negative responses in the plants (Mor et al. 2013, 6XOLDVLKHWDO9DYHUNRYiHWDO. 2017b). Our results indicate that leachate can severely inhibit plant growth. The toxic effect of leachate on plants depends on several factors including the plant species LWVHOI 6XOLDVLK HW DO  9DYHUNRYi HW DO E). The tested varieties differed in their response to the leachate treatments. As it can be seen on Figure 4 variety Monoica seems to be more sensitive 510

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to leachate irrigation compering to variety Bialobrzeskie. In regard to the phytotoxicity assessment of leachate a number of studies conducted on Cannabis sativa L. revealed that it can accumulate a considerable amount of heavy metals making it a good candidate for remediation (9DYHUNRYiHWDOE  CONCLUSION In order to approximate real conditions, the samples of Cannabis sativa L., were placed in pots in the landfill site. According to the methodology, the pots were irrigated weekly with two liters of rain or leachate water in each pot, and sometimes with additional rainwater depending on the weather conditions. Double measurements of the plant heights were conducted over a two-and-a-half-month period, and the results were plotted graphically. The values indicate that the leachate inhibits the growth of the Bialobrzeskie and Monoica varieties of Cannabis sativa L., in comparison with the rainwater. In addition to the smaller height of the plants, several samples died. During the second measurement, the Bialobrzeskie varieties watered with rainwater were 26% taller on average, and the Monoica varieties were up to 34% taller. The leachate does not stimulate plant growth, which is why the growth was much smaller. The calculation also included samples that died between the first and second measurement. For this reason, the average growth values were lower. In the Bialobrzeskie variety, the plant height increased by 8%. Due to the death of Monoica samples, the average percentage of the plant height did not change. Leachate contains pollutants, e.g. heavy metals and other contaminants that are an environmental burden. It is for this reason that they inhibit the growth of the plant samples. The samples (obtained biomass) will be subjected to further procedures and analyses in subsequent stages of the experiment, where the content of harmful substances accumulated in the plant will be determined. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research was financially supported by the IGA FA MENDELU No. TP 5/2017. We would like to express our great appreciation to the management of the landfill DEPOZ, Ltd. Namely, we are very grateful to Ing. Ivan Mohler and his colleagues for their assistance and their willingness to provide their time so generously. REFERENCES $GDPFRYi'9DYHUNRYi0'%DUWRĖ6+DYOtþHN=%ĜRXãNRYi(D6RLOFRQWDPLQDWLRQ in landfills: a case study of a landfill in Czech Republic. Solid Earth, 7(1): 239±247. $GDPFRYi ' 9DYHUNRYi 0' 6WHMVNDO % %ĜRXãNRYi, E. 2016b. Household Solid Waste Composition Focusing on Hazardous Waste. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25(2): 487±493. $GDPFRYi'5DG]LHPVND05LGRãNRYi$%DUWRĖ63HOFRYi3(OEO-.\QLFNê-%UWQLFNê 0 9DYHUNRYi 0' 2017. Environmental assessment of the effects of a municipal landfill on the content and distribution of heavy metals in Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemosphere, 185: 1011±1018. Aronsson, P., Dahlin, T., Dimitriou, I. 2010. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice ± plant response and treatment efficiency. Environmental Pollution, 158: 795±804. %MHONRYi 0  Use of fiber plants in phytoremediation. PhD dissertation, Mendel University in Brno. Ghosh, P., Thakur, I.S., Kaushik, A. 2017. Bioassays for toxicological risk assessment of landfill leachate: A review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 141: 259±270. Gworek, B., Dmuchowski, W., Gozdowski, D., Koda, E., Osiecka, R., Borzyszkowski, J. 2015. Influence of a Municipal Waste Landfill on the Spatial Distribution of Mercury in the Environment. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0133130. Koda, E., Osinski, P., Sieczka, A., Wychowaniak, D. 2015. Areal Distribution of Ammonium Contamination of Soil-Water Environment in the Vicinity of Old Municipal Landfill Site with Vertical

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