Factors Affecting Students' Performance in Mathematics

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Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education. Universiti Brunei Darussalam. Brunei Darussalam. Factors Affecting Students' Performance in Mathematics ...

EARCOME  7     The  7th  ICMI-­‐East  Asia  Conference  on  Mathema8cs  Educa8on   In  Pursuit  of  Quality  Mathema8cs  Educa8on  for  All    Cebu  City,  Philippines   11  –  15  May  2015  

Factors  Affecting  Students’  Performance   in  Mathematics  :  Case  Studies  in  Three   Primary  Schools   Masitah  Shahrill,  Nor  Azura  Abdullah  &     Hjh  Jamilah  Hj  Mohd  Yusof    

Sultan  Hassanal  Bolkiah  Institute  of  Education   Universiti  Brunei  Darussalam   Brunei  Darussalam  

Brunei  Darussalam  

Area:  5,765  sq  km    

Popula0on:  411,000     (2014  es?mate,  JPKE)    

Income  per  capita:  $51,600     (2010,  8th)  No  income  tax  in  Brunei  

Brunei Darussalam

 

Secondary  Schools:  30   Primary  Schools:  122    

Singapore  

Districts:     Brunei-­‐Muara,  Tutong,  Belait,  Temburong   Source:  hIp://www.indexmundi.com/brunei/demographics_profile.html     2

Education  in  Brunei  Darussalam  

SPN21: Sistem Pendidikan Negara Abad Ke-21 (The National Education System for the 21st Century) This system makes provision for several major educational changes.

Help to develop young people to be academically excellent, charismatic, disciplined, high-spirited, visionary, resilient and responsible citizens. 3

Introduction   The  rationale  for  the  focus  on  teachers  and   teaching  draws  from  the  fact  that  teachers   play  an  important  role  in  enabling  students   to  acquire  numeracy  skills  through  the   implementation  of  the  newly  reformed   national  education  curriculum  (SPN21)  in   Brunei  Darussalam.  

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Introduction   This  research1  was  part  of  a  larger  study  that  encompassed   the  entire  population  of  326  teachers  for  Mathematics  for   upper  primary  classes  in  all  government  primary  schools   in  Brunei  Darussalam.       One  of  the  aims  of  the  nationwide  survey  were  to  examine   upper  primary  mathematics  teachers’  beliefs  and   perceptions  in  teaching  and  learning  that  guide  them  in   their  day-­‐to-­‐day  teaching.       To  augment  the  primary  quantitative  Hindings  of  the   survey,  three  case  studies  for  the  Mathematics  subject   strand  provided  qualitative  data  to  develop  vignettes  or   snapshots  of  classroom  practice.     5

1  Report  to  the  Ministry,  and  refer  to  the  References  

The  Study   The  main  purpose  of  this  study  is  to  identify  the   factors  that  may  have  contributed  to  the  students’   low,  medium  and  high  achieving  performances  in   mathematics  in  three  case  study  primary  schools  in   Brunei  Darussalam.     The  government  schools  in  Brunei  Darussalam,   namely  School  A,  School  B  and  School  C,  were   chosen  by  purposive  sampling  based  on  the  overall   Year  6  national  primary  school  assessment  results   for  mathematics.   6

The  Case  Study  Schools    

School  A  is  a  representative  of  non-­‐elite  high   performing  schools.   •  97.2%  pass  rate  with  6  out  of  the  36  candidates  obtaining   Grade  As.    

School  B  is  a  representative  of  performing  schools.     •  85.1%  pass  rate  with  7  out  of  the  total  of  74  candidates   obtaining  Grade  As.    

School  C  is  a  representative  of  low  performing   schools  in  the  nation.    

•  The  pass  rate  was  51%  with  4  out  of  the  total  of  100   candidates  obtaining  Grade  As.     7

The  Teachers   School  

Teacher  

Year  

No.  of   Students  

Topic  of  Lesson  

5  

20  

Area  of  Triangles  

A  

Female,     Dip.  in  Pri  Ed,  8  years  teaching   experience   Male,  BA  in  Pri  Ed,  5  years   teaching  experience  

6  

22  

Average  

Female,  Teacher  background   not  available  

5  

33  

Angles  (Acute,   Obtuse  and  Right   angles)    

Female,  Teacher  background   not  available  

6  

33  

Coordinates  

Female,  Cert.  in  Ed,  30  years   teaching  experience  

5  

23  

Area  of  a  Square   and  Area  of  a   Rectangle    

Female,  B.Ed  in  Pri  Ed,  30   years  teaching  experience  

6  

15  

Average    

B  

C  

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Methodology   Research   Focus  

Data  Collection     Tools  

JustiHication  

Teaching  in  a   lesson  

•  Video-­‐records  and   Explore  teacher’s   transcripts   thoughts  in  relation  to   •  Teacher  interviews   the  lesson  observed   •  Lesson  plans  

Learning  in  a   lesson  

•  Students’  interviews   Obtain  views  on  the   •  Outputs  of  focal   experience  of  the  lesson   students’  work  

Teaching  in  an   Interviews  with   institutional   principal  and  subject   context   coordinator   9

Gain  insights  of  the   teaching  of  the  subject   in  the  school  

Summary  of  Findings   Case  Study   Schools  

A  

Factors  

JustiHication  

Enabling  factor:   The  Principal’s  active  participation   •  The  Principal   (direct  and  indirect)  promotes  the   •  Teachers’   commitment     increase  in  teachers’  commitment   Students had to create their own carnival game. There were not instructed.  

