EL USUARIO DE SISTEMAS

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cretaría de Comercio y Fomento Industrial (SECOFI) identified the following fac- ...... MERCADO, Salvador, Comercio Internacional I, edit. Limusa ... publicado en el manual La Industria del Aguacate del Banco de México-Fira Nº 220, vol. XII,.

COMPETITIVENESS OF MEXICAN AVOCADO EXPORTING COMPANIES TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1

Joel Bonales Valencia y Luis Arturo Rivas Tovar

2

Abstract This study investigated the competitive factors of 25 avocado exporting companies located in Uruapan, Michoacán (Mexico). This cradle in a census of the twenty-five exporting companies, which its organization, its objectives and its problematic production could be known. . The documentary investigation focused to the knowledge of the main theories on International Commerce as well as the situation of the market of this product at world-wide level. As result of this 5 explanatory variables were identified that are: the quality, price, technology, qualification and channels of distribution. The opening o f the U.S. market in November 1997 to the commercialization of Mexican avocado production was an excellent opportunity to develop a market in a culture that tended to consume natural foods, of good quality; within that a considerable amount of Mexican customary incorporating the avocado in its diet is included. Mexico’s state of Michoacan, in particular the Uruapan municipality, is the largest producer of “Hass” avocados in the world. Proximity to the large U.S. market of 270 million inhabitants with high spending power was a unique business opportunity to take advantage of the efficient network of drug dealers with ample experience in the handling of the avocado. Problematic of the industrial sector the radical process of commercial opening adopted by Mexico as of the decade of ochentas, generated challenges and opportunities for several Mexican companies but I question of blow competitive problems in customary companies to work in protected markets. These distortions with serious social effects are related directly to the competitiveness. One critical issue for the Mexican avocado industry has been U.S. import regulations that have often denounced as "green barriers". These regulations concern agricultural pesticide use as well as quality and maturity standards. In spite of the NAFTA, the U.S. has continued to impose a six cents per pound tariff avocado imports from Mexico but not on avocado imports from countries such as Chile and the Dominican Republic. With the entry of Mexico into the General Agreement On Tariffs and Commerce (GATT) in 1986, the export of Michoacan’s avocados has experienced a number of diverse problems. Noncompetitive intermediaries have assumed greater control over avocado commercialization and distribution. Strong U.S. policies protecting the U.S. California avocado industry have continued (Sánchez, 1991: 45). The Mexican avocado sector is underorganized with production automation and commercialization having fallen behind that of other avocado producing countries such as Chile, Israel, the U.S., and Spain. There has been very little research on the competitive success factors of Mexican firms, much less those exporting to the U.S. By identifying the competitiveness factors for Mexican avocado exporting firms, this study will advance current knowledge about competitive factors for organizations in the Mexican agricultural sector that are dependent on exports to the U.S.

1

Doctor in Sciences, with Specialty in Administrative Sciences, (ESCA-IPN). Organization professor in the Technological Institute of Morelia. At the moment he carries out investigations on the components of the chains of value of the Companies in the State of Michoacán.

2

Doctor in Administrative Sciences for the I.P.N. of Mexico and Dr(c) in European Studies for the Institute Ortega and Gasset. He/she is professor and Director of the Center of Investigation in Administrative Sciences of the Superior School of Trade and Administration, Unit Saint Tomas of the National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico and Invited Professor of the Polytechnic University of Madrid. He is member of the National System of Investigators.

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I. THEORY AND HYPOTHESES International trade is of critical importance in theoretical models of competitiveness. According to Porter’s (1991) theory of comparative advantage, a nation need not produce all its own goods and services and can increase its competitiveness by only producing goods and services for which it holds a comparative advantage. Although there is a lack of consensus on the definition of “competitiveness”, international competitiveness is most commonly associated with greater productivity as measured by penetration in international markets, investment flows, and workforce unit costs. Derived from the Latin words “cum” (con) and “petere” (to ardently wish, to request), competitiveness implies not only a willingness to compete against others for a desired prize but also possessing the capacity to take action to establish, protect, and expand market positions. Although a literature review revealed over 100 difference competitiveness models, the following eight are the most relevant to this study. In agreement with Worldwide Report on Competitiveness, competitiveness exists at the country level, the sector level, and the company level (Aguilar, 1995: 35). The extent to which national sociopolitical and economic conditions are favorable to business is the primary determinant of country level competitiveness. Sector level competitiveness is the degree to which an industrial sector has the potential to grow and to produce attractive yields on investment. Company level competitiveness is determined by an organization’s ability to design, produce, and commercialize goods and services that are more attractive than those of market competitors. Competitiveness is a relative concept with not all nations, sectors or companies being able to be equally competitive in global markets. Widely competitive a national atmosphere for a business can not be it for another one. The Mexican Secretaría de Comercio y Fomento Industrial (SECOFI) identified the following factors in their competitiveness model: (1) atmosphere with clear and permanent rules; (2) economies of scale; (3) economies of specialization (particularly important for small and medium companies; (4) flexible and fast adoption of the most appropriate technology (including processes of shared production); and (5) markets operating correctly. Nevertheless, this model has been criticized because it does not consider factors such as the development of qualified human resources, communications and transportation infrastructures, regulatory clarity, and the presence of a comprehensive and high priority industrial policy for long term investment in science and technology. 1. The model of the mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI), considers a series of indicators of national competitiveness, emphasizing that no of them by itself, explains the competitive position of the country. 2. Porter (1991: 855) defined competitiveness as the production of goods and services that are of higher quality and lower prices than those of domestic and international competitors. National competitiveness results in real income growth for a country’s population. Porter’s model identified four ge-

