Conservation Agriculture

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The present book on 'Conservation Agriculture for Advancing. Food Security in ... crop-livestock-tree components, soil and water conservation, rehabilitation.

Conservation Agriculture for Advancing Food Security in Changing Climate (Adaptive Strategy, Resource Productivity and Economic Appraisal)

Vol. 2 Editors Anup Das , KP Mohapatra2, SV Ngachan3, AS Panwar4, DJ Rajkhowa5, Ramkrushna GI6 and Jayanta Layek7 1

1

Principal Scientist & Head, Division of Crop Production, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya, email:[email protected]

2

Principal Scientist, Forestry, Division of Natural Resource Management, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya, email:[email protected] 3

4

5

Director, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya, email:[email protected]

Director, ICAR-Indian Institute of Farming System Research, Modipuram, Uttarpradesh, email:[email protected]

Joint Director, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani, Nagaland, email: [email protected] 6

7

Scientist, Agronomy, Division of Crop Production, ICAR-Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur, Maharashtra, email:[email protected]

Scientist, Agronomy, Division of Crop Production, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya, email:[email protected]

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ISBN 81-7019-609-7 (India) ISBN 1-55528-439-6 (USA)

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Preface Attaining food security for a growing population and alleviating poverty while sustaining agricultural systems under the current scenario of depleting natural resources, negative impacts of climatic variability, spiraling cost of inputs and volatile food prices are the major challenges before most of the Asian countries. The Indian agricultural production system faces the daunting task of having to feed 17.5 percent of the global population with only 2.4 percent of land and 4 percent of the water resources at its disposal. It is estimated that by 2050, the country’s food grain requirement will be 377 million tonnes (mt) to feed about 1.7 billion populations as against present production of ~272 mt (2016-17). With the continuously degrading natural resource base compounded further by global warming and associated climate changes “business as usual” approach will not be able to ensure food and nutrition security to the vast population. The challenge is formidable because more has to be produced with reduced carbon and water footprints. Sustainability of agricultural systems is paramount importance for provisioning of food for perpetuity. The principal indicators of non-sustainability of agricultural systems includes: soil erosion, soil organic matter decline, salinization, acidification etc. These are caused mainly by: (i) intensive tillage induced soil organic matter decline, soil structural degradation, water and wind erosion, reduced water infiltration rates, surface sealing and crusting, soil compaction, (ii) insufficient return of organic material, and (iii) monocropping and imbalanced use of various agricultural inputs. Therefore, a paradigm shift in farming practices through eliminating unsustainable parts of conventional agriculture is crucial for future productivity gains while sustaining the natural resources. Rainfed areas, which constitute about 61% of the gross cultivated area, contribute only 42% to the total food production, while 39% of the irrigated area accounts for 58% of the national food basket. The challenge before the Indian agriculture, is to transform rainfed farming into more sustainable and productive systems through efficient use of natural resources. To achieve this, harnessing the potential of integrated farming systems, integrated nutrient management, and integrated water management needs to be undertaken from conservation point of view through location specific technologies.

Conservation agriculture (CA) is a way to cultivate crops, based on no vertical perturbation of soil (zero and conservation tillage), with crop residue management and cover crops, in order to offer a permanent soil cover and a natural increase of organic matter content in surface horizons. CA is based on optimizing yields and profits, to achieve a balance of agricultural, economic and environmental benefits. It advocates that the combined social and economic benefits gained from combining production and protecting the environment, including reduced input and labor costs, are greater than those from production alone. CA is reported to reduce production cost by Rs. 2,000 to 3,000/ha, enhance soil quality, C sequestration and build-up in soil organic matter, enhance water and nutrient use efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emission and improve environmental sustainability, provide opportunities for crop diversification and intensification and improve resource use efficiency through residue decomposition, soil structural improvement, increased recycling and availability of plant nutrients. The C-sequestration potential of CA is estimated to be 1.8 t CO2/ha/y. By sequestering of 1 tonne carbon in humus, it is possible to conserve 83.3 kg N, 20 kg P and 14.3 kg S/ha. Therefore, management of carbon not only helps in sequestration of carbon but also helps in restoring soil fertility. However, lack of appropriate seeders, competing use of crop residues; burning of crop residues and lack of skilled and scientific manpower and inappropriate extension strategies are the major bottlenecks in popularizing CA in India. The present book on ‘Conservation Agriculture for Advancing Food Security in Changing Climate’ being published in two volumes (Vol. 1 & 2) deals with various aspects of CA in relation to efficient use of natural resources, crop diversification, complementary interactions among crop-livestock-tree components, soil and water conservation, rehabilitation of degraded lands, improving soil quality, climate smart farming and socioeconomical perspectives. Experts and researchers from different agroclimatic zones of the country contributed chapters to enrich the quality of book. The book is divided into eight sections with each section having multiple chapters to cover the section appropriately. The authors are highly thankful to Dr. Trilochan Mohaptara, Honorable Secretary, DARE & DG, ICAR, New Delhi and Dr. S. Ayyappan, Former Secretary, DARE & DG, ICAR for providing all round support in bringing out this publication. The authors also sincerely acknowledge the guidance and suggestions received from Dr. N.S. Rathore, DDG (Agricultural Education) and Dr. A.K. Sikka, former DDG (NRM), ICAR

