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pivotal role on the working of the internal combustion engine , our objective is to ..... [II] Kirpal Singh, "Automobile Engineering Volume I & II", Standard Publishers.

International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm

ISSN 2249-6149 Issue 2, Vol.5 (July 2012)

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON MPFI ENGINE USING BIODIESEL

K.B.SIDDEGOWDA1, J.VENKATESH2. 1 Research Scholar ,2 Professor Department Of Automobile Engineering, P E S College of Engineering, Mandya, Karnataka, India. ___________________________________________________________________________

Abstract Transportation is unique among the energy consuming section and it largely depends on the conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. It has got a greater impact in the country’s economy. These petroleum based fuels are stored fuels and they are irreplaceable. With our present known reserves and the growing rate of consumption, it is required to replace the conventional fuels. It is feasible to run automotive vehicle on alternative fuels. In this work an experiment has been performed so as to study the performance of the Maruthi MPFI engine using gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blend (E20) . And as the lubrication oil plays a pivotal role on the working of the internal combustion engine , our objective is to study the properties of the lubricating oil for both fuel running at similar test conditions. ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. INTRODUCTION Performance tests of internal combustion engines are conducted since the beginning of this century and their actual design is a result of this extensive accumulation of practical knowledge. However, the understanding of the physical phenomena and the precise identification of the processes taking place inside the engine always lagged behind experimental information. Various reasons exist for this lag between theory and practice, but the main problems are due to the fact that the processes are not in steady state and occur at high temperatures, the working fluid consumption changes by chemical reactions and the complexity of all geometries. Presently there are still several questions to be answered for each of the processes (intake, compression, combustion, expansion, and exhaust) despite the large number of researches being carried out lately. If on the other hand, advent of high-speed computers has made possible the use of complex mathematical models to simulate the processes within the engine, on the other hand experimental researches are becoming more expensive requiring more sophisticated measuring devices.To avoid some of the inherent problems with neat ethanol, using a blend of gasoline and ethanol has been promoted as a way to reduce the fossil CO 2 emissions. Although the emissions of fossil CO2 from SI engines powered vehicles can be reduced by using fuels made from biological matter, e.g., Methanol or ethanol, there are some drawbacks. Using neat ethanol as SI engine fuel is possible, but cold starting and warming up performance is unsatisfactory. The combustion of alcohol may lead to higher aldehyde emissions, which are undesirable for health reasons. Minor modifications to the fuel systems are also needed, since ethanol and methanol are detrimental to several metals and plastics. Perhaps the most difficult problem to solve is the availability of the fuel. By using ethanol blends nearly 5-20% of the gasoline fuels used can be reduced. With the rapid increase of the use of petroleum products, the means are required to replace the conventional fuels. The crude cost a heavy burden of over 80000 crores on the country's foreign exchange in the year 2000-01. At the same time the sugar industry in India faced with a problem of excess capacity for production of alcohol. Against the capacity of 3.2 billion Page 461

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ISSN 2249-6149 Issue 2, Vol.5 (July 2012)

liters, the sugar industry now produces 1.3 billion liters of alcohol annually. India being an agro -based country and one of the leading countries in the production of alcohol. So we can make use of alcohol as a substitute for gasoline to run a vehicle. In addition to this, presently India is paying 30% of its total foreign exchange earning on the oil imports. Using alcohol blend as an alternative fuel for motor an attempt can be made to overcome the petroleum shortages to some extent. Hence the proposed work of dissertation would be an attempt to experiment gasoline alcohol blends on Indian motor and to look for its feasibility so as to have an alternative fuel for gasoline, which is being used continuously and to overcome petroleum crisis to some extent for the benefit of the country. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW The research has been conducted on a number of alcohols, methanol and ethanol are considered the alcohols that can be economically produced in the quantities required for a practical motor fuel. Both alcohol fuels can be used in pure form or they can be blended with gasoline to reduce the net consumption of petroleum. As a blend, alcohol fuels require less modification to delivery and vehicle system, and drive ability is generally better than with net alcohols.The lower alcohols such as methanol and ethanol are known to be excellent fuels for S.I. engine due to their high octane rating, lean flammability limits, high thermal efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Alcohols give to smaller concentration of unburned fuel and CO, because of low proportion of carbon in alcohols. Although alcohols have similar boiling point to the mid range boiling point of gasoline, alcohols evaporate much slower than gasoline due to its higher heat of vaporization alcohol gasoline blends can be used as fuel in S.I. engine. If alcohol is used as a sole fuel, then it leads to cold starting problems due to their lower volatility. To overcome this difficulty, gasoline or gasoline - alcohols blends can be used as starting fuels. In both ethanol and methanol operated engines high levels of aldehyde emission is there, chiefly formaldehyde in the case of methanol and acetaldehyde in the case of ethanol. By means of a simple oxidation catalyst the aldehyde emission of alcohol engines can be reduced to gasoline engine levels. For use of straight alcohols some engine modifications are necessary. The high octane number alcohol fuels are to be utilized by approximate high engine compression ratios in order to achieve maximum output and economy. The straight alcohol engines have unsatisfactory cold starting and warm up behavior. Following are the modifications required to run the engine on straight alcohol [9]: • The carburetor meters the flow of fuel to the cylinder and mixes the fuel with air. Because ethanol supplies less energy per unit of volume then does petrol, fuel metering jets must be enlarged to allow the proper amount of fuel to pass. • An air valve is required to be fitted to the inlet manifold so as to adjust the quantity of air supply to the carburetor. This is essential as alcohols require low air/fuel ratio as compared to petrol. • Nozzle in the venturi of the carburetor is required to be replaced by an emulsion jet. Since ethanol vaporizes easily, the emulsion jet keeps the fuel in a state between liquid and vapour, which can allow easy firing of ethanol. • Because ethanol is 7 to 8% heavier than petrol, it becomes necessary to adjust the float setting to maintain the proper level of fuel in the float bowl. Otherwise the fuel level will be too low. For that the float is required to bend up slightly. • Ethanol fuel-air mixture tends to be poorly vaporized under some conditions; it is useful to use a better ignition system then the conventional breaker point triggering system. Page 462

