Global Conference on Global Warming

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May 25, 2015 - A registration desk will be open on-site at the Royal Olympic Hotel. ... for registered participants who have paid the extra gala dinner ticket.

Global Conference on Global Warming GCGW 2015

Short Conference programme & General information Athens, Greece, 24-27 May 2015

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece REGISTRATION DESK

A registration desk will be open on-site at the Royal Olympic Hotel. Opening hours: Sunday 24/05: 19.00 - 22.00 hrs Monday 25/05: 08.00 - 17.00 hrs Tuesday 26/05: 08:00 - 17:00 hrs Wednesday 27/05: 08:00 - 17:00 hrs Conference bags containing the final programme, a name badge, conference proceedings in USB sticks, ticket for welcome reception, promotional materials, etc. will be obtained by registered participants from the registration desk. All registered participants must wear their name badge during all Sessions and Lunches.

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS AND LANGUAGE

GCGW 2015 Conference proceedings will be distributed on USB memory sticks integrated in pens. A short roundup of the main Conference conclusions, keynote papers, and papers in plenary sessions will be published in paper form as well. All authors should allow the use of their abstracts and full papers at the Conference materials through signing a “Consent letter” (to be sent to you together with the final paper review result). The official language of the Conference is English. No Translation is foreseen at any of the events of the Conference.

SESSIONS

All papers of the Conference are to be presented in “Oral” or “Poster” Sessions. There is no distinction, as to the merit or quality of the respective papers, between an oral and a Poster Session. All papers evaluated by the Conference evaluators are equally eligible for a poster or oral presentation – the selection between the two, being made randomly. 2

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece The Speakers in each Session can upload their presentations at least 15 minutes before the start of the session in the presentation computers in the Session rooms. Alternatively, presentations can be sent at [email protected] PowerPoint presentations are assumed, but a PDF format can work as well. An assistant will be available at the room to assist with this procedure. During the Sessions each speaker is allocated for his/her presentation an estimated time of 15-18 minutes +3 minutes for questions. The chair of each Session will make the final arrangements in cooperation with the speakers. The Posters will be displayed at the specially designated room on the ground floor of the Royal Olympic Hotel on the specially foreseen for this purpose Tablets. Each Poster Session is postulated in the Conference programme. The authors of the papers in the Poster Sessions should go to place their posters at the designated positions half an hour before the scheduled beginning of the Poster Session. The same (i.e. the authors) should take their posters down at the designated end of their Poster Session.

PARALLEL EVENTS

On the 26th of May, the parallel event “Bioeconomy & Industrial symbiosis: concepts for promoting sustainable growth and development” will be held at the Conference Room on the 1st floor of the Royal Olympic Hotel. The conference is jointly organized in the framework of the European projects BERST (BioEconomy Regional Strategy Toolkit, www.berst.eu), supported by the Seventh Framework Programme, and EPIC 2020 (Symbiotic bio-Energy Port Integration with Cities by 2020, www.epic2020.eu), co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union. Attendance to the parallel event is free of charge. For attendance / registration please contact [email protected] or the Registration Desk.

LUNCHES – COFFEE BREAKS – RECEPTIONS

All registered participants can participate in the evening welcoming reception (cocktail) at the Royal Olympic Hotel on Monday 25/05/2015 from 19:00 to 20:00 hrs.

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GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece The guided tour to the Acropolis museum, and the gala dinner at the Acropolis museum restaurant, is reserved for registered participants who have paid the extra gala dinner ticket. Lunches and coffee breaks will be offered at the Kallirhoe 2 Room on the Ground Floor of the Royal Olympic Hotel. Only the Conference participants who are staying at the Royal Olympic Hotel can get breakfast at the hotel. Breakfast is available between 07:00 -10:00 at the Ioannis Roof Garden Restaurant.

CONFERENCE CERTIFICATES

Conference certificates will be issued to all registered attendants of the Conference and will be delivered upon their request by e-mail or at the registration desk. These certificates will be ready for delivery at the registration desk. If you are unable to pick up your certificate, please kindly inform the registration desk and provide a mailing address.

TRANSPORTATION ARRANGEMENTS

Transportation to and from the historical building of the Academy for the Opening Session on Monday morning (May 25th) will be provided by the organizers as follows: u T  wo bus departures will be provided from the Royal Olympic Hotel to the Academy, at 8.40am and 9.10am on Monday morning. u Two return bus schedules, from the Academy to the hotel, will also take place with the first departing the Academy building 10 minutes after the end of the Opening Session, and the second, half an hour later. For the transfer to the ACROPOLIS Museum on Tuesday 26th May, the participants will go on foot (distance from the Royal Olympic hotel approximately 500m). Participants that wish to go together, can gather at the hotel lobby between 7.15 and 7.30pm. The group will walk to the Museum, accompanied by a Conference assistant, at 7.30pm. For the one-day Cruise to the Aegean Sea on Sunday 24th May, there will be a bus transfer from and to 4

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece

the Royal Olympic Hotel. The bus will depart from the Royal Olympic Hotel, at 07.25am and will wait at the port (at a designated point to be shown to the passengers during the morning transfer) at the time of the boat’s return. The estimated time of arrival at the hotel is 20:45 – 21.00pm). For more information please visit: http://www.astoria.gr/onedaycruise-CERTH.html

MISCELLANEOUS

No smoking is allowed in all areas of the Conference, inside the hotel or at the Academy building. Wireless internet is available at the Royal Olympic Hotel - password is needed and can be provided free of charge by the reception. For all sessions mobile phones should be put on the silent mode, or switched off. May weather in Athens is expected to be sunny with an average temperature of 25º to 30º Celsius. The electricity in Greece is 220 volts 50Hz. Tipping is not mandatory in Greece. However, it is customary to add 5% in restaurants if you are satisfied with the service. In May, the Summer (Daylight-Saving) Time is observed in Greece, which is three hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT +3). The Organizers will accept no liability for personal injuries sustained by Conference participants on the Conference venues or elsewhere. Also, no liability is accepted for any loss or damage to any property belonging to Conference participants, either during, or as a result of, the Conference or during all tours and events. Participants are recommended to seek insurance coverage for health and accident, or lost luggage and trip cancellation.

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GCGW 2015

MONDAY 25th MAY, 2015

Venue: Academy of Athens (Central building, 28, Panepistimiou Ave., Athens)

SUMMARY CONFERENCE PROGRAMME OFFICIAL OPENING SESSION 8.00 - 17.00

REGISTRATION DESK OPEN AT THE ROYAL OLYMPIC HOTEL Session Co-chairs: Prof. L. Christophorou, Director, Research Office of Experimental Physics, Academy of Athens, President of Energy Committee, Academy of Athens & Prof. Em. Kakaras, Director of Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute of Centre of Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH/CPERI)

9.30 - 9.35

Welcome by Prof. L. Christophorou, Director, Research Office of Experimental Physics, Academy of Athens, President of Energy Committee, Academy of Athens

9.35 - 9.50

Address by the Chairman of the Board of Directors and Director of Central Directorate of CERTH, Prof. Ath. Konstandopoulos

9.50 - 10.00

Address, on behalf of the Conference co-chairs, by Prof. C. S. Zerefos, Director, Professor Emeritus, Center for Environmental Effects on Health, Academy of Athens

10.00 - 10.10

Address by GCGW Founding Chair, Prof. Ibrahim Dincer, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Programs Director, University of Ontario, Institute of Technology

10.10 - 10.40

10.40 - 11.10

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KEYNOTE SPEECHES

“Making Europe stronger in energy and innovations through a more active science-policy dialogue”, Prof. Peter Lund, Chair Energy Programme European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC). “Energy Technologies for minimum carbon footprint”, Prof. Shozo Kaneko, Professor of the Endowed Research Unit : Advanced Energy Conversion Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Deputy Director, Collaborative Research Center for Energy Engineering.

GCGW 2015

MONDAY 25th MAY, 2015

Venue: Academy of Athens (Central building, 28, Panepistimiou Ave., Athens)

11.10 - 11.40

“Transport sector adaptation actions and prospects”, Prof. George A. Giannopoulos, Professor Emeritus Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Director of the Hellenic Institute of Transport, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas.

