Evaluation of land suitability for shallot (A

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Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Tanah., Universitas Lampung Press, Lampung. [2] Djaenudin, D., Marwah., S. Subagjo., 2011. Petunjuk Teknis Evaluasi Lahan untuk.

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Evaluation of land suitability for shallot (A. ascalonicum L.) and orange (Orange sp.) at Harian District of Samosir Regency To cite this article: Bintang et al 2018 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 122 012035

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International Conference on Agriculture, Environment, and Food Security IOP Publishing IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science1234567890 122 (2018) 012035 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/122/1/012035

Evaluation of land suitability for shallot (A. ascalonicum L.) and orange (Orange sp.) at Harian District of Samosir Regency Bintang, Supriadi and E Tampubolon Departement of Agroecotechnology, Agriculture Faculty, USU, Medan 20155 E-mail: [email protected] Abstract. Evaluation of land suitability for shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) and lemon (Citrus sp.) aimed to determine the level of suitability to the plants that would be cultivated at Harian District, Samosir Regency. Operation of soil type, altitude map and slope maps with scale of 1:50000 obtained nine Land Map Units namely LMU1 and 2 – SampurToba village; LMU3 - JanjiMartahan village; LMU4 – Turpuk Limbong village; LMU5 – Sosor Dolok village; LMU6,7,8 and 9 in PartungkoNaGinjang village. Land suitability assessment criteria based on Bogor Soil Research Center Staff 1983 and the limit method by Djaenuddin 2011.The results showed that shallot crop, there is only on LMU 2 (Sampur Toba) that has barier that can be overcome, such as actual class S3 (n, r); S2 (eh) had an inhibiting factor pH and slope that can be managed with liming and terracing. Orange crop on LMU 1 can be overcome by giving organic material; it might be overcome with terracing on LMU 3; and managed by liming and terracing on LMU 8. On the other LMU (4, 5, 6, 7, 9) are not suggested for orange cultivation.

1. Introduction Land evaluation is the process of estimating the potential of land for alternative kinds of utilization. The process of land classification can basically be carried out with two approaches or methods, namely limiting factor method and parametric method. In the limiting factor method, each land characteristic or land quality is arranged sequentially from the best (with the lowest limit) to the worst (top obstacle). Each classes are organized in the criteria table in such a way in terms of articular use that the smallest limiting factor for the best class and the biggest one for the worst class [1] Land suitability assessment distinguishes the actual land suitability carried out under conditions of current land use without input and the potential land suitability performed under condition after given improvements such as fertilizer increase, irrigation, terraces managment depending on the type of limiting factors. Assessment of land suitability is done by matching land quality and land characteristics (physical and chemical properties of the land) as a parameter to the criteria of the land suitability classes which have been prepared based on terms of use or growing crops or evaluated agricultural commodities [2,3] . Shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) and Orange (Orange sp.) have quite high sale value or market price. Most people grow other varieties namely leek and batak shallot (chieves) but their market values are lower than shallot’s because they are sold in freshness and not shelf-resistant. People want to grow shallots with which larger capital so as will not take the risk to farming [4]. Orange is currently popular as consumption for a healthy life and has a good market price compared to the price of orange

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International Conference on Agriculture, Environment, and Food Security IOP Publishing IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science1234567890 122 (2018) 012035 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/122/1/012035

fruits as the table dishes. Farmers aim to work on it but wish the certain parties would provide information on whether the plant can be cultivated. Based on the matters, the research was conducted in an effort to evaluate the suitability of land at Harian Subdistrict for shallot and orange. Land suitability evaluation was performed by matching soil property and the data of the research area with the grow requirements of the plants and the prominet limiting factors. Harian District with its capital Harian Boho, is one of 9 districts in Samosir Regency. Harian District at coordinates 2o30'-3o45' LU and 98o30'-98o49' BT with the altitude of 900-1.847.5 meters above sea level is the largest district in Samosir Regency with the area of 56,045 Ha (38.81% of Samosir Regency). Most people subsist from agriculture and forest products. Common types of farming are potato, cabbage, coffee, chili and other crops. Dry land area ranges from 494.5 ha while paddy field area is around 833.0 ha. Topographical conditions are hilly and bumpy to the mountain, the soil structure is unstable and is in the path of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes [5] The objective of the research is to determine the level of land suitability at Harian District of Samosir Regency to shallot and orange and to supply alternative practical management in an effort to increase the production of both crops. 2. Materials and Methods Place and time of research held was in Harian District of Samosir Regency, Laboratory of Chemistry and Soil Fertily and Laboratory of Research and Technology at Agriculture Faculty of University of Sumatera Utara. Land suitability assessment based on the criteria of Bogor Soil Research Center in 1983 and the limit method referring to the limiting factors on land characteristics based on [2] . Implementation begun with determination of Land Map Unit (LMP) from overlay of land type map, slope altitude map 1:50000. On each Land Map Unit drilling was performed as representative of the land character. The data of physical environmet, physical and chemicl properties of the soil included: soil texture, length and slope, soil drainage, crude material, soil / solum depth, dominant vegetation, crop management, soil conservation efforts, flood / inundation hazards, surface rocks and rock outcrops . 3. Results and Discussion Table 1. Evaluation of Land Suitability for Shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) Usage Requirements/ Land Characteristics Temp (tc) The average temperature (0C) Oxygen avaibility (oa) Drainage Rooting channel (rc) Texture Base Saturation Crude material (%) Soil depth (cm) Nutrient Retention (nr) CEC clay (cmol) Base saturtion (%) pH H2O C-organic (%)