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An ignition is required to be advanced in the system as compared to petrol. This is to be achieved by moving the contact breaker towards the cam. Ethanol's high octane rating allows as much higher compression ratio then can be used in a petrol engine. And increased compression ratio improves engine efficiency. There are two usual ways of increasing the compression ratio. First is the piston replacement. Piston with flat tops can be replaced with domed piston, which reduces the size of combustion chamber and thus increases compression ratio. Another way of increasing compression ratio is by machining the cylinder head thereby reducing the clearance volume. Starting problem with straight ethanol is to be solved by using exhaust manifold and inlet manifold in a single piece. This type of manifold allows entry to some exhaust heat to inlet manifold and thereby assists in easy firing of ethanol. With all these modifications in the engine, alcohols can be used effectively as a complete replacement for petrol. Alcohols are unsuitable as diesel fuels for the following reasons: The cetane number of alcohol fuels is very low, which prevents their ignition by compression. Alcohol fuels have low lubricating qualities causing trouble in injection pumps and nozzles. There are material problems caused by the harsh reaction of methanol towards various plastics and metals.

3. REVIEW ON ETHANOL Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic, agreeable odor. In dilute aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavour, but in more solutions that are concentrated it has a burning taste. Ethanol is a group of chemical compounds whose molecules contain a hydroxyl group, -OH bonded to a carbon atom. Ethanol is an agro based non-renewable product and can be used extensively in vehicles instead of gasoline based renewable products. The effective use of ethanol either as a neat fuel or as mixture with gasoline has been proved technically feasible and environmentally acceptable one. The use of ethanol as an automotive fuel has in fact been known for almost half a century. Confronted with an anticipated increase in primary energy consumption and in view of the exhaust emission problem it can be stated that of all the possible alternative fuels for motor vehicles ethanol occupied major position. According to a January 1998 study by the Argonne national laboratory, vehicles that use ethanol actually help offset fossil fuels green house gas emissions which contribute to global warming by 35-46% Ethanol is most commonly used to increase octane and improve the emissions quality of gasoline. In some areas of the United States, ethanol is blended with gasoline to form an E10 blend (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline), but it can be used in higher concentrations such as E95. Original equipment manufacturers produce flexible-fuel vehicles that can run on E85 or any other combination ofethanol and gasoline. BENEFITS: • Ethanol is a much cleaner fuel than petrol (gasoline). • It is a renewable fuel made from plants. • It is not a fossil-fuel; manufacturing it and burning it does not increase the greenhouse effect. • It provides high octane at low cost as an alternative to harmful fuel additives. • Ethanol blends can be used in all petrol engines without modifications. • Ethanol is biodegradable without harmful effects on the environment. Page 463

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It significantly reduces harmful exhaust emissions. Ethanol's high oxygen content reduces carbon monoxide levels more than any other oxygenate: by 25-30%, according to the USEPA Ethanol reduces emissions and reduces CO2. Ethanol blends dramatically reduce emissions of hydrocarbons, a major contributor to the depletion of the ozone layer. High - level ethanol blends reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 20%. Ethanol can reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by up to 100% on a full life-cycle basis. High-level ethanol blends can reduce emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) by 30% or more (VOCs are major sources of ground-level ozone formation). As an octane enhancer, ethanol can cut emissions of cancer-causing benzene and butadiene by more than 50%. Sulphur dioxide and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions are significantly decreased with ethanol.

