Diptera: Psychodidae

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nine from India and two from Sri Lanka (Barraud. 1926). Subsequently, Lewis .... Srinivasan (1990) reported a total of eight species, including three in the genus ...

MORPHOLOGY, SYSTEMATICS, EVOLUTION

A New Species Under Genus Sergentomyia and Subgenus Sergentomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Puducherry Union Territory, Southern India, With Keys to the Species RENGANATHAN SRINIVASAN1

AND

PURUSHOTHAMAN JAMBULINGAM

Indian Council of Medical Research, Vector Control Research Centre, Medical complex, Pondicherry, 605 006 India

J. Med. Entomol. 47(3): 299Ð304 (2010); DOI: 10.1603/ME08091

ABSTRACT Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) pondicherriensis is a new species of phlebotomine sand ßy belonging to the genus Sergentomyia and subgenus Sergentomyia is described with illustrations of adult females and males. Other six species under the subgenus Sergentomyia are Se. (Ser.) punjabensis (Sinton), Se. (Ser.) dentata (Sinton), Se. (Ser.) theodori (Parrot), Se. (Ser.) murgabiensis (PerÞliew), Se. (Ser.) mervynae Pringle, and Se. (Ser.) fallax afghanica Artemiev. Sergentomyia pondicherriensis sp. nov was collected from termite mounds, in one of the villages of Puducherry Union Territory, Southern India. A revised key to the species of the subgenus Sergentomyia is also included. KEY WORDS Sergentomyia pondicherriensis, sand ßy, identiÞcation keys, Psychodidae, Diptera

Phlebotomine sand ßies have a wide distribution, mainly in the tropics and subtropics (Alder and Theodor 1957). Only three species were known in 1905, when impetus was given to sand ßy research because of their suspected association with sand ßy fever and leishmaniasis (Lewis 1978). By 1925, ⬇47 species were known, of which 14 were from the Orient, including nine from India and two from Sri Lanka (Barraud 1926). Subsequently, Lewis (1978) recorded a total of 124 species of sand ßies represented by the two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia from the Oriental Region, which included Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, and western Indonesia. Kalra and Bang (1988) reported 46 species under Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia from India. The genus Sergentomyia includes the following subgenera and species group: Neophlebotomus; Sintonius, Sergentomyia, Parrotomyia, Grassomyia, the nicinic group (Lewis 1978, Kalra and Bang 1988), and Rondanomyia (Artemiev 1978). Sand Fly Collection Area. The specimens described in this study were collected from a village Pillaiyarkuppam (110 57⬘ 20.7⬘⬘ N, 0790 42⬘ 30.0⬘⬘ E), located in the Puducherry Union Territory, ⬇165 km south of Chennai city in southern India. This village is situated 15 km west of the Union TerritoryÕs capital town, Pondicherry, where agriculture is common and cattle are raised by most of the households. A high water table makes the village fertile with abundant vegetation. Rice, coconut, and sugar cane are major crops. While bore wells are used for irrigation during the dry season, rainwater is used in the monsoon period. Sand ßies were collected during December 2007 between 1

Corresponding author, e-mail: [email protected]

10.00 and 12.00 h at fortnightly intervals, using mechanical aspirators and ßashlights. Sand ßies resting in human dwellings, cattle sheds, bushes, tree holes, tree buttresses, termite mounds, and animal burrows were collected and brought to the laboratory. Specimens were mounted on slides in HoyerÕs medium or Canada balsam and subsequently examined using pertinent keys (Lewis 1967, 1978; Artemiev 1978; Kalra and Bang 1988). Morphometric parameters were measured using an Olympus binocular microscope (Model CHS, Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) Þtted with ocular and stage micrometers. Drawings were made using the Olympus microscope Þtted with a camera lucida, and photographs were taken using a Motic microscope (Motic BA 300, Type 102M, Frankfurt, Germany) Þtted with camera and connected to a desktop computer with appropriate software. The male and female specimens were described, adopting the terminology of Lewis (1967, 1978) and Sinton (1929). The nomenclature used in the study follows the guidelines of the international code of zoological nomenclature (ICZN 1985). The abbreviations of taxa by Marcondes (2007) were used.

Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) pondicherriensis, sp. nov. Figs. 1Ð7. Female. Pale brown. Body length, 2.3 mm. Head: Frons length 175.0 ␮m; eye separation 160.0 ␮m; labrum length 252.5 ␮m, width 50.3 ␮m; palpal formula 2, (1,3), 4, 5. Antenna: Segment III 155.0 ␮m (IV ⫹ V ⫽ 175.0 ␮m); antennal segments III to XV each with one ascoid. Wings: Length 1.65 mm, width 0.52 mm.

0022-2585/10/0299Ð0304$04.00/0 䉷 2010 Entomological Society of America

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Fig. 1. Se. (Ser.) pondicherriensis sp. nov., male A. Ventral view of head, 10x; B. Genitalia, 10x.

