How to Write Research Papers and Grants

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Aug 4, 2018 - Professor, Myanmar Institute of Information Technology Mandalay. Recipient of ISTE National Award, TCS Award, IEI Award, Expert Engineer ...

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha, PhD IEEE Senior Member, ACM Distinguished Speaker, IEEE Distinguished Speaker Professor, Myanmar Institute of Information Technology Mandalay Recipient of ISTE National Award, TCS Award, IEI Award, Expert Engineer Award, Young Engineer Award, Young Scientist Award Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

Lecture Outline  Research and its Components  Dealing with the Components  Emphasis on Specific Components of Research Grant  Where to apply!

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Research  Research refers to a search for knowledge and is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.

 Research is an art of scientific investigation. Its main purpose is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures.  Research aims to improve quality of life of all!

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Types of Research Contributions  Research Paper  Letters/Articles/Reviews  Thesis/Report (UG/PG/PhD/Post Doc)  Patents

 Research Grants

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Components of Research Papers  Topic  Abstract/Hypothesis

 Introduction  Background/Literature Review  Problem Identification  Methods  Results and Discussion  Conclusions and Future Scope  References/Bibliography How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Topic  Begin with brainstorming for ideas  Choose a topic that enables to read and understand the literature

 Topic should be manageable and with availability of supporting materials/resources

 Topic needs to be flexible and should address focused research question How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Topic-Sample  Good---Concise that gives reviewer a general sense of what you are investigating.  For example: Understanding the role anti-cell death protein BNIP3 in brain cancers.  May be Rejected-----Too long; too short  Example: Determining the mechanism of action of Bcl-2 family members in regulating apoptotic signaling complexes within the mitochondria leading to a cure in cancers.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Hypothesis  Specific and focused  Clarity  Relevant to the Problems  Sample: “Learning via Demodulation in a Deep Neural Network”, Andrew J.R. Simpson, Centre for vision, speech and signal processing (CVSSP), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK, https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1502/1502.04042.pdf  Abstract—Inspired by the brain, deep neural networks (DNN) are thought to learn abstract representations

through their hierarchical architecture. However, at present, how this happens is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that DNN learn abstract representations by a process of demodulation. We introduce a biased sigmoid activation function and use it to show that DNN learn and perform better when optimized for demodulation. Our findings constitute the first unambiguous evidence that DNN perform abstract learning in practical use. Our findings may also explain abstract learning in the human brain.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Introduction  Helps readers to acquaint with the topic  Should be short about one or two pages  The problem should be stated in such a way that it’s importance and relevance is realized by any one who reads it

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Introduction(contd..)  Sample (Same paper): Deep neural networks (DNN) are state of the art for many machine learning problems [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. The architecture of deep neural networks is inspired by the hierarchical structure of the brain [7]……………………………………….……………However, it is not presently

known how (or even if) abstract learning occurs in a DNN. One possible way to engineer the process of abstraction is known as demodulation. Consider a 1 kHz sinusoidal carrier signal that is multiplied with a 10 Hz sinusoidal modulation signal…………………………………………………………….. We

trained the various instances of the model on the 60,000 training examples from the MNIST dataset [4]. Each iteration of SGD consisted of a complete sweep of the entire training data set. The resulting models were tested on the 10,000 separate test examples at various (full-sweep) iteration points.

Models were trained without dropout.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Background (Literature Review)  Review of literature identifies lacunae/gap in current research work.  It is important to make it coherent, relevant and easily readable knowledge.  It helps the investigator to have insight on different methodologies that could be applied.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Sample of Literature Review  “Innovation and research skill for knowledge-based economy of Myanmar: Current status and recommendation”, G.R. Sinha, Myanmar Institute of Information Technology, Mandalay, Myanmar. https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/JSTPM-12-2017-0078  The National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP) carried out a survey based on quality

publications as an outcome of research and development activities (CRDS, 2018). Singapore has a very good growth in research publications and stands at a brilliant position in the world, with a total number of 25,763 publications; though 2.7 per cent of publications were of the United States. But

China even stood stronger, around 6.2 per cent of the United States total quality publications. Another Asian country, Japan, did fairly well, even better than China with 11.3 per cent of the USA but many developing nations in Asia need to improve the research publications a lot (CRDS, 2018).