4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND TESTING The experimental set up consists of mainly engine testing rig, engine dynamometer. The engine test rig contains all the measured units which measures, speed, different temperatures etc. The engine is connected to the dynamometer through a shaft using dynamometer it is able to vary the load. Various sensors as connected to different parts of the engine to sense different parameters like speed, temperature, load etc, water circulation provided in the engine set up to reduce the engine temperature The engine that has been for this experiment is shown in fig 1 which is MARUTI MPFI engine its specification is Table 1

Fig.1 Experiment Setup 1. ENGINE TEST RIG

10.

4. SHAFT

13.

2. ENGINE BED

11.

5. DYNAMOMETER

14.

3. ENGINE

12.

6. LOADING ARRANGEMENT

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7. WATER SUPPLY

16.

ACCELERATOR

8. IGNITION SWITCH

17.

SPEEDOMETER

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9. LOAD INDICATOR

FUEL INDICATOR

DYNAMOMETER SPEED INDICATOR

EXHAUST

TEMPERATURE INDICATOR

CYLINDER CUT OFF SWITCH

IGNITION SWITCH

Fig: 2 Photograph of the Experimental Setup Table 1. ENGINE SPECIFICATION OF MARUTI MPFI ENGINE Model : Maruti 800cc, MPFI engine Manufacturer : Maruti Udyog Ltd. Type : Petrol, 3cyl, Inline. Cooling : Water cooled. Displacement : 796cc. Compression ratio : 7.9:1 Maximum power : [email protected]: 1-3-2 : 68.5mm : 72mm

Fig: 3 PHOTOGRAPH OF MARUTI MPFI ENGINE

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ISSN 2249-6149 Issue 2, Vol.5 (July 2012)

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS After conducting the performance test on three cylinder, four stroke Maruti MPFI, S.I Engine using gasoline ethanol blend with and without additive the following observations were made and are discussed.Figures 4 and 5 show the variation of total fuel consumption verses brake horse power for 100% petrol and blends (with and without) fuel additive run engine at 2000 and 2500 rpm speed of the engine. It is seen from the graph that at low and moderate load conditions the fuel consumption with gasoline as a fuel is comparatively lower than that of ethanol blends. This is because a gallon of ethanol contains less than 2/3 of the energy of a gallon of petrol. Hence the volumetric fuel economy decreased slightly with blends comparison with 100% gasoline run engine. Table: 2 : Tabulation of Total Fuel Consumption

Sl No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

Total Fuel Consumption In kg/hr Engine Load BHP Gasoline E10 E25 speed In In Gasoline + E10 + E25 + In rpm kg's KW Additive Additive Additive 1500 0 0 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2000 0 0 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.8 1.8 2.1 2000 2 2.94 1.5 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.4 2000 4 5.88 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.7 2.7 2000 6 8.82 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.7 3 3.3 2000 8 11.76 2.7 2.7 2.7 3 3.3 3.6 2500 0 0 1.5 1.5 2.4 2.7 2.7 3 2500 2 3.67 1.8 1.8 2.7 3 3 3.3 2500 4 7.35 2.4 2.4 3 3.3 3.6 3.6 2500 6 11.02 3 3 3.3 3.6 3.9 3.9 2500 8 14.68 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.2 3000 8 17.64 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.8 4.5

E35 1.8 2.1 2.7 3 3.3 3.9 2.1 2.7 3.3 3.9 4.2 4.5

E35 + Additive 1.8 2.4 2.7 3 3.3 4.2 1.8 2.4 2.7 3.3 3.9 4.2

Fig.4: Variation of TFC with BHP

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ISSN 2249-6149 Issue 2, Vol.5 (July 2012)