Cibarium: 18 Ð22 teeth, uniform in size and arranged in a concave row ventrally; a prominent hemispherical pigment patch overlaps the cibarial teeth and exposes four teeth on either margin; no anterior process originates from the pigment patch; chitinous arch prominent. Pharynx: Length 180.0 ␮m, width 32.5 ␮m, and barrel shaped at posterior half and narrow toward anterior half. Spermatheca: Wide with thin and smooth

Fig. 2. Se. (Ser.) pondicherriensis sp. nov., female C. Ventral view of head, 10x; D. Cibarium and pharynx. 40x; E. Spermathecae and ducts, 40x; F. Segment III of antenna with ascoid hair, 40x; G. Wing, 10x.

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walls; length 72.5 ␮m, width 32.5 ␮m; each spermatheca with a whorl of intracellular ducts, i.e., secretary cells at the distal end, which protrude in a circle from the spermatheca head; individual spermathecal ducts 180.0 ␮m long and 60.0 ␮m width with striated wall; common spermathecal duct very short. Male. Color similar to female. Body 1.5 mm. Head: Frons length 150.0 ␮m; eye separation 152.5 ␮m; labrum length 187.5 ␮m; palpal formula (1,2,3) 4, 5. Antenna: Segment III 145.0 ␮m (IV ⫹ V 180.0 ␮m); antenna segments III through XV each with one ascoid. Wings: Length 1.3 mm, width 0.4 mm. Cibarium: With two rows of teeth, 12 in the lower row and six in the upper row, uniform in size, ventrally; pigment patch indistinct with no anterior process; pharynx length 170.0 ␮m, width 47.5 ␮m, and barrel shaped at posterior and gradually narrowing toward the anterior end. Genitalia: Aedeagus dark, thick, ßeshy, Þnger shaped, and curved slightly downward; genital pump 75.0 ␮m; genital Þlament 305.0 ␮m or four times longer than genital pump; paramere hooked with setae on dorsal surface; coxite 222.5 ␮m long; style 97.5 ␮m long; style with four terminal spines, each measuring 77.5 ␮m in length. Type Material. Voucher specimens of both females (holotype 씸, two 씸 paratypes) and males (allotype Z, one Z paratype) were mounted separately on slides using HoyerÕs medium or canada balsam, and they were serially numbered and deposited in the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council Of Medical Research), Indira Nagar, Puducherry, India. Collection data were recorded, e.g., locality, habitat, date of collection, name of collector, identiÞcations, and ecological parameters. Etymology. The new species is named after the Pondicherry Union Territory, from where both the holotype and allotype were collected. The territory changed its ofÞcial name from Pondicherry to the vernacular original, Puducherry, in September 2006, and hence, the new species was named to commemorate the event. Diagnosis. The cibarium has 12 teeth in the lower row and six teeth in the upper row in males. Spermathecae in females are wide with thin and smooth walls. Each spermatheca has a whorl of intracellular ducts, i.e., secretary cells at the distal end, protruding from the spermatheca head. The cibarium of females has 22 teeth of uniform size arranged in a concave row. A prominent hemispherical pigment patch overlaps the cibarial teeth and exposes four teeth on either margin. In an earlier study in Pondicherry Union Territory, Srinivasan (1990) reported a total of eight species, including three in the genus Phlebotomus, e.g., Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (Scopoli), Phlebotomus (Euphlebotomus) argentipes Annandale & Brunetti, and Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) colabaensis Young & Chalam, and Þve species in the genus Sergentomyia, e.g., Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) punjabensis (Sinton), Sergentomyia (Nicnic group) baily (Sinton), Sergentomyia (Sintonius) clydei (Sinton), Sergentomyia (Parratomyia) babu (Annandale), and

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Fig. 3. Se. (Ser.) pondicherriensis sp. nov., male A. Cibarium, B. Pharynx 40x. (Online Þgure in color.)

Fig. 4. Se. (Ser.) pondicherriensis sp. nov., male Segment III of antenna with ascoid hair, 40x. (Online Þgure in color.)

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Fig. 5. Se. (Ser.) pondicherriensis sp. nov., male Genitalia, 10x. (Online Þgure in color.)

Sergentomyia (Grassomyia) indica (Theodor). Information on the distribution of species in this subgenus published elsewhere conÞrms the existence of six species (Lewis 1978, Kalra and Bang 1988, Artemiev 1978), hence, Se. (Ser.) pondicherriensis sp. nov. Described in this study is the seventh species of the subgenus Sergentomyia reported from Puducherry Union Territory. The new species has features common to the genus Sergentomyia, such as the posterior margins of abdominal tergites 2Ð 6 having most hairs recumbent both in males and females. Subgeneric features include the tubular spermathecae, with smooth walls in females. In males, the style of the superior clasper has four terminal spines, similar to what is seen in Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) marvynae and Se. (Ser.) punjabensis. The aedeagus is thick and Þnger shaped. The new species has striated individual spermathecal ducts, a clear distinction between spermathecal duct and spermathecae, projections from head of spermathecae, and 22 teeth in the cibarium. Although the cibarial teeth are common in other species in the subgenus Sergentomyia, the pigment patch in females of the new species differs from those of Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) murgabiensis and Se. (Ser.) marvynae, in that it has no anterior processes. Although the pigment patch is similar to those of Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) dentata, Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) fallax afghanica, Se. (Ser.) punjabensis, and Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) theodori, the number and size of the cibarial teeth and

structure of spermathecae and spermathecal ducts are different in the new species. The presence of two rows of cibarial teeth in males and the projection of intracellular ducts in a circle around the distal end of the spermathecae in females of Se. (Ser) pondicherriensis sp. nov are unique and distinct from all other species in this subgenus.

