Changing Perspectives On Housing Conceptions

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e-mail: [email protected] Tuğçe Ercan ... marketing the gated communities in Ä°stanbul to potential consumers, based on the names chosen for these gated communities as part .... housing projects are carried out by the private sector.

URBAN DYNAMICS & HOUSING CHANGE - Crossing into the 2nd Decade of the 3rd Millennium

Changing Perspectives On Housing Conceptions: “Privileged Life Style” Commitment Füsun Çizmeci Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Beşiktaş, 34 437 Istanbul, Turkey e-mail: [email protected]

Tuğçe Ercan Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Beşiktaş, 34 437 Istanbul, Turkey e-mail: [email protected]

Abstract Gated communities are architectural products for which marketing strategies are effectively used to reach the target consumers from the moment the investment decision is made. For each of the gated communities, elaborate web-sites are prepared by marketing experts, advertising campaigns are conducted through the media, and promotion meetings are organized throughout the construction period. An important consideration in these marketing strategies is the name under which these communities will be marketed. The word or words used in the name of the gated community aim to define the product/gated community in a striking way using various images, and to manipulate the consumer into making buying decisions. This study analyzes the images that are used in marketing the gated communities in İstanbul to potential consumers, based on the names chosen for these gated communities as part of the marketing strategies. The basic aim of the analysis is to investigate the relationship between the location of the gated communities in urban space and the images used in marketing them. In this study, 84 gated communities in different locations of İstanbul have been analyzed. As the method of study, the “Relational Stratification” model developed by Lebart has been used. As a result of the analysis, it has been found that the marketing images vary fundamentally depending on whether the gated communities are in the urban center or in the periphery.

Keywords: Gated communities, social segregation, marketing, relational stratification method.

Introduction Today, consumption has become a fact that is not the final result of the production process, but on the contrary, a fact that drives the production process. This has caused the markets to evolve towards a “consumer oriented” or “demand oriented” market. In consumer or demand oriented market conditions, consumer goods are not only objects that meet a need or provide a financial gain, but they have also become products that enable the individuals to acquire an identity within the social hierarchy. Thus, it is seen that, in investigating consumption solutions, consumer goods are evaluated in terms of their “identity value” (Bourdieu, 1987) as well as their “use value” and “exchange value”. Warde (1992) defines identity value as a value that enables social communication and that determines whether or not it

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WS-03: HOUSING MARKET DYNAMICS enables the consumer to achieve a higher social status. Baudrillard (2009), on the other hand, named it “sign value”, and interpreted it as a distinction obtained by the individual in the social hierarchy. According to Baudrillard (2009), consumer goods are objects to which certain social codes and meanings are ascribed, and through these objects a social and cultural hierarchy is created. In other words, consumer goods have assumed the function of drawing the borders between social groups, with the aim of emphasizing or sustaining the differences between them (Bocock, 1997). In this sense, it is possible to say that consumer goods are increasingly contributing to a process of social classification and differentiation and have become a determining factor for the individual’s social status. As consumer goods have become a means to determine social status, marketing strategies have also gained a much greater importance. Marketing strategies manipulate consumption and ensure that the meanings ascribed to consumer goods become ingrained in people’s minds. In other words, the aim of marketing strategies is not only to promote the qualities inherent in the product being supplied, but also to ensure that the product signifies a certain meaning for the potential consumer (Williamson, 2000). Especially since the last quarter of the 20th century, gated communities have become popular in İstanbul as in many other places around the world, and this has increased the importance of marketing strategies in the housing market. Although marketing strategies for gated communities emphasize various concepts, they primarily focus on creating an image in the consumers’ minds that these communities offer a privileged lifestyle. This study analyzes the images that are used in marketing the gated communities in İstanbul to potential consumers, based on the names chosen for these gated communities as part of the marketing strategies. The basic aim of the analysis is to investigate the relationship between the location of the gated communities in urban space and the images used in marketing them. In the scope of the study, 84 gated communities in different locations of İstanbul have been analyzed. As the method of study, the “relational stratification Model” developed by Lebart has been used. The “relational stratification model” is a method of analysis in which correspondence analysis and cluster analysis are used together. The results of the analysis are presented by using the visual representation method called “Bertin graphics”. In the first part of the study, it is pointed out that, as soon as the investment decision for a gated community is made, the consumption stage begins to be planned, and a promise of a privileged lifestyle is made by using various marketing images. In the next section, the Relational Stratification model, (which has been used to analyze what images are the most common in the names selected for the gated communities as part of the marketing strategies) the sampling group of the study, and the variables are defined. In the following section, the results of the analysis are interpreted, which show a significant relationship between the urban location of İstanbul’s gated communities and their marketing images. In the final section, the concepts predominantly emphasized in the names of gated communities are evaluated in relation to whether they are in the urban center or in the periphery; and how these concepts contribute to the commitment of a privileged lifestyle are investigated.