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Competitiveness of Mexican Avocado Exporting Companies to the United States of America

neric attributes of a nation that determine its competitive environment: (1) Related conditions of the factors, 2) market demand conditions; (3) industries and government support; and (4) the strategy, structure and rivalry of the company. These attributes measure the degree to which national environments are supportive of sector competition. Porter’s “Diamond” reflects the many diverse elements of a nation, measures the manner by which nations create competitive forces and influence organizations, as well as identifying the need strategies and instruments for enhancing competitive advantage. 3. The Presidential Commission on Industrial Competitiveness of the United States (1985) concluded that national competitiveness is the basis for a standard of life that maintains and increases real income. Reason why it is from fundamental importance for the expansion of the use and the international fulfillment of obligations. 4. The World Economic Forum (1995) of the OECD used 330 indicators to measure eight basic factors that distinguish between the “soft side” (entry distribution, quality of the environment, and cultural values) and “hard facts” (GDP, economic growth, inflation, and balance of trade) of competitiveness A review of various competitiveness models revealed the following competitiveness factors of most relevance to this study: quality, price, technology, qualifications, and channels of distribution. The general research question for this study is as follows: An avocado exporting company’s competitiveness will be positively related to the quality of fruit, price of fruit, technological innovation, employee training, and distribution channels. "The relation that exists between the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America, located in Uruapan, Michoacán, and its competitiveness depends on the quality of the fruit that takes place for export, of its price, the used technology, the qualifications of its personnel, and of the channels of distribution ". I.1 Quality The quality is a significant variable that it influences in the competitiveness of the companies. According to the models of competitiveness of: The European Union, the Technological Institute of Massachussets, the OECD, BANCOMEXT, Michael And Porter, Carlos Wagner, Alexander Serralde, Sergio Hernandez, Alexander Lerma, Ricardo Arachavela and Vicente Felgueres. From the industrial point of view, the word quality means: lo better to satisfy desires and tastes with the consuming public. (Francisco J. Ortiz 1991, 23). All the products have quality and, depending if they satisfy or not the consuming public, traditionally the systems of quality control have settled down to assure minimum norms quality related to the necessities and tastes of the consumers. The norms or specifications of quality are the pattern against which the characteristics of quality of the products are moderate that make or produce and,

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for that reason, are the first dimension that is due to know, if it is tried to get to control the quality. The second dimension of the quality is to have the system quality control that allows to correct the differences detected in the inspection of the products that take place. The last dimension of the variable quality, is to design the inspection systems, that is to say, the forms in which the characteristics of quality of products against the norms and specifications will be compared. These ideas take us hypothesis to our first of work: Hypothesis 1: The application of the quality norms, the improvement of the system of control of quality and a readaptation of the system of inspection in the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America, will bring like consequence a greater competitiveness. I.2 Price This variable form leaves from the models of the OECD, the Technological Institute of Massachussets, BANCOMEXT, Michael And Porter, Thomas J. Peters, Carlos Wagner, Safe Julio, Ricardo Arachavela and Vicente Felgueres. The price is the only element of the marketing mixture that is generating of income; all the others are costs: therefore, it must be an active instrument of the strategy in the main areas of the decision making of marketing. The price is an important competitive tool to face and to overcome to the rivals and products near substitutes. Frequently the competition will force to reduce the prices, whereas the financial considerations intra-company produce an opposite effect. The prices next to the costs, will determine the long term viability of the company (Michael Czinkota 1996, 292). The companies that begin to export estimate that to fix a price, this implies an evaluation of the costs and a situation analysis of the market for the product. The costs play an important role in the process of the decision making for the fixation of a price of export. By cost, it is understood: the sum of expeditures which a physical or moral person incurs for the acquisition of or of a service, with the intention of which it the future generates income in a cost can have different characteristics in different situations, depending on the product that it generates. By price, it is understood: what it is arranged to pay by or a service, expressed in a monetary value: weights, dollars, francs, et cetera (Bancomext 1995, 94). Two classifications of costs exist: in agreement with the function in which they incur and its behavior. According to the function in which they incur they divide in: Production costs: Costs of commercialization and costs of administration: According to his behavior they are divided in: marginal or direct costs, fixed or indirect costs: and I pay for historical which includes all the costs of the productive, independently of its fixed behavior or variable function. I pay for direct, which it stops the case of Mexico is accepted by the ministry of Property for the export market, can be seen like an application of the concept of

