Mar 6, 2011 - a sanitary sewer (including septic systems) and not in storm drains or on the ground. Reference: Morley, PS, Morris, SN, Hyatt, DR, Van Metre, ...
Environmental Cleaning, Sanitation and Disinfection Guidelines Animal Care Facilities San Diego Zoo Global DRAFT March 6, 2011
Purpose The following guidelines are intended to provide guidance for animal care staff in the selection of cleaning and sanitizing products and for developing protocols for disinfection and sanitation of animal care facilities.
Recommended Cleaners and Sanitizers 1. Concentrated Cleaners a. TRAILWINDS® Use this product as a routine cleaner in animal areas. This is a concentrated general cleaner in the hydrogen peroxide class. It requires thorough rinsing. Although there are some unlabeled sanitizing properties with this product, it is meant to be used as a routine cleaner and not as a disinfectant sanitizer. It is Green Seal Certified and costs about $0.08/gal ready to use. Product Information MSDS b. PRISTINE® CLEANER/DEGREASER Use this product as an additional cleaner to remove greasy residue from floors and other surfaces. It requires thorough rinsing. It is Green Seal Certified and costs about $0.36/gal ready to use. Product Information MSDS 2. Disinfectant Sanitizers (no detergent) a. SANI-CIDE 94® Use this product for routine disinfection and sanitizing as a second step following the use of a concentrated cleaner. This is a highly concentrated product in the quaternary ammonia class. It is effective in hot or cold water and in hard water. Do not rinse and allow to air dry. It costs about $0.19/gal ready to use. Product Information MSDS b. CAVICIDE® Use this product for small surface disinfection and sanitizing including examination tables and soles of shoes. This is a quaternary ammonia and alcohol-based product. It is supplied ready to use. Due to the alcohol-base, it is fast acting and requires only a 2-3 minute contact time. It costs about $16.50/gal ready to use. Product information MSDS c. VIRKON S® Use this product for foot baths and other biosecurity applications. This is in the stabilized peroxide class. It is supplied as a concentrated powder that needs to be mixed fresh weekly. It is particularly effective in the presence of organic material. Product Information MSDS
General information 1. Clean before disinfection using a two step process All surfaces should be cleaned of organic matter before disinfection. For routine cleaning of animal facilities, a concentrated cleaner alone may be sufficient. If solid organic material is present, remove it if possible. Otherwise, use low-pressure administration of disinfectant to avoid aerosolization of the organic matter. Disinfection/sanitizing should be done as a final step and allowed to dry on the surfaces. In general, disinfection/sanitizing should be performed when an animal leaves the enclosure or when an infectious disease is suspected. 2. Contact time Disinfectants generally require a contact time of about10 minutes to be effective. 3. Label directions 4. Read and follow label directions for proper dilution of product and for other instructions. Use diluting stations if possible. Undiluted products can be dangerous to use. 5. Disinfectant classes and properties See the table of disinfectants that demonstrates the properties of each disinfectant class. This table is just a guide and not accurate in all cases. Use caution and follow label directions when mixing disinfectants, San Diego Zoo Global – Cleaning and Disinfection Guidelines
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particularly those of different classes. For example, mixing disinfectants containing bleach and quaternary ammonia compounds will result in the release of dangerous chlorine-containing gasses. Chlorine bleach should not be used indoors due to the risk of inhalation of fumes. 6. Special circumstances or pathogens Veterinarians may require the disposal of items or the use of specific disinfectants to address pathogens that are not susceptible to the routine disinfectants. Agents such as parvovirus, mycobacteria, and Giardia are examples of pathogens that may require special disinfection products and procedures.
7. Frequency of cleaning and disinfections Department protocols are needed for this; general guidance for frequency based on animal population and risk.