Marketing the “Privileged Life Style” Gated communities constitute a new housing concept which is made up of a number of housing units surrounded by some sort of physical or visual barrier that separates the residents from the rest of the city. They also offer social services and amenities which serve the residents exclusively, such as sports, shopping, education and entertainment. This concept has become widespread in İstanbul simultaneously with many other big cities in different geographical areas of the world since the late twentieth century. In almost every country where they are built, gated community projects are developed by the private sector. Even in countries where the state has a large share in the construction sector, these type of housing projects are carried out by the private sector. In this respect, gated communities are products of

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URBAN DYNAMICS & HOUSING CHANGE - Crossing into the 2nd Decade of the 3rd Millennium a process in which the role of the private sector has increased in the housing market.1 On the other hand, the fact that gated communities have become widespread on a global scale, that is, the fact that they have become a housing format that is produced and consumed in many parts of the world, has caused national and international investors to become more interested in investing in such projects. The development of gated community projects, which include a large number of housing units and social amenities, is usually undertaken by large scale investment groups or by consortiums that are formed with the collaboration of several investment groups of various sizes (Çizmeci and Önel, 2009). Developers made up of national and international investment groups are the most effective actors in the production process of gated communities. They take part in or organize many stages of the development process, from procuring land to obtaining the necessary permits for construction, from determining the actors of the production process to developing the housing concept, from deciding on the marketing strategies to conducting the sales operations (Çizmeci and Önel, 2009). The organization of the process is important because gated communities are large-scale projects and require the cooperation of actors with different areas of expertise. Although developers sometimes undertake many of these roles2, many expert individuals and companies, such as project developers, feasibility study experts, financial advisors, contractors, project supervisors, construction site supervisors, architects, engineers, material manufacturers etc., actively take part in the production of gated communities. In this respect, gated communities reflect a production concept in which different actors with different areas of expertise are involved. On the other hand, gated communities are the products of a process in which the consumption stage is planned and organized in advance, in other words, where the production and consumption stages are carried out simultaneously. Therefore, it is possible to talk about a production concept for which market research is carried out, potential target consumers are predicted, and ways to manipulate potential consumers are devised right from the beginning of the production process (Çizmeci,2008). This means that experts in market research, advertising and marketing are involved in the process right from the beginning and take an active role in developing housing “concepts”3 directed towards changing consumption habits. The formation of the housing “concept” is one of the most important stages in the production of gated communities. This involves making decisions on design, marketing strategies, and advertising slogans directed towards the changing consumption habits and varying lifestyles. In other words, at this stage, design decisions are made, the target audience is identified, and accordingly, the images which will be used in marketing are determined. The marketing images basically make the promise of a privileged lifestyle. This promise is expressed, for example, by using slogans such as “take your place in first class”, or “the chance to live with distinguished neighbours”. In this respect, the marketing images of gated communities are one of the most important indicators that goods available in the market have become symbols, and that these symbols are used by consumers with the aim of acquiring a social identity.

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For example, in Singapur, only 20% of people live in dwellings constructed by the private sector. Most of the dwellings constructed by the private sector are gated communities (Choon-Piew P., 2007, From Public Housing to Private Neighborhoods: Gated Condominium Estates in Singapore, 4.International Conference of the Research Network,Paris). In Turkey, on the other hand, all of the gated communities are private sector enterprises. One can talk about a private sector - public sector collaboration in some projects where the Public Housing Administration owns the land. However, even in projects developed with such a collaboration, the main actor that directs the production process is still the private sector. While in some countries the developers take part in almost all stages of the process, in others, each stage is carried out by different experts. For example, in Turkey, there are projects where there is no clear distinction between the roles of project developer, contractor and investor (Gülümser, A., 2005, New Trend in Urbanization: Gated Communities in Istanbul, Yayınlanmamış Y.Lisans Tezi, İTÜ). Bilgin (2006) considers the “concept” as a notion that has gained importance not only in relation to gated communities, but also in relation to all real estate investments in the postmodern era.

