Front Matter

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made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for ..... burning coal or natural gas in a boiler. ... Generation II PWRs were manufactured by Westinghouse, Combustion Engineering, and.

SECOND EDITION

Nuclear Engineering Handbook

MECHANICAL and AEROSPACE ENGINEERING Frank Kreith Series Editor RECENTLY PUBLISHED TITLES Air Distribution in Buildings, Essam E. Khalil Alternative Fuels for Transportation, Edited by Arumugam S. Ramadhas Computer Techniques in Vibration, Edited by Clarence W. de Silva Design and Control of Automotive Propulsion Systems, Zongxuan Sun and Guoming (George) Zhu Distributed Generation: The Power Paradigm for the New Millennium, Edited by Anne-Marie Borbely and Jan F. Kreider Elastic Waves in Composite Media and Structures: With Applications to Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation, Subhendu K. Datta and Arvind H. Shah

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Elastoplasticity Theory, Vlado A. Lubarda Energy Audit of Building Systems: An Engineering Approach, Moncef Krarti Energy Conversion, Second Edition, Edited by D. Yogi Goswami and Frank Kreith Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Handbook, Second Edition, Edited by D. Yogi Goswami and Frank Kreith Energy Efficiency in the Urban Environment, Heba Allah Essam E. Khalil and Essam E. Khalil Energy Management and Conservation Handbook, Second Edition, Edited by Frank Kreith and D. Yogi Goswami Essentials of Mechanical Stress Analysis, Amir Javidinejad The Finite Element Method Using MATLAB®, Second Edition, Young W. Kwon and Hyochoong Bang Fluid Power Circuits and Controls: Fundamentals and Applications, John S. Cundiff Fuel Cells: Principles, Design, and Analysis, Shripad Revankar and Pradip Majumdar Fundamentals of Environmental Discharge Modeling, Lorin R. Davis Handbook of Hydrogen Energy, Edited by S.A. Sherif, D. Yogi Goswami, Elias K. Stefanakos, and Aldo Steinfeld Heat Transfer in Single and Multiphase Systems, Greg F. Naterer Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Principles and Practice of Energy Efficient Design Third Edition, T. Agami Reddy,Jan F. Kreider, Peter S. Curtiss, and Ari Rabl Intelligent Transportation Systems: Smart and Green Infrastructure Design, Second Edition, Sumit Ghosh and Tony S. Lee Introduction to Biofuels, David M. Mousdale Introduction to Precision Machine Design and Error Assessment, Edited by Samir Mekid Introductory Finite Element Method, Chandrakant S. Desai and Tribikram Kundu Large Energy Storage Systems Handbook, Edited by Frank S. Barnes and Jonah G. Levine Machine Elements: Life and Design, Boris M. Klebanov, David M. Barlam, and Frederic E. Nystrom Mathematical and Physical Modeling of Materials Processing Operations, Olusegun Johnson Ilegbusi, Manabu Iguchi, and Walter E. Wahnsiedler Mechanics of Composite Materials, Autar K. Kaw Mechanics of Fatigue, Vladimir V. Bolotin Mechanism Design: Enumeration of Kinematic Structures According to Function, Lung-Wen Tsai Mechatronic Systems: Devices, Design, Control, Operation and Monitoring, Edited by Clarence W. de Silva

The MEMS Handbook, Second Edition (3 volumes), Edited by Mohamed Gad-el-Hak MEMS: Introduction and Fundamentals MEMS: Applications MEMS: Design and Fabrication Multiphase Flow Handbook, Second Edition, Edited by Efstathios E. Michaelides, Clayton T. Crowe, and John D. Schwarzkopf Nanotechnology: Understanding Small Systems, Third Edition, Ben Rogers, Jesse Adams, and Sumita Pennathur Nuclear Engineering Handbook, Second Edition, Edited by Kenneth D. Kok Optomechatronics: Fusion of Optical and Mechatronic Engineering, Hyungsuck Cho Practical Inverse Analysis in Engineering, David M. Trujillo and Henry R. Busby Pressure Vessels: Design and Practice, Somnath Chattopadhyay

