Electronic Meter Reader & Data Base Management System Noman Mehmood Zain Anwar Ali Ali Akbar Sidiqui M.Asif Sarwar Wasi Department of Electronic Engineering Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology Karachi, Pakistan. [email protected]
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Abstract-The objective of this paper is to develop a system which can transmit the meter reading of local area electric meter to the nearest electric meter billing and controlling station. For this we interfaced analog electric meter with the digital circuitry to provide real- time billing & reading to the customers by using Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). There are basically two ends, one is user end and the other is server end. The meter can either be prepaid or postpaid, which is completely monitored and controlled by the server end of a specific area. Each user will be provided by a pin code to access the meter either for recharge the meter bill or to check the balance in case of prepaid meter. The key elements of this research are micro controller, global system for mobile communication (GSM) module, and analog meter with IR module. The whole system is revolving around the GSM module and the microcontroller, where GSM module is used for the wireless data transmission and controller controls the whole operation of the system.
communication for the infra- structure of AMR systems due to simplicity in operation and quality of data, but high noise immunity. However, with the passage of time, wired system is obsolete and hence this system is not implemented nowadays In order to solve all the problem of traditional meter reading system, different type of system are introduce all around the world to automate meter reading process and to provide more relaxation and comprehensive information to the user for efficient use of the utilities [2, 3]. So a new technique called power line carrier was introduced, this is used for the communication to take place over the same power lines which deliver electricity. In this technique, high frequency AC carrier is used on to the power line with the help of modulating carrier and the information about its data, manipulating from the remote’s meter or central station. Many years of researches have not overcome this problem that precludes this being a cost effective solution over the primary transmission lines. This method is used only for the short distance like from a consumer’s meter to a pole. It is not the economic system to pass through a distribution transformers on to the primary lines and their results communication is very slow. Due to the narrow bandwidth, synchronizing the data or control signals is not possible easily.
Keywords- Electronic meter reader; digital meter; electric meter; automated billing system.
I. INTRODUCTION Pakistan is the sixth largest country in the world and there are about 20 million households with electric meters. All of these meters are manual and meter reading are manually recorded. The meter reading is taken by a person and then it is to be submitted to the relevant office. This procedure contains lots of error and reading problems. This research propose a simple and effective method for automatic meter reading and it is a good combination of computer and electronic engineering, where its scenario is the set of different components linked together to transmit the meter reading from one end to the other end (server and user end). The system nearly similar to this, was first introduced in 1972 known as Caller ID. Then in 1977, Mr.Paraskevakos launched Metretek, who designed and manufactured the first fully automated system that can be used on commercial basis and available in the market as remote meter reading and load management system . If we see the background of this research, initially telephone lines
Nowadays GSM modules are used to transmit the meter reading from one end to the other. The main purpose of this research is to develop simple and cost effective system which makes the whole process of power distribution and billing free of error. In this research, different fields of engineering is combined to transmit the meter reading using latest advancement in automation, wherever is possible, the manual system has converted into automatic system. Engineers are trying harder and harder to create complex and efficient system by the mathematical modulation of the electronic devices, or by the combination of different field of engineering like computer, electronics, electrical and biomedical etc. This research is also a combination of different fields of engineering, where we are transmitting the electric meter reading via electronic circuitry and manage the data base using software. There are three basic parts of this project, first part is the user end and the major Component involved in this end are electric
were used for this purpose, because it is most desirable from economic point of view, most of the utility users have telephone land lines. The telephone lines provide an ideal
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meter, microcontroller, GSM modem and LCD. Second part consists on the circuitry of the server end which is either used to receive the data sent by the user or to send the control instruction to the user. Finally in third part, all the data is being maintained at the server end using a database.
B. Electric Meter An energy meter or electric meter is a type of device that can measure the amount of units consumed by the consumer. The basic type of energy meter, measures the energy in kilo-watt hours. There are two types of energy meters analog and digital. In Pakistan PEL manufactures energy meters are widely used under the licensed from ABB (USA).The quality of these meters are certified by KEMA laboratories (Holland).These meters are electro-mechanical meters and they are widely used for commercial as well as residential purpose.
II. SYSTEM MODEL The hardware of the system is divided into two main parts, named as user end and the server end. At user end, circuitry is directly connected to the electric meter and it is either used to send meter reading or to receive the control instruction using the electronic component like microcontroller, GSM module, MAX232 and LCD. On the other i.e. the server end, GSM module, microcontroller, MAX232 and a personal computer are combining to perform the task. The complete model of the system can be seen in the FIGURE 1 and 2.