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used marginal analysis in economy. This method supposes a perfect division between fixed variable costs and. In this method, the price is determined by the variable costs and can or not generate income to cover, partly, the fixed costs. This practical one is used anywhere in the world and in the United States of America, Marginal Costing is denominated to him. or Marginal Cost Pricing. BANCOMEXT, found that companies that begin to export estimate that to fix a price to the outside and to give a coarse quotation with calculating their costs and of adding a utility. The determination of the prices and the presentation of a quotation imply an analysis of the market and the competition for its product. The objectives, the market and the competition of the company will have to be the departure point in all decision relative to the prices and the implicit quotations. For a good fixation of these two points one double evaluation is essential to fix a quotation: with base to the costs (costing) and with base to the market (pricing). In order to determine the price of export, the company must fix its global objectives in the matter of prices. If this one persecutes in the commercialization the purpose of taking advantage of a leftover capacity production, perhaps it can use the marginal costs to fix his price. If it looks for to position themselves, and to have a reputation of quality and service, et cetera, will have to unite this objective with an analysis of the market. The function of the analysis of the market in relation to the determination of the prices of export consists of establishing a maximum limit to the corresponding decision, from the demand of the product and the characteristics of the competitors. In the countries developing it is the situation of the market that determines the range of prices of exportation. Reason why, one sets out: Hypothesis 2: When determining a better price of the avocado, indicated by means of the market that supplies, its production costs and costs of commercialization; a greater competitiveness of the exporting companies from avocado will be maintained to the United States of America. I.3 Technology Form leaves from the models of the OECD, the Technological Institute of Massachussets, Bancomext, Michael And Porter, Alfonso Cebreros, Henry Mintzberg, Ricardo Arachavela and Vicente. It is a determining variable that influences in the competitiveness of the companies. A thorough study of the variable technology was made to deduce its real definition, its dimensions and indicators. The technology has been always point used in the speeches of the Mexican Government of an opportunistic and deceptive way. To thus they demonstrate to the Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (PND) and the Programa Nacional de Desarrollo Tecnológico y Científico it (PRONDETYC). The PND mentions that the competitiveness will depend crucial on the technological modernization of the country. (PND 1995, 91).El world of the words has crashed with the reality. The cost in science and technology is the plus under the emergent countries and comparatively 36

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inferior to Economies like the similar Spanish and Korean economic powers (CONACYT 2001). Different concepts from technology exist. The Japanese say that it is a survival exercise, because thanks to the technology the Japanese town that faces manifold natural restrictions, has been able to emphasize in the world-wide concert. They add that in the coming years, the technological administration will be key of the success of the companies everywhere of the world (Akio Morita 1986, 255). The technology is defined as the knowledge organized for production aims, that are built-in in the force of work (abilities), in the equipment, or loose knowledge. The technology comprises science-technology-production. The technological dimensions to consider the characteristics of the goods and services are (Luz Salda6na and Kart Unger 1987, 23): 1. Intensity of fixed capital by employee, like indicator of the use of resources and modernity in machinery and equipment. 2. The technical attendance, like indicator the consultant's office and the investment that is made in the investigation and technological development. 3. The infrastructure on which the competitors and the creation of spaces for new products tell. When it is approached the subject of the technological elements in the commercialization of technology excels: the not patented technical elements, the marks, the technical attendance, the patents, basic engineering, the engineering of detail and other services. The basic engineering and of detail as well includes/understands services such as the collaboration of planes, formulas, lay outs. of production, power of attorney of machinery and parts; classification that has been adopted by the National Registry of Transference of Technology. Due to it, the following hypothesis sets out: Hypothesis 3: To greater use of technology a greater competitiveness of the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America is guaranteed. I.4 Training Qualification Including in the models of the OECD, the Technological Institute of Massachussets, BANCOMEXT, Michael And Porter, Thomas J. Peters, Carlos Wagner, Alfonso Cebreros and Vicente Felgueres; it is a variable that influences in the competitiveness of the companies. Hypothesis 4: The qualification, based by means of the organization and the investment helps to obtain a greater competitiveness of the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America.

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I.5 Channels of the distribution Including in the models of the OECD, the Technological Institute of Massachussets, BANCOMEXT, Michael And Porter, Miller, Alexander Serralde, Alexander Lerma, Ricardo Arachavela and Vicente Felgueres; the distribution channels are a variable that influences in the competitiveness of the companies. The distribution channels provide essential connections that connect to producers and clients. The connections are organizations located to the interior or the outside of the company that carries out a series of specific functions. A distribution channel, must be an equipment that works towards a common goal. The effort must be understood like a joint decision of all the participants who lead to the success in the long term (Michael Czinkota 1996,339). The dimension of the distribution channels includes to the design of the distribution channel, the administration of the distribution channel and the boarding. The design of the distribution channel, talks about to the length and amplitude of the used channel. The length determines by the number of levels or types different from intermediaries. The amplitude of the channel is delimited by the number of institutions of each type of channel. The international company of consumer goods can use so many intermediaries as it is possible to assure the intensive distribution (Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong 1996, 341). The design of the channel determines factors to it that summary like the 11 C's client, culture, competition, company, character, capital, cost, cover, control, continuity and communication. These factors are integral as much for the development of new channels of distribution, like for the modification and administration of the existing ones. Their individual influences will vary from a market to another one and, rare time, a factor can be considered without the interactive effects of the others. The company must use the list of the 11 C's to determine the appropriate approach to arrive at the clients projected before selecting to the members of the channel that will cover the functions. The administration of the distribution channel and its relation with the distribution channel are comparable with a marriage, as soon as it reunites to two independent organizations with shared goals. So that the relation works, each part must be clear with respect to its expectations and to openly communicate the changes perceived in the behavior of the other part that could be opposite to the contract. Between narrower it is the relation with the distributor, is more probable that the success of marketing is materialized. The relation must be handled with the objective to reach the long term. Reason why, their indicators are the contract that is had with the intermediaries, the knowledge of the intermediaries and the distribution channels that handle the competition takes to the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 5: To better selection of the channels of distribution, interpreted by means of the design and administration of the distribution channel and the boarding; a greater competitiveness of the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America is obtained.

