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Indoor Daylight Systems Design For Dark Sections of The Building with Plastic Optical Fiber. Ercan Köse1, Aydın Mühürcü2. 1Mersin University/ Tarsus ...

Indoor Daylight Systems Design For Dark Sections of The Building with Plastic Optical Fiber

Ercan Köse1, Aydın Mühürcü2 1 Mersin University/ Tarsus Technology Faculty, Mechatronic Engineering, Turkey; [email protected] 2 Sakarya University/ Engin. Fac., Electrical and Electronic Eng., Turkey; [email protected]

Abstract In this study, daylighting systems for building design by using with the plastic optical fiber for innovative daylighting system were performed. In the experimental setup 3x2 mm plastic optical fiber, luxmeter, and sun tracking system with parabolic mirror were used in order to establish the experiments. All the measurements were performed randomly in the different time intervals of the day. The obtained results were tabulated and then compared with the results in the literature. That the plastic optical fiber material is cheap and flexible increases its usefulness, the durability of the system and its integration and also makes the maintenance of the light transmission system easier. In addition, long sunny days in Turkey make important contributions in terms of the efficiency of the system and saving energy by benefiting from the solar energy more. Using this system will positively affect the greenhouse gas emissions. This study showed that the built system which is environmentally-friendly, is capable of the transformation of sunny light. This study also showed that increasing the diameter and channel number of plastic optical fiber cables caused an increase in efficiency and saved energy. Keywords: Plastic optical fiber (POF), daylight, Indoor illumination, energy efficiency, cost.

1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, there have been several studies conducted in order to decrease the costs of the energy in lightening. These studies namely consist of architectural restorations to benefiting from the sunlight more and also more use of LED lightening technology consuming less electrical energy. Architectural restorations are limited in terms of making use of the sunlight more depending on the location, size, and height of the building. In order to benefiting from the sunlight more, to decrease the energy costs and also to reduce the greenhouse gas emission, bringing new technologies are regarded to be inevitable. In spite of the fact that the transmission of the sunlight by focusing and gathering is not a new technology, the realization of the system at issue by mirrors and reflectors might be architecturally rather difficult and over costing. Mayhoub reviews the innovative daylighting systems whether utilization within the building and whether commercially or not [1]. Due to POF materials and systems developed in recent years, most of the above mentioned architectural and cost problems seem to be overcome. Owing to POF materials, the gathered sunlight will be easily distributed to TV, antenna, and the distribution system in an apartment and dark places will be lightened all day long. The flexibility of POF materials enables the problems of

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Ercan Köse and Aydın Mühürcü: Indoor Daylight Systems Design For Dark Sections of The Building with Plastic Optical Fiber

bending to be overcome easily. In our country, the fact that the duration of sun lightening is long; that the energy costs are high, and that there are many dark places in the apartments and buildings is considered to be important factors for us to use this technology. There have been many important studies concerning the POF lightening systems in the literature in recent years. Some of them are as follows: Grise and Patrick improved and assessment passive solar lighting using fiber optics [2]. Han and Kim realization indoor lighting system using fiber optical cable, tracking and lighting concentrator systems [3]. Arkman et al. investigated potential of fiber optic dayligting systems in tropical Malaysia [4]. Nair et al. classification of indoor daylight enhancement systems [5]. Sapia has presented a study on the use of the optical fiber and a solar concentrator for a daylighting addressing system in buildings [6]. Ullah and Shin proposed two efficient approaches for an optical fiberbased dayligting system for multi-floor buildings [7]. Wang et al. discussion on the working theory and limitations among conventional devices and new daylight devices for indoor illumination [8]. Ndujiuba et al. show that the energy conservation capability and efficiency of fiber optical daylighting system as compared to artificial lighting [9]. According to the results of the most of the above mentioned studies, the likelihood of the use of POF systems that will be able to be used commonly in the near future is considerably high in our country. In this study, the usability of the POF system for Tarsus region and our country has been investigated. The results obtained have revealed that POF system can be efficiently utilized in the region of Tarsus and in our country, and that it can make important contributions to saving energy.

