Digest of Middle East Studies

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DOMES Digest of Middle East Studies Volume 24  Number 1  Spring 2015

Essential Threats to the Security of the GCC Countries in the Post Arab Spring Era Mohamed M. Binhuwaidin Explaining the Intensity of the Arab Spring Chonghyun Christie Byun and Ethan J. Hollander Fulbright’s Middle East: A Senator’s Influence on American Foreign Policy James R. Stocker Inside Hezbollah: The al-Mahdi Scouts, Education, and Resistance Sofia Maria Tagliabue Refugees in the Arab Middle East: Academic and Policy Perspectives Anita Fábos The Role of Culture and Technology in Civil Society Promotion in the Middle East: A Case Study Approach Soumia Bardhan and Richard L. Wood

Proceedings of the PSO

An International Journal of Public Policy

Digest of Middle East Studies (1949-3606) is published on behalf of the Policy Studies Organization by Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., a Wiley Company, 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774. Disclaimer: The Publisher, the Policy Studies Organization, or Editors cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal; the views and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the Publisher, the Policy Studies Organization, or Editors; neither does the publication of advertisements constitute any endorsement by the Publisher, the Policy Studies Organization, or Editors of the products advertised. C 2015 the Policy Studies Organization. All rights reserved. No part Copyright and Copying: V of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission in writing from the copyright holder. Authorization to copy items for internal and personal use is granted by the copyright holder for libraries and other users registered with their local Reproduction Rights Organization (RRO), e.g. Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA (www.copyright.com), provided the appropriate fee is paid directly to the RRO. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works or for resale. Special requests should be addressed to: [email protected]

Aims & Scope DOMES (Digest of Middle East Studies) is a biennial refereed journal published in English by the Policy Studies Organization (PSO). DOMES is devoted to research articles and reviews of topics concerning the Middle East. This encompasses Islam; the Arab countries; Israel; and those countries traditionally referred to as the Near East, including Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey. DOMES is intended for individuals, libraries, research centers, corporations, and government offices with interests in the Middle East. The roster of authors and reviewers represents specialists from different religious, political, and subject backgrounds. DOMES seeks original papers and survey articles that fall within its scope. Single or multiple authorship articles submitted to DOMES should be original contributions and should not be under consideration for publication in other media. If another version of the article is under consideration by another publication, or has been, or will be published elsewhere, author(s) should clearly indicate this at the time of submission. Papers must be in English, no less than 8,000 words, and no longer than 15,000 words, including a 200-word abstract and completed references. Manuscripts should be submitted online at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/domes where instructions and support are available. A user ID and password can be obtained on the first visit to the site. Additional support is available by phone (+1 434 817 2040 ext. 167), e-mail ([email protected]), or at http://mcv3support.custhelp.com. If you cannot submit online, please contact the Editorial Office by email at [email protected] If you are not a native English speaker, we strongly recommend that you have your manuscript professionally edited before submission. A list of companies that will edit your manuscript for a fee can be found here: http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/english_language.asp. Professional editing is not compulsory, but will mean that reviewers are better able to read and assess your manuscript. Use of one of these companies does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication in this journal.



Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Mohammed M. Aman, PhD [email protected] Associate Editor: Mary Jo Aman, MLIS [email protected] International Advisory Board 2015–16 Deina Abdelkader, PhD University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA Michal Allon, PhD Tel Aviv University, Israel Hayat Alvi, PhD Naval College, USA Mohammad Amjad, PhD Arcadia University, USA El-Sayed El-Aswad, PhD United Arab Emirates University Hedi BenAicha, PhD Dean of Libraries American Public University System Issa Boullata, PhD McGill University, Canada Jane Bristol-Rhys, PhD Zayed University, UAE Country Chair, UAE John Curry, PhD University of Nevada-Las Vegas, USA Lawrence Davidson, PhD West Chester University, Pennsylvania, USA Nader Entessar, PhD University of South Alabama, USA Seth J. Frantzman, PhD Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel CountryChair, Israel Nancy Gallagher, PhD University of California-Santa Barbara, USA Mustafa Gokcek, PhD Niagara University, USA Country Co-Chair, Turkey Hanan Hammad, PhD Texas Christian University, USA Jack Kalpakian, PhD Al-Akhawayn University, Ifrane, Morocco Country Chair, Morocco

Lidwien Kapteijins, PhD Portland State University, USA Country Chair, Somalia Jack Keilo, PhD Universite Paris IV Sorbonne, France Turgul Keskin, PhD Portland State University, USA Sebastian Maisel, PhD Grand Valley State University Country Chair, Saudi Arabia Roberto Mazza, PhD Western Illinois University, USA Chair, Website Reviews Marcie Patton, PhD Fairfield University, USA Country Co-Chair, Turkey Catriona Pennell, PhD University of Exeter, UK Kenneth Perkins, PhD University of South Carolina, USA Glenn Perry, PhD Indiana State University, USA Glenn Robinson, PhD Naval Postgraduate School, Monterrey, CA, USA Kerry R. Stewart, PhD Gainesville State College, USA Mary Ann Tetreault, PhD Trinity University, USA Country Co-Chair, Kuwait Elena Vezzadini, PhD Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences sociales (EHESS), France Country Chair, Sudan Abderrahman Zouhir, PhD Wayne State University, USA Mahjoob Zweiri, PhD Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Country Chair, Jordan