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II. GENERALMODEL EX ANTE The general model, in which the relation between the quality, the price, the technology, the qualification and the channels of distribution presented/displayed like independent variables and the competitiveness like dependent variable is described: Figure 1. Diagram of variables Independent variables

Dimension

Dependent variable

Norms of quality Quality

Systems of control of quality Systems of inspection of quality

Market Price

Production costs Commercialization costs

Machinery and team Technology

Technical attendance

Competitiveness

Infrastructure

Education Training

Training systems Investment

Design of the distribution channel Distribution channels

Administration of the distribution channel Embark

Source: Elaboration characteristic with base in the obtained Theoretical Marco’s heady results of the documental investigation.

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Competitiveness of Mexican Avocado Exporting Companies to the United States of America

III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY III.1 Sample The sample for this research study were 25 Mexican companies that exported michoacano avocados to the U.S.A. (see Table 1). Are the population that is registered letter by the Agencies of Government of the United States of America (United States Department of Agriculture, USDA) for the export of the michoacano avocado and are twenty-five companies mentioned in table 1. Table 1. Organizations in the Study Nº

Companies



Companies

1

Agrícola TREDI, S.A. de C.V.

14

Empacadora El Durazno, S.A. de C.V.

2

Aguacates Frutas de Michoacán, S.A. de C.V.

15

Fresch Direction Mexicana, S.A. de C.V.

3

Aguamich, S.A. de C.V.

16

Frutas Finas de Michoacán, S.A. de C.V.

4

AMIMEX, S.A. de C.V.

17

Grupo Purépecha, S.A. de C.V.

5

AVOFRUT, S.A. de C.V.

18

Henry, S.A. de C.V.

6

Avopack, S.A. de C.V.

19

INDEX, S.A. de C.V.

7

AVOPER, S.A. de C.V.

20

Mc Daniel, S.A. de C.V.

8

Best Farmer, S.A. de C.V.

21

Missión de México, S.A. de C.V.

9

Calavo, S.A. de C.V.

22

San Lorenzo, S.A. de C.V.

10

Chiquita, S.A. de C.V.

23

Tropic de México, S.A. de C.V.

11

Del Rey, S.A. de C.V.

24

Vifrut, S.A. de C.V.

12

Dovi, S.A. de C.V.

25

West Pack, S.A. de C.V.

13

ECO, S.A. de C.V.

Source: Asociación de Productores y Empacadores de Aguacate de Michoacán, A.C.

III.2 Questionnaire Following a pre-test with 11 organizations, the interview questionnaire consisted of a total of 38 questions. Information was collected regarding: product quality, market price, production technology, personnel training, distributional channels, and overall competitiveness. Product quality scale scores were based on questions that asked respondents to define the quality of the product, norms of product quality, quality control systems, and inspection systems. Product price scale scores were based on questions regarding export market price and production costs. Production technology scale scores were based on questions regarding technology used, the presence of technical advisors/consultants, the degree of modernization, and technology investment. Training level was determined by questions that asked about the provision of operational and administrative personnel training and technical qualification systems. The nature of product distribution channels was meas-

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ured by questions that asked about the nature of distribution channels and storage facilities used by the company. Finally, it was determined the overall competitiveness of companies. IV.

RESULTS Table 2. Descriptive Statistics and Correlations Correlations Mean

Variable

s.d.

Range

1

2

3

4

1. Quality

29.40

4.87

2. Price

19.72

4.34

.63

3. Technology

20.56

2.74

.83

.64

4. Training

24.68

4.66

.55

.58

.66

5. Distribution channels

20.56

3.34

.28

.27

.39

.38

6. Competitiveness

114.90

15.80

.85

.81

.89

.82

5

.55

Table 3. Measures of central tendency and variability

Quality

Price

Technology

Training

Distribution channels

N

25.00

25.00

25.00

25.00

25.00

25

Mean

29.40

19.72

20.56

24.68

20.56

114.9

Median

28.00

19.00

20.00

24.00

21.00

112.0

Mode

36.00

25.00

24.00

24.00

17.00

133.0

Standard deviation

4.87

4.34

2.74

4.66

3.34

15.8

Variance

23.75

18.87

7.50

21.72

11.17

248.5

Skewness

0.15

.038

-0.28

-0.36

-0.05

-0.04

Kurtosis

-1.15

-0.71

-0.99

-0.25

-1.03

-1.4

Range

17.00

17.00

9.00

18.00

11.00

45.0

Minimum

20.00

11.00

15.00

14.00

15.00

89.0

Maximum

37.00

28.00

24.00

32.00

26.00

134.0

Sum

735.00

493.00

514.00

617.00

514.00

2833.0

.