Specific Uses 1. Foot bath: Use a stabilized oxidizing agent, such as Virkon S. See protocol for footbath preparation and use. 2. Shoe sanitizing: Clean shoes soles can be sprayed with a surface disinfectant/sanitizer such as Cavicide. 3. Hand washing: Use soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Wash hands frequently, after removing gloves, and between activities. Alcohol-based hand rubs can be substituted if hands are not visibly soiled. Antibacterial hand soaps are not necessary. See CDC Fact Sheet. 4. Food and water dish sanitizing: In most cases, clean animal food and water dishes with hot water and dish soap. If disinfection/sanitizing is indicated, perform a final rinse with a quaternary ammonia disinfectant sanitizer. Allow to air dry. 5. Non-porous surfaces (e.g. walls, floors, resting platforms, etc.) After general cleaning of walls and floors, use quaternary ammonia compounds. Surfaces do not need to be rinsed after application unless directed by manufacturer to do so. Sealed concrete may be considered nonporous if the sealant is maintained and resealing is performed at intervals recommended by the manufacturer. 6. Porous surfaces In general, porous surfaces (e.g. unsealed wood) cannot be cleaned and disinfected effectively. Use of items with porous surfaces should be avoided if possible or discarded after use. If porous materials must be used, clean with soap and water and disinfect with Virkon S, following the recommendations above. 7. Food and water contact surfaces (e.g. bowls, feeding platforms, food storage and preparation surfaces) These surfaces must be non-porous. Exceptions may be made (by managers in consultation with veterinarians) for placing food for enrichment. They should be cleaned and disinfected at regular intervals as determined by department protocols. Detergents and disinfectants should be chosen that do not leave a residue. Phenolic disinfectants, in general, should not be used for food contact surfaces, especially for felids. Chlorine bleach may be used to help remove algae from outdoor drinkers. Observe extreme caution when handling chlorine bleach and be sure to use at proper dilution. Be certain to rinse all food and animal contact surfaces thoroughly. 8. Animal handling equipment (e.g. nets, gloves, ropes, etc) Equipment used for animal handling is often used repeatedly and the material may be porous and difficult to disinfect. Nevertheless, it is important that equipment like this is cleaned and sanitized frequently allowing adequate contact time for the disinfectants. A variety of disinfectants can be used including stabilized oxidizing agents (e.g. Virkon S) or a quaternary ammonia compound. Gas sterilization can be considered for products that are particularly difficult to disinfect or for particular pathogens of concern.
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Preparing a Sanitizing Foot Bath Purpose: The following protocol outlines the proper use of footbaths for preventing the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) and many other infectious diseases to the ZSSD animal collections. Footbaths should be placed at critical control points including entrances to bird and other designated areas. This footbath protocol is for use with the peroxygen disinfectant, Virkon S 1% solution (potassium peroxomonosulphate, sulphamic acid, sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate). Procedure: 1) Preparation: Prepare according to label directions a 1:100 (1%) solution of Virkon-S. See MSDS sheet and wear hand and eye protection when handling the concentrate powder. Do not breathe the dust and do not get the concentrate in your eyes. Use a footbath container large enough to place both feet in the container at the same time. It helps to place a cushioning material in the bath to prevent splashing (such as a synthetic floor stripping pad). Place enough disinfectant solution in the bath to ensure that the soles and at least ½ inch above the sole become immersed in the disinfectant. Place the footbath in a location out of direct sunlight and protected from dust and debris. It is a good practice to place the footbath on a level surface with an absorbent mat to step on when exiting. Place a sign nearby directing persons to use the footbath and that they are entering a Critical Control Point for biosafety measures. 2) Maintenance: Clean and change the disinfectant solution in the footbath daily or more often if it becomes soiled. Add solution during the day to maintain the proper amount of disinfectant. A stock solution of Virkon-S remains active for up to 7 days. 3) Use: Use the footbath when both entering and exiting a bird area. Footwear must be clean and free of visible dirt or other organic material before entering the footbath. If wearing footwear with deep treads, be certain that no material is trapped in the cracks. If necessary, clean shoes or boots with water and a scrub brush before using the footbath. Step in the footbath putting full weight on each foot to assure good contact with the disinfectant. Virkon-S in solution at the 1:100 concentration is noncorrosive and non-irritating. 4) Disposal: Virkon-S is expected to be biodegradable. Nevertheless, dispose of disinfectant solutions in a sanitary sewer (including septic systems) and not in storm drains or on the ground. Reference: Morley, PS, Morris, SN, Hyatt, DR, Van Metre, C. Evaluation of the efficacy of disinfectant footbaths as used in veterinary hospitals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226:20532058.
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