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Sample of Literature Review (contd..)  “Study of assessment of cognitive ability of human brain using deep learning”, G R Sinha, Springer Journal of IT, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41870-017-0025-8.

 Wang [6] presented a historical overview of deep learning used for computer vision related applications. Object recognition, image classification and video classification were discussed. The deep learning has potential to address the problems due to high-dimensional data transform and the new concept of learning can be applied to performance of segmentation and classifications tasks.  6. Wang X (2014) Deep learning in object recognition, detection and segmentation. Found Trends Signal Process 8(4):217–228

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Problem Identification and Objectives  The objective of the proposed study should be stated very clearly .  The objective stated should be SMART (specific, achievable, measurable, result-oriented and timebound)  Too many objectives to be avoided  Even just one clearly stated relevant objective for a study would be good enough

 If there is more than one objective the objectives can be presented in suitable order of importance

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Sample of Objectives The deep learning based study of human cognitive ability aims:  To study the impact of research in deep learning for cognitive applications;  To implement modified CNN for training of faces;  To study the correctness of response; reaction time (RT) and recalling time of all the persons involved in manual training process;

 To establish an analogy of human learning and nonhuman learning; and assess the cognitive ability of human brain.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Methods  Research method provides a way to systematically solve the research problem  Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests and how to calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation etc.,  Study population / Sampling specifications/Sample size needed  Instrumentation/Specific procedures

 It may be of: Review; Modification of existing method, Novel method

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Results and Discussion  Obtain Results  Produce using suitable tools such as Tabular, Graphical, Curve etc.  Analyze the Results  Validate the Results

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Conclusions and Future Scope  Highlight major findings and summary  What could be done as future work  Sample: : “Learning via Demodulation in a Deep Neural Network”, Andrew J.R. Simpson, Centre for vision, speech and signal processing (CVSSP), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK, https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1502/1502.04042.pdf  In this paper we have provided evidence that deep neural networks perform abstract learning through a process of demodulation that is sensitive to asymmetry in the data. We have introduced a biased sigmoid activation function that is capable of improved learning and performance. We have shown that the optimum bias point in a practical model matches well that of the idealized demodulation example and that the optimally biased model is fundamentally superior to the traditional sigmoid activated model. These results have broad implications for how deep neural networks are interpreted, designed and understood. Furthermore, our findings may provide insight into the exceptional abstract learning capabilities of the human brain. How to Write Research Papers and Grants

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Acknowledgement/References  Acknowledgement  References/Bibliography—Follow the styles suggested as per the “Author-Guideline”

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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How to avoid plagiarism!

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Resources  Magazines, journals and books  Encyclopedia  Scholarly and peer-reviewed journals  Keep track of sources used for citing documentation  Quality of Papers being considered for Review MUST be high

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Components of Research Grant Proposal  Objective  Origin  Justification/Summary  Introduction/Background /Review of literature (National & International)

 Gap  Methodology  Time frame and work schedule/Gantt chart  Personnel  Facilities needed / available  Budget  Outcome/Impact

 Applicability  Beneficiaries etc. How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Origin  Assessment of R&D Impact on Socio-Economic Status of Rural India, 37 Lakhs INR, Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India  I was born and brought up in remote village of Chhattisgarh state and hence I can easily understand the challenges and issues of socio-economic development of villages; that could be taken up as research problems. NSTMIS has specific objective of having MIS for this kind of study so that specific reports would help in mitigating the difficulties of rural population.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Sample Size  It is important to describe study population (Sample Size)  How study subjects would be selected  Determination of sample size as tradeoff between precision and the cost (Resources & Expenses involved)

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Time frame  Proposal should include the sequence of tasks to be performed, the anticipated length of time required for its completion and the personnel required.  Can be presented in tabular or graphic form (Gantt chart). Months Activity

1-6

7-12

13-18

19-24

25-30

31-36

Literature survey and Databases Staff Recruitment Pre-processing Study the methods and Image Enhancement

Procurements of Equipments Implementation of other modules Workshop, Seminar Performance Evaluation