2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The test system was built the most common and inexpensive materials. The system consist of 3x2 mm plastic optical fiber, sun tracking system with parabolic mirror and diffusers were used in order to establish the experiments (Figure 1). All the measurements were performed by using luxmeter. Physical experiments of this study were implemented for real time indoor illumination. With the basic shape of the designed system is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1. A sun tracking system with parabolic mirror, plastic optical fiber and diffusers [1]

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Figure 2. A simple representation of the designed system Sun tracking system flow diagram for microcontroller is shown in Figure 3. The system is performing with the comparison of the information received from the LDR sensor. 16F877 microcontroller program code was loaded according to the below flowchart. Then, servo motor system was controlled in the using this program. Ultimately, the parabolic mirror with connected to this system was provided to follow the sun.

Start Read LDR information, and compare the light intensity

Move motor westward

Yes LDR1>LDR2

No

Move motor eastward No

No

LDR1=0

LDR2=0

Yes Stop the motor

Yes Stop the motor

Figure 3. Sun tracking system program flow diagram 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Measurements on June 2016 has been performed with atmosphere the open-air and in the cloudy-air. Measurements were made at 10 minute intervals. The results obtained for some days is given Figure 4. While blue color has shown indoor illuminance, pink color has shown outdoor illuminance (Figure 4). Figure 4 indicates that on 13 June 2016 with the average indoor illuminance recorded above 394lx when the outdoor illuminance ranged from 25492lx to 120876lx. However, on 16 June 2016, the system meaused to started at 09:30 am with the average indoor and outdoor illuminance were around 495lx and 117415lx, respectively. Similarly, on 16 June 2016 with the average indoor illuminance recorded above 471lx when the outdoor illuminance ranged from 79894lx to 132989lx.

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Figure 4. Indoor and outdoor illuminance record for June 13, 16 and 17

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In shown Figure 5, outdoor illuminance measured by using EXTECH Light Meter. Results of indoor and, outdoor illuminance is shown in detail in Figure 4.

Figure 5. Outdoor illuminance measured by using Light Meter 5. CONCLUSION In this study, daylighting systems for building design by using with the plastic optical fiber for innovative daylighting system were performed. In the experimental setup 3x2 mm plastic optical fiber, luxmeter, and sun tracking system with parabolic mirror were used in order to establish the experiments. All the measurements were performed randomly in the different time intervals of the day on June 2016. In this study, the results similar to studies given in Reference 4 conducted for Malaysia were obtained. While open-air high illumination intensity were observed in the designed system, cloudy-air were obtained together with a significant decrease in light intensity values. The designed system does not want high tech, and it has a structure that can be applied easily. To our country has shown that there is a capacity to provide significant energy savings. In particular, the dark apartment space, the dark corridors and many workplaces have a structure able to light during the day. In addition, the flexibility of the POF system will also provide ease of design. REFERENCES [1] Mayhoub M.S., (2014) "Innovative Daylighting Systems' Challenges: A Critical Study", Energy And Buildings, vol. 80, pp.394-405 [2] Grise W., Patrick C., (2002) "Passive Solar Lighting Using Fibre Optics", J Industr Technol., vol. 19, pp.2–7 [3] Han H., Kim J.T., (2009) "Application Of High-Density Daylight For Indoor Illumination", Energy, vol. 35, pp.2654–2666

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Ercan Köse and Aydın Mühürcü: Indoor Daylight Systems Design For Dark Sections of The Building with Plastic Optical Fiber

[4] C. Munaaim M.A., Al-Obaidi K.M., (2014) "Potential Of Fibre Optic Daylighting Systems In Tropical Malaysia", Indoor and Built Enviroment, vol. 0, pp.1-15 [5] Nair M.G., Ramamurthy K., Ganesan A.R., (2014) "Classification Of Indoor Daylight Enhancement Systems", Lighting Res. Technol., vol. 46, pp.245-267 [6] Sapia C., (2013) Daylighting In Buildings: Developments Of Sunlight Addressing By Optical Fiber", Solar Energy, vol. 89, pp.113-121 [7] Ullah I., Shin S., (2014) "Highly Concentrated Optical Fiber-Based Daylighting Systems For Multi-Floor Office Buildings", Energy and Buildings, vol. 72, pp.246–261 [8] Wang C., Abdul-Rahman H., Rao S.P., (2010) "Daylighting Can Be Fluorescent: Development Of A Fiber Solar Concentrator And Test For Its Indoor Illumination", Energy and Buildings, vol. 42, pp.717–727 [9] Ndujiuba C.U., John S.N., Onasoga K., (2014) " Optic Fibericity - The New Era Lighting", International Journal of Energy Engineering, vol. 4., pp. 69-74

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