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Principles of Solid Mechanics, Rowland Richards, Jr. Principles of Sustainable Energy Systems, Second Edition, Edited by Frank Kreith with Susan Krumdieck, Co-Editor Thermodynamics for Engineers, Kau-Fui Vincent Wong Vibration and Shock Handbook, Edited by Clarence W. de Silva Vibration Damping, Control, and Design, Edited by Clarence W. de Silva Viscoelastic Solids, Roderic S. Lakes Weatherization and Energy Efficiency Improvement for Existing Homes: An Engineering Approach, Moncef Krarti

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SECOND EDITION

Nuclear Engineering Handbook

Edited by

Kenneth D. Kok

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CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2017 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed on acid-free paper Version Date: 20160812 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4822-1592-2 (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http:// www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

Contents Preface ..............................................................................................................................................xi Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................................... xvii Editor............................................................................................................................................. xix Contributors ................................................................................................................................. xxi

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Section I

Introduction: Nuclear Power Reactors

1. Historical Development of Nuclear Power ........................................................................3 Kenneth D. Kok 2. Pressurized Water Reactors ................................................................................................ 11 Richard Schreiber 3. Boiling Water Reactors ........................................................................................................ 85 Kevin Theriault 4. Heavy Water Reactors ........................................................................................................ 141 Alistair I. Miller, John Luxat, Edward G. Price, and Paul J. Fehrenbach 5. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactors ...................................................... 199 Chris Ellis and Arkal Shenoy 6. Integrated Fast Reactor: PRISM....................................................................................... 229 Maria Pfeffer, Scott Pfeffer, Eric Loewen, Brett Dooies, and Brian Triplett 7. MSR Technology Basics .................................................................................................... 257 David LeBlanc 8. Small Modular Reactors .................................................................................................... 289 Richard R. Schultz and Kenneth D. Kok 9. Generation IV Technologies............................................................................................. 299 Edwin A. Harvego and Richard R. Schultz

Section II

Introduction: Nuclear Fuel Cycle

10. Nuclear Fuel Resources ..................................................................................................... 317 Stephen W. Kidd 11. Uranium Enrichment ......................................................................................................... 335 Nathan (Nate) Hurt and Kenneth D. Kok vii

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12. Nuclear Fuel Fabrication ................................................................................................... 351 McLean T. Machut 13. Spent Fuel Storage .............................................................................................................. 365 Kristopher W. Cummings 14. Nuclear Fuel Recycling ...................................................................................................... 387 Patricia Paviet and Michael F. Simpson

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15. HWR Fuel Cycles ................................................................................................................ 471 Paul J. Fehrenbach and Alistair I. Miller 16. Waste Disposal: Transuranic Waste, High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel, and Low-Level Radioactive Waste ........................................................................ 521 Kenneth D. Kok, Joseph Heckman, and Murthy Devarakonda 17. Radioactive Materials Transportation............................................................................ 557 Kurt Colborn 18. Decontamination and Decommissioning...................................................................... 589 Cidney B. Voth

Section III

Introduction: Related Engineering and Analytical Processes

19. Risk Assessment and Safety Analysis for Commercial Nuclear Reactors ............. 637 Yehia F. Khalil 20. Nuclear Safety of Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated Nuclear Facilities .............................................................................................................. 655 Arlen R. Schade 21. Neutronics ............................................................................................................................ 687 Ronald E. Pevey 22. Heat Transfer, Thermal Hydraulic, and Safety Analysis ........................................... 721 Shripad T. Revankar 23. Thermodynamics and Power Cycles .............................................................................. 815 Peter D. Friedman 24. Economics of Nuclear Power ............................................................................................ 863 Jay F. Kunze and Edward S. Lum

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25. Radiation Protection .......................................................................................................... 899 Mark R. Ledoux 26. Health Effects of Low Level Radiation .......................................................................... 931 Jay F. Kunze

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Index ............................................................................................................................................. 941