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WS-03: HOUSING MARKET DYNAMICS Many different means are used to reach the potential target consumers of gated community projects. Newspapers and magazines are often used for advertising gated communities. These advertisements are mainly seen in the weekend pull-outs of newspapers and in all types of magazines targeting higher income groups, especially in decoration magazines. Television is also used as an advertising medium. There are even popular television programs sponsored by developers of gated communities. Almost all gated community projects have active web sites that are regularly updated during the sales process, from which even the actual construction process can be followed thanks to photographs from the construction site that are updated every few hours or days. Another means for developers of gated communities to reach potential consumers is fairs. In fairs, brochures specially prepared for gated communities are handed out and computer presentations are made. At the same time, developers organize promotion meetings at construction sites at certain stages of the construction process. These meetings constitute an important part of the advertising campaigns. At these meetings, which usually also include the serving of a meal, the gated community is advertised based on a scale model of the project and even sales deals are made. Moreover, sample houses or flats, which are completed with all their interior decoration can be visited and examined by potential consumers (Çizmeci, 2008). Deciding on the name under which the gated community will be marketed is also part of the marketing strategy, and it is an important step in the development of the “concept”. The name of the gated community is determined in a way that will refer to the values that are to be emphasized based on the chosen “concept”. Among the names that are preferred are those that emphasize the location of the project, the advantages of the location, lifestyle decisions, the developing company, building type – residence, mansion etc-, nature, and modernity. Determining the “concept” involves making decisions concerning the sales strategy as well as the name, the marketing strategy, advertising, and spatial design. The departments that will carry out the sales, sales prices, payment conditions, and banks that consumers will be directed to for loans, are usually determined before construction actually starts. This is one of the important factors that reflects a consumer-oriented or demand-oriented market. As a matter of fact, it is quite impossible to consider a different implementation for a project where a large number of housing units are produced in a single gated community, which, accordingly, is expected to reach a large number of consumers. In this sense, it is possible to say that a gated community investment which does not predict the consumption process and does not determine a marketing strategy can hardly succeed in today’s market conditions. The fact that marketing strategies have gained such great importance in today’s market dynamics describes the background of this study, which investigates what images are used in marketing gated communities to the target consumers.

Methodology The Research Method In this study, the “relational stratification model” developed by Lebart has been used as the method of analysis. The “relational stratification model” is a method of analysis in which correspondence analysis and cluster analysis are used together. These explorative analysis methods “make it possible to meaningfully interact with numerical data” (Güvenç, 2007). The use of both of these methods together increases the success of the explorative/relational analysis when description and interpretation of complicated and extensive data sets are involved. Correspondence analysis makes it possible to discover the similarities and differences between variables in the rows and columns– characteristics and groups - by defining the relationship between these variables. During the process of exploring similarities and differences, the distinguishing characteristic of correspondence analysis is that, “it makes it possible to describe relational categories arising from the database by way of context-dependent relational stratification, without resorting to a priori definitions and contradictions” (Güvenç, 2005).

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URBAN DYNAMICS & HOUSING CHANGE - Crossing into the 2nd Decade of the 3rd Millennium Correspondence analysis categorizes the variables in the rows and columns in the cross tables according to their similarities and differences and converts them into row and column profiles (Löfgren, 2007). The row and column profiles are represented visually by points on a two-dimensional graph called a correspondence map (biplot). The location of the points on the correspondence map depends on the structure of the row and column profiles they represent. The metric distance between the points representing the row and column profiles – groups and characteristics – signifies the similarities and differences. A short distance between the points signifies that the groups and characteristics are similar while a long distance between the points indicates that the groups and characteristics are different or are in contrast with each other (Çizmeci, 2008). In this respect, it can be said that correspondence maps make it possible to evaluate the relationships in the data set based on locations. The connections and relationships that are quite difficult to explore on cross tables can easily be interpreted by examining the distance between row and column profiles on correspondence maps (Güvenç, Kirmanoğlu, 2009). However, the high number of points due to the denseness of the data presented in the table may prevent the deciphering of similarities and differences. This problem is overcome by using the relational stratification method developed by Lebart – the use of correspondence analysis and cluster analysis together-. This method4 makes it possible to simplify the profile categories by sorting them, and improves our ability to represent the data on the correspondence map (Lebart,1994). In this study, the relationship between the variables are analysed with the use of correspondence analysis and cluster analysis together, but the results are presented visually through Bertin graphics. The main reason for the use of Bertin graphics instead of correspondence maps is the “numerical representation problem” of the latter. While correspondence maps make it possible to explore the similarities and differences between the variables, they hide the proportional dimension of the similarities and differences. In Bertin graphics, however, it is possible to make an interpretation based on scale because similarities and differences are represented proportionally. Bertin graphics are formed by using the row and column permutations of the original data obtained as a result of correspondence and cluster analysis (Güvenç and Kirmanoğlu 2009, Chauchat and Risson 1998). In Bertin graphics, the rows in the tables indicate the groups, the columns indicate the qualities, and the colorings indicate the proportional dimension of the relationhips -similarities and differences- between the rows and columns. In this study, the columns of the Bertin graphics show the concepts emphasized in the names of gated communities, and the rows show the district categories which have similar concepts. The colorings show the distribution of the concepts emphasized in community names among the district categories.