11.40 - 12.10

“First-Mover Advantages of the European Union’s Climate Change Mitigation Strategy”, Prof. Pantelis Kapros, E3MLab, National Technical University Athens.

Note: Two bus departures from the Academy, towards the hotel, will be made after the end of the opening ceremony: the first 10 minutes after the end of the Session, and the second half an hour later.

GCGW 2015

MONDAY 25th MAY, 2015 (Afternoon Session) Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

13︓30 - 14:15 LIGHT LUNCH AT THE ROYAL OLYMPIC HOTEL_KALLIRHOE 2 (ground floor) 14︓15 - 14:45 Room: Kallirhoe 1, Chair: Prof. Dincer Ibrahim, UOIT (Canada) LECTURE IN PLENARY “Reduce CO2 emissions by using the UN FoRFITS tool”, Konstantinos Alexopoulos, Secretary Rail Secretariat Transport Trends and Economics Secretariat UNITED NATIONS Economic Commission for Europe. Room: Kallirhoe 1 (ground floor)

14︓45 - 16:15 Chair: Assoc. Prof. Hande Demirel, ITU (Turkey)

Theme II. Securing Sustainable Mobility to Mitigate Climate Change

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Room: Templar’s (ground floor)

Chair: Prof. Dincer Ibrahim, UOIT (Canada)

Theme I. Global Warming and Climate Change : General issues and challenges 7

GCGW 2015

MONDAY 25th MAY, 2015 (Afternoon Session) Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

Session II.1: Transport Operation and Resilience Issues

Session I.1: General Aspects of Global Warming, Current Policies and Challenges

1. Improvement of transport networks resilience against extreme weather 1. Air quality in the urban environment: events: Adaptation measures identified the gender approach (#106), T. Slini, within the MOWE-IT project (#122), F. N. Pavlidou I. Stamos, E. Mitsakis, G. Aifantopoulou, 2. Potential impact of global warming M. Nokkala on whiting in a Semi-Enclosed Gulf (#295), A. Shanableh, M. Imteaz, 2. Road transport induced GHG emissions calculation for urban transportation K. Hamad, M. Omar, T. Merabtene, networks; The case of Athens and M. Siddique Thessaloniki in Greece (#120), 3. Potential environmental and economic C. Samaras, I. Stamos, L. Ntziachristos, benefits from the interconnection of E. Mitsakis, Z. Samaras, G. Ayfantopoulou the Greek islands (#189), E. Zafeiratou,

3. Effects of flooding on vehicle circulation; the 2013 Αthens case study (#177), I. Stamos, M. Diakakis, E. Mitsakis

4. Experimental investigation to reduce CO2 emission in a single cylinder CI engine using low carbon fuel blend with Karanja oil methyl ester and amine injection in the exhaust Manifold (#134), S. Thiyagarajan, V. Edwin Geo, L. Jesu Martin, B.Nagalingam

C. Spataru

4. The interaction of land use, agriculture and global warming (#209), G. O. Denli, H. Hakan Denli, D. Z. Seker 5. Air temperature data analysis of the period 1983-2012 in Athens and Thessaloniki climate change effect in Greek cities (#169), T. Slini, K. T. Papakostas

5. A Floating car data driven approach for exploring the impacts of extreme precipitation on vehicle circulation (#121), I. Stamos, J. M. Salanova Grau, E. Mitsakis

16:15 - 16:45 COFFEE BREAK at Room Kallirhoe 2 (ground floor) 8

GCGW 2015

MONDAY 25th MAY, 2015 (Afternoon Session) Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel Room: Kallirhoe 1 (ground floor) 16︓45 - 18:15 Chair: Prof. Yildiz Ilhami, Dalhousie University (Canada)

Theme I. Global Warming and Climate Change : General Issues Challenges Session I.2: Climate change Mitigation Measures and Prospects.

1. Ground response to global warming (#243), M. Kharseh, M. Al-Khawaja 2. Possible effects sea level rise: A case study of Izmir Bay, Turkey (#205), H. Aksoy, H. Demirel

3. Air conditioning based on hydroxides with solar driving for low GHG emissions (#13), R. J. Romero, S. Silva – Sotelo, Y. R. Galindo – Luna, C. V. Valdéz – Morales, J. Ibarra – Bahena, A. Hdz – Jasso, A. Rodríguez - Martínez 4. Regional estimates of global climate change: A dynamical downscaling approach to Southeast Europe (#167), R. – E. P. Sotiropoulou, E. Tagaris, A. Sotiropoulos, I. Spanos, P.Milonas, A. Michaelakis 5. Group comparison, trends and cluster analysis to understand historical precipitation (#40), R. Abrahão

Room: Templar’s (ground floor) Chair: Dr. Antoniou Constantinos, NTUA (Greece)

Theme II. Securing Sustainable Mobility to Mitigate Climate Change Session II.2: Climate Impact Effects of Air and Maritime Transport

1. Tropospheric volcanism and Air-traffic (#200), C. Zerefos, I. Kapsomenakis, E. Gerasopoulos, V. Amoiridis, K. Eleftheratos, C. Meleti, H. Eskes, U. Köhler 2. Determination of minimum emission route in maritime transportation (#283), L. Bilgili, U. B. Celebi

3. Pollution effects onboard and its generated solution for minimized pollution effect (#229), M. Suner, T. Yildiz 4. Carbon-mitigating air transport: Analysis of current policy instruments (#262), I. Pagoni, V. Psaraki-Kalouptsidi 5. The effect of parameter selection on fume formation rate in smaw of AH36 shipbuilding steel using ANOVA method (#286), T. Mert, L. Bilgili, K. M. Senoz, U. B. Çelebi, S. Ekinci

19︓00 - 20:00 WELCOMING COCKTAIL AT THE ROYAL OLYMPIC HOTEL_PANORAMA HALL (6th floor)

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GCGW 2015

TUESDAY 26th MAY, 2015

Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

9︓00 - 9:30

Room: Kallirhoe 1, Chair: Prof. Carvalho Monica, Federal University of Paraíba, (Brazil),

LECTURE IN PLENARY “Pollutant emissions from the transport sector and their impact on urban air quality and health”, Prof. Nicolas S. Moussiopoulos, Vice President, International Hellenic University, Former Dean of the Faculty of Engineering Thessaloniki- AUTH. Room: Kallirhoe 1 (ground floor)

9︓30 - 11:00 Chair: Prof. Carvalho Monica, Federal University of Paraíba, (Brazil) Co - Chair: Dr. Panopoulos Kyriakos, CERTH/CPERI (Greece) Theme I. Global Warming and Climate Change : General Issues and Challenges Session I.4: Climate Prediction Tools

1. Development of models for the estimation of global solar radiation over selected stations in India (#213), M. Maroof Khan, M. Jamil Ahmad, B. Jamil 2. Rainfall trend analysis in the region of Curitiba using regional climate model scenarios (#92), R. Ploszai

3. The driving factors of CO2 emissions from electricity generation: An Index decomposition analysis for Greece and EU-28 (#197), D. Diakoulaki, C. Chatzifoti, D.Giannakopoulos, C. Karaboiki, S. Karellas

Room: Templar’s (ground floor) Chair: Assoc. Prof. Kizilkan Onder, SDU (Turkey) Theme I. Global Warming and Climate Change: General Issues and Challenges Session I.3: Climate Change Observatory

1. Investigation of drought conditions in Turkey between 2004 and 2013 via drought indices derived from remotely sensed data (#206), N. Molavizadeh, E.Sertel, H. Demirel 2. Carbon foot print calculation of a turbofan engine at landing and take-off cycle (#31), Y. Şöhret, T. Hikmet Karakoç

3. Changes of bioclimatic conditions of importance to tourism over the Eastern Mediterranean (#201), C. Zerefos, I. Kapsomenakis, P. Nastos, A. Matzarakis

4. Modelling of wind speed using artificial 4. An assessment on the impacts of sea level rise in the Çukurova Deltaic neural networks for university campus Region in Turkey (#207), Ö. Simav, of Burdur (Turkey) (#343), A. Kerem, H. Demirel, D. Zafer Şeker Ö. Kizilkan, S. Salman 10

