From Research to Paper: How to Write a Research

0 downloads 0 Views 4MB Size Report
ANALISIS KUALITAS DATA PADA. PERUSAHAAN PENGELOLAAN ASSET FISIK. DI KOTA MAKASSAR. Page 13. Text-Recycling. Page 14. Commi ee on ...

From Research to Paper: How to Write a Research Paper Presented by Faisal Syafar University of South Australia



Agenda

•  What is Research? •  Types of Research Papers •  Quick Overview -- Research Process •  I’ve Got All These Resources: Now What? •  EvaluaBng Sources •  Developing Your Paper

What it is… “a process of research, critical thinking, source evaluation, organization, and composition.”

SOURCE: h#p://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/658/2/

Two major types of research papers. • Argumentative research paper: It’s all about persuasion… •  Analytical research paper: It’s all about the question and the thinking involved in answering it…

SOURCE: h#p://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/658/2/

Research Process Organize Yourself Developing a Topic & Researching It Source Evaluation Organize Your Sources Compose/Revise Cycle Citing Sources

Organize Yourself

h#p://rpc.elm4you.org/

•  Step 1 – Clarify the Assignment •  Step 2 – Develop Research Question/ Thesis •  Step 3 - Identify Background Sources & Keywords •  Step 4 – Look at What You Found •  Step 5 – ReQine Your Question/Thesis

Developing a Topic & Researching It

www.esc.edu/library h#p://commons.esc.edu/informa>onskills/ h#p://commons.esc.edu/informa>onskills/ resources/table-of-contents/

• Step 1 – Annotate & Find “THE” Quote • Step 2 – Categorize • Step 3 – Outline/Mindmap • Step 4 – Plug-in the Resources

Source Evaluation & Organization

Compose

Gather Informa>on Organize DraG Revise Proof Get Feedback Re-proof Hand in

Mobile Collaboration Technology Implementation Framework in Engineering Asset Organisations

ANALISIS KUALITAS DATA PADA PERUSAHAAN PENGELOLAAN ASSET FISIK DI KOTA MAKASSAR



Text-Recycling

CommiKee on PublicaBon Ethic (COPE)

IntroducBon These guidelines are intended to guide editors in dealing with cases of text recycling. Text recycling, also known as self-plagiarism, is when sec>ons of the same text appear in more than one of an author’s own publica>ons. Editors should consider each case of text recycling on an individual basis as the most appropriate course of ac>on will depend on a number of factors.

When Should AcBon Considered? Text recycling can take many forms, and editors should consider which parts of the text have been recycled. Duplica>on of data is likely to always be considered serious (and should be dealt with according to the COPE guidelines for duplicate publica>ons [1,2]. Use of similar or iden>cal phrases in methods sec>ons where there are limited ways to describe a common method, however, is not uncommon. In such cases, an element of text recycling is likely to be unavoidable in further publica>ons using the same method. Editors should use their discre>on when deciding how much overlap of methods text is acceptable, considering factors such as whether authors have been transparent and stated that the methods have already been described in detail elsewhere and provided a cita>on. Duplica>on of background ideas in the introduc>on may be considered less significant than duplica>on of the hypothesis, discussion, or conclusions. When significant overlap is iden>fied between two or more ar>cles, editors should consider taking ac>on. Several factors may need to be taken into account when deciding whether the overlap is considered significant.

Text recycling in a submiKed manuscript Text recycling may be iden>fied in a submi#ed ar>cle by editors or reviewers, or by the use of plagiarism detec>on soGware, e.g. CrossCheck. Editors should consider the extent of the overlap when deciding how to act. Where overlap is considered to be minor, authors may be asked to re-write overlapping sec>ons, and cite their previous ar>cle(s). More significant overlap may result in rejec>on of the manuscript. Where the overlap includes data, Editors should handle cases according to the COPE flowchart for dealing with suspected redundant publica>on in a submi#ed manuscript [1].

Text recycling in a published arBcle (1) If text recycling is discovered in a published ar>cle, it may be necessary to publish a correc>on to, or retrac>on of, the original ar>cle. This decision will depend on the degree and nature of the overlap, and several factors will need to be considered. As for text recycling in a submi#ed manuscript, editors should handle cases of overlap in data according to the COPE flowchart for dealing with suspected redundant publica>on in a published ar>cle [2]. Journal editors should consider publishing a correcBon arBcle when: •  Sec>ons of the text, generally excluding methods, are iden>cal or near iden>cal to a previous publica>on by the same author(s); •  The original publica>on is not referenced in the subsequent publica>on; but •  There is s>ll sufficient new material in the ar>cle to jus>fy its publica>on.

Text recycling in a published arBcle (2) Journal editors should consider publishing a retracBon arBcle when: •  There is significant overlap in the text, generally excluding methods, with sec>ons that are iden>cal or near iden>cal to a previous publica>on by the same author(s); •  The recycled text reports previously published data and there is insufficient new material in the ar>cle to jus>fy its publica>on in light of the previous publica>on(s). •  The recycled text forms the major part of the discussion or conclusion in the ar>cle. •  The overlap breaches copyright. •  The retrac>on should be issued in line with the COPE retrac>on guidelines [3].

How far back should this be applied? Aetudes towards text recycling have changed over the past decade. Editors should consider this when deciding how to deal with individual cases of text recycling in published ar>cles. Editors should judge each case in line with accepted prac>ce at the >me of publica>on. In general, where overlap does not involve duplica>on of results, editors are advised to consider taking no correc>ve ac>on for cases where the text recycling occurred earlier than 2004. Editors may wish to take correc>ve ac>on in the case of duplica>on of data prior to this date and should follow the COPE flowchart for dealing with suspected redundant publica>on in a published ar>cle [2].

Opinion, Review and Commentary articles



Non-research ar>cle types such as Opinion, Review and Commentary ar>cles should in principle adhere to the same guidelines as research ar>cles. Due to the cri>cal and opinionbased nature of some non-research ar>cle types, ac>on should be considered when text is recycled from an earlier publica>on without any further novel development of previously published opinions or ideas or when they are presented as novel without any reference to previous publica>ons.

References/further reading 1.  COPE flowchart for suspected redundant publica>on in a submi#ed manuscript h#p://publica>onethics.org/files/ u2/01A_Redundant_Submi#ed.pdf 2.  COPE flowchart for suspected redundant publica>on in a published ar>cle h#p://publica>onethics.org/files/ u2/01B_Redundant_Published.pdf 3.  COPE guidelines for retrac>ng ar>cles h#p://www.publica>onethics.org/files/retrac>on %20guidelines.pdf

Understanding text recycling

Here is a typical example; the first passage comes from an ar>cle pub- lished in Science in 2010 (Gneezy et al. 2010), the second from PNAS in 2012 (Gneezy et al. 2012): We conducted a field study at a large amusement park (8). Par>cipants (N = 113,047) rode a roller coaster–like a#rac>on, were photographed during the ride, and later chose whether to purchase a print of the photo. We conducted a field study at a large amusement park. Par>cipants rode a rollercoaster- like a#rac>on, were photo- graphed during the ride, and later chose whether or not to purchase a print of the photo.

Go to the Detail