The Sampling Group and Variables The sample group of the study consists of 84 gated communities which have been constructed in İstanbul in the last twenty years. The gated communities constituting the sample group have been selected considering their different locations in the city and their effective use of the marketing means. The location of the gated communities in the city, and their names, constitute the variables of the study. 52% of the selected gated communities are located on the European side of İstanbul while 48% of them are on the Asian side. These communities are located in 19 different districts according to the reorganization of İstanbul’s administrative districts in 2008. Some of the communities are located in important centers of İstanbul such as districts of Şişli, Beşiktaş, Kadıköy, Sarıyer and Bakırköy, while others are in the periphery, in districts such as Eyüp, Büyükçekmece, Küçükçekmece, Silivri, Başakşehir, Beylikdüzü, Esenyurt, Ataşehir, Sancaktepe, Ümraniye, Kartal, Pendik and Tuzla.

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The method of hierarchical clustering, which is a type of cluster analysis, has been used.

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WS-03: HOUSING MARKET DYNAMICS The names of these gated communities, which are located in 19 different districts, are classified under 7 groups based on the concepts they contain5. 1. Community names made up of words emphasizing nature The emphasis on nature is sometimes made through geographic elements such as the scenery, the vegetation, and the location on a lakeside or seaside, or through the social facilities open exclusively to the residents of the gated community, such as gardens and parks (“Ihlamur Evleri” -Linden Homes-, “Eston6 Deniz” -Eston Sea-, etc.). 2. Community names made up of words emphasizing location The emphasis on location is sometimes expressed by using the name of the district where the gated community is built, and sometimes by highlighting the privilege of living in İstanbul. For example, the community called “Almondhill” gets its name fom the area it is located in. In some examples, the concept of location is used along with a description of building type (“Levent Loft”)7, the name of the company that developed the project (“Koza Bahçeşehir”)8, or an emphasis on nature (“İstanblue”) 9. 3. Community names made up of words emphasizing building type The emphasis on building type is made by using either words like “residence” or “tower”, which have become symbols of prestige today, or words like “konak” –mansion-, or “saray” palace-, which are historically prestigious residence types. In some examples, the location of the community, or the company which developed the project are also emphasized along with the building type. For example, “Aktel Residence” highlights the name of the company that developed the project along with the type of building, while “Ataköy Konakları” -Ataköy Mansions- emphasizes location along with the type of building. 4. Community names made up of words emphasizing the name of the company that developed the project In some examples, the name of the developing company is one of the words constituting the name of the gated community; in others, it is included in the name through a play on words. For instance, a gated community developed by Ant Construction Company is named “Antrium Residence”. 5. Community names made up of words emphasizing modernity In order to highlight modernity, in some cases, the community names contain words that represent what is perceived as modern by the society. In other cases, they contain words that indicate the modernization of something tradional. For example, a housing project that is presented as a modern version of houses with oriels –cumba- from traditional Ottoman architecture has been named “Cumbba Home”. 6. Community names made up of words emphasizing a high quality urban life The emphasis on a high quality urban life is usually achieved through adjectives that affirm the qualities of the city. In one example, the name “Güzelşehir” -Beautiful City- is selected to describe a living space in the city with a higher quality of life. In another, the name “Elitkent” – Elitecity- is chosen to describe a privileged urban lifestyle, where exclusively people from the economic and socio-cultural upper classes of the social hierarchy reside, in contrast to the heterogeneous social structure of the traditioal urban texture.

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While some examples emphasize one of these elements, others emphasize several of them together. For example, the community named “Sunflower Houses” primarily emphasizes nature, while “Flora Residence” emphasizes both nature and the building type. Eston is the name of the company which developed the project. Levent is the name of a neighborhood in Istanbul. Koza is the name of the company which developed the project, while Bahçeşehir is the name of the neighbourhood where the gated community is located. For example, İstanbul’s traffic licence code is 34. The 34th element in chemistry is Selenium. A gated community named Selenium Country aims to emphasize location indirectly.

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URBAN DYNAMICS & HOUSING CHANGE - Crossing into the 2nd Decade of the 3rd Millennium 7. Community names made up of words emphasizing the combination of urban and country life Some names contain the concepts of both urban and country life to express the fact that the positive aspects of both urban and country life have been combined in the same community (“Şehr-i Bahçe” -City Garden-).