Fig.5: Variation of TFC with BHP Figures 6 and 7 shows the plot between the specific fuel consumption (SFC) verses brake horse power for 100% gasoline and two different engine speed. From the graph, it is seen that the SFC of the engine with blends (with and without) fuel additive are more than that of an engine run with 100% gasoline or in other words, for generating equal amount of energy (BHP) greater weight of blends are required as compared to 100% gasoline. This is because the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio required for ethanol is 9:1 which is considerably lower than that required for petrol (14.7:1), also the calorific value (CV) of ethanol is lower than that of petrol. To generate equal amount of energy, approximately 50 to 60% greater weight of ethanol is required as compared to petrol. Hence for blends also the SFC is slightly more in comparison to 100% gasoline, however energy based economy increased using ethanol petrol blend because of the increase in octane number of the ethanol- gasoline blend due to which the combustion characteristics are improved and consequently proper and effective burning of the fuel. Table 3. Tabulation of Specific Fuel Consumption Specific Fuel Consumption In kg/KW-hr Engine Load BHP Sl Gasoline E10 E25 speed In In No Gasoline + E10 + E25 + In rpm kg's KW Additive Additive Additive 01 1500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 02 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03 2000 2 2.94 0.51 0.51 0.61 0.71 0.81 0.81 04 2000 4 5.88 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.4 0.46 0.46 05 2000 6 8.82 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.3 0.34 0.37 06 2000 8 11.76 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.25 0.28 0.3 07 2500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 08 2500 2 3.67 0.49 0.49 0.73 0.81 0.81 0.89 09 2500 4 7.35 0.32 0.32 0.4 0.45 0.49 0.49 10 2500 6 11.02 0.27 0.27 0.3 0.32 0.35 0.35 11 2500 8 14.68 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.28 12 3000 8 17.64 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.27 0.25

E35 0 0 0.91 0.51 0.37 0.33 0 0.73 0.45 0.35 0.28 0.25

E35 + Additive 0 0 0.91 0.51 0.37 0.35 0 0.65 0.36 0.3 0.26 0.23

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Fig.6: Variation of SFC with BHP

Fig.7: Variation of SFC with BHP Figures 8 and Fig 9 show the variation of brake thermal efficiency versus brake horse power for different engine speed. It is seen from graph that the brake thermal efficiency of blended fuel with addition of fuel additive is slightly increased than that of the 100% gasoline. This is mainly because the fuel additive used increases the CV of ethanol-gasoline blend than that of the gasoline. Again, since the low engine speed and moderate load condition the total fuel consumption for blends is higher as compare to 100% gasoline. Table 4. Tabulation of Thermal Efficiency Thermal Efficiency In ( %) Engine Load BHP Sl Gasoline E10 E25 speed In In No + E10 + E25 + In rpm kg's KW Gasoline Additive Additive Additive 01 1500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 02 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03 2000 2 2.94 16.03 16.03 15.72 13.47 12.9 12.9 04 2000 4 5.88 22.9 22.9 26.9 23.58 22.9 22.9 05 2000 6 8.82 30.06 30.06 35.37 31.44 31.03 31.03 06 2000 8 11.76 35.63 35.63 41.9 37.73 37.6 34.5 07 2500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 08 2500 2 3.67 16.68 16.68 13.08 11.77 12.9 11.73 09 2500 4 7.35 25.05 25.05 23.58 21.43 21.55 21.55 10 2500 6 11.02 30.05 30.05 32.14 29.4 29.8 29.8 11 2500 8 14.68 33.4 33.4 39.3 36.28 36.9 36.9 12 3000 8 17.64 34.36 34.36 40.42 40.42 38.8 41.37

E35 0 0 12.07 21.73 29.63 33.43 0 15.07 24.7 31.3 38.8 43.46

E35 + Additive 0 0 12.07 21.73 29.63 31.04 0 16.9 30.18 37.03 41.8 46.5

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Fig.8: Variation of TE with BHP

Fig.9: Variation of TE with BHP Table 5. Tabulation of Mechanical Efficiency

Sl No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

Mechanical Efficiency In( %) Engin e Load BHP Gasolin E10 E25 speed In In e + + Gasolin E10 E25 In kg's KW + Additiv Additiv e rpm Additive e e 1500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 2 2.94 10.02 10.02 10.02 10.02 10.02 10.02 2000 4 5.88 20.05 20.05 20.05 20.05 20.05 20.05 2000 6 8.82 30.08 30.08 30.08 30.08 30.08 30.08 2000 8 11.76 40.11 40.11 40.11 40.11 40.11 40.11 2500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2500 2 3.67 12.53 12.53 12.53 12.53 12.53 12.53 2500 4 7.35 25.07 25.07 25.07 25.07 25.07 25.07 2500 6 11.02 37.6 37.6 37.6 37.6 37.6 37.6 2500 8 14.68 50.15 50.15 50.15 50.15 50.15 50.15 3000 8 17.64 60.18 60.18 60.18 60.18 60.18 60.18

E35 E35 + Additive 0 0 10.02 20.05 30.08 40.11 0 12.53 25.07 37.6 50.15 60.18

0 0 10.02 20.05 30.08 40.11 0 12.53 25.07 37.6 50.15 60.18 Page 469

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Figures 10 and 11 show the variation of CO emission in percentage verses load in Kg for 100% gasoline and E-10, E-25, E35 (with and without additive) at different engine speed. It is seen from the graph that CO emission of gasoline with additive, E10, E25 and E35 with additive is far better than the gasoline at all load condition. The CO emission of 100% gasoline may be as high as 0.75% whereas for gasoline with additive, E-10, E-25, E-35 with additive is as high as 0.45%. The reduction in the CO emission with additive is because of the better combustion mechanics.