1

2 ST

3 JM

Land Map Unit 4 5 6 TL SD

7

8 PNG

9

S1

S1

S2

S1

S1

S2

S2

S3

S3

S1

S1

S1

S2

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S3 S1 S1 S1

S1 S1 S1 S1

S3 S1 S1 S1

S3 S1 S2 S1

N S1 S2 S1

n S3 S1 S1

S3 S1 S1 S1

S3 S2 S1 S1

S3 S1 S1 S1

S2 S1 S3 S3

S1 S1 S3 S2

S1 S1 S1 S1

S2 S1 S3 S3

S1 S1 S2 S1

S1 S3 S3 S1

S1 S1 S3 S1

S1 S2 S3 S1

S1 S1 S3 S1

2

International Conference on Agriculture, Environment, and Food Security IOP Publishing IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science1234567890 122 (2018) 012035 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/122/1/012035

Toxicity (xc) Salinity (dS/m) Sodicity (xn) Alkalinity /ESP (%) Erosion hazard (eh) Slope (%) Erosion hazard Flood Hazard (fh) Puddle Land Preparation (lp) Rocks on surface (%) Rock outcrop (%)

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1 S1

S2 S1

S2 S1

n S2

S2 S2

S2 S1

n S1

S2 S1

n S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

Explanation : ST : Sampuran Toba village ; JM : Janji Martahan village ; TL : Turpuk Limbong village ; SD : Sohor Dolok village ; PNG : Partungko Na Ginjang village

Table 2. Evaluation of Land Suitability for Orange Crop (Orange sp.) Land Map Unit Usage Requirements/ Land Characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 6 ST JM TL SD Temp (tc) The average temperature (0C) S1 S2 S1 S1 S1 S1 Oxygen avaibility (oa) Drainage S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Rooting channel (rc) Texture S1 S1 S1 S1 N N Base Saturation S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S2 Crude material (%) S1 S1 S1 S2 S2 S1 Soil depth (cm) S1 S1 S1 S2 S1 S1 Nutrient Retention (nr) CEC clay (cmol) S2 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Base saturtion (%) S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S2 pH H2O S1 S1 S1 S1 S2 S3 C-organic (%) S3 S2 S1 S3 S1 S1 Toxicity (xc) Salinity (dS/m) S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Sodicity (xn) Alkalinity /ESP (%) S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Erosion hazard (eh) Slope (%) S1 S2 S2 N S2 S2 Erosion hazard S1 S1 S1 S2 S2 S2 Flood Hazard (fh) Puddle S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Land Preparation (lp) Rocks on surface (%) S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Rock outcrop (%) S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Explanation:

3

7

8 PNG

9

S1

S1

S2

S1

S1

S1

S1 S1 S1 S1

S1 S1 S1 S1

S1 S1 S1 S1

S1 S1 S2 S1

S1 S1 S2 S1

S1 S1 S3 S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

n S2

S2 S1

N S1

S1

S1

S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

S1 S1

International Conference on Agriculture, Environment, and Food Security IOP Publishing IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science1234567890 122 (2018) 012035 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/122/1/012035

ST : Sampuran Toba Village ; JM : Janji Martahan Village ; TL : Turpuk Limbong Village ; SD : Sohor Dolok Village ; PNG : Partungko Na Ginjang Village