Results of the Analysis Figure 1. The relationship between the urban location of gated communities and their names: Bertin Graphic.

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WS-03: HOUSING MARKET DYNAMICS As a result of the relational stratification analysis, it has been found that there is a meaningful relationship between the names of gated communities that are determined as part of the marketing strategy and the urban location of these communities. In other words, as a result of the analysis, it has become possible to decipher which images are used for marketing the gated communities to the target consumers in terms of their urban location. In the Bertin graphics (Figure 1), which represents the results of the analysis visually, rows represent the categories of districts that are similar to each other in terms of the concepts emphasized in gated community names. The columns, on the other hand, show the concepts emhasized in the names of gated communities produced in these districts. In this section, the results of the analysis will be explained item by item using the Bertin graphics: •

The first row of the Bertin graphics represents the districts of Beşiktaş, Kadıköy, Bakırköy and Sarıyer, where 16,7% of the gated communities constituting the sampling group of the study are located. It can be seen that the names of the gated communities in these districts predominantly emphasize “location and building type” (37,5%). It can also be seen that“location and nature” (27,8%) is the second point emphasized, but other concepts are hardly emphasized.



The second row of the Bertin graphics represents the district of Şişli, where 4,8% of the gated communities are located. The names of the communities in this district can be seen to emphasize predominantly “location and building type” (18,8%). Emphasis on “location and nature” (5,6%) is significant, but no other concept is emphasized.



The third row of the Berin graphics represents the district of Eyüp, where 11,9% of the communities are located. The names of the communities in this district primarily emphasize “location and nature” (22,2%), and secondly “nature and modernity” (16,7%).



The fourth row of the Bertin graphics represents the districts of Başakşehir, Tuzla and Küçükçekmece, where 16,7% of the communities are located. The names of the communities in this district predominantly emphasize both “nature and building type” and “a combination of urban and country life” (45,5%). Secondly, there is emphasis on “nature and modernity” (20,8%), and there is little emphasis on any other concept.



The fifth row of the Bertin graphics represents the districts of Silivri, Büyükçekmece, Pendik, Ümraniye and Ataşehir, where 22,6% of the communities are located. The names of the communities in this district predominantly emphasize “the company that developed the project”, “a high quality urban lifestyle” and “building type and modernity” (53,8%). Secondly, there is emphasis on “location and nature” (33,3%), and there is little emphasis on any other concept.



The sixth row of the Bertin graphics represents the districts of Kartal, Sancaktepe, Çekmeköy and Beylikdüzü, where 25% of the communities are located. The names of the communities in this district predominantly emphasize “nature and modernity” (37,5%), Secondly, there is emphasis on “the company that developed the project”, “a high quality urban lifestyle”, “building type and modernity” (30,8%). Thirdly, there is emphasis on “nature and building type” along with “a combination of urban and country life” (27,3%).



The seventh row of the Bertin graphics represents the district of Esenyurt, where 2,4% of the communities are located. The names of the communities in this district only emphasize “the company that developed the project” along with “modernity” (100%).

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URBAN DYNAMICS & HOUSING CHANGE - Crossing into the 2nd Decade of the 3rd Millennium By looking at the results of the analysis, it is possible to say that the names of gated communities that are chosen as part of the marketing strategies differ depending on the location of these communities in the urban space. However, when the results of the analysis are examined in detail, it is seen that this difference goes beyond the district categories and depends on whether the gated community is located in the urban center or in the periphery. In this respect, it is suggested that the marketing images emphasized in the names of gated communities be evaluated based on their being in the urban center or in the periphery. Result 1: The names of the gated communities that are built in central districts of the city primarily emphasize the concept of “location”. In these districts, “building type” and “nature” are also clearly emphasized. Beşiktaş, Kadıköy, Bakırköy, Sarıyer and Şişli districts, which are old residential districts of İstanbul, are considered central districts of the city both because they are located on important transportation axis –sea and land transportation-, and because they are areas where almost all kinds of urban function – business, shopping, education, culture and entertainment- is concentrated. The fact that the concept of “location” is highly emphasized in the names of the gated communities built in the districts of Beşiktaş, Kadıköy, Bakırköy, Sarıyer and Şişli results from the central location of these districts. The gated communities in these central districts offer all the advantages of living in the city center while offering the privilege of living in a secure environment that is isolated from the commotion of the city and from other segments of the society. On the other hand, because of their central location, Beşiktaş, Kadıköy, Bakırköy, Sarıyer and Şişli are the districts with the highest density of population and buildings. This makes it more and more difficult and costly to find land for new housing projects in these districts, which, in turn, is reflected on the price of housing. For this reason, the gated communities in these districts are the most valuable housing areas in the entire city. The names of the gated communities built in the districts of Beşiktaş, Kadıköy, Bakırköy, Sarıyer and Şişli emphasize the “building type” besides the location. In the projects located in these districts, there are mainly two kinds of emphasis on building type. The first type of building that is emphasized is high-rise buidings. Because of the high density of buildings, the new gated communities in these districts are constructed on relatively small pieces of land, and therefore, they are designed as high-rise buildings in contrast to gated communities in other parts of the city (Çizmeci, Çınar and Ercan, 2009). These buildings are named as “tower” or “plaza”, or, depending on the services they offer (food service, wake-up service, childcare, cleaning, shopping), as “residence”. On the one hand, these names reflect the architectural design of the building. On the other hand, these names emphasize that the building promises a privileged lifestyle and thus turn it into a symbol of prestige. For example, the gated community called Şişli Plaza (Figure 2) is a high-rise building in the district of Şişli. The name emphasizes both the concept of “location” and the “building type”. Figure 2. The gated community in Şişli named “Şişli Plaza”.