B  

Enabling  factor:   •  Centred  towards  the  Principal’s   •  The  Principal   directive  instructions   •  Teachers’   Students used their commitment   •  Teachers  are  active  in  organising   knowledge in probability and  implementing  activities   to create a carnival game.  

C  

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Constraining  factor:   •  Unable  to  read  and  understand   •  The  innovation Pupils’  Aasbility     mathematical  concepts   It required students havePto conduct •  The   arents     the •  Parents’  lack  of  co-­‐operation   game during Family Day.   Enabling  factor:   •  Principal  acts  as  a  role  model  to   •  The  Principal   teachers  which  may  have  led  to   •  Teachers’  commitment   teachers’  commitment    

Conclusion:     Factors  Affecting  Students’  Performance  in  Mathematics   Ø  The  enabling  factors  that  may  have  affected  the  students’   performances  in  Mathematics,  based  on  the  three  case  study   schools,  are  observed  to  originate  from  a  combination  of  different   reasons.     Ø  The  high  support  and  involvement  of  the  principal,  both  directly   and  indirectly  to  the  Mathematics  teachers,  in  some  ways,  may   have  affected  the  students’  performance.     Ø  In  effect,  it  increases  teachers’  commitment  to  teaching  by   agreeably  giving  extra  help  to  the  students  outside  their  normal   school  hours,  readily  support  school’s  extracurricular   Mathematics  activities,  and  be  well  informed  with  the  teaching   and  learning  of  Mathematics  through  professional  practice   developments.    

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Conclusion:     Factors  Affecting  Students’  Performance  in  Mathematics   Ø  The  Mathematics  teachers  that  were  observed  considered  that   their  students’  understanding  of  conceptual  and  procedural   knowledge  in  the  four  main  operations  of  addition,  subtraction,   division  and  multiplication  will  enable  or  hinder  their   performance  in  Mathematics.     Ø  It  was  also  observed  that  students’  literacy  abilities  in   understanding  the  mathematics  problems  may  also  play  an   important  factor  to  their  Mathematics  performance.     Ø  Parental  involvement,  on  the  other  hand,  is  another  factor  that   may  have  affected  students’  performance  in  Mathematics.  Their   dedication  to  support  their  child’s  extra  mathematics  activities,   obligation  to  school’s  Parent  Teacher  Meetings  (PTM),  and  their   effort  to  understand  mathematics  concepts  may  also  have  some   inHluence  to  their  child’s  learning  of  Mathematics.     12

References    

(The  Report  &  the  Papers  presented  at  International  Conferences)   Shahrill,  M.,  Abdullah,  N.  A.,  &  Yusof,  J.  (2014).  Research  Report:  Teachers  and  Teaching  of    Mathematics  in  Primary  Schools  in  Brunei  Darussalam.  Ministry  of  Education,  Brunei    Darussalam.      

Shahrill,  M.,  Abdullah,  N.  A.,  Yusof,  J.,  &  Suhaili,  A.  S.  (2014).  Informing  the  practice  of    teaching    mathematics  in  upper  primary  classes.  In  I.  Sahin,  S.  A.  Kiray,  &  S.  Alan    (Eds.),  Proceedings  of  the  International  Conference  on  Education  in  Mathematics,    Science  &  Technology  (pp.  168-­‐172).  Konya,  Turkey:  Necmettin  Erbakan  University.      

Shahrill,  M.,  Abdullah,  N.  A.,  &  Yusof,  J.  (2014).  The  professional  teaching  practices  of  upper    primary  mathematics  teachers.  Paper  presented  at  the  Asia  PaciHic  Educational  Research    Association  &  the  Hong  Kong  Educational  Research  Association  (APERA  –  HKERA)    International  Conference  2014,  Hong  Kong,  China,  19-­‐21  November  2014.      http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.2835.4889          

Abdullah,  N.  A.,  Shahrill,  M.,  &  Yusof,  J.  (2014).  Examining  the  professional  development    experiences  and  needs  of  upper  primary  mathematics  teachers.  Paper  presented  at  the  Asia    PaciHic  Educational  Research  Association  &  the  Hong  Kong  Educational  Research    Association  (APERA  –  HKERA)  International  Conference  2014,  Hong  Kong,  China,    19-­‐21  November  2014.  http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.3752.9920      

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Abdullah,  N.  A.,  Shahrill,  M.,  &  Yusof,  J.  (2014).  Investigating  upper  primary  mathematics    teachers’  beliefs  and  perceptions  in  teaching  and  learning.  Paper  presented  at  the  Asia    PaciHic  Educational  Research  Association  &  the  Hong  Kong  Educational  Research    Association  (APERA  –  HKERA)  International  Conference  2014,  Hong  Kong,  China,    19-­‐21  November  2014.  http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.4801.5685    

Acknowledgment This research was part of a larger project by the Ministry of Education in collaboration with Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam and Institut Teknologi Brunei.

THANK YOU

Acknowledgment  Appreciation   Ms  Georgina  Chua  Ling  Ling  (MTeach  Sec  Ed  Maths  TC  from  Cohort  January   2015)  in  assisting  with  the  preparation.     Masitah  Shahrill  ([email protected])     Nor  Azura  Hj  Abdullah  ([email protected])     Hjh  Jamilah  Hj  Mohd  Yusof  ([email protected])   14

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