GCGW 2015

TUESDAY 26th MAY, 2015

Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

5. Cultural landscapes as a means of energy reduction at global warming (#199), A. Venetsanou, A.-T. Venetsanos, L. Mantziou

5. Measurement and analysis of solar radiation data over Aligarh (India) (#176), B. Jamil, N. Akhtar

11︓00 - 11:30 COFFEE BREAK at the room Kallirhoe 2 (ground floor) Room: Kallirhoe 1 (ground floor) 11:30 - 13:00 Chair: Prof. Lund Peter, Aalto, University (Finland)

Theme ΙΙΙ: Solar Energy - Solar Based Plants 1. Theoretical and experimental study of cascade solar still (#12), N. Bellel, I. Tabet

2. Solar-driven continuous methane reforming reactor (#163), M. Lange, J. Lapp, R. Rieping, L. de Oliveira, M. Roeb, C. Sattler 3. Solar assisted organic Rankine cycle for power generation: A comparative analysis for natural working fluids (#342), Ö. Kizilkan, S. Nižetić, G. Yildirim

4. Life cycle analysis as a decision criterion for the implementation of solar photovoltaic panels in a Northeast Brazil hospital (#32), M. Carvalho, D. Bandeira de Mello Delgado, R. Chacartegui

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Room: Templar’s (ground floor) Chair: Assoc. Prof. Çolpan Can Özgur, DEU (Turkey) Theme IV. Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) and Geotechnology Issues

Session IV.1: Carbon Capture & Storage 1. Energy storage combined with conventional power plants – innovative concepts for sustainable energy conversion and use (#224), T. Buddenberg, C. Bergins, B. Stöver, E.Kakaras

2. Flue gas CO2 sequestration by turkish coal fly ashes and Anotolian geothermal hot waters (#218), Y. İ. Tosun 3. Low cost minerals and industrial waste materials as oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion (#267), L. Nalbandian, A. Evdou, V. Zaspalis

4. CaO-Based sorbents for postcombustion CO2 capture via carbonate looping (#270), Z. Skoufa, A. Antzara, 11

GCGW 2015

TUESDAY 26th MAY, 2015

Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

5. Use of solar energy in fishing: Community Initiatives (#9), J. V. Jain, S. Babu, D. J.Raju

I. Milios, E. Heracleous, A. Lemonidou

5. Kinetics of CO2 capture by carbon dioxide binding organic liquids (#61), O. Y. Orhan, H. Kayi, E. Alper

13:00 - 14:00 LIGHT LUNCH AT THE ROYAL OLYMPIC HOTEL_KALLIRHOE 2 (ground floor) 14:00 - 14:30 Room: Kallirhoe 1, Chair: Dr. Voutetakis Spyridon, CERTH/CPERI (Greece), LECTURE IN PLENARY “Changed ecosystem services by marine phytoplankton because of global warming”, Prof. Dr. Habil.Ulrich Sommer, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel University of Kiel Room: Kallirhoe 1 (ground floor) 14︓30 - 16:00 Chair: Dr. Voutetakis Spyridon, CERTH/CPERI (Greece)

Theme XII. Boosting Renewable Energy Technologies

1. Environmental impact assessment of renewables and conventional fuels for different end use purposes (#294), C. Acar, I. Dincer 2. Effect of gap between absorber plate and condenser cover on the performance of a solar still (#111), B. Jamil, N. Akhtar

3. Heat and mass transfer in a capillary film solar still (#57), A. Chaker, I. Saouane 12

Room: Templar’s (ground floor) Chair: Prof. Ebrahim Esmailzadeh, UOIT (Canada)

Theme IV. Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) and Geotechnology Issues Session IV.2: Innovation in Geotechnology

1. Gas production in offshore reservoirs in Brazil´s pre-salt region: Challenges and estimates (#36), I. Vaz Leal da Costa, P. Rochedo, M. Império, A. Salem Szklo, R. Schaeffer 2. Development of a geological model for the investigation of CO2 natural analogues: Florina case study, Greece (#55), A. Tasianas, N. Koukouzas

GCGW 2015

TUESDAY 26th MAY, 2015

Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

4. Smart hybrid renewable microgeneration system for residential applications (#244), E.J. Lee, E. Entchev, L. Yang, M. Gorab, A.C. Khan

3. Studies on the consequence of graphite on soil CEC values estimated using hexamine cobalt trichloride (COHEX) method and other physical and chemical properties (#277), A. M. Haroon Basha, R. Chandramohan

4. Investigating the effect of different refrigerants on the performance of a supercritical organic Rankine cycle (#315), D. M. Çakıcı, C. Ö. Çolpan 16:00 - 16:30 COFFEE BREAK at the room Kallirhoe 2 (ground floor)

POSTER SESSION

16︓30 - 18:00

Posters will be exposed in their stands at the Conference Room Ground for the whole duration of the Conference, but their authors will be available to answer questions during this session. 20:00 - 23:30

GALA DINNER AT THE ACROPOLIS MUSEUM WITH GUIDED TOUR OF THE MUSEUM

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GCGW 2015

WEDNESDAY 27th MAY, 2015

Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

9︓00 - 9:30

Room: Kallirhoe 1, Chair: Dr. Gypakis Antonios, GSRT (Greece),

LECTURE IN PLENARY “The German Energiewende: challenges and solutions for Germany and Europe”, Prof. Dr. -Ing. Klaus Görner, University of Duisburg-Essen, Environmental Process Engineering and Plant Design, Head of Institute, Gas and Heat Research Institute, Essen, Scientific Director VGB, Association of Power Plant Operators, Scientific Advisory Board, Deputy Chairman. Room: Kallirhoe 1 (ground floor)

9︓30 - 11:00 Chair: Dr. Gypakis Antonios, GSRT (Greece)

Theme VII. Fossil fuels and Climate Change

1. Toward the improvement of thermal efficiency in lignite power generation: Concerning lignite for modern coal technology (#291), Y. Komatsu, A. Sciazko, M. Zakrzewski,T. Akiyama, S. Kimijima, A. Hashimoto, N. Shikazono, S. Kaneko, J. S. Szmyd

2. Hybridization of parabolic trough power plants with natural gas through integration of industrial gas turbines (#304), T. Vogel, G. Oeljeklaus, K. Görner

3. Numerical investigation of the Megalopolis IV PP under low thermal loads, along with the application of a lignite pre-drying technology (#391), A. Georgiadis, F. Plagakis, A. Nikolopoulos, 14

Room: Templar’s (ground floor) Chair: Prof. Benko Imre, BME (Hungary)

Theme VI: Waste Water Treatment Cross - Cutting Issues

1. Produced water pre-treatment using dissolved air flotation technique and ionic liquids (#104), S. Abbasi, A. Henni 2. Utilization opportunities of apricot process wastes: An evaluation from the point of view of sustainability (#102), B. Kiyak, N. Colak-Gunes

3. Sustainable management of sewage sludge conditioning and valorization (#139), S. Igoud, F. Souahi, C-E Chitour

4. Produced water treatment by combined process of organoclay adsorption and dissolved air floatation (#83), M. R. Faisal, A. Henni 5. Photocatalytic degradation of tylosin

GCGW 2015

WEDNESDAY 27th MAY, 2015

Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

I. Malgarinos, N. Nikolopoulos

4. Environmental impact assessment of electricity production in Turkey (#145), F. Yılmaz, M. T. Balta, R. Selbaş, D. Demiral

and spiramycin in water by using TiO2 and ZnO catalysts under UV radiation (#305), D. Tassalit, N. Chekir, O. Benhabiles, F. Bentahar

5. Life cycle analysis and life cycle costing of electricity generation based on lignite: Applied case study in Greece (#399), D. S. Kourkoumpas, G. Stamatiou, S. Karellas, P. Grammelis, A. Gypakis, E. Kakaras 11:00 - 11:30 COFFEE BREAK at the Room Kallirhoe 2 (ground floor) 11:30 - 13:00 Chair: Dr. Koukouzas Nikolaos, CERTH/CPERI (Greece)

