Lupus (2011) 20, 1518–1525 http://lup.sagepub.com
Features associated with cardiac abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus J Bourre´-Tessier1, T Huynh2, AE Clarke3,4, S Bernatsky1,4, L Joseph4,5, P Belisle4 and CA Pineau1 1
Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, McGill University Health Center, Montre´al, Que´bec, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, McGill University Health Center, Montre´al, Que´bec, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology/Allergy, McGill University Health Center, Montre´al, Que´bec, Canada; 4Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montre´al, Que´bec, Canada; and 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montre´al, Que´bec, Canada
Objectives. To determine the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities and identify associated clinical and laboratory features in a large systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort. Methods. Patients fulfilling ACR criteria for SLE underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) between January 2005 and June 2006. Variables used as potential correlates included age, sex, ethnicity, lupus duration, lupus disease activity (SLEDAI), cumulative damage (SLICC/ACR damage index (DI)), arterial hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, medication use and laboratory data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between TTE abnormalities and potential determinants. Results. For the 217 subjects with a TTE performed during the study, the main abnormalities were of the mitral valve (37.3%) and included thickening (25.4%) and insufficiency (25.8%). Other findings included pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) 30 mm Hg (10.1%), pericardial effusion (4.6%), hypokinesis (2.8%), and aortic insufficiency (3.7%). In multivariate analysis, mitral insufficiency was associated with the use of corticosteroids (OR 2.90; 95%CI 1.42–5.94) and hypokinesis with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (12.89; 1.06–157.18). Elevated PAP was associated with age (1.04; 1.01–1.07) and with DI (1.20; 1.01–1.42). Conclusion. Valvular abnormalities are frequent in patients with SLE, with mitral valve lesions occurring in over one third. TTE screening may be indicated in patients with SLE, especially for those with identified risk factors such as corticosteroid use. Lupus (2011) 20, 1518–1525. Key words: cardiovascular disease; systemic lupus erythematosus; ultrasonography
Introduction The cardiovascular system is frequently aﬀected in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Involvement of the pericardium, endocardium, myocardium, coronary and pulmonary vessels has been found in several clinical and autopsy studies in these patients.1 Current guidelines for the management of SLE2,3 suggest early identiﬁcation and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the non-speciﬁc and multifactorial nature of symptoms such as dyspnea and fatigue in SLE patients, along with the low
Correspondance to: Dr Christian A Pineau, The Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, A6.163, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4, Canada Email: [email protected]
Received 31 January 2011; accepted 21 July 2011
value of the clinical cardiac examination, could lead to delays in the recognition of cardiac involvement. Early identiﬁcation of high-risk SLE patients is a challenge, and although risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis are increasingly being identiﬁed, studies aiming to identify risk factors for other cardiac complications such as valvular dysfunction, pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), pericardial disease or heart failure have provided conﬂicting results. Previous authors have reported an association between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and cardiac abnormalities such as valvular disease and PAH,4–7 whereas others did not ﬁnd any correlation.8,9 One report also suggested an association between serum levels of both anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B antibodies and valvular lesions in patients with SLE,10 but this ﬁnding has not been replicated. Most studies that have attempted to describe cardiac abnormalities and their correlation
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Features associated with cardiac abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus J Bourre´-Tessier et al.
with clinical and laboratory factors in patients with SLE were limited by a relatively small number of participants.11,12 The largest study published so far included 200 patients, but it was designed to examine the association of cardiovascular manifestations with aPL4 and did not aim to estimate the eﬀect of other clinical and laboratory determinants. Hence, the predictors of structural cardiac lesions in adult SLE patients are far from clear. Our study, the largest to date of echocardiography in patients with SLE, aims to describe the various echocardiographic abnormalities, and to examine the potential clinical and laboratory characteristics associated with them.
Materials and methods
density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, antinuclear antibodies detected by indirect immunoﬂuorescence, antiDNA and ENA proﬁle (anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/ SSB, anti-Sm, anti-RNP) measured using a standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), anticardiolipin antibodies measured by ELISA, and lupus anticoagulant (LA; positive screening and conﬁrmation to document the phospholipid dependence of the inhibitor). We deﬁned positive aPL status as 1) either a positive anticardiolipin or a positive LA test at the time of the study; 2) either a positive anticardiolipin or a positive LA test at least once in the preceding 5 years; 3) either a positive anticardiolipin or a positive LA test on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart in the preceding 5 years.
The McGill University Health Center lupus cohort enrolls consecutive adults with American College of Rheumatology (ACR) revised criteria for SLE13 at the time when they present for their ﬁrst clinic visit. Clinical and laboratory data on these patients are collected prospectively on an annual basis.
Complete two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) examination was performed at rest within 1 month of the clinical assessment by an experienced technician, and interpreted by a single echocardiographer (TH) who is trained to American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) level 3.17 Both were blinded to the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients. All studies were performed on an HP-5500 and 2.5 mHz probe and completed according to ASE guidelines.17 The following criteria were used for quantiﬁcation of the echocardiographic abnormalities. Mitral valve thickness was measured by M-mode in the long axis parasternal view; a thickness 3 mm qualiﬁed as abnormal.8 Valvular regurgitations were evaluated in all echocardiographic views by 2-d color imaging and Doppler ﬂow interrogation, and the severity of any valvular regurgitation (mitral, aortic, tricuspid and pulmonary) was graded as mild, moderate or severe. We assessed pericardial morphology and function by sub-costal view and 4-chamber mitral and tricuspid inﬂows respiratory variations (to rule out constrictive pericarditis). Pericardial eﬀusion was noted when there was echolucent space between the pericardial layers. Left ventricular hypokinesis was observed when systolic thickening was