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treated, with a special focus on violence against civilians. Stanley G. Payne has taught history in several universities, including. Columbia University, UCLA, and  ...

Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01090-1 - Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 Stanley G. Payne Frontmatter More information

Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 This is the first account in any language of the civil wars in Europe during the era of the world wars, from 1905 to 1949. It treats the initial confrontations in the decade before World War I, the ­confusing concept of “European civil war,” the impact of the world wars, the ­relation between revolution and civil war, and all the individual cases of civil war, with special attention to Russia and Spain. The civil wars of this era are compared to and contrasted with earlier internal ­conflicts, with particular attention to the factors that made this era a time of unusually violent domestic contests, as well as those that brought it to an end. The major political, ideological, and social influences are all treated, with a special focus on violence against civilians. Stanley G. Payne has taught history in several universities, ­including Columbia University, UCLA, and the University of Wisconsin. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a corresponding member of Real Academia Española de la Historia, Madrid. He has received various awards and prizes, most recently the Marshal Shulman Book Award of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (2005) and the Gran Cruz de Isabel la Católica from the Spanish government (2009). He has been coeditor of the Journal of Contemporary History since 1999. Professor Payne is the author of some twenty books and many articles, as well as other edited, coedited, and coauthored books. Most recently, he is the author of The Collapse of the Spanish Republic, 1933–1936: Origins of the Civil War; Franco and Hitler; and Spain: A Unique History.

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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01090-1 - Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 Stanley G. Payne Frontmatter More information

Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949

Stanley G. Payne University of Wisconsin, Madison

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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01090-1 - Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 Stanley G. Payne Frontmatter More information

cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, ny 10013-2473, usa www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107648159 © Stanley G. Payne 2011 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2011 Printed in the United States of America A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data Payne, Stanley G. Civil war in Europe, 1905–1949 / Stanley G. Payne. p.  cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 978-1-107-01090-1 (hardback) 1.  Civil war – Europe – History – 20th century.  2.  Europe – History, Military – 20th century.  3.  Europe – Politics and government – 1871–1918.  4.  Europe – Politics and government – 1918–1945.  5.  Europe – Social conditions – 20th century.  6.  Violence – Europe – History – 20th century.  7.  Revolutions – Europe – History – 20th century.  8.  Civilians in war – Europe – History – 20th century.  9.  War and society – Europe – History – 20th century.  10.  Social conflict – Europe – History – 20th century.  I.  Title. d424.5.p39  2011 303.6′409409041 – dc22    2011000377 isbn 978-1-107-01090-1 Hardback isbn 978-1-107-64815-9 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01090-1 - Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 Stanley G. Payne Frontmatter More information

Contents

Preface Chronology of Events Glossary of Political Acronyms Introduction: Revolution and Civil War as Forms of Conflict Part one World War I and an Era of Internal Conflict, 1905–1935 1 World War, Revolution, Civil War, 1905–1918 2 The Russian Civil War, 1917–1922 3 The Political and Social Crisis in Europe, 1918–1923 4 Civil Strife and Dictatorship, 1930–1935

page vii ix xi 1

15 33 69 96

Part two  The Conflict in Spain, 1931–1939 5 The Revolutionary Process in Spain 6 Revolution and Civil War, 1936–1939 7 Significance and Consequences

117 137 181

Part three Civil War and Internal Violence in the Era of World War II 8 The Multiple Wars of Europe, 1939–1945 9 The Civil Wars in Yugoslavia and Greece Conclusion

193 208 225

Index

233

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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01090-1 - Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 Stanley G. Payne Frontmatter More information

Preface

The notion of a “European civil war” during the decades 1914–45 has become rather popular with certain historians during the past generation; the most recent book bearing this title appeared in Spain in 2010. The concept is applied primarily to the world wars, and secondarily to the conflict between Nazism and Communism. None of the works involved devotes much attention to the numerous civil wars and insurgencies that in fact took place during these years. This study therefore represents an initial attempt to treat them all, however briefly, within a single volume. The entire manuscript has been read by David Gress, Juan Linz, and Michael Seidman, and Stathis Kalyvas has critiqued the section on Greece. Each of them has made valuable criticisms, suggestions, and corrections, for which I am grateful. This book ranges far across European history and ­politics, and, in the years to come, further research will undoubtedly correct deficiencies and fill gaps. Madison, Wisconsin November 2010

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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01090-1 - Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 Stanley G. Payne Frontmatter More information