Theme X. Thermodynamic System Analysis and Optimization

1. Analysis of the start-up and variable load operation of a combined cycle power plant for off-grid mines (#21), A. Romero, R. Chacartegui, M. Carvalho, D. L. Millar

2. Performance analyses of CO2- N2O cascade system for cooling (#64), F.Yılmaz, R. Selbaş, A. E. Özgür, M. T. Balta 3. Transient thermodynamic analysis of a supercritical hard coal fired boiler (#398), D. Rakopoulos, I. Avagianos, D. Almpanidis, N. Nikolopoulos, P. Grammelis

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Chair: Dr. Rakopoulos Dimitrios, CERTH/CPERI (Greece) Theme IX: Water Resources and Management Issues

1. Spatial and temporal patterns of the water quality in the Hammam Boughrara Reservoir In Algeria (#37), B. Djelita, S. Bouzid-Lagha, N. Camellia

2. Vulnerability and impact of climate change processes on water resource in semi-arid areas; In Essaouira Basin (Morocco) (#115), S. Ouhamdouch, M. Bahir, A. Souhel, C. Paula 3. Palmer drought severity index for the North Cyprus (#184), S. Çakal, B. Akıntuğ

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GCGW 2015

WEDNESDAY 27th MAY, 2015

Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

4. Comparison of thermal repowering alternatives for thermal power plants (#257), M. Zeki Yilmazoglu

4. Cartographic and statistical analysis of the phenomenon of rising water table in Southeast Algeria (#166), C. Bouzegag, S. Bouzid - Lagha

13:00 - 14:00 LIGHT LUNCH AT THE ROYAL OLYMPIC HOTEL_KALLIRHOE 2 (ground floor) 14︓00 - 14:30 Room: Kallirhoe 1, Chair: Dr. Panagiotis Grammelis, CERTH/CPERI (Greece), LECTURE IN PLENARY “Thermodynamics - Education - Energy - Exergy - Environment”, Dr. A. Özer Arnas, United States Military Academy at West Point Professor of Mechanical Engineering Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering Room: Kallirhoe 1 (ground floor) 14︓30 - 16:00 Chair: Dr. Panagiotis Grammelis, CERTH/CPERI (Greece)

Theme V: Green Buildings Technology Buildings Performance Optimization 1. Modelling of a solar assisted floor heating system with TRNSYS (#195), E. Bellos, C. Tzivanidis, A. Prassas, K. A. Antonopoulos

2. A new cogeneration residential system based on solid oxide fuel cells for a Northern European climate (#26), G. Vialetto, M. Rokni 3. Energy conservation through sunrays reflecting coating on buildings (#158), 16

Room: Templar’s (ground floor) Chair: Dr. Nikolopoulos Nikolaos, CERTH/CPERI (Greece)

Theme VIII: Bioenergy - Biofuel Technologies

1. R  esidual lipids incorporation in a petroleum refinery (#241), S. Bezergianni, A. Dimitriadis

3. B  iogas production from napier grass at various cutting intervals (#133), N. Sinbuathong, Y. Sangsil, S. Sawanon

4. S  ustainability assessment of fuels production via hydrotreating waste lipids and co-processing waste lipids with petroleum fractions (#173),

GCGW 2015

WEDNESDAY 27th MAY, 2015

Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

I. Benkö

4. Investigation of temperature decreasing on roof in green roof systems with artificial neural network – Comparison of Athens and Izmir (#317), T. Ayata, D. Erdemir

S. Bezergianni, L. P.Chrysikou, A. Dimitriadis

5. Comparison of heating and cooling loads of a typical building with TRNSYS and ΕQUEST (#194), E. Bellos, C. Tzivanidis, A. Kouvari, K. A. Antonopoulos 16:00 - 16:30 COFFEE BREAK at the room Kallirhoe 2 (ground floor) Room: Kallirhoe 1 (ground floor) 16︓30 - 18:00 Chair: Dr. Nikolopoulos Aristeidis, CERTH/CPERI (Greece) Theme XI: Hydrogen Energy and Technologies

1. Degradation mechanism of solid-state proton-conducting electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (#78), N. Yan, T. Gao, W. Wang, J. Luo

2. CFD code validation and combustion analysis of a spark-ignition engine fueled with methane-hydrogen blends (#400), G. M. Kosmadakis, F. Moreno, J. Arroyo, M. Muñoz, C. D. Rakopoulos 3. Perspectives of hydrogen automotive

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Room: Templar’s (ground floor) Chair: Dr. Giannakopoulos Dionisios, CERTH/CPERI (Greece)

Theme XIII. Hazardous Waste

1. Elimination of toxic gas emissions by MGO soaked expanded clay in waste combustion chambers (#214), Y. İ. Tosun 2. Experimental study of transverse mixing of pollutants in trapezoidal open channel (#49), A. M. Lagoun, S. Benziada

3. Ship life cycle green – house gas emissions (#284), S. Chatzinikolaos, N. Ventikos, L. Bilgili, U. B Celebi 17

GCGW 2015

WEDNESDAY 27th MAY, 2015

Venue: The Royal Olympic Hotel

applications in Croatia (#16), A. Đukić, I. Güttler, R. Pašičko

4. The effect of microwave irradiation on the structure of Ni incorporated MCM-41 and hydrogen uptake (#211), E. Dündar-Tekkaya, Y. Yürüm 18:00 - 18:30

Room: Kallirhoe 1 (ground floor)

 ONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE C from Prof. I. Dincer and Dr. P. Grammelis

GCGW 2015 Conference Co-Chairs Prof. C. S. Zerefos, Director, Professor Emeritus, Center for Environmental Effects on Health, Academy of Athens, Professor emeritus University of Athens Prof. L. G. Christophorou, Director, Research Office of Experimental Physics, Academy of Athens, Chair, Energy Committee, Academy of Athens Prof. G. A. Giannopoulos, Director, Institute of Sustainable Mobility and Transport Networks, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas-CERTH, Professor emeritus Aristotle University of Athens

Prof. Em. K. Kakaras, Director, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute Centre for Research and Technology Hellas-CERTH, Professor National Technical University of Athens 18

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece

Scientific Committee (List in Alphabetic order) Name

Affiliation

Country

Dr. Ayfantopoulou Georgia

CERTH/HIT

Greece

Dr. Bekiaris Evangelos

CERTH/HIT

Greece

BME

Hungary

CERTH/HIT

Greece

Dr. Castaldi Simona

SUN

Italy

Dr. Chhetri Prem

RMIT

Australia

Assoc. Prof. Çolpan Can Özgur

DEU

Turkey

Prof. Dincer Ibrahim

UOIT

Canada

CERTH/HIT

Greece

CERTH/CPERI

Greece

Dr. Gypakis Antonios

GSRT

Greece

Dr. Haslinger Walter

Bioenergy 2020+

Austria

CERTH/CPERI

Greece

NTUA

Greece

Prof. Benko Imre Dr. Boile Maria

Prof. Giannopoulos George Dr. Grammelis Panagiotis

Prof. Kakaras Emmanuel Assoc. Prof. Karellas Sotiris

www.gcgw.org

19

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece Name

Affiliation

Country

SDU

Turkey

Prof. Kokosis Antonis

NTUA

Greece

Prof. Konstandopoulos Athanasios

CERTH

Greece

Dr. Koukouzas Nikolaos

CERTH/CPERI

Greece

Dr. Lappas Angelos

CERTH/CPERI

Greece

Aalto University

Finland

CERTH/HIT

Greece

AUTh

Greece

Dr. Nikolopoulos Nikolaos

CERTH/CPERI

Greece

Dr. Panopoulos Kyriakos

CERTH/CPERI

Greece

AUTh

Greece

Dr. Tyrinopoulos Yannis

CERTH/HIT

Greece

Dr. Venner Marie

US/TRBNAS

USA

CERTH/CPERI

Greece

Dalhousie University

Canada

Assoc. Prof. Kizilkan Onder

Prof. Lund Peter Dr. Mitsakis Evangelos Prof. Moustaka-Gouni Maria

Prof. Samaras Zisis

Dr. Voutetakis Spyridon Prof. Yildiz Ilhami 20

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece

Organizing Committee Founding Chair: Ibrahim Dincer, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada  anagiotis Grammelis, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, Greece, P Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute

Local Chair:

Organizing Committee Members

Ø  Christidou Maria, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, Greece, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute Ø Çolpan C. Özgur, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey

Ø  Karella Maria, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, Greece, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute Ø  Midilli Adnan, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Üniversity, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Division, Turkey

Ø  Mitsakis Vangelis, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, Greece, Hellenic Institute of Transport Ø  Tentokali Zoe, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, Greece, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute Ø  Tyrinopoulos Yannis, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, Greece, Hellenic Institute of Transport Ø  Tzoureli Christina, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, Greece Conference secretariat (and contact points for any Conference related inquiry):

Karella Maria: Head of secretariat e-mail: [email protected], [email protected], Tel: +30 6932 478995 Vitzilaiou Popi: e-mail: [email protected], Tel: +30 6945 203237

www.gcgw.org

21

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece

Posters’ Appendix

List of Papers in Poster Sessions

Note: P  osters will be exposed in their stands at the Conference Room Ground for the whole duration of the Conference, but their authors will be available to answer questions during this session. Paper No.

Board Number

Paper full Title

Authors

#23

Experimental study of longitudinal dispersion of pollutants in trapezoidal open channel.

L. A. Mansour, S. Benziada

1

#33

Promotion of sustainability by quantifying and reducing the carbon footprint: New practices for organizations.

M. Carvalho, R. Freire, A. Brito

2

#45

Comparison between the photocatalytic N. Sahraoui, K. Akhrib, degradation of a textile dye under sun N. Chekir, D. Tassalit light and artificial irradiation.

3

#56

The impacts of co-operative mobility systems on CO2 emissions: A simulation-based study.

J. M. Salanova Grau, E. Mitsakis, I. Stamos, V. Mintsis

4

#60

Determination of the optimum insulation thickness for cooling applications using a novel method that combines exergy and environmental methods.

B. N. Daldal, I. Sarıoğlu, G. Özel, E. Açıkkalp, H. Yamık

5

22

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece Paper No.

Board Number

Paper full Title

Authors

#74

Contribution to multi-criteria evaluation of the impacts of air pollution: Case of cement plant (Ain Touta- Algeria).

L. Bahmed, S. Daas, M. Chebila, L. K. Aggabou

6

#100

Global warming and changes in atmospheric climate.

Maheshwar S. & Madhuri S.

7

#107

Mitigation and adaptation policies related I. Sebos, A. Progiou, to climate change in Greece. L. Kallinikos, P. Eleni, I. Katsavou, K. Mangouta, I. Ziomas

8

#108

Greenhouse gas emissions trends from waste in Greece.

L. Kallinikos, I. Sebos, A. Progiou, P. Eleni, I. Katsavou, K. Mangouta, I. Ziomas

9

#109

Greenhouse gas emissions trends from transport in Greece.

A. Progiou, I. Sebos, L. Kallinikos, P. Eleni, I. Katsavou, K. Mangouta, I. Ziomas

10

#123

An online visualization tool for assessing I. Stamos, E. Mitsakis, the robustness of multimodal transport G. Aifantopoulou networks in case of extreme weather events and natural hazards.

11

#124

Big data supporting sustainable mobility J. M. Salanova Grau, I.Stamos, in smart cities. E. Mitsakis, G. Aifantopoulou

12

www.gcgw.org

23

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece Paper No.

Board Number

Paper full Title

Authors

#146

Photocatalytic degradation of hazardous water soluble pesticides in a tubular reactor.

N.Chekir, O. Benhabiles, D.Tassalit, N A. Laoufi, F.Bentahar

13

#149

Cooperative intelligent transport systems for freight transport.

J. M.Salanova Grau, E. Mitsakis, A. Stathakopoulos, G. Aifantopoulou

14

#162

Exceptionally cold and exceptionally mild winters in Europe, 1951-2010.

R. Twardosz, U. Kossowska-Cezak

15

#170

Experimental study of heat transfer for a non-Newtonian fluid in a heated cylindrical pipe.

M. Mellal, H. Abchiche, S. Ait Ouazzou

16

#186

Investigation of reaction parameters of oleic acid esterification with methanol by using zirconium sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

M. İ. Şenoyma, O. İlgen

17

#188

Synthesis of fuel bioadditive from D. Unlu, N. Durmaz Hilmioglu biomass based chemicals by an innovative process: Catalytic membrane reactor.

18

#191

Membrane based hybrid process for bioethanol production and purification.

19

24

F. U. Nigiz, N. Durmaz Hilmioglu

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece Paper No.

Board Number

Paper full Title

Authors

#192

Urban development policy and urban sprawl in Turkey.

M. O. Balta

20

#193

Hydrogen fueled airplanes towards sustainable aviation in Libya.

S. P. Bindra

21

#203

Mygdonia basin (N. Greece) in the view of isotope geochemistry.

P.Chantzi, E. Dotsika

22

#204

Natural tracers for identifying causes of the quality reduction in groundwater emerging along the Aegean volcanic arc (Greece).

E. Dotsika, P.Chantzi

23

#208

Designing a web based GIS for monitoring air quality at the Marmara region of Turkey.

F. Sari, D. Z. Seker, S. Yeni, H. I. Domanic, E. Yilmaz, H. Demirel

24

#217

T. Sato, C. Guo, S. Yin Synthesis of tungsten bronze nanoparticles for shielding near infrared ray and decreasing CO2 emission.

25

#238

The SOC estimation of LCO battery based on BP neural network.

S.-R. Huang, Y.-H. Ma, J.-S. Li, J.-H. Chan

26

#254

Performance of Ep-Kalina OTEC cycle using various working fluids.

J. I. Yoon, C. H. Son, S. H. Seol, C. M. Son, H. Lee, H. Ju Kim

27

www.gcgw.org

25

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece Paper No.

Board Number

Paper full Title

Authors

#259

Diagnostic of sensors for induction machine powered by photovoltaic generator based on fuzzy logic techniques.

A. Amrane, A. Larabi, A. Hamzaoui

28

#263

Perspectives on the implementation of climate change public policies in Brazil.

R. Freire, M. Carvalho, C. Carmona, A. Brito

29

#297

Measurement quality enhancement using digital filter in power grid integrating TCSC.

A. Zitouni, H. Bentarzi, A. Ouadi

30

#301

Elimination of micropollutent lysine A. Djouadi, F. Bentahar acetylsalicylate by adsorption on natural and synthetical supports.

31

#312

The chloroplast as a combined automatic control system.

V. Kypraiou

32

#321

Prediction of sea level rise in strait of Hormuz: Evaluation of climate change impacts.

H. Goharnejad

33

#327

Energy study of a greenhouse type chapel single wall glass (Case of Algerian site).

S. Bezari, K. Gairaa, S. M. Benaalem

34

26

GCGW 2015

Global Conference on Global Warming Focus on Energy-Transport-Greenhouse Effects 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece Paper No.

Paper full Title

Authors

#389

Integrated system for optimized data collection and processing of end of life tires: Case of Greece.

P. Vounatsos, I. Vournas, G. Mavrias, P. Grammelis

#402

EU-SOLARIS - European solar research infrastructure for concentrated solar power.

#404

Smart recovery of materials and upgrade of organic compost & RDF in existing mechanical biological treatment plants by using NIR technology.

www.gcgw.org

Board Number 35

36

D. S. Kourkoumpas, G. Kontopoulos, I. Vournas, D. Koulocheris, P. Grammelis, E. Kakaras

37

27

Global Conference on Global Warming GCGW 2015 24 - 27 May 2015, Athens, Greece

Co-organisers:

In cooperation with:

Hellenic Institute of Transport (H.I.T.)