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Preface

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Purpose The purpose of this handbook is to provide an introduction to nuclear power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle, and associated analysis tools, to a broad audience including engineers, engineering and science students, their teachers and mentors, science and technology journalists, and interested members of the general public. Nuclear engineering encompasses all the engineering disciplines that are applied in the design, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and finally the decontamination and decommissioning of these facilities at the end of their useful operating life. This handbook examines many of these aspects in its three sections. The second edition of this handbook contains some new and updated information including chapters on liquid metal cooled fast reactors, liquid fueled molten salt reactors, and small modular reactors that have been added to the first section on reactors. In the second section, a new chapter on fuel cycles has been added that presents fuel cycle material generally and from specific reactor types. In addition, the material in the remaining chapters has been reviewed and updated as necessary. The material in the third section has also been revised and updated as required with new material in the thermodynamics chapter and economics chapters, and also includes a chapter on the health effects of low level radiation.

Overview The nuclear industry in the United States grew out of the Manhattan Project, which was the large science and engineering effort during World War II that led to the development and use of the atomic bomb. Even today, the heritage continues to cast a shadow over the nuclear industry. The goal of the Manhattan Project was the production of very highly enriched uranium and very pure plutonium-239 contaminated with a minimum of other plutonium isotopes. These were the materials used in the production of atomic weapons. Today, excess quantities of these materials are being diluted so that they can be used in nuclear-powered electric generating plants. Many see the commercial nuclear power station as a hazard to human life and the environment. Part of this is related to the atomic-weapon heritage of the nuclear reactor, and part is related to the reactor accidents that occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in 1979, and Chernobyl nuclear power station near Kiev in the Ukraine in 1986. The accident at Chernobyl involved Unit-4, a reactor that was a light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor built without a containment vessel. The accident resulted in 56 deaths that have been directly attributed to it, and the potential for increased cancer deaths from those exposed to the radioactive plume that emanated from the reactor site at the time of the accident. Since the accident, the remaining three reactors at the station have been shut down, the last one in 2000. The accident at Three Mile Island xi

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involved Unit-2, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) built to USNRC license requirements. This accident resulted in the loss of the reactor but no deaths and only a minor release of radioactive material. In March 2011, a very large earthquake occurred off the coast of Japan that generated a massive tsunami. When the earthquake struck, three of the reactors, Units 1–3, of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were operating and Units 4–6 were shut down. The operating units shutdown automatically, and the emergency diesel generators began providing power to the cooling pumps as required. The tsunami swept on shore as a 40 m high wall of water that inundated the emergency power systems knocking them out of operation. With a complete loss of power, the cores of the reactors eventually melted leading to a release of radioactive material both to the air and sea. Cooling was also lost for the spent fuel pools of Units 4–6. When emergency power was restored, sea water was pumped into the reactor systems for cooling purposes. More than 15,000 people were killed by the tsunami, but no deaths were attributed to the failure of the reactors. Five years later, contaminated water is still leaking into the sea, and it will be many years before the site is cleaned and restored. The commercial nuclear industry began in the 1950s. In 1953, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower addressed the United Nations and gave his famous “Atoms for Peace” speech where he pledged the United States “to find the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life.” President Eisenhower signed the 1954 Atomic Energy Act, which fostered the cooperative development of nuclear energy by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and private industry. This marked the beginning of the nuclear power program in the United States. Earlier on December 20, 1951, 45 kw of electricity was generated at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) in Arco, Idaho. The nuclear reactor in a nuclear power plant is a source of heat used to produce steam that is used to turn the turbine of an electric generator. In that way, it is no different from burning coal or natural gas in a boiler. The difference is that the source of energy does not come from burning a fossil fuel, but from splitting an atom. The atom is a much more concentrated energy source such that a single gram of uranium when split or fissioned will yield 1 MW day or 24,000 kW hours of energy. A gram of coal will yield less than 0.01 kW hours. Nuclear power plant construction in the United States began in the 1950s. The Shippingport power station in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, was the first to begin operation in the United States. It was followed by a series of demonstration plants of various designs most with electric generating capacity less than 100 MW. During the late 1960s, there was a frenzy to build larger nuclear powered generating stations. By the late 1970s, many of these were in operation or under construction and many more had been ordered. When the accident at Three Mile Island occurred, nuclear power reactor construction activity in the United States essentially ceased and most orders were canceled as well as some reactors that were already under construction. In 2008, there was a revival in interest in nuclear power. This change was related to the economics of building new nuclear power stations relative to large fossil-fueled plants, and concern over the control of emissions from the latter. Large scale growth of nuclear power is occurring in India and China, but growth in other areas is tempered by slowed economic growth and the availability of natural gas as fuel for generating electricity. However the availability of fossil fuels and their perceived impact on the environment are leading to more interest in nuclear power. This handbook attempts to look at not only the