Competitiveness

The companies that studied presented good competitiveness. The category that was repeated more was of 133 points. 50% of the companies are superficially (medium) of the value 112 points. The average of the companies is located in 114.9 points (good competitiveness). Also, 15,8 points are turned aside of the average (standard deviation). No company I describe like deficient its competitiveness (38 points). Companies 12, 17, 23, 2, 21, 13, 7, 24, 25, 5 and 10 44% 41

Competitiveness of Mexican Avocado Exporting Companies to the United States of America

described excellent their competitiveness. The scores tend to be located in average and elevated values. As far as the amount of dispersion of the data (variance) it was of 248,5 points. With respect to the variable quality, the effect that took place when applying the questionnaires to the study object was good quality. The medium one that was obtained was of 28 points. The average that threw was of 29,40 points, which indicate that the companies are in relation to the quality by above of the medium one. Also 4,87 points are turned aside of the average. Only 9 companies 36% described them with excellent quality, without arriving no from them at the maximum value from 40 points. The slant that appeared in the quality of the interviewed companies was of 0,154 points, representing a positive slant because the average is greater than the medium one. As far as the amount of dispersion of the data it was of 23,75 points. The information that obtained when applying questionnaires to the exporting companies of avocado, with respect to the variable price was good, since the average that it observed was of 19,72, the category that was repeated more (fashion) was of 25 points. 50% of the companies are superficially (medium) of the value 19 points. Also, 4,34 points are turned aside of the average. Only 8 companies (32%) described to the variable price of their company like excellent and single a company obtained the highest level (28 points). The slant that appeared in the price of the interviewed companies was of 0,038 points, representing a positive slant because the average is greater than the medium one. As far as the amount of dispersion of the data (variance) it was of 18,87 points. With relation to the analysis of conglomerates, were two great groups of companies: first formed by the companies number 12, 17, 23, 2, 21, 13, 7, 24, 25 and 5; and a second group formed by companies 3, 8, 18, 22, 1, 11, 6, 10, 19, 9, 14, 16, 20, 15 and 4 as it is possible to be observed in figure 9, p. 219. The first group of companies, as well, is formed by two sub-groups: one by the companies: 12, 17, 23, 2, 21, 13, 7, 24 and 25; and the other by the company number 5. The second group this formed by two sub-groups; a sub-group by companies 3 and 8; and the other by companies 18, 22, 1, 11, 6, 10, 19, 9, 14, 16, 20, 15 and 4. The basic characteristics of the first group of companies (12, 17, 23, 2, 21, 13, 7, 24, 25 and 5) are:

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Figure 2. Dendograma of clusters of companies.

Source: obtained Information of the field investigation.

1. The quality of the companies is in the rank of 30 to 37 points, nine companies (90%) have the value of 33 to 37 points (excellent quality), reason why the variable quality presents/displays a competitive level. 2. With relation to the price, the 10 companies of this group show the following thing: they are in the rank of 17 to 28 points, 80% of the companies show the variable price in a competitive level. 3. The variable of technology in this group, is in the rank of 21 to 24 points, the ten companies have competitive technology. 4. With regards to the qualification, the following thing in this group is observed: the rank is of 23 to 32 points, 80% of the companies exhibit excellent qualification. 5. The companies grouped with respect to the distribution channels are in the rank of 17 to 26 points, 60% of the companies have competitive channels of distribution.

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6. The relation which they have the companies of this group with the competitiveness is the following one: its rank is of 120 to 134 points, reason why, the ten companies are competitive. V. TEST OF HYPOTHESIS The general hypothesis that it affirms that the relation that exists between the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America, located in Uruapan, Michoacán, and its competitiveness depends on the quality of the fruit that takes place for export, of its price, the used technology, the qualification of its personnel, and of the channels of distribution, was proven (table 2). The first hypothesis that it affirmed that with one better quality obtained by means of the application of the quality norms, the improvement of the system of control of quality and a readaptation of the system of inspection in the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America, will bring like consequence a greater competitiveness, was proven, since it presented/displayed an index of considerable correlation (r) positive of 0,850 (table 2); whereas its coefficient of determination (r2) were of 0,723, which means that a narrow entailment between the two variables exists. The second hypothesis test, since a positive correlation of 0.811 was obtained considerable; whereas its coefficient of determination were of 0.658.al to determine a better price of the avocado, indicated by means of the market that supplies, its production costs and costs of commercialization; a greater competitiveness of the exporting companies from avocado will be maintained to the United States of America. The third hypothesis test, since it turned out to be the highest correlation of all the variables that studied 0.888 what means that exists a very noticeable association between the two variables because when a high degree of technology, translated in machinery and modern equipment is controlled, use of technical attendance and infrastructure; a greater competitiveness of the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America is guaranteed, whereas its coefficient of determination (r2) were of 0,789, which represents that a positive entailment between the two variables exists considerable. The fourth hypothesis that affirms that through a qualification based by means of the reeducation of the human resource, the integral systems of qualification and the investment; it will mean a greater competitiveness of the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America, is approved. The previous thing is based on which the correlation (r) between the qualification and the competitiveness was of 0,820 and the determination coefficient was of 0,672, which symbolizes that a positive entailment between the two variables exists considerable. The last hypothesis of this investigation test, because to better selection of the channels of distribution, interpreted by means of the design and administration of the distribution channel and the boarding; a greater competitiveness of the exporting companies from avocado to the United States of America is obtained. The previous thing, with base in which the relation between the channels of distribution

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and the competitiveness, according to the correlation of Pearson (r), was positive average 0.550, whereas its coefficient of determination were of 0,303, reason why exists a narrow entailment between the two variables. VI.