New Delhi in planning and executing the 21 days summer school on ‘Conservation agriculture for enhancing resource use efficiency and arresting land degradation’ during 19 August to 8 Sept, 2015. The chapters contributed by the learned resource persons during training along with contributions from other experts have been compiled as book on ‘Conservation Agriculture for Advancing Food Security in Changing Climate’ in two volumes (Vol. 1 & 2) for the end users. The authors are also thankful to all the resource persons and contributors of chapters for their support in delivering lecture and interest in submitting the chapters without which it would not have been possible to bring out this publication. Finally, the help rendered by the Scientists, Research fellows and staffs of ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya are gracefully acknowledged. The authors are highly optimistic that the publication will be useful to the researchers, planners and students in furthering the cause of conservation agriculture in the era of global climate disruption.

Editors

Content Vol. 1 SECTION I: CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE AND CROP PRODUCTION 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Conservation agriculture for restoration of degraded land and advancing food security Anup Das, KP Mohapatra and SV Ngachan

1-35

Climate proofing of agriculture for food security SV Ngachan and Anup Das

37-57

Natural resource management for climate resilient rainfed agriculture KA Gopinath, G Ravindra Chary and Ch Srinivasarao

59-76

Low carbon technologies in Indian agriculture H Pathak

77-89

Strategies for weed management in conservation agriculture systems AR Sharma Growing pulses in rice fallow: Ensuring nutritional security in India Narendra Kumar, Arti Yadav, Saumya Singh and SL Yadav

91-106

107-122

7.

Crop diversification and food security through lentil cultivation in lowland rice fallow Gulab Singh, M Datta and Poulami Saha 123-141

8.

Improving rice production under shifting cultivation: a case study Jayanta Layek, Anup Das, Ramkrushna GI, AS Panwar, BC Verma and Anirudha Roy 143-153

9.

10.

11.

Agroclimate and crop planning US Saikia, B Goswami, Anup Das, DJ Rajkhowa, NS Azad Thakur and SV Ngachan

155-167

Hi-tech protected nursery for production of quality planting material of fruit and vegetable crops SS Roy, SK Sharma, MA Ansari, N Prakash and SV Ngachan

169-202

Disease management in conservation agriculture Pankaj Baiswar, Satish Chandra and SV Ngachan

203-207

SECTION II: CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE IN SYSTEM APPROACH 12.

13.

14.

Conservation agriculture in livestock based agroforestry systems PK Ghosh and AK Dixit

209-222

Food and nutritional security through farming system approach AS Panwar, Hadienlarisa Syiemlieh, Lotika Kalita, Moutushi Tahashildar and Jayanta Layek

223-244

Integrating conservation agriculture in organic farming Raghavendra Singh, Subhash Babu, RK Avasthe and GS Yadav

245-259

15.

Conservation agriculture with trees: way towards the evergreen revolution SB Chavan, AR Uthappa, Keerthika A, Ram Newaj, KB Sridhar and DR Palasaniya 261-274

16.

Natural resource management through farming system Vishram Ram

17.

275-299

Integrated organic farming system in north east India Anup Das, Jayanta Layek, Ramkrushna GI and Subhash Babu 301-318

18.

Impact of beekeeping on conservation, preservation of Agriculture ecosystems and poverty reduction RK Thakur and Surabhi G Vakil 319-332

19.

Apiculture as component of integrated farming system Rachna Pande, Romila Akoijam, Sandip Patra, GT Behere and NS Azad Thakur

333-346

Crop diversification in marginal rice landscape for ensuring food security AK Tripathi, A Roy, NU Singh, PK Sinha and Anjoo Yumnam

347-363

20.