Key to the Species of Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) Male 1. Paramere with rounded end; aedeagus almost straight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Paramere with hooked end; aedeagus is curved slightly downward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Antennal segment III longer than labrum . . . 4. Antennal segment III shorter than labrum . . 5. 3. Cibarial teeth not uniform in size; central teeth shorter than the lateral ones; style with two terminal and two subterminal spines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. dentata Cibarial teeth are uniform in size; style with four terminal spines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Cibarium with 12Ð16 teeth of uniform size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. murgabiensis Cibarium with 15Ð22 teeth, with central teeth being shorter than the lateral ones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. theodori

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Fig. 6. Se. (Ser.) pondicherriensis sp. nov. female; Spermathecae and ducts-40x (Photographed using motic microscope attached with camera). (Online Þgure in color.)

5. Labrum long, ratio of coxite:labrum ⫽ 1.85Ð2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. mervynae Labrum short, ratio of coxite:labrum ⫽ 2.3Ð2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. fallax afghanica 6. Cibarial teeth arranged in two rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. pondicherriensis Cibarial teeth arranged in a single row . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. punjabensis Female 1. Pharynx broad at posterior end with a waist-like constriction at the base . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Pharynx barrel shaped at posterior end without a waist-like constriction at the base . . . . . . 3 2. Waist-like pharyngeal constriction very deep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Waist-like pharyngeal constriction shallow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Pharynx convex with a membranous basal part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. mervynae Pharynx convex, without a membranous basal part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Waist-like pharyngeal constriction very deep; cibarium with ⬇30 uniform teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. punjabensis

Waist-like pharyngeal constriction very deep; and cibarium with 17Ð22 uniform teeth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. fallax afghanica 5. Cibarium with 14 Ð17 uniform teeth; pigment patch with anterior process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. murgabiensis Cibarium with 17Ð22 teeth, central teeth are shorter than lateral ones; pigment patch without anterior process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. theodori 6. Spermathecae with a whorl of intracellular ducts protruding from the distal of the spermatheca head; posterior margin of the pharyngeal armature straight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. pondicherriensis Spermathecae without such projection at the distal end; posterior margin of the pharyngeal armature is convex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Se. dentata

Acknowledgments We are grateful to B. Edwin for his valuable assistance in Þeld collection, dissection, and mounting of sand ßies and preparation of illustrations. Technical assistance rendered by Sri S. Chandrasekaran and Sri. N. Ramesh is also acknowledged.

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Fig. 7. Se. (Ser.) pondicherriensis sp. nov., female A. Cibarium B. Pharynx, 40x. (Online Þgure in color.)

References Cited Alder, S., and O. Theodar. 1957. Transmission of disease agents by Phlebotomine sand ßies. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2: 203Ð226. Artemiev, M. M. 1978. Sand ßies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of Afganistan. Marzinovoskyi Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Malaya Pirogovskaya 20, Moscow, Russia. Barraud, P. J. 1926. Reports upon a sand ßy survey of Madras town. Indian Med. Res. Memo. 4: 207Ð218. (ICZN) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 1985. Adopted by the XX General Assembly of the International Union of Biological Sciences, British Museum Natural History, London, United Kingdom. Kalra, N. L., and Y. H. Bang. 1988. Manual on entomology in visceral leishmaniasis. World Health Organization, Regional OfÞce for South-East Asia, New Delhi, India. Lewis, D. J. 1967. The Phlebotomine sand ßies of West Pakistan (Diptera: Psychodidae). Bull. Br. Museum (Natural History) Entomol. Series 19(1): 1Ð57.

Lewis, D. J. 1978. The Phlebotomine sand ßies of the Oriental region.). Bull. Br. Museum (Natural History) Entomol. Series 37(6): 1Ð343. Marcondes, C. B. 2007. A proposal of generic and subgeneric abbreviations for Phlebotomine sand ßies (Diptera: Psychodidae; Phlebotomidae) of the world. Entom. News 118: 351Ð356. Sinton, J. A. 1929. The identiÞcation and classiÞcation of the species of Phlebotomus, with some remarks on their geographical distribution in relation to disease. Trans. 7th Cong. Far East Assoc. Trop. Med. 3: 172193. Srinivasan, R. 1990. Studies on the biology, ecology and population dynamics of Phlebotomid sand ßy, Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Phlebotomidae). Ph.D. dissertation, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India. Received 21 April 2008; accepted 9 December 2009.

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