Heinemann IGCSE Chemistry contents - Pearson Schools

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3.4 How do we know when a substance is pure? 19. Chapter 4 Atoms and molecules. 4.1 How small are atoms and molecules? 29. 4.2 A short history of atomic ...

Contents

Introduction Chapter 1 What is chemistry?

vii 1

Chapter 2 What is matter? 2.1 Solids, liquids and gases 2.2 Matter is made of particles

6 7

Chapter 3 Mixtures and substances 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Solutions Methods of purifying substances Finding out how pure a substance is How do we know when a substance is pure?

13 14 17 19

Chapter 4 Atoms and molecules 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

How small are atoms and molecules? A short history of atomic theories Using symbols to represent elements How many protons, neutrons and electrons are there in the atom? Isotopes Atomic mass and molecular mass A pattern of elements – the Periodic Table The electronic structure of the elements Radioactive isotopes

29 30 32 33 34 34 35 37 39

Chapter 5 How atoms combine 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

Classifying materials Covalent bonds Double and triple covalent bonds The properties of covalent compounds Ionic bonds The properties of ionic compounds Macromolecules Metallic bonds

44 44 47 48 48 50 51 54

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Contents

Chapter 6 The Periodic Table   6.1   6.2   6.3   6.4   6.5   6.6

Blocks of elements in the Periodic Table Group I: the alkali metals Group VII: the halogens Group VIII: the inert gases The transition metals Trends across the periods

57 59 62 66 68 70

Chapter 7 Acids and alkalis   7.1   7.2   7.3   7.4   7.5   7.6   7.7

What are acids and what do they do? A pattern in acids and alkalis – pH How we use acids and alkalis Oxides and pH What happens when acids and bases react together? Making salts Identifying ions in salts

75 77 80 81 84 86 88

Chapter 8 Oxidation and reduction   8.1   8.2   8.3   8.4   8.5   8.6   8.7

Reducing metal ores Oxidation of metals Oxidation state Another definition of oxidation and reduction Electrolysis Explaining electrolysis Applications of electrolysis

95 95 95 96 98 101 105

Chapter 9 Metals   9.1   9.2   9.3   9.4   9.5   9.6

Why metals are so useful A pattern of metals – the reactivity series How readily will a metal form its positive ion? How stable are metal compounds? The names of some chemical compounds Corrosion and its prevention

107 112 116 118 120 121

Chapter 10 Chemistry and energy 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

Conservation of energy Energy changes during chemical reactions Fuels Sustainable fuel supplies Cells and batteries

126 126 130 133 136

Chapter 11 Extracting and using metals 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8

Mining and concentrating the ore Reducing the ore to metal Extraction of metals and the reactivity series Making iron and steel Making aluminium Making zinc Uses of metals Alloys

143 144 147 147 149 150 151 153

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Chapter 12 Chemistry and the environment 12.1 Our atmosphere 12.2 Pollution of the atmosphere 12.3 Water

159 164 168

Chapter 13 Fast and slow reactions 13.1 Making reactions go faster 13.2 Light and chemical reactions 13.3 Reactions that go both ways

174 180 181

Chapter 14 Organic chemistry 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5

Carbon, a special element Alkanes Alkenes Alcohols Organic acids

187 189 191 194 197

Chapter 15 Macromolecules 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4

Big molecules Synthetic polymers Natural polymers Fats and oils

204 205 207 209

Chapter 16 Industrial chemistry 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5

Making use of the gases of the air Sulfur and the sulfuric acid industry Industries based on lime The alkali industry The petroleum industry

213 217 220 222 225

Chapter 17 How much? 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5

Relative atomic and molecular masses The mole Formulae of compounds The volume of a mole of gas Moles in solutions

Index

229 231 236 240 244 251

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