CONCLUSIONS

The companies that export avocado of Uruapan, Michoacán to the United States of America, are competitive in 44% of the studied cases. The companies that turned out to be competitive were: 12, 17, 23, 2, 21, 13, 7, 24, 25, 5 and 10. 3, 50% of the companies are superficially (medium) of 112 points. In average, the companies are located in 114.92 (excellent competitive). However, 15,76 units of the scale are turned aside of the average. One determined that the independent variables (quality, price, technology and qualification) strongly affect the competitiveness, since a positive entailment between the independent variables and the dependent variable with exception of the distribution channels exists, where was an effect is minor. La quality affects to the competitiveness in a 0.850; in 0.811 in 0.888 the 0.820 channel and, the technology, the price qualification of distribution in 0.550. As it is observed, those that greater influence has it is the technology, followed of the quality and finalizing with the distribution channels. Were two great groups of companies when applying the analysis of conglomerates: first formed by the companies 12, 17, 23, 2, 21, 13, 7, 24, 25 and 5, which are those that obtained the highest qualification in the variable competitiveness and a second remaining group of the companies that are not competitive. The general hypothesis and the five hypotheses of work that were formulated validate in their totality. VII.

RECOMMENDATIONS

A code of commerce practices is due to establish fruits to implement a customs Control of the labeled one, veracity of the information and the certification of the quality that the export avocado shows, with base in an official mark at the time of exporting itself. It is necessary that all the companies of the sector count on complete information, exact and opportune of which it happens in the market. An is required that communicates the levels of prices, the tendencies, the volumes in inventory and the advances in the shipment from the avocado to the United States of America. New facilities for the export product are due to create that includes cameras of cold mark Autoline, automated selectors Durand, and automated labelers mark Synclair. The precooked one that occurs to the avocado, is due to carry in plastic boxes of 400 kilograms. The truck must happen through a cold water curtain to 6 ºC, with the purpose of lowering the temperature quickly to 100%; without curing it is introduced to the cold cameras (5,7 ºC) until one is going away to pack. 45

Competitiveness of Mexican Avocado Exporting Companies to the United States of America

It is required to invest in qualification; to carry out a good handling of human, technological and financial resources to establish efficient networks of distribution, with a service of quality, considering the price, punctuality in the service, quality in the product and security in the delivery of the product, that is to say, everything a process of development based on the satisfaction of the consumers. Structure of the exporting companies is necessary to formalize their organizations. The channels of distribution are due to select more adapted to export to the United States of America; the tradition has been to sell wholesalers. Once selected the channel, it must be administered properly since an organization common in charge does not exist to distribute the avocado in the United States of America, if she had her the exporter would not compete to each other. The creation of Meetings of Trade is suggested, which are formed by producers and drug dealers of a product, that look for solutions their problems with an external minimum of aid. They are not dedicated to the transaction, but to support to its sector with promotions, certifications of quality, investigation, information of markets, lobbying, fitosanitarias campaigns and other workings for the development of the market. To create a trade program that includes decisions on prices, characteristics of the product, promotion and channels of distribution, since is tried to increase the sales of avocado in the United States of America, and is conceived in winch of the following elements: to construct a Mexican image of the avocado in the mind of the consumers, like mechanism to differentiate the product from the one of the other nations that concur to the market of the United States of America, and they emphasize the quality and the price, before other variables, like the channel most important to compete with other countries and to place the Mexican avocado in that country. The export shipments (packing) must go palletized and with esquineros, with the purpose of which they are not damaged during his route. The Creation of a scientific research center between the companies of the aguacatero sector of Uruapan, the educative Michoacán is suggested, and institutions superior Universities and Technologic, where investigations are made in two slopes: 1) In the improvement of the quality of the product that is exported to avoid fitosanitarias pressures of the market destiny, and 2) To develop bases that help the efficient commercialization of the avocado and improve the competitiveness of the companies that produce and commercialize that product in the United States of America. Limitations of the study In spite of being a census, the considered sample turns out very small to be able to extrapolate the findings from the investigation to Mexican others agroindustries. One of the weaknesses of the presented/displayed investigation is that in the sample they were not including other exporting companies of other zones of Mexico as well as those that do not export to the United States. Both subjects are object of later investigations.