Source: (http://wowturkey.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=71010).

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WS-03: HOUSING MARKET DYNAMICS The second type of building that is emphasized is the type that is called “konak” or “malikane”, which are buildings constructed in the coastal areas of the above mentioned districts. “Konak” and “malikane” are both defined as “mansion; a large and imposing house” in the dictionary of the Turkish Language Institution. In fact, these gated communities are far from being mansions; they consist of ordinary apartment buildings. The names “konak” and “malikane” are used to show that these gated communities promise a privileged lifestyle as these words bring to mind a type of housing where people of status in the social hierarchy used to live in the past. For example, the gated community named Ataköy Konakları (Figure 3), located in Ataköy in the Bakırköy district, consists of apartment buildings. Figure 3. The advertisement of a gated community in Bakırköy named “Ataköy Konakları”.

Source: From the 09 December 2007 dated national newspaper “Hürriyet”, pp.35.

Another concept that is emphasized heavily in the names of gated communities in Beşiktaş, Kadıköy, Bakırköy, Sarıyer and Şişli is the concept of “nature”. This concept is sometimes used to point out that the gated community is on the sea or in a forest, and sometimes it is used to show that it has parks, gardens or similar social amenities. For example, a gated community in the Sarıyer district was named “Mare Negro”10 to emphasize that it is on the Black Sea coast, and to point out at the same time that the residents can take advantage of the sea (Figure 4). Another example is a gated community in Şişli, which is named “Terrace Fulya”. This name points out the fact that the community has large terraced gardens despite being in the city center, and that it has social amenities in these terraces for the exclusive use of the residents (Figure 5). Figure 4. The siteplan of a gated community in Sarıyer named “Mare Negro”.

Source: www.marenegro.com/mimari_konsept.htm

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“Mare Negro” means Black Sea in Italian.

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URBAN DYNAMICS & HOUSING CHANGE - Crossing into the 2nd Decade of the 3rd Millennium Figure 5. The advertisement of a gated community in Şişli named “Terrace Fulya”.

Source: From the 14 May 2006 dated newspaper “Hürriyet”, pp.37.

Result 2: The names of the gated communities in the urban periphery differ in terms of the concepts they emphasize. However, emphasis on “nature” is a common element in every category of districts located in the urban periphery. Another common concept in the names of the communities in these areas is an emphasis on “modernity”. The districts of Başakşehir, Tuzla, Küçükçekmece, Silivri, Büyükçekmece, Pendik, Ümraniye, Ataşehir, Kartal, Sancaktepe, Çekmeköy and Beylikdüzü11 are located in the periphery of İstanbul. These districts are relatively new residential areas that have developed with the expansion of the city since the last quarter of the twentieth century. It is possible to say that the names of gated communities in these districts vary greatly compared to the ones in the urban center. However, names that put emphasis on concepts such as “nature” and “modernity” seem to be a common tendency. The emphasis on “nature” is expressed in mainly two ways in the names of the gated communities in the districts of Başakşehir, Tuzla, Küçükçekmece, Silivri, Büyükçekmece, Pendik, Ümraniye, Ataşehir, Kartal, Sancaktepe, Çekmeköy and Beylikdüzü. The first one shows the richness of the gated community in terms of social amenities. The gated communities in these districts are usually built on large pieces of property compared to the ones in the urban center because the density of population and buildings is lower in the periphery and therefore larger pieces of land can be obtained with much lower prices (Çizmeci, 2008). As a result, larger spaces can be allocated for social amenities. For example, “Green Hill” in Kartal (Figure 6) and “Greenium” in Çekmeköy (Figure 7) are gated communities that emphasize the social amenities in a green landscape both in their names and in their advertisements. The two examples given above -Green Hill and Greenium- show that nature is constructed by the developer. Another type of emphasis on “nature” is expressed through words indicating the opportunities offered by he existing natural environment. For example, a gated community called “Eston Deniz” -Eston Sea(Figure 8) emphasizes the advantages of being on the sea, in other words, the opportunities offered by nature, both through its name and through its advertising slogan “the sea is your next door neighbour”. A gated community called “Rose Marine” in Büyükçekmece (Figure 9) also emphasizes the advantages of being on the sea by using the word “marine”. In the advertising posters, the opportunities for sailing, surfing, sunbathing, swimming, and having a unique sea view are emphasized. 11