VULNERABILITY AND IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE PROCESSES ON WATER RESOURCE IN SEMI-ARID AREAS; IN ESSAOUIRA BASIN (MOROCCO). Salah Ouhamdouch PhD Laboratory 3 GEOLAB, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco [email protected]

Mohammed Bahir Professor Department of Geology, E.N.S Marrakech, Morocco [email protected]

Abdellatif Souhel E.N.S. Marrakech, Marrakech, Morocco Professor [email protected]

Carreira Paula Professor Química Analítica e Ambiental, IST/ITN, Universidade Técnica of Lisboa, Portugal [email protected]

Abstract Since the 50’s, many changes are observed in the global climate namely; the warming of the atmosphere and ocean decreased the extent of snow and ice, and rising sea levels. In addition to population pressure, the Maghreb countries suffer from drought, which accentuates the phenomenon of desertification; soil erosion and salinity, leading to salinization and depletion of water resources. In Morocco, climate change causes soil erosion as a result of desertification resulting in siltation of dams, worsening of salinization soles and water resources. The Essaouira Basin the subject of this study focuses on the Atlantic coast of Morocco in the southeast of the city of Essaouira. Climate aridity and intensive exploitation due to uncontrolled pumping for irrigation have caused a drastic decrease in the piezometric level of the aquifers in Essaouira basin, and have seriously degraded groundwater quality. This basin is characterized by a semi-arid climate with average annual rainfall of around 300 mm/year and temperatures average 20°C. Considering the importance of the Essaouira aquifer in the supply of the region in groundwater, a study was done to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the impact of climate change on water resources in the area. Aquifers characterizing this area are Cenomanian-Turonian of the upstream and downstream Plio-Quaternary, separated by the Tidzi diaper. The piezometric maps pelvis were made (90-09) .Geochemistry shows that these present Sodium-chloride facies. The electrical conductivity ranges from 7007000µS/cm. The concentration of 18O; 2H; 3H and 14C were measured, a local meteoric right close to the global meteoric right characterizing ocean precipitation was determined and the age of groundwater is determined. The Essaouira Basin is very vulnerable and sensitive to climate change because its charge is entirely dependent on rainwater. Keywords: Aquifer, climate change, drought, desertification, Essaouira Basin, isotopy, piezometry, resources, recharge, semi-arid, water, water chemistry. 1. Introduction Since the 1950s, the earth's climate has undergone significant changes represented mainly by the warming due to greenhouse gas emissions, in close relation with human activity. These changes have a negative influence on the environment and man. In most semi-arid areas, seasonal and long-term climate variability changes the dynamics of water cycle. Groundwater levels are also falling at alarming rates. Nowadays, groundwater withdrawal and environmental trends may bring about serious problems in some parts of the world. The availability of sufficient fresh waters has become a limiting factor for development . Among the consequences of these changes, include: (i) the increase of the temperature, (ii) decrease in precipitation as well as the mass of the ice sheets, (iii) rise in sea level and (iiii) the scarcity of water resources. In addition, the countries of the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) have not been spared the impact of these changes that negatively affect the most of their natural resources, including water resources. Locally, the bay of Essaouira also has its share of these effects, which are represented mainly in the scarcity of water resources see also salinity following the invasion of sea water and the increase in the salinity of the soil, degradation of groundwater quality and the extermination of a number of water sources.

1

2. Climate change on a global scale According to its report of September 2013, the Intergovernmental panel on Climate change (IPCC) states that warming of the climate system of the earth is unequivocal, adding that the human influence is the primary cause of this warming. Among the results of this global warming, we note that the three examples below: -The warming of the atmosphere: The last three decades are successively warmer at the earth's surface than all preceding decades since 1850. The average temperature of the globe shows a warming of the order of 0.85°C during the period 1880-2012 (Fig.1). For precipitation, they have experienced an increase since 1901 on the continental regions of the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere, as well as eastern South America, and a decrease in the Sahel; in the Mediterranean; in southern Africa and in parts of south Asia (Fig. 2). (IPCC.2013).

Fig. 1. Observed Anomalies of average temperatures on the surface of the globe (IPCC.2013).

Fig. 2. Maps of the observed changes in precipitation between 1901 and 2010, and between 1951 and 2010 (IPCC 2013). -The reduction of the surface area of the ice caps and glaciers: everywhere in the world, there is a reduction of the surface area of the ice caps, and ices. Over the past three decades, the extent of annual average arctic sea ice has been decreasing at a rate of 3.5 to 4.1% per decade (Fig. 3). - Sea level: since the early 1970s, the decrease of the glacier masses and the thermal expansion of the oceans contribute to them only about 75% of the rise global mean sea level. Between 1901 and 2010, the average level of the sea shows an increase of 0.19 cm (Fig. 4).

Fig. 3. The extent of the arctic ice in the summer (in million km²) (left). Fig. 4. Evolution of the mean sea level (in mm), (IPCC.2013) (right).

2

3. Climate change in North African As in most world countries, the three countries of the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) have not been spared the impact of climate change, which has affected and still affects negatively the most of their natural resources. Among these resources, the resource water. For example, the north-west Algeria has experienced a reduction of the order of 40% of annual precipitation from the first half of the 1970s. This reduction is carried out in a temperature increase, which corresponds to the signal of global climate change. This change has affected the river flows of this region. According to the 4th report of the IPCC, the blades of waters passed the annual average of the period 1976-2002 are 28 to 36% lower than those of the period 1949-1976, and this reduction is due to climate change. According to the national institute of meteorology Tunisia, the rainfall pattern in the Tunisia during the 20th century has been marked by relative stability. In contrast to the rest of the century was marked by the alternation of dry periods (1940-1950) and wet periods (1950-1960). However, the temperature tends to increase (1.1°C) since the sixties. In addition to this increase, Tunisia has suffer amplification erosion processes dry up the soil and consequently augment and increase the salinity of the water tanks. In addition, the elevation of accelerated sea level due to global warming will have serious impacts on the shoreline such that the contamination of the aquifers in the coastal waters of freshwater by the marine waters of salt. In Morocco, the water resources are limited and have a potential water that can be mobilised estimated at 20 billion m3, giving an average of 700m3/capita/year, which is recognized as a relatively high water stress. The number of years of deficit rainfall everywhere is more important than that of surplus years (Fig. 5). This decline coincides with an increase in the frequency of droughts also visible from the 1980s. As found by various previous studies (including that of the minister of public works, 2007), we distinguish two dry periods: 1980-1985 and 1990-1995. By contrast, the evolution of the temperature is constant, and tends to increase (Fig. 6), which corresponds to the signal of global climate change, and makes Morocco among the countries affected by climate change. Among the results of this change, we quote: (1) Erosion of the soil under the effect of desertification, which resulted in the silting up of dams. (2) Accentuation of soil salinization and water resources. (3) Lowering of the piezometric levels of the groundwater on one side and the increase in the level of the sea on the other side, which creates in coastal areas, a reversal of current, resulting in the invasion of seawater and the destruction of the hydraulic potential.

Fig. 5. National averages (in %), defects of the cumulative rainfall totals annual, calculated on the 14 meteorological stations in Morocco. Period 1961-2008) (F. Driouech, 2010) (right). Fig. 6. Trends in seasonal average temperatures calculated over the period 1961-2008 at the level of the 14 stations meteorological-logical. Winter: bar-purple, spring green bars, autumn: yellow bars. In °C/decade (F. Driouech, 2010) (left). 4. Essaouira basin In Morocco, most studies of the impact of climate change on water resources focused on coastal areas (Hsissou and al 2001; Mdiker and a l2004; Mennani and al 2003). These regions that are densely populated and subjected tourism activities are characterized by a growing demand for water. 4. 1. Geographic location The Essaouira basin is located on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, specifically at the western end of the high atlas chain, where it occupies an area of 1827 Km2. This basin includes several aquifer systems whose structures and resources are often poorly known. The most important of these systems belong to two synclinal units: the unit of Bouabout located in the eastern part of the basin and the unit of Essaouira synclinal who represents the Western part of the basin. The Tidzi diaper separates these two units (Fig. 7).

