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Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński Stanisław Ciupka Ievgen Khlobystov

Одесса 2017

Reviewers: prof. Elena Sadchenko prof. Liubov Zharova dr Paweł Szudra dr Tomasz Czura. ООО Интитут креативных технологий, адрес: 65012, Украина, г. Одесса, ул., Пушкинская, 83 On cover: © Rawpixel.com, by Fotolia.com 1st Edition

ISBN 966-8888-00-6

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Contents

Introduction...................................................................................................7 Katarzyna Iluk, Łukasz Iluk The Implementation of Job Rotation as a Form of Job Design within Human Resources Management in Germany.............................11 Sabina Sanetra-Półgrabi Entrepreneurship as a multifaceted factor of development in the border areas ......................................................................................53 Хлобыстов Евгений, Чечель Анна, Колосок Валерия, Верескун Михаил Устойчивое развитие, повышение качества жизни населения и политика управления персоналом: точки взаимодействия........71 Stanisław Ciupka The issues of profession and managing work in early Christian literature........................................................................95 Krystian Kucharczyk, Józefa Matejek Family and contemporary society.......................................................... 107 Józefa Matejek, Krystian Kucharczyk Contemporary family – social changes and risks................................. 119

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Stanisław Ciupka, Aleksander Sapiński American perspective of stress management as a consequence of changes in the organization – scientific reflection............................... 137 dr Adam Pawlak, Krystian Kucharczyk Mobbing – terror psychiczny – jako patologia społeczna na współczesnym rynku pracy............................................................... 145

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Introduction

The dynamics of changes that occur in the modern world in social, economic or interpersonal terms may raise some concerns. The place and significance of human in the society of the 21st century becomes more and more radical. Some inhabitants of our globe believe in the sanctity of life, others treat people as objects. In a modern enterprise, a manager inspired by the humanistic trend of managing people should put human in the centre of his interests, so that the employee is not a tool for pursuing a goal, it is his work and himself that should be the target (Czarniawska 2015). Therefore, recognizing the appropriateness of “humanism” in management, one can get the impression that the term human resource management has a pejorative aspect. This is because the term resource is an economic value regarding quantity, the fact of accumulation of some goods (Stachowiak 2015). Going deep into the literature of the subject, one must deny the way of thinking that would demonize human resource management and put it on par with the classic capitalist practice and its approach to the place of human in the organization (Milewski, 1999). The evolution

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of human resource management allows us to see that human is the most important asset of the company (Szaban 2012), which had already been noticed in the definition formulated by Armstrong, who assumed, among others, it can create convenient, flexible working conditions that would be conducive to mobilizing the employees’ energy and creativity (Penc 1996). Conducting a free discussion of various definitions of HRM (Jamka 2011), one would be tempted to say that human resource management is a multi-faceted and socially responsible process of intellectual co-existence of all employees in a given organization run by sustainable leaders. When decomposing this proposal for the definition of HRM, one should pay attention to the fact that human is a social being and everyone is individual, feeling differently, having different needs (Wziątzek-Staśko 2013), hence the need for multi-faceted, even interdisciplinary, attitude towards the employee to properly implement such HRM tasks as training, motivation or employee evaluation. The most appropriate person for carrying out such HRM activities will be the leader who bases his actions on the concept of sustainable development (Knap-Stefaniuk, Sapiński 2015). The intellectual coexistence, similar to the natural definition of the term of cohabitation, would result in new solutions, proposals and healthy competition in order to meet one’s own needs, as well as the needs of co-workers and the organization itself. I deeply believe that the lecture of chapters presented in this monograph will result for every recipient in new ideas or solutions in the field of human resources management. The aim of this book is to present a broad view of the human resources management process in an interdisciplinary aspect involving an international group of authors from Poland, Swi-

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tzerland, Russia and Ukraine. Reading the book will provide the recipients with new inspiration to conduct research in the area of the place of human in the organization, it will also bring methods and techniques of managing the capital of every human being. The interdisciplinary aspect of the monographs is presented by the variety of perspectives in different chapters, from the point of view of management, philosophy, pedagogy, political science, theology and psychology. I express my deep conviction that new solutions presented in the book as well as the interesting conclusions from the research conducted in literature sources will be interesting for recipients presenting various fields of knowledge and will contribute to further scientific considerations. I would like to warmly thank Mr Jerzy Dec, Chancellor of the University of Economics and Humanities in Bielsko-Biała, for the invaluable help in publishing the book. I am also grateful to reviewers led by prof. Elena Sadchenko for their valuable comments, precision, professionalism and patience in the process of reviewing the chapters. Aleksander Łukasz Sapiński

Odessa 2017

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Katarzyna Iluk Pully/Switzerland

Łukasz Iluk Bielsko-Biała School of Finances and Law

The Implementation of Job Rotation as a Form of Job Design within Human Resources Management in Germany Introduction The purpose of this thesis is firstly to broaden the understanding of job rotation by reviewing the literature and summarizing the objectives, benefits, and drawbacks associated with its implementation and secondly to present the application of job rotation in Germany as a European industry leader and one of the world’s leading industrial countries. Its economy is ranked third after the USA and Japan, and in terms of world trade it holds a second place.