Başakşehir, Ataşehir, Sancaktepe, Çekmeköy and Beylikdüzü have acquired “district” status in 2008.

ENHR 2010, 4-7 July, ISTANBUL

22nd International Housing Research Conference

WS-03: HOUSING MARKET DYNAMICS Figure 6. The advertisement of a gated community in Kartal named “Green Hill”.

Source: Form the 8 June 2006 dated supplement of newspaper “Hürriyet”, pp.20.

Figure 7. The advertisement of a gated community in Çekmeköy named “Greenium”.

Source: From the 2 June 2005 dated supplement of newspaper “Hürriyet”, pp.07.

Figure 8. The advertisement of a gated community in Beylikdüzü named “Eston Deniz” –EstonSea-.

Source:From the 10 September 2006 dated national newspaper “Hürriyet”, pp.26-27.

ENHR 2010, 4-7 July, ISTANBUL

22nd International Housing Research Conference

URBAN DYNAMICS & HOUSING CHANGE - Crossing into the 2nd Decade of the 3rd Millennium Although it is not as common as the emphasis on “nature”, another common concept emphasized in the urban periphery is “modernity”. In order to highlight modernity, in some cases, the community names contain words that represent what is perceived as modern by the society. In other cases, they contain words that indicate the modernization of something traditional. For example, a gated community in Ataşehir that is aimed to be presented as a modern version of houses with oriels (cumba) from traditional Ottoman architecture has been named “Cumbba Home” (Figure 10). This gated community consists of two high-rise apartment buildings. The promontories in the facade of the building are identified with the oriels (cumba) of houses from the traditional Ottoman period. Figure 9. The advertisement of a gated community in Büyükçekmece named “Rose Marine”.

Source: From the 03 June 2006 dated national newspaper “Hürriyet”.

Figure 10. The advertisement of a gated community in Ataşehir named “Cumbba Home”.

Source: www.cumbba.com.tr

ENHR 2010, 4-7 July, ISTANBUL

22nd International Housing Research Conference

WS-03: HOUSING MARKET DYNAMICS The use of English in the names of gated communities also seems to contribute to the perception of “modernity”. In another example, a gated community is named “Avrupa Konutları” -European Housing- (Figure 11) to refer to the western countries that are considered to be the pioneers of modern life. A gated community in Çekmeköy is named “Avangarden” to create the perception of a modern nature. The following sentence in the advertising text for the Avangarden project defines a modern residence: “Amsterdam Yalıs are being built in the Avangarden valley where two streams meet the lake. The huge wooden porches of the yalis, the garden and terrace pools, offer an extraordinary concept” (Figure 12). In this text, the word “yalı”, which is a characteristic building type of the Bosphorus architecture in the Ottoman period, is used in the name “Amsterdam Yalıs”, which can be interpreted as an interesting attempt to emphasize “modernity”. Figure 11. The advertisement of a gated community in Küçükçekmece named “Avrupa Konutları” – European Housing-.

Source: 12 Mayıs 2007 tarihli Hürriyet gazetesi, pp.15.

Figure 12. The advertisement of a gated community in Çekmeköy named “Avangarden”.

Source: From the 17 September 2006 dated national newspaper “Hürriyet”, pp.11.

ENHR 2010, 4-7 July, ISTANBUL

22nd International Housing Research Conference

URBAN DYNAMICS & HOUSING CHANGE - Crossing into the 2nd Decade of the 3rd Millennium The only exception in terms of the names of gated communities in the urban periphery is the district of Esenyurt. Esenyurt is similar to other districts in the periphery only in terms of the emphasis on “modernity”. The names of the gated communities located in this district do not put emphasis on “nature”. Result 3: The names of gated communities in districts close to the urban center predominantly emphasize the concepts of “location” and “nature”. The names of gated communities in the district of Eyüp heavily emphasize “location” and “nature”. The most important reason for this is that Eyüp is surrounded by the Black Sea coastline and forests in the north while bordering the central districts of Beşiktaş and Şişli in the south. Therefore, the district of Eyüp can be considered to have a special location between the urban center and the periphery, and it can be said to have a privileged location that is close to both the opportunities offered by the city center, especially the business center, and the natural landscape around the city. In this respect, it is significant that Eyüp shows similarities to both the urban center and the periphery in terms of its marketing images.