3

4. 2. Geological cadre At the basin level of Essaouira, the Triassic and the Jurassic have outcrops very reduced and localized to the anticlines core (jbel Hadid NW, jbel Amstétene to the SW and Tidzi diaper). While the tertiary formations and the quaternary are found in the basins syncline. The Triassic is made up of red clay salt, basalt diabase and pelites sandstone. The Jurassic is represented by an alternation of carbonate deposits (limestone’s and dolomites) and marls rich in evaporate (gypsum and anhydrites).while the cretaceous formations and quaternary rocks are grouped in the stratigraphic log synthetic (Dufaud et al., 1966) ( Fig. 8).

Fig. 7. Location of the study area. The Essaouira basin is a vast area synclinal open on the Atlantic Ocean, affected by several folds and accident, which allow for the individualization of many synclinal basins: (1) the synclinal basin of Bouabout occupying the upstream part of the basin, crossed by the river Igrounzar. (2) The bowl of Kourimat and (3) the synclinal basin of Essaouira synclinal (downstream part of the basin), separate from that of Bouabout by the diaper of Tidzi which shows the outcrop of the subterranean Triassic. These cups give birth to hydrogeological aquifer systems (Fig. 9).

Fig. 8. Log synthetic stratigraphic Cretaceous and Tertiary (left). Fig. 9. Geological map (1:1 000 000) of the study area (right).

4

4. 3. Climate cadre According to the De Martonne index (1) in which the equation stated below, the Essaouira basin is located in a semi-arid zone, characterized by ocean, continental and mountain influences. The aridity is marked in the basin, especially in the summer; it is relatively increased in going from the Atlantic to the continent. This aridity growth is the result of the remoteness of the ocean influence, where the rain decreases and the thermal differences increase. I = P / (T+10) (1) With P: average annual rainfall in mm and T: average annual temperature in °C. At the level of the Igrounzar's station, the temperatures show a very significant seasonal variation. In winter, minimum temperatures can reach up to -11°C, while summer highs are in the order of 40°c to 45°C. From the Ombrothermic diagram of Igrounzar’s station, the hot season runs from March until October or even November. While the wet period occurs from November to march (Fig.10). The rainfall varies from year to year around an average of 306mm (Fig.11). For the series of years stripped (1977-78 to 2010-11), are found in wet years, the height of which exceeds the average(1987-89,1995-97,2005-06,2008-2010), therefore, the rush and show an irregular interannual striking.

Fig. 10. Ombrothermic diagram of Igrounzar station.

Fig. 11. Evolution of the annual rains in Igrounzar station from 1977 to 2010. 4. 4. Piezometry To have an idea about the evolution of the piezometric level in the Essaouira basin, we will treat in a first time the water Cenomanian-Turonian of Bouabout (upstream) and in the second time the water plio-quaternary (downstream): -Cenomanian-Turonian water (Bouabout): The companions of measuring the level piezometric carried out from 2006 to 2010 were used to establish the evolution curves of the water level of a water points number such as 1126/52 and 1726/52 (Fig.12). The graphical representation of the evolution of the groundwater level in the period 2006-2010 to these points shows a decrease of June 2006, the water level in October 2008. This decrease is explained by the drought affecting the region over the both 2007 and 2008 and by overexploitation of the aquifer for irrigation to offset the impact of drought. After October 2008, the water level begins to rise over a period of eight months, and then begins to decline. -Plio-quaternary water: the companions of measurement of the piezometric level of the Plio-quaternary aquifer, during 1990,1995,2000,2004 and 2009 resulted in the piezometric maps (Fig. 13). They show a sense of overall flow of the South-East to North-West, conditioned by the recovery of its substratum to the Is a result of the lifting of

5

the Tidzi diaper. A comparison of these piezometric maps reveals a decrease of the piezometric levels in 1995 (the driest year of the century in Morocco) within a certain wells have experienced measures of level in the five periods (Table 1). After the dry year of 1995, a number of wet years, the occurrence of 1996-97, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2009 can restore and go back in the piezometric level in the aquifer. This variation of the piezometric level can only be explained by the vagaries of the weather and the over-exploitation for irrigation in order to disguise the impact of the drought. Table 1. Variation in piezometric within the water Plio-Quaternary. N° IRE 3/51 15/51 93/51 138 149/51 327/51 116/51 117/51

X (m) 81400 86000 92370 88275 85100 88800 100650 100450

Y(m) 93400 97970 101900 92825 105800 88800 96000 98500

Z (m) 18 70 98 109 40 130 200 180

Sep90(m) 5.4 54.2 66.9 85 2 108.3 179 137.4

May95(m) 4.8 52.6 64.7 81.8 1 98.8 176 134.5

Jul00(m) 5.2 54 66.5 84.1 1.5 107.2 178.2 136.7

March04(m) 5.5 65 67.4 85.3 4 108.2 sec sec

Oct09(m) 4 63 54 104 2 106 sec sec

Fig. 12. Evolution of the piezometric level in the period 2006-2010 at the level of the water points 1126/52 and 1726/52 (2006 to 2010).

6

Fig. 13. Piezometric maps of Plio-Quaternary groundwater of the synclinal area of Essaouira in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2004 and 2009. 4. 5. Hydrochemistry The chemistry study of water allows the identification of chemical facies of waters, their quality and potability, and their irrigation suitability. The Piper diagram shows the water of plio-quaternary aquifer has a chloridesodium facies (Fig.14). Based on electrical conductivity and chlorides of plio-quaternary groundwater, we can have an idea on water quality and its evolution. In the temporary scale, the groundwater quality is becoming more and more good by going to the driest year that knows Morocco (1995) in 2009, through the years modestly dry and rainy. Spatially, its takes a positive direction from the North to South of the

7

groundwater table (Fig.15 and table 2). The temporal and spatial evolution of this quality have closely linked to climatic change.

Fig. 14. Chemical facies of groundwater plio-quaternary. -A-

8

-B-

Fig. 15. -A - temporal and spatial distribution of the electrical conductivity of the groundwater in the aquifer plio-quaternary (1995, 2004 and 2009). -B - chlorides (1995 and 2009). Table 2. Simplified grid for groundwater. Quality C.E parameter (µs/cm)

Cl(mg/l)

NO3(mg/l)

NH4+ (mgNH4+/l)

MO (mgO2/l))

Excellent

100

>8

4. 6. Isotopy In the Essaouira basin, the hydrodynamic is influenced by the structure (folds and faults) which determines the flow (Bahir, 2007). In the study area, the isotopes of the water molecule, the oxygen-18 (18O), deuterium (2H), tritium (3H) and carbon-14 (14C), may provide part of the answer in the determination of the areas and conditions aquifer recharge, as well as their relationship and their age. The isotopic analyses were carried out in the institute of technology and nuclear Lisbon. The isotopic content of the water plio-quaternary are between -3.72 and -4.56 δ‰ v-smow. Those of groundwater Turonian are between -4.17 and -4.55 δ‰ vsmow. The results of the analyses of 2H to allow to set on a diagram of correlation 18O-2H the local meteoric right (LMW) equation 2H=7.72 x 18O+10.53 (r2=0.82), close to the Global meteoric water (GMW) slope 8 with excess 2H close 10 (Craig, 1961). It characterizes the precipitation of oceanic origin. The equation of this line was calculated without taking into account the three points 390/51, 272/51, and Ksob wadi, identified as evaporated, because they fall below GMW. The other points are aligned on the LMW, which indicates that the supply of water aquifers is completed quickly without significant evaporation. The 3H is a radioactive element in the cycle of water through rainfall, its presence with concentrations above 2units tritium (TU) means a charging current (olive et al 1996). By contrast, the water having concentrations of less than 2UT are confederated without active recharge (Olive1999).the results are compiled in table 3.the levels of 3H varied between a minimum value of 0.2 and a maximum of 4.2 UT. The water points 272, 327, 65, 386, and 203/51 have a content 3H greater than 2UT, which means a charging current. While the other points are levels very low. This uses the technique of dating by 14C to confirm or affirm the hypothesis. The 14C is the radioelement the most used to date ancient waters at very low levels of 3H.the results obtained are grouped in table 3. The analysis makes it possible to identify that: the waters of the two points 65 and 386/51 have significant assays in 3H and percentages in 14C higher than 85%, which makes them as current. The drilling M98, which does not, 3H detectable but has a 14C content of 80% shows a power supply prior to the nuclear tests from 1962 to 1963, and its radiocarbon age does not exceed a 2000 years. The radiocarbon age of the

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drilling 390/51 is of the order of 6500 years ago, and one of 380/51 is greater than 2000 yr. These two boreholes capturing the Turonian aquifer, feed, respectively, the Essaouira city and the village of Si Ahmed Ou Hmad (5000 inhabitants). This reflects that we are in the presence of an ancient water and that it is in the process of exhausting a strategic resource, which could be used in extreme cases.