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Ensayos

REFERENCES 1. Aguilar, Barajas Ismael, “Competitividad industrial: Algunas lecciones para México”, Estratégica, Centro de Estudios Estratégicos del ITESM, Vol. 3, Nº 2, México primavera de 1995. 2. Alvarez, Torres Martín y PALACIOS, Pablo, Estrategias Efectivas para Incrementar su Posición Competitiva, edit. Panorama, Madrid 1994. 3. Barraba, Vicente y ZALTMAN, Gerald, La voz del mercado: La ventaja competitiva a través del uso creativo de la información del mercado, edit. McGraw Hill, México 1992. 4. Ball, W. Carlsmith e ICHIKI, E.E.U.U. Guía Empresarial, edit. Grupo Noriega, México 1996. 5. Bohrnstedt, G. W., Evaluación de la confiabilidad y validez en la medición de actitudes, ed. Trillas, México 1976. 6. Burns, Thomas, and Stalker, G., The Management of innovation, London Tavistock 1961. 7. CRUZ, Serrano Alejandro, Competitividad Internacional: su aplicación a la pequeña y mediana empresa, BANCOMEXT, Serie de Documentos Técnicos, México 1999. 8. DAVID, Fred, Conceptos de Administración Estratégica, edit. Prentice Hall, 5ª ed., México 1997. 9. DESSLER, Gary, Administración de personal, edit. McGraw Hill, 4ª ed., México 1991.

10.

GALLEGOS, Espinosa Rafael, Algunos aspectos del aguacate y su producción en Michoacán, Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo, México 1983.

11. GARCIA, Saldaña Gorki, Esquemas y Modelos para la Competitividad, edit. Castillo, México 1993. 12. HAAR, Jerry y ORTIZ, Buonafina Marta, Cómo Exportar a Estados Unidos, edit. Limusa, México 1997. 13. KERLINGER, Fred N., Investigación del Comportamiento, edit. Mc Graw Hill 3ª ed., México 1997. 14. KOBAYASHI, Shigeru, Administración creativa, edit. Técnica, México 1977. 15. KOTLER, Philip, Dirección de Mercadotecnia: Análisis, Planeación, Implementación y Control, edit. McGraw Hill, 8ª ed., México 1996. 16. MERCADO, Salvador, Comercio Internacional I, edit. Limusa, México 1996. 17. MERCADO, Ramírez Ernesto, Productividad base de la Competitividad, edit. Limusa, México 1997. 18. MINTZBERG, Henry y BRIAN, James, El Proceso Estratégico: Conceptos, Contextos y Caso”, edit. Prentice Hall, México 1997. 19. ORTIZ, Flores Francisco, Metodología para el Análisis de la Competitividad Internacional de la Empresa, Centro de Servicios al Comercio Exterior, BANCOMEXT, México 1991. 20. PADUA, Jorge, Técnicas de investigación aplicadas a las ciencias sociales, Colegio de México y FCE, 6ª reimp., México 1996. 21. PORTER, Michael E., La ventaja competitiva de las naciones (The competitive advantage of nations), edit. Javier Vergar, Buenos Aires 1991. 22. PORTER, Michael E., Estrategia Competitiva: Técnica para el Análisis de los Sectores Industriales y de la Competencia, edit. CECSA, 24ª ed., México 1997. 23. PORTER, Michael E., Ventaja Competitiva: Creación y sostenimiento de un desempeño superior, edit. CECSA, 14ª ed., México 1997. 24. RAMIREZ, P. David y CABELLO, Mario, Empresas Competitivas: Una estrategia de cambio para el éxito, edit. McGraw Hill, México 1997. 25. REINA, Sosa Federico, Ventajas comparativas y dotación de factores, Eseeconomía, IPN– Escuela Superior de Economía, vol. 1, Nº 2, México abril-junio 1993.

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26. REINOSO, Eduardo, La Competitividad de los Estados Mexicanos, edit. del ITESM, 2ª ed., México 1995. 27. SANCHEZ, Pérez José, La producción del aguacate y su problemática en Michoacán, Reporte publicado en el manual La Industria del Aguacate del Banco de México-Fira Nº 220, vol. XII, México 1991. 28. TORRES, Gaytán Ricardo, Teoría del Comercio Internacional, edit. Siglo XXI, 9ª ed., México 1980. 29. WEIERS, Ronald M., Investigación de Mercados, edit. Prentice Hall Interamericana, México 1986, 30. YAVITZ, Boris y NEWMAN, William H., Estrategia en Acción: Ejecución, Políticas y Resultados de Planeación Comercial, edit. CECSA, México 1985.