Fig.10: variation of CO with LOAD

Fig.11: variation of CO with LOAD Figures 12a, b show the variation of HC emission (in ppm) verses load for 100% gasoline, E10, E-25 and E-35 (with and without additive) respectively. From the graph it is seen that the HC emission for E-35 blend and gasoline with additive is reduced in comparison to 100% gasoline and other blends. This is because of the fact that addition of ethanol and fuel additive improves the octane number of the fuel due to which the fuel will burn more completely resulting in lesser unburned HC emission. 5. CONCLUSION Use of ethanol gasoline blend (E10, E25 & E35) with additive results in lesser HC emission compared to gasoline. Since the octane number of ethanol is greater than the gasoline we can use the alcohols at higher compression ratio without the problem of knocking. So by Page 470

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increasing the compression ratio of the existing engine it is possible to get more power. A feedback controlled multipoint fuel injection system can accommodate even higher alcoholgasoline blend. The existing MPFI engine consists of Two-way catalytic technology. Exhaust pollutant levels can be maintained at very low levels throughout the blend ranges with the use of stoichiometric operation and 3-way catalyst technology. Even though the MPFI system are best suited to obtain near about stoichiometric mixture it requires major modifications in its engine control system for running on straight alcohol. That's why the use of lower blends of alcohol up to 20% will be the most reliable approach to make best use of the source. The recommended of use of fuel additive for petrol run engine can be successfully used in the same engine for 25% Ethanol-75% gasoline blend with fuel additive and gasoline with fuel additive. However for the enhance performance with ethanol-gasoline blend synthetic lubricating oil can be used with suitable additives.

Fig.12 a, b: Variation of HC with LOAD Page 471

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6. REFERENCES [I] Alvydas Pikunas , Saugirdas Pukalskas , Juozas Grabys ., 2003 vol. 10, 3-4 "Influence of composition of gasoline-ethanol blends on parameters of internal combustion engines”, Journal of KONES Internal Combustion Engines"2003, vol. 10, 3-4. [2] J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, MCGraw-Hill Inc, New York, 1988. [3] Maruti 800 Service Manual, 2006 [4]. Talal Yusaf, GNajafi2 and David Buttsworth,2007 Theoretical and experimental investigation of SI engine performance and exhaust emissions using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels FoES, University of Southern Queensland, 4350 Toowoomba, QLD Australia [email protected] Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. [5] S. Y. Liao, D. M. Jiang, Q. Cheng, Z. H. Huang, and Q. Wei 2005,19, 813-819 "Investigation of the Cold-Start Combustion Characteristics of Ethanol Gasoline Blends in a Constant-Volume Chamber" Republic of China. [6] Al-Farayedhi, A. A., Al-Dawood, A. M., and Gandhidasan, P., 2000, ''Experimental Investigation of SI Engine Performance Using Oxygenated Fuel,'' ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., pp. 239-247. [7] Furey, R.L., Perry, K.L., 1991. "Composition and reactivity of fuel vapor emissions from gasoline-oxygenate blends", SAE Paper 912429. [8] M.A. Ceviz *, F. Yu" ksel, 26 July 2004, "Effects of ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends on cyclic variability and emissions in an SI engine" University of Atatu" rk, Erzurum 25240, Turkey [9] M. Bahattin Celik ,26 October 2007, " Experimental determination of suitable ethanolgasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine", Karabuk University, Technical Education Faculty, 78050 Karabuk, Turkey. [10] Mathur & Sharma, "A course in I.C.Engines", Dhanpat Rai Publications, [II] Kirpal Singh, "Automobile Engineering Volume I & II", Standard Publishers Distributors. [12] S.M. Fayyad, Waleed Momani, S.Q. Abu-Ein, Omar Juditawy and Taiseer AbuRahmeh, March 10, 2010, "Experimental Investigation of Using Fuel Additives -Alcohol", Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 2(2): 164169, 2010. [13] Wei-Dong Hsieha, Rong-Hong Chenb, Tsung-Lin Wub, Ta-Hui Lina, "Engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels", 9 October 2001, Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 403-410, Tainan 70101, Taiwan,ROC.

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