Conclusion Gated communities offer privileged living spaces for individuals in the upper classes of the social hierarchy in terms of their economic and cultural capital. The fact that gated communities offer privileges to a certain segment of the society is often criticized because it causes separation in the spatial and social structure of the city (Roitman 2004, Özgür 2006). However, the developers of gated communities form their marketing strategies based on exactly this factor, and market the gated communities with the claim that they offer “a privileged lifestyle”. The words constituting the names of the gated communities, which are chosen as part of the marketing strategy, contribute to the definition of this “privileged lifestyle” in impressive ways by using different images. In the example of Istanbul, the images describing this privileged lifestyle vary depending on the location where the gated communities are built. This variation can even be said to be nourished by the contradiction between the urban center and the periphery. In this respect, the concepts primarily emphasized in the names of gated communities that are constructed in the urban center and in the periphery of İstanbul can be summarized as follows: •

Emphasis on “location” can be seen predominantly in the names of gated communities built in the urban center.

The emphasis on “location” refers, on the one hand, to the prestige of owning a dwelling in the city center, which has a relatively higher economic value. On the other hand, it expresses an opportunity to easily access the conveniences of the city while at the same time having the privilege of living in a secure environment isolated from the commotion of the city without actually leaving the city. •

Emphasis on “building type” can be seen predominantly in the names of gated communities built in the urban center.

The emphasis on “building type” sometimes defines the architectural design of the gated community by using words like “tower”, “plaza” or “residence”, and indicates that the conventional residential concept in the city center has begun to be transformed. At other times, it refers to the prestigious building types used in the past by people of high status in the social hierarchy through concepts such as “konak” and “malikane” (mansion) and expresses a commitment of a privileged lifestyle.

ENHR 2010, 4-7 July, ISTANBUL

22nd International Housing Research Conference

WS-03: HOUSING MARKET DYNAMICS •

The emphasis on “modernity” can be seen predominantly in the names of gated communities built in the urban periphery.

The emphasis on “modernity” expresses a chance to have a modern living space in gated communities although they are located in the urban periphery. It is sometimes stated that a modern living space has been created without breaking off from the traditional. At other times, it is stated that a modern living space similar to those in western countries has been created. •

The emphasis on “nature” can be seen predominantly in the names of the gated communities both in the urban center and in the periphery.

As a matter of fact, it may seem surprising that emphasis on “nature” is a common concept in both the urban center and in the periphery. This results from the fact that gated communities offer a different living concept. Whether they are built in the urban center or in the periphery, gated communities include many social amenities such as parks, gardens, sports facilities, and children’s playgrounds along with housing units. These amenities are for the exclusive use of the residents of the community. Thus, the residents can sustain their lives and meet many of their daily necessities without leaving the spatial borders of the community, reducing the chance to meet the rest of the society to a minimum. The words emphasizing the concept of “nature” in the names of gated communities highlight the social amenities such as parks and gardens, and make use of the words like “sea”, “lake”, as well as the names of flowers and animals. In conclusion, gated communities have brought into question how architectural products should be marketed and which images should be used in marketing them. In the design of the marketing strategies for gated communities, the names under which they will be marketed has gained as much importance as the organization of advertising campaigns, web sites and promotion meetings. As in all consumer products, the names of gated communities are chosen as part of the marketing strategy that aims to draw the consumer’s attention. It can be said that the concepts emphasized in the names of gated communities contribute to the commitment of a distinguished and priviliged lifestyle offered by the concept of gated communities. Owning a dwelling in such a distinguished and privileged community is, in turn, equated with acquiring a privileged status in the social hierarchy. In this sense, the marketing images of gated communities can be considered as one of the most important indicators that goods available in the market have become status symbols and that these symbols are used by consumers with the aim of acquiring a social identity.

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ENHR 2010, 4-7 July, ISTANBUL

22nd International Housing Research Conference

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ENHR 2010, 4-7 July, ISTANBUL

22nd International Housing Research Conference

WS-03: HOUSING MARKET DYNAMICS

ENHR 2010, 4-7 July, ISTANBUL

22nd International Housing Research Conference