Debugging and Compilation of work Documentation and report submission

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Facilities Required/Available  The proposal should also include the important facilities required / available for the study such as computers, laboratories, special equipment etc. Item A. Recurring 1. Salaries/wages (Category-wise) 2. Consumables (Stationeries, Printing Cartridges, CDs, HDDs, Pen Drives etc.) 3. Travel (a) Local (b) Outstation 4. Other costs (Seminars, Workshops, and Data Collection etc.) B. Permanent equipment (Computers, Printers, Scanners, Furniture) C. Overhead charges(**) (add 10% of total cost for educational institutions & NGOs and 8% for laboratories and institutions under Central Government departments/agencies)

GRAND TOTAL(A+B+C)

Budget Year wise 1st Year 2nd Year

3rd Year

Total

4.8 1.5

4.8 2.0

14.4 5.0

4.8 1.5

1.0 3.0 4.0

0.5 3.0 4.0

0.5 2.0 2.0

2.0 8.0 10.0

7.0

-

-

7.0

2.0

1.3

1.0

4.3

23.3

15.1

12.3

50.7

Sr. No.

Infrastructural Facility

Yes/No/ Not required Full or sharing basis

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Workshop Facility Water & Electricity Laboratory Space/ Furniture Power Generator AC Room or AC Telecommunication including e-mail & fax Transportation Administrative/ Secretarial support Information facilities like Internet/Library Computational facilities Animal/Glass House Any other special facility being provided

YES, Available

Required in Survey work and Seminar YES, Available Required specifically for the project NOT Required --

** Subject to change.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Profile of PI/Co-PI  Principal Investigator (PI) and co- investigators (Co-PIs), their qualifications, research experience etc.  Major roles to be taken up by different investigators.  Awards, Relevant Publications & Work

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Budget  Budget translates project activities into monetary terms  It is a statement of how much money will be required to accomplish the various tasks  Major items-Salary for staff, Travel, Purchase of equipment, Printing / Xeroxing, Consultancy charges, Institutional overheads etc. Item A. Recurring 1. Salaries/wages (Category-wise) 2. Consumables (Stationeries, Printing Cartridges, CDs, HDDs, Pen Drives etc.) 3. Travel (a) Local (b) Outstation 4. Other costs (Seminars, Workshops, and Data Collection etc.) B. Permanent equipment (Computers, Printers, Scanners, Furniture) C. Overhead charges(**) (add 10% of total cost for educational institutions & NGOs and 8% for laboratories and institutions under Central Government departments/agencies)

GRAND TOTAL(A+B+C)

Budget Year wise 1st Year

2nd Year

3rd Year

Total

4.8 1.5

4.8 1.5

4.8 2.0

14.4 5.0

1.0 3.0 4.0 7.0 2.0

0.5 3.0 4.0 1.3

0.5 2.0 2.0 1.0

2.0 8.0 10.0 7.0 4.3

23.3

15.1

12.3

50.7

** Subject to change.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

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Justification of Budget  A.1: Research Associate and Research Fellow will be recruited.  A.2: Expenditure for Documentation, Reports, Research papers writing, Printing, Pen drives, CDs, DVDs etc.  A.3: Expenses related to Surveys; Organizing Seminar and Workshop; Data collection; University visits; Visit to research and development organizations, UGC, and other government organizations; and Awareness Drives.  A.4: Expenditure in Seminar and Workshop Conduction; Expert Advice and Data collection.  B: Expenditure for Computers, Printers, Scanners, Furniture.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Proposal Summary  Good--short but informative background to justify the research hypothesis and objectives; impact, significance and innovation.  May be rejected--No clear statement of what is the purpose of this study.

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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Where to apply?  Research Grants Available From University of Maryland Baltimore USA, https://www.mmresearchethics.net/apply-for-research-grants/  Myanmar Research Fellowship, https://mrf-fellowships.weebly.com/  The Toyota Foundation, https://www.toyotafound.or.jp/english/international/2018/  International Development Centre Canada, https://www.idrc.ca/en/funding  ASEAN-India Science & Technology Development Fund (AISTDF) & ASEAN-India collaborative R&D program

 Call for Danida Mobility Grants for content/uploads/2018/01/Mobility-Grant-Call-2018.pdf

Research,

http://dfcentre.com/wp-

 India Science and Research Fellowship (ISRF), http://dhe.gov.mv/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/ISRFBrochure.pdf  Many more agencies/organizations….

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

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E=

2 mc

E = Excellence m= Motivation c=Commitment

Thank you, any queries please!

How to Write Research Papers and Grants

G R Sinha

August 4, 2018

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