Magazines 1. AHUMADA, Kurtz Pablo, La competitividad internacional de la economía mexicana, artículo publicado en el periódico el financiero el 24 de marzo de 1999, p. 42, México. 2. ALVAREZ, Torres Martín, Como incrementar el nivel de Competitividad, artículo publicado en la revista Administrate Hoy, México 1997. 3. ANSOFF, H. y STEWART, J., Strategies for a technology-based business, artículo publicado en la revista Harvard Business Review, nov-dec 1967. 4. AREVACHALA, Vargas, Ricardo, Formas de operación en pequeñas empresas del occidente de México: Los retos de la Competitividad en mercados abiertos, artículo publicado en la revista de Contaduría y Administración-UNAM, Nº 189, México abril-junio 1998. 5. CEBREROS, Alfonso, La Competitividad agropecuaria en condiciones de apertura económica, artículo publicado en la revista Comercio Exterior, vol. 43, Nº 10, México octubre de 1993. 6. CURRIER, Warren, El futuro de la Industria del Agucate, Panorama Mundial, Artículo publicado en Memorias del Seminario Internacional del Aguacate: Postcosecha y Distribución, Banco de México-Fira México 1991. 7. LARA, Reyes Martha E., El Aguacate en el Mercado Internacional, artículo publicado en la revista de Negocios Internacionales, BANCOMEXT, Año 7, Nº 78, México julio 1998. 8. LERMA, Kirchner Alejandro E., Análisis de Competitividad, artículo publicado en la revista Administrate Hoy, Nº 49, México 1998. 9. MULLER, Geraldo, Transformaciones productivas y competitivas, Instituto Interamericano de Coopercaión para la Agricultura, San José, nov. 1992, estudio basado en Canada`s Task Force on Competitiveness in the Agri-Food Sector. 10. PAZ, Vega Ramón, Resumen de la Regla para la Exportación de Aguacate Michoacano a Estados Unidos – México, tema desarrollado durante el curso internacional denominado La Comercialización del Aguacate a los E.U.A, Uruapan, Mich., México 1997. 11. PAZ, Vega Ramón, Situación y Perspectivas de la Comercialización del Aguacate Michoacano, artículo publicado en Memorias del Seminario Internacional del Aguacate: Postcosecha y Distribución, Banco de México-Fira, México 1991. 12. SERRALDE, Alejandro, Hacia una Conciencia de Competitividad, artículo publicado en la revista Management Today en español, México 1997. 13. SPITAL, Francis C. y BICKFORD, Deborah J., Succesful competitive and technology strategies in dynamic and stable product technology environments, artículo publicado en la revista Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, vol 9, USA 1990. 14. VALERO, V., La empresa, acción ardua, artículo publicado en el periódico el Financiero, México 22 de mayo de 1992. 15. WAGNER, Carlos, Competitividad, artículo publicado en la revista Administrate Hoy, México 1998.

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Ensayos

Thesis 1. FELGUERES, F. Juan V., Planeación Financiera Estratégica y Competitividad en Empresas Pequeñas y Medianas, Tesis del Doctorado en Administración, FCA-UNAM, México 1997. 2. SEGURA, Hernández Alexandra, Diferencias de ventajas comparativas entre Costa Rica y México en el sector de flores y planta ornamentales, Tesis de Maestría en Ciencias, Escuela Superior de Economía, México 1998.

Instiutions 1. BANCOMEXT, El Mercado Internacional del Aguacate y sus características, Manual de la Dirección Ejecutiva del Sector Primario e Industria Ligera y la Dirección de Alimentos, México 1997. 2. EUROPEAN, Commission, The competitiveness of European industry, UE 1998. 3. INEGI, Indicadores de Competitividad de la Economía Mexicana, Nº 4, México 1996. 4. NAFIN-IMEF, La Competitividad de la Empresa Mexicana, vol. 9, México 1994. 5. SAGAR, Estrategia General para el Desarrollo del Sector Aguacatero de Michoacán, México 1997. 6. SAGAR, Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-066-FITO-1995, Por la que se Establecen los Requisitos y Especificaciones para la Movilización de Frutos del Aguacate para Exportación y Mercado Nacional, México, Diario Oficial 26 de Agosto 1996.

Web sites http://www.ruv.itesm.mx/pgit/caratulas/mati/si254.htm http://www.unam.mx/el_economista/1997/oct97/08oct97/indus.html http://www.cipi.gob.mx/ http://dgcnesyp.inegi.gob.mx/pubcoy/coyunt/competi/indcom.html http://www.queretaro.org/crece/ http://www.cetro-crece.org.mx/ http://www.ance.org.mx/ http://www.sycma.com.mx/ http://www.geocities.com/~iaeste_mexico/ http://mexplaza.udg.mx/Apics/ http://dgcnesyp.inegi.gob.mx/BDINE/N10/MTD/N10M.HTM http://asesores.uv.mx/Gaceta/Sep98/Redes1.htm http://www.unam.mx/el_economista/1997/oct97/08oct97/indus.html http://www.unam.mx/el_economista/1997/oct97/01oct97/indus.html http://www.onu.org.mx/cepal/docpub/dr/r602.htm http://www.unam.mx/el_economista/1997/oct97/01oct97/induycom7.html http://www.uan.edu.mx/uan/piniiar/noticias/nay_opi/septiembre/N960920_9.htm http://www.unam.mx/universal/net1/1999/may99/27may99/finanzas/03-fi-f.html http://mexico.businessline.gob.mx/sipromex/sepro_programas.html http://www.unam.mx/nacional/1997/may97/26may97/26ec242.html http://www.unam.mx/universal/net1/1998/feb98/27feb98/finanzas/01-fi-c.html http://www.sistema.itesm.mx/inves.htm http://www.ccmexico.com.mx/canaco/pact16.html http://www.unam.mx/el_economista/1997/oct97/22oct97/editorial3.html http://www.unimicro.com.mx/

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