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1. Problem assignment The past decade has faced unprecedented changes in production technologies, the nature of physical and human capital, and ideas about how to organise employment. All industries have felt the need to gradually introduce new organizational concepts, exposing themselves to changes in order to meet growing challenges posted by markets and new competitors (Amorós and Tippelt, 2005). An increasing adoption of innovative and flexible forms of work design played a central role in this development. These forms of work design are marked by a change from a Tayloristic work organization, characterized by task specialization, a pyramidal hierarchical structure, and a centralization of responsibilities to a Holistic organization featuring multi-skilling, variety of tasks, and overtaking responsibility. The companies realized that through specialisation their departments developed their own subcultures, which can cause conflicts and problems over integration and build barriers between functions, inhibit teamwork and most notably distract attention from customer needs (Leveson, 1996: 36). In addition, a decrease in jobs can be completely formalised and thus electronically automated, while on the other hand the share of jobs with a high degree of complexity is constantly growing (Ruf, 1991, as cited by Friedrich, et al. 1998: 504, 505). This development has clear impact on the company’s hierarchical structure, its internal formalism, the specific communicational structure, and also the spatial and temporal dimensions of human resources management (HRM) (Friedrich, et al. 1998: 505). Simultaneously recognition of the reduction of employee morale and productivity due to job monotony and boredom led firms away from focussing on specialization towards emphasiz-

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ing rather on skill variety, task identity, and autonomy (Fried, 1991). More and more organisations have increasingly sought to adopt work structures which are characterised by flexibility, motivation of employees, and the ability to adapt to changes in demand, production methods or technology. One of these work forms which results from a reaction to the Tayloristic work system is job rotation which implies a change of workplace by transferring employees between various areas of responsibility (Arya and Mittendorf, 2004: 400). By taking over new tasks and functions independently and responsibly, the employees’ knowledge and abilities are enhanced (Jansen, et al. 2005: 1002) as well as their perception of the company’s diverse individual tasks (Friedrich, et al. 1998: 507). The main objective of job rotation is an increase in knowledge base of different functions and departments in the organization (Cheraskin and Campion, 1996) as well as an enhancement of skills. Job rotation aims to increase competitiveness by adding flexibility to an organization’s hierarchy and to integrate an organization’s technology and process knowledge (Daft, 1998; Moore, 1997). 2. The concept and goals of human resources management Generally, HRM aim to help an organization to achieve success through people (Armstrong, 2003: 4). The author emphasizes that it is concerned with both meeting human capital requirements and the development of process capabilities. He provides a list of goals of HRM which are set out below: Achieving high performance work through people which focuses on the integration of human resources and business strategies.

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Enhancing motivation, commitment and job engagement as a means of improving performance and retaining talented people. Achieving human capital advantage which results from employing people with competitively valuable knowledge and skills, and means developing the organization’s intellectual capital. Knowledge management influencing the way in which people store and share the wisdom and understanding accumulated in an organization about its processes, techniques and, operations. Resourcing by attracting and retaining the skilled, competent, committed and motivated workforce the organization need.

Humans are an organization’s greatest asset without whom everyday business functions such as managing cash flow, making business transactions, communicating through all forms of media, and dealing with customers could not be completed. The rate of change facing organizations has never been greater and organizations must manage change at a much faster rate than in the past (Lindbeck and Snower, 2000). In order to implement a successful business strategy to face this challenge, organizations, large or small, with the aid of HRM must ensure that they have the right workforce capable of delivering the strategy. Plowman (2010) confirms that when the strategy is implemented in line with the business goals and human resource strategies of the organization it aids in stimulating human mind through diversity of challenges. 3. Definition and principles of human resources management HRM is a “strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets: The people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achieve-

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ment of its objectives” (Armstrong, 2003: 3). Harris and DeSimone (1994: 6) provide a compact definition of HRM, viewing it as an “effective utilization of employees in order to