Chronology of Events

1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1914–18 1915–16 March 1917 November 1917 January–April 1918 1918–20 January–February 1919 January 1919 February 1919 March–August 1919 April 1919 June 1919 March 1920 March 1921 October 1922 June 1923 September 1923 October 1923 November 1923 1924

First Russian Revolution Iranian Revolution Great Rumanian Peasant Revolt Young Turks seize power in Istanbul Greek military coup Mexican Revolution Portuguese Republic Chinese Revolution World War I Expulsion and genocide of Armenians in Turkey Collapse of tsarist regime Bolshevik coup d’etat Finnish civil war Main phase of Russian civil war Portuguese mini–civil war “Spartacist” revolt in Berlin General strike in central Germany “Béla Kun regime” in Hungary Räterepublik in Munich Slovak Soviet Republic “Kapp Putsch” followed by general strike in   Germany Communist “March Action” in Germany Italian Fascist “March on Rome” Overthrow of Stamboliski in Bulgaria followed   by Communist insurrection Primo de Rivera pronunciamiento in Spain Abortive Communist insurrection in Germany Hitler’s “Beer Hall Putsch” in Munich Abortive Communist insurrection in Estonia

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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01090-1 - Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 Stanley G. Payne Frontmatter More information

x

Chronology of Events

1926

Pilsudski coup d’etat in Poland; new   authoritarian governments in Lithuania,   Portugal, and (briefly) Greece 1928 “Third Period” of world revolution   declared by Comintern 1930–33 Depression crisis in Germany April 1931 Second Republic in Spain 1933 Authoritarian regime in Austria February 1934 Socialist insurrection in Austria October 1934 Revolutionary insurrection in Spain August 1935 Comintern announces tactic of Popular   Front February 1936 Popular Front electoral victory in Spain July 1936 Spanish civil war begins September 1936 Franco made commander-in-chief by ­   military junta November–December 1936 Battle of Madrid March 1937 Battle of Guadalajara March–October 1937 Franco conquers northern Republican zone May 1937 “May Days” anarchist revolt in Barcelona Juan Negrín prime minister of Republican   government April 1938 Offensive by Franco splits Republican zone   in two July–November 1938 Battle of the Ebro March 1939 Overthrow of Negrín April 1, 1939 Spanish civil war ends August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939–45 World War II 1939–45 Ethnic conflict in Western Ukraine 1941–45 Yugoslav war of resistance and civil war 1943–44 First round of Greek civil war 1943–45 Civil war in northern Italy December 1944–February 1945 Second round of Greek civil war 1946–49 Third round of Greek civil war 1944–50s Insurgency against Communist regimes by   resistance movements in Poland,   Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia 1944–52 Insurgency of Maquis in Spain

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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01090-1 - Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 Stanley G. Payne Frontmatter More information

Glossary of Political Acronyms

AVNOJ CEDA CHEKA CNT CPY CTV DAG EAM ECCI ELAS FAI FET IMRO IRA JONS JSU KAPD KKE KPD NDH NEP NKVD NSDAP PASOK PCE PCF PCL PNF POUM PSI PSOE

Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Rightist Groups Special Commission for Security (Soviet Union) National Confederation of Labor (Spain) Communist Party of Yugoslavia Corps of Volunteer Troops (Italy) Democratic Army of Greece National Liberation Front (Greece) Executive Commission of the Communist International National People’s Liberation Army (Greece) Iberian Anarchist Federation (Spain) Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (Bulgaria) Institute of Agrarian Reform (Spain) Juntas of National Syndicalist Offensive (Spain) United Socialist Youth (Spain) Communist Workers Party of Germany Communist Party of Greece Communist Party of Germany Independent State of Croatia New Economic Policy (Soviet Union) People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Soviet Union) National Socialist German Workers Party (“Nazi Party”) Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Greece) Spanish Communist Party Communist Party of France Political Combat Leagues (Germany) National Fascist Party (Italy) Worker Party of Marxist Unification (Spain) Socialist Party of Italy Socialist Workers Party of Spain xi

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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01090-1 - Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949 Stanley G. Payne Frontmatter More information

xii

PSUC RFB RILU SA SPD SR SS SSR UGT USPD USSR

Glossary of Political Acronyms Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia (Spain) Red Front-fighters League (German Communist militia) Red International of Labor Unions Storm Detachment (Nazi militia) Social Democratic Party of Germany Socialist Revolutionaries (Russia) Protection Squads Soviet Socialist Republic General Union of Labor (Spain) Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

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