C. U Shape Infrared Sensor It is a special type of sensor which is U shape. One end of the sensor has an infrared transmitter while the other has an infrared receiver, whenever signal is transmitted between the two end of the U shape infra- red sensor, no voltages are received between the terminal of the sensor, but if the transmission is broken a high pulse of 5V is received. This research involved a conventional meter and a U Shape sensor in such a manner, so that the aluminum disk of the meter is fixing between the two terminals of the sensor. A cut on the aluminum disc is created; whenever disk rotates, the cut comes in front of the sensor end which makes the path of transmitter and receiver. When this path is made, a high to low pulse is generate, which is count by the controller. After 10 pulses there will be one unit. D. Liquid Crystal Display A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin flat panel device used for displaying information, such as text, images, and moving pictures. It is an electronically-modulated optical device and can be made up of any number of pixels which is filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images or text either in color or monochrome. Among its many advantages some are its lightweight construction, its portability, and low power consumption which makes it more feasible for battery powered electronic equipments.
A. Microcontroller A Controller is chip which contains a processor, having a non-volatile programming memory called as (flash or ROM), and also a volatile memory for input and outputs called as (RAM), moreover a clock and I/O control unit called as a “computer on a single chip”. Billions of this is embedded each year to use in
E. GSM Modem It is just like a simple modem, we can perform many tasks using this modem, but here we use it for the purpose of sending messages. These modems are built-in, in mobile phones, and use the radio frequency band (890MHz-969MHz). We use AT command for sending the messages using these modems. The message which is received or sent, can view using hyper terminal of the Windows.
a product for automation. A microcontroller is available in all sizes for the purpose of their usage. Basically the microcontroller AT89C51 is a high performance low power CMOS family controller with 8kb flash programmable and erasable(PEROM).The controller is manufactured by using Atmel’s high density non erasable technology and is compatible with the requirement in industrial purpose, like 80C51 and 80C52 instruction sets and pin out.
III. WORKING OF THE SYSTEM The overall working of the system is explained in this section. To understand the complete system, we divide our system in two modules, i.e. hardware module and the software module, so that the rest of the discussion becomes simple.
Hardware and software module is represented in the Fig 3 and Fig 4 below.
respond for every command sent by the server end, either to cut off the electricity, or to send the units to their prepaid customer. The data transfer circuit section consists of the components which are used to communicate the user end to server end and vice versa, it includes GSMModule used to transmit data wirelessly between these two ends by using the short message facilities of the GSM, if we use a GSM mobile phone for this purpose, then we have to understand the Attention command to send or receive message through this phone and the mobile, which is used must support this command. Other component of this section is MAX232 IC for the level conversion of voltages. We use it for the serial communication between the server end pc and the GSM module. This section is interconnected with the controlling circuitry and the power supply circuitry. The final circuitry is the power supply circuitry. The devices used in this circuitry comprises of many electronic devices working altogether to convert the current and voltage according to the needs of circuit components. This circuit converts AC to DC, steps- down the voltage from 220 volts to 12 volts and finally it can further convert these 12 volts to 5 volts which is required by the digital components to function properly. By using the above circuitry, we can transmit our data from one end to another but to teach microcontroller how to perform this whole operation, we use Assembly language, and to maintain a complete database and for its designing at the server end, we use two other language which are VB6 and MS SQL. IV. SOFTWARE INVOLVED IN THE WORK A) Kiel - firmware code assembler & compiler Kiel development tools for the Microcontroller Architecture support every level of software developer from the professional applications implementer to the student who just learning about embedded Software development. The industry-standard Kiel support all 8051 derivatives and help getting projects completed on schedule. The Kiel 8052 Development Tools are designed to solve the complex problems facing embedded software developers. 
First we discuss the hardware module. We have four basic component of this module, which can be seen in the hardware module block diagram. Now we start our discussion from the metering circuitry which consist of a conventional electric meter and a U- shape infrared sensor, the basic reason to use U- shape infrared sensor is to observe number of rotation of the electric meter disk, then by using this number of rotation, we can calculate the energy consumed by the user. In the metering circuitry we have also used an LCD, to display the number of units either consumed by the user or the remaining units of prepaid user.
B) Microsoft SQL server Microsoft SQL Server is a relational model database server produced by Microsoft. It is a very useful software to manage a data base. c) Visual Basic: Visual Basic is a visual and events driven Programming Language . It is used to develop a graphical interface through which user can interface with the system. It is easy to use and is not like the old basic. In the old BASIC, you have to write program code for each graphical object you wish to display it on screen, including its position and its color.
In the hardware module the second main part is its controlling circuitry, the major part of this circuit is controller, it receive the data from U shape infrared and send it to the server end using data transfer circuit, control circuit also
However, In VB , you just need to drag and drop any graphical object anywhere on the form, and can program this object according to your need.
The conclusion we can draw from above discussion is that; this is useful in case of mass production and not for individuals. It will ease the life of customers as well as electricity suppliers. It is simple unlike Power Line Carrier (PLC) based meter reading and therefore, requires relatively lesser troubleshooting. It helps reducing man-power required for meter reading and also reducing human error factor to almost nil, since meter reading is now digital. Therefore, the end product provides the cost effective solution for automatic meter reading.
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