SECTION III: CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE AND SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT 21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

Conservation agriculture for up-keeping soil quality through carbon management Biswapati Mandal, Ashim Datta, Shrikant Badole, Krishna Chaitanya A, Shyam Prasad Majumder, Satadeep Singha Roy and Dhaneshwar Padhan

365-383

Agroforestry and soil quality improvement in Eastern Himalayas M Datta, GS Yadav and Anup Das

385-408

Impact of organic food production on soil quality RK Avasthe, Subhash Babu, Raghavendra Singh and SK Das

409-418

Agroforestry based land use management for improving soil quality Puran Chandra, Anup Das and K.P. Mohapatra

419-431

Soil organic carbon pools and carbon stock in relation to soil health BC Verma, D Bhuyan, P Moirangthem, BU Choudhury and S Hazarika

433-441

26.

27.

Influence of land uses and altitudinal gradient on soil organic carbon and its’ fractionations NJ Singh

443-454

Role of intercropping and residue management for sustaining soil health AK Singh and Samborlong K Waniang

455-468

List of Abbreviations

Content Vol. 2 SECTION IV: CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE FOR ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHNAGE 28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

Approaches for managing GHG emission from rice based cropping system Pratap Bhattacharyya, CK Swain, PK Dash, KS Roy and AK Nayak

469-486

Role of biochar in enhancing soil health and climate change mitigation Sandip Mandal, BC Verma and Ramkrushna GI

487-502

Soil organic carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions under different land use systems T Ramesh, S Hazarika, BU Choudhury, Manoj Kumar, BC Verma, Prabha M and SV Ngachan

503-516

Impact of climate change on livestock and its adaptation and mitigation strategies Ashok Kumar, Raju Kr Dewry, Nripendra Mahanta and Mahak Singh

517-525

Strategies and approaches in pest management under changing climate NS Azad Thakur and DM Firake 527-534

SECTION V: INPUT USE EFFICIENCY UNDER CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE 33.

Role of biofertilizer for enhancing soil health and input use efficiency SN Bhowmik

535-545

34.

35.

Role of pulses in improving soil quality and enhancing resource use efficiency Narendra Kumar and Arti Yadav

547-561

Enhancing water productivity in conservation agriculture AK Vishwakarma

563-576

36.

Resource conservation techniques for rice production Teekam singh, B Lal and P Gautam 577-597

37.

Efficient water utilization through gravity-fed drip irrigation for hill region Lala IP Ray

599-604

SECTION VI: MANAING DEGRADED LANDS THROUGH CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE 38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

Soil quality improvement through reverse land degradation Debashis Mandal

605-625

Agroforestry interventions for rehabilitation of degraded Jhum lands and natural resource conservation in North Eastern Hill Region Rupankar Bhagawati, Nirmal and Rajesh Alone

627-647

Approaches for managing degraded lands with special reference to north east India S Hazarika

649-665

Bioremediation: a promising technology for ecological restoration Prabha Moirangthem, S Hazarika, BC Verma, M Thoithoi Devi, Manoj Kumar, Ramesh T and BU Choudhury

667-681

Managing shifting cultivated areas for arresting land degradation Dibyendu Chatterjee

683-694

43.

Soil conservation measures for arresting soil and nutrient erosion under shifting cultivation Sanjay Kumar Ray, Anup Das and Bidyut C Deka

695-709

SECTION VII: CONSERVATION OF SOIL, WATER AND ENERGY 44.

Watershed approach for soil and water conservation in hill agriculture RK Singh, D Chakraborty and SV Ngachan 711-733

45.

Use of geospatial tools for soil resource management Pratibha T Das 735-753

46.

Assessment of hydrological behavior of arable lands under predominant land uses for resource conservation BK Sethy and HJ Singh

755-768

Soil and water management for resilient shifting cultivation Rakesh Kumar and Bidyut C Deka

769-793

Water management – its significance under changing climate DJ Rajkhowa

795-800

Pressurized irrigation and farm mechanization in conservation agriculture Sanjay T Satpute

801-815

Rainwater harvesting-concept, potential, methods and its multiple uses with special reference to north east India K Pathak

817-823

47.

48.

49.

50.

SECTION VIII: SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPESCTS OF CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE 51.

Economic analysis of watershed development projects: methodology and estimation SB Singh 825-833

52.

Impact assessment of resource conservation technologies: methodologies and approaches AK Mohanty, A Roy, AK Tripathi and D Kumar

835-846

Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) - a tool for assessment of location specific problems and possible solutions A Roy, AK Tripathi and DS Dkhar

847-867

53.

List of Abbreviations