LMW GMW

Fig. 16. 18O-2H correlation in the groundwater in the area of Essaouira synclinal. Table 2. Physical parameters and analysis of radioactive isotopes of groundwater Essaouira 3 N°IRE Nature Origin Altitude Prof T PH Alc H (m) (°C) Méq/l UT 272/51 Well Plio-Q 105.5 38.4 20.6 7.65 3.30 3.9 21/51 Well Plio-Q 135 29 21.7 7.13 2.80 2.0 327/51 Well Plio-Q 130 22.2 7.23 4.03 3.2 65/51 Well Turon 15 20.3 22.5 7.48 4.64 2.8 390/51 borehole Turon 95 200 26.7 7.35 4.94 2 386/51 borehole Turon 105 100 23.2 7.56 4.26 4.2 380/51 borehole Turon 135 194 26.1 7.54 4.67 1 M98 borehole Bar-Apt 90 100 22.0 7.59 3.55 1.1 A.Aghbalou borehole Bar-Apt 80 23.1 7.50 3.58 1 216/51 Source Por-Ber 160 23.1 7.28 4.53 1 218/51 Source Por-Ber 308 22.5 7.29 4.24 1 361/51 borehole Lias 382 90 23.5 7.22 4.45 2 203/51 borehole Callow 14 50 22.7 7.11 4.26 3.8 346/51 borehole Turon 105 1.5 363/51 borehole Turon 150 1.2 149/51 borehole Turon 40 0.2

in the coastal area of 14

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C pcm

C °/°°

88.9+/-0.5 32.5+/-0.4 84.8+/-0.6 3.0+/-0.5 79.6+/-0.6 72.0+/-0.4

-9.8 -9.4 -10.3 -9.0 -9.3 -10.0

68.5+/-0.6

-9.9

Conclusion In addition to the demographic pressure, the cultural practices and pastoral, climate change put the countries of the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) in alarming water situation manifested by: 1) the drought, which accentuates the phenomenon of desertification, 2) increased salinity of the soil and the lowering of the piezometric levels of the groundwater. It encourages the countries of the Maghreb to develop the strategy of the increased mobilization of non-conventional, such as the desalination of seawater and brackish water. The complementarity of the approaches hydrochemical, piezometric and isotopic may lead to the diagnosis of the state of vulnerability of the aquifers in the basin of Essaouira in the face of climate change. However,

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the development of a strategy for the rational exploitation could thus enable the value of its waters, while preserving its potential in the long term. As well as the use of non-conventional resources such as desalinated seawater for the supply of drinking water or treated wastewater for agriculture must be seen as a priority in order to avoid trigger situations of water scarcity. Acknowledgment This research was carried out within the Laboratory 3GEOLAB science faculty Semlalia of Marrakech Cadi Ayyad University, in collaboration with the ENS of Marrakech and the Institute of Technology Nuclear Lisbon, Portugal. Our acknowledgments will go to the agents of the agency of the Basin Hydraulic Tensift that contributed to the realization of this work. We also thank the research group of Professor Paulà Carreira at the institute of technological and nuclear Lisbon, who has done isotope analyses References Bahir M., (2007). Isotopes et ressources en eaux en zones-arides et semi-arides: exemple du bassin d’Es saouira. p.175. Bahir1 M., Carreira2 P., Oliveira da Silva3 M., Fernandes2 P. (2008). Caractérisation hydrodynamique, hydrochimique et isotopique du système aquifère de Kourimat (Bassin d’Essaouira, Maroc). Estudios Geológicos. 64 (1) enero-junio 2008, 61-73. ISSN : 0367-0449. Bahir M., Chamchati H. (2011). Caractérisation du système aquifère plio-quaternaire et turonien (Bassin d’Essaouira, Maroc). geohydro, pp.1-6. Bahir M., et Chkir N., (2013), Using geochemical indicators and isotopic to investigate groundwater: The case of the Essaouira aquifers system (Mogador,Morocco). Proceedings of 2013 International Conference on Advances and Challenges in Porous Media Sousse. Tunisia. 26-28 April. 2013. pp. 112121. Bates,B. C., Z. W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu et J. P. Palutikof. 2008. Le changement climatique et l’eau. Document technique VI du GIEC. Genève.236p.ISBN :978-92-9169-223-1. Chamchati H., Bahir M. (2011). Contribution of climate change on water resources in semi-aride areas; example of the essaouita basin. Geographia Technica. No. 1, pp.1-8. Chamchati H., Bahir M. (2013). Potential Hydrogeological, Environment and Vulnerability to Pollution of the Plio-Quaternary Aquifers of the Coastal Basin of Essaouira (Morocco). Journal of Environment and Earth Science. Vol. 3, No.10, pp.170-185. Craig,H. 1961. Standarts for reporting concentration of deuterium and oxygen 18 in natural waters. Science.133.1833-1834. Driouech F., (2010). Distribution des précipitations hivernales sur le Maroc dans le cadre d’un changement climatique : descente d’échelle et incertitudes. Thèse de doctorat de l’université de Toulouse. p.163. Driouech F.,Ben Rached S.and ElHairech T.2013.Climate Change and Food Security in West Asia and North Africa.Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013,pp.161-171. DOI 10.1007/978-94-0076751-5_9 El Moukhayar R. et al. (2014). Recharge and Hydro-geochemical Evolution Groundwater in Semi-Arid Zone (Essaouira Basin, Morocco). Journal of Resources Development and Management. Vol.3. pp.30-48. GIEC, (2013). Changements climatiques 2013 les éléments scientifiques- résumé à l’intention des décideurs. www.climatechange2013.org. p.1-34. Hsissou Y. et al (2001). Caractérisation de l’origine de la salinité des eaux de la nappe côtière d’Agadir (Maroc). Jalal M. Bahir M. et Mennani A. (2001). Pollution nitratée des eaux souterraines du bassin synclinal d’Essaouira (Maroc) (Nitrate in groundwater of the Essaouira Synclinal Basin, Morocco). Journal of environmental hydrology. Vol. 9. pp. 1-10. Louvat D. et Bichara S. 1990. Etude de plusieurs systemes aquifères du Maroc à l’aide des isotopes du Milieu.Rapport AIEA. Vienne. 30p. Ma J, Ding Z, Edmunds WM, Gates JB, HuangT.(2009). Limits to recharge of groundwater from Tibetan plateau to the Gobi desert, implications for water management in the mountain front. Hydrol J 364:128– 141. Mennani M. et al (2003). Impact de la sècheresse sur la ressource en eau en zone semi-aride : cas de l’aquifère barremien-aptien de la zone côtière d’Essaouira (Maroc). Nouaceur Z. et al. (2013). Changements climatiques au Maghreb: vers des conditions plus humides et plus chaudes sur le littoral algérien. Physio-geo vol 7 | 2013: varia 2013, p. 307-323.

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Olive P., Hubert P. et Ravailleau S. 1996. Estimation pratique de l’age des eaux souterraines en Europe par le tritium. Rev. Science de l’eau4. P.523-533. Olive P. 1999. Datation des eaux souterraines à long de temps de résidences par le radioacarbone.Mode d’emploi.hydrogéologie. N°1.1999. Sebbar A. et al. (2011). Etude de la variabilité du régime pluviométrique au Maroc sep-tentrional (19352004). Sécheresse vol. 22, n°3, 139-148. .doi: 10.1684/sec.2011.0313. Sinan M. et al. (2009). Changements climatiques : causes et consequences sur le climat et les ressources en eau. Revue HTE N°142. Mars - Juin 2009. pp. 21-30.

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