The evaluation of shallot crops showed that at some land map units there were the severe limiting factor (LMU 8 & 9) the inappropriate soil texture or marginal (S3 at LMU 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9 and N at LMU 3). The barrier which can be resolved (n, r) reaching S3. However, soil pH and organic matter can be managed by liming and applying solid or liquid compost. The obstacle of slope can be handled by constructing terrace (S2 at LMU 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8) but the slope is not appropriate for LMU 4, 8 and 9 because it reaches more 30%. Thus, only at Sampur Toba village LMU 2 has the barrier which can be solved. Orange has the inappropriate barrier to soil temperature at LMU 2 and 9 (S2 tc) which is very tough to change; soil texture (Nr, c) for LMU 6 and 7 and slope more 30% (Neh) at LMU 4, 7 and 9. The blockade which be able to deal with to increase the land potential found at LMU 1, 3 and 8 wherein each LMU the obstacle of nr can be controlled with appropriate input and for the obstacle of slope by terrace. 4. Conclusions The results showed that the shallot crop is only on LMU 2 at Sampur Toba village that has barrier that can be overcome, such as actual class S3 (n, r); S2 (eh) had an inhibiting factor pH and slope that can be managed with liming and terracing. On orange crop, class S3 (nr) on LMU 1 can be overcome by giving organic material; class S2 (eh) on LMU 3 might be overcome with terracing; and class S2 (nr, eh) on LMU 8 can be managed by liming and terracing. On the other LMU (4, 5, 6, 7, 9) is not suggested for orange cultivation. Oranges has the smallest constraint on LMU 1- Sampuran Toba Village, it can be overcome by organic treatment. LMU 3 – Janji Martahan village, the potensial suitability of the land might be overcome with terracing; LMU 8 in Partungko Na Ginjang village be managed by liming and terracing. On the other LMU (4,5,6,7 and 9) are not suggested for cultivation. References [1] Hakim, N., M.Y. Nyakpa, A.M. Lubis, S.G. Nugroho, M.A. Diha, G.B. Hong dan H.H. Baailey, 1986. Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Tanah., Universitas Lampung Press, Lampung. [2] Djaenudin, D., Marwah., S. Subagjo., 2011. Petunjuk Teknis Evaluasi Lahan untuk Komoditas Pertanian. Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanah, Bogor. [3] Ritung, S. Wahyunto, F., dan H. Hidayat, 2007. Panduan Evaluasi Kesesuaian Lahan Balai Penelitian Tanah Bogor [4] Deptan, 2003. Pengembangan Usaha Agribisnis Bawang merahTerpadu, Direktorat Tanaman Sayuran, Hias dan AnekaTanaman. Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Hortikultura. Deartemen Pertanian Jakarta. [5] Badan Pusat Statistik Kecamatan Harian, 2014. Statistik Daerah Kecamatan Harian. Badan Pusat Statistika Kabupaten Samosir

Appendix Appendix 1. Characteristics of Land Suitability for Shallot Crop (Allium cepa L) Usage Requirements/ Land Land Suitability Classes Characteristics S1 S2 S3 N Temp (tc) The average temperature 20-25 18-20 / 25-30 15-18 /30-35 35 (0C)

4

International Conference on Agriculture, Environment, and Food Security IOP Publishing IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science1234567890 122 (2018) 012035 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/122/1/012035

Water avaibility (wa) Rainfall (mm/tahun)

350-600

Length of dry (month) Humidity (%) Oxygen avaibility (oa) Drainage Rooting channel (rc) Texture

300-350 / 600-800

250-300 / 800- 1600 1600

period

Crude material (%) Soil depth (cm) Nutrient Retention (nr) CEC clay (cmol) Base saturtion (%) pH H2O C-organic (%) Toxicity (xc) Salinity (dS/m) Sodicity (xn) Alkalinity /ESP (%) Erosion hazard (eh) Slope (%) Erosion hazard Flood Banjir (fh) Puddle Land Preparation (lp) Rocks on surface (%) Rock outcrop (%)

Good. Slightly hampered

Middle

Hamperd

quite hamperd. Fast

fine. slightly fine < 15 > 50

midle 15-35 30 – 50

slighly rough 35 - 55 20 – 30

rough > 55 < 20

> 16 > 35 6.0 – 7.8

< 20 < 5.8 > 8.0 < 0.8

-

> 1.2

≤ 16 20 - 35 (5.8 - 6.0/ 7.8 - 8.0) 0.8 – 1.2

5

< 20

20 - 35

35- 50

> 50

30 very severe

F0

-

-

>F1

25

-

Appendix 2. Characteristics of Land Suitability for Orange Crop (Orange sp) Usage Requirements/ Land Characteristics Temp (tc) The average temperature (0C) Water avaibility (wa) Rainfall (mm/tahun) Length of dry (month) Humidity (%)

period

Land Suitability Classes S2 S3

S1

N

19 - 33

33 – 36 16 – 19

36 – 39 13 – 16

< 39 > 13

1.200 - 3.000

1.000 - 1.200 3.000 - 3.500 4-5 90

800 - 1.000 3000 - 4000 5-6

< 800 > 4.000 >6

2.5 – 4 50 – 90

5

International Conference on Agriculture, Environment, and Food Security IOP Publishing IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science1234567890 122 (2018) 012035 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/122/1/012035

Oxygen avaibility (oa) Drainage Rooting channel (rc) Texture

Crude material (%) Soil depth (cm)

Nutrient Retention (nr) CEC clay (cmol) Base saturtion (%) pH H2O C-organic (%) Toxicity (xc) Salinity (dS/m) Sodicity (xn) Alkalinity /ESP (%) Erosion hazard (eh) Slope (%) Erosion hazard Flood Banjir (fh) Puddle Land Preparation (lp) Rocks on surface (%) Rock outcrop (%)

Good. somewhat

slightly obstructed

obstructed; slightly fast

very obstructe. fast

smooth. slightly smooth. medium. slightly rough < 15 > 100

-

slightly smooth

rough

15-35 75 – 100

35 - 55 50 – 70

> 55 < 50

< 5.2 > 8.0 < 0.8

-

> 1.2

≤ 16 < 35 5.2 - 5.6 7.0 - 8.0 0.8 – 1.2

6

< 25

25 – 35

35- 45

> 45

30 quite severe

F0

-

35 5.6 – 7.0

Source : Djaenudin. et al.. 2011

6

-

-

>F0 15 - 40 15 – 25

> 40 > 25

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