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nuclear power plants, but also the related aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, waste disposal, and related engineering technologies. The nuclear industry today is truly international in scope. Major design and manufacturing companies work all over the world. The industry in the United States has survived the 30 years since the Three Mile Island accident, and is resurging to meet the coming requirements for the generation of electric energy. The companies may have new ownership and new names, but some of the people who began their careers in the 1970s are still hard at work and are involved in training the coming generations of workers. It is important to recognize that when the commercial nuclear industry began, we did not have high-speed digital computers or electronic hand calculators. The engineers worked with vast tables of data and their slide-rules; draftsmen worked at a drawing board with a pencil and ruler. The data were compiled in handbooks and manually researched. The first Nuclear Engineering Handbook was published in 1958, and contained that type of information. Today, that information is available on the Internet and in the sophisticated computer programs that are used in the design and engineering process. This handbook is meant to show what exists today, provide a historical prospective, and point the way forward.

Organization The handbook is organized into the following three sections: • Nuclear Power Reactors • Nuclear Fuel Cycle Processes and Facilities • Engineering and Analytical Applications The first section is devoted to nuclear power reactors. It begins with a historical perspective that looks at the development of many reactor concepts through the research/ test reactor stage and the demonstration reactor that was actually a small power station. Today these reactors have faded into history, but some of the concepts are re-emerging in new research and development programs. Sometimes these reactors are referred to as “Generation I.” The next chapters in the section deal with the reactors that are currently in operation as well as those that are currently starting through the licensing process, the socalled Generation II and Generation III reactors. This is followed by a discussion of reactor systems that are being proposed to eliminate the high- pressure water cooled systems that require sustained emergency power to shut down. The final chapter in the section introduces the Generation IV reactor concepts. There is no attempt within this section to discuss research and test reactors, military or navel reactors, or space-based reactors and nuclear power systems. There is also no attempt to describe the electric-generating portion of the plant except for the steam conditions passing through the turbines. Twenty percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States is generated in nuclear power plants. These plants are PWRs and boiling water reactors (BWRs). The Generation II PWRs were manufactured by Westinghouse, Combustion Engineering, and Babcock and Wilcox, whereas the BWRs were manufactured by General Electric. These reactor systems are described in Chapters 2 and 3. The descriptions include the various

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reactor systems and components and a general discussion of how they function. The discussion includes the newer systems that are currently being proposed that have significant safety upgrades. Chapters 4 and 5 describe the CANDU reactor and the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The CANDU reactor is the reactor of choice in Canada. This reactor is unique in that it uses heavy water (sometimes called deuterium oxide) as its neutron moderator. Because it uses heavy water as a moderator, the reactor can use natural uranium as a fuel; therefore, the front end of the fuel cycle does not include the uranium enrichment process required for reactors with a light water neutron moderator. The HTGR or gas cooled reactor was used primarily in the United Kingdom. Even though the basic designs of this power generating system have been available since the 1960s, the reactor concept never penetrated the commercial market to a great extent. Looking forward, this concept has many potential applications because the high temperatures can lead to increased efficiency in the basic power generating cycles. Chapters 6 through 8 give an introductory look at the liquid metal cooled reactor system, the molten salt reactor, and also the small modular reactor systems. Chapter  9 introduces the Gen IV reactor design concepts that have been developed by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE). The second section is devoted to the nuclear fuel cycle and also facilities processes related to the lifecycle of nuclear systems. The fuel cycle begins with the extraction or mining of uranium ores and follows the material through the various processing steps before it enters the reactor and after it is removed from the reactor core. This section includes nuclear fuel reprocessing, even though it is not currently practiced in the United States, and also describes the decommissioning process that comes at the end of life for nuclear facilities. A separate chapter discusses the fuel cycles that can be used when the reactor fuel is reprocessed. The first three chapters, Chapters 10 through 12, of this section discuss the mining, enrichment, and fuel fabrication processes. The primary fuel used in reactors is uranium, so there is little mention of thorium as a potential nuclear fuel. The primary enrichment process that was originally used in the United States was gaseous diffusion. This was extremely energy intensive and has given way to the use of gas centrifuges. During fuel fabrication, the enriched gaseous material is converted back to a solid and inserted into the fuel rods that are used in the reactor. Chapters 13 through 16 discuss the storage of spent fuel, fuel reprocessing, fuel recycle, and waste disposal. Spent fuel is currently stored at the reactor sites where it is stored in spent fuel pools immediately after discharge and can later be moved to dry storage using shielded casks. Fuel reprocessing and fuel recycle are currently not done in the United States, but the chemical separation processes used in other countries are described. Waste disposal of low-level nuclear waste and transuranic nuclear waste are being actively pursued in the United States. The section also includes a discussion of the proposed Yucca Mountain facility for high-level waste and nuclear fuel. Chapters 17 and 18 describe the transportation of radioactive materials and the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The third section addresses some of the important engineering analyses critical to the safe operation of nuclear power reactors and also introduces some of the economic considerations involved in the decisions related to nuclear power. These discussions tend to be more technical than those in the first sections. Chapters 19 and 20 discuss the approaches to safety analysis that are used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in licensing nuclear power plants and by the US

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Department of Energy (DOE) in the licensing of their facilities. The approach used by the NRC is based on probability and uses probabilistic risk assessment analyses, whereas the DOE approach is more deterministic. Chapters 21 through 23 deal with nuclear criticality, the heat transfer, and thermo-hydraulics and thermodynamic analyses used for nuclear reactors. Criticality is an important concept in nuclear engineering because a nuclear reactor must reach criticality to operate. However, the handling of enriched uranium can lead to accidental criticality, which is an extremely undesirable accident situation. Heat transfer and thermo-hydraulic analyses deal with the removal of heat from the nuclear fission reaction. The heat is the form of energy that converts water to steam to turn the turbine generators that convert the heat to electricity. Controlling the temperature of the reactor core also maintains the stability of the reactor and allows it to function. The thermodynamic cycles introduce the way that engineers can determine how much energy is transferred from the reactor to the turbines. Chapter 24 introduces the economic analyses that are used to evaluate the costs of producing energy using the nuclear fuel cycle. These analyses provide the basis for decision makers to determine the utility of using nuclear power for electricity generation. Chapters 25 and 26 discuss radiation protection and the effects of low dose radiation. Persons near or involved in an accidental criticality will receive high radiation exposure that can lead to death. Radiation protection involves the methods of protecting personnel and the environment from excessive radiation exposure. Low dose radiation is discussed to show that the impact of radiation from nuclear power operations is a small fraction of the radiation people receive each day. Kenneth D. Kok

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Acknowledgments

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I also thank my wife, Sharyn Kok, who provided support and encouragement through the process of putting the handbook together. Finally, I want to thank all of my friends and co-workers who encouraged me through this process, with a special thanks to Frank Kreith, who helped make this project possible.

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Editor Kenneth D. Kok has more than 45 years of experience in the nuclear industry. This includes a wide variety of experience in many areas of nuclear technology and engineering. He served as a senior reactor operator and manager of a research reactor. He planned and managed the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of that reactor and has carried out research in neutron radiography, reactor maintainability, fusion reactor systems, advanced nuclear reactor fuel cycles, radioactive material transport systems, and radiation applications. He managed and participated in efforts related to the design and testing of nuclear transport casks, nuclear material safeguards and security, and nuclear systems safety. Kok performed business development efforts related to government and commercial nuclear projects. He performed D&D and organized a successful ASME short course related to D&D of nuclear facilities. Kok attended Michigan Technological University, where he earned a BS in chemistry, an MS in business administration, and an MS in nuclear engineering. He also did PhDlevel course work in nuclear engineering at the Ohio State University. He has more than 25 technical publications and holds two patents. He was a licensed professional engineer before retirement. Kok was elected an ASME fellow in 2003. He presented the Engineer’s Week Lecture at the AT&T Allentown Works in 1980. He served as general cochair of the International Meeting of Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management in Glasgow, Scotland, in 2005, in Liverpool, the United Kingdom, in 2009 and in Brussels, Belgium, in 2013. Kok is a lifetime member of the ASME, ANS, and the National Defense Industrial Association. He is a past chair of the ASME Nuclear Engineering Division and of the ASME Energy Committee. He was appointed by the American Association of Engineering Societies to serve as the US representative on the World Federation of Engineering Organization’s Energy Committee, where he is the vice president for the North American region. He received the ASME 2015 Joseph A. Falcon Energy Award in 2015.

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Contributors Kurt Colborn Waste Control Specialists Dallas, Texas

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Kristopher W. Cummings Nuclear Energy Institute Washington, DC Murthy Devarakonda Washington TRU Solutions/URS Albuquerque, New Mexico Brett Dooies GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Wilmington, North Carolina Chris Ellis General Atomics Fission Division San Diego, California Paul J. Fehrenbach (Retired) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River, Ontario, Canada Peter D. Friedman Newport News Shipbuilding Newport News, Virginia Edwin A. Harvego (Retired) Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho Joseph Heckman Energy Solutions Oak Ridge, Tennessee Nathan (Nate) Hurt (Retired) Goodyear Atomic Corporation Lake Havasu City, Arizona

Yehia F. Khalil Yale School of Engineering and Applied Science and Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Yale University New Haven, Connecticut Stephen W. Kidd East Cliff Consulting Bournemouth, United Kingdom Kenneth D. Kok (Retired) Battelle Columbus Division URS Corporation Richland, Washington DC Jay F. Kunze College of Science and Engineering Idaho State University Pocatello, Idaho David LeBlanc Terrestrial Energy Inc. Oakville, Ontario, Canada Mark R. Ledoux EnergySolutions, LLC Salt Lake City, Utah Eric Loewen GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Wilmington, North Carolina Edward S. Lum College of Science and Engineering Idaho State University Pocatello, Idaho

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John Luxat Department of Engineering Physics McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Canada McLean T. Machut AREVA NP Fuel Business Unit AREVA Inc. Lynchburg, Virginia

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Alistair I. Miller (Retired) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River, Ontario, Canada Patricia Paviet United States Department of Energy Washington, DC Ronald E. Pevey Department of Nuclear Engineering University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee Maria Pfeffer GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Wilmington, North Carolina Scott Pfeffer GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Wilmington, North Carolina Edward G. Price (Retired) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Oakville, Ontario, Canada Shripad T. Revankar School of Nuclear Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana

Contributors

Arlen R. Schade (Deceased) Bechtel Jacobs LLC Oak Ridge, Tennessee Richard Schreiber (Retired) Westinghouse Electric Co. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Richard R. Schultz Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering Idaho State University Pocatello, Idaho and Department of Nuclear Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, Texas Arkal Shenoy (Retired) General Atomics Fission Division San Diego, California Michael F. Simpson Department of Metallurgical Engineering College of Mines and Earth Sciences University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Kevin Theriault GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Wilmington, North Carolina Brian Triplett GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Wilmington, North Carolina Cidney B. Voth (Retired) United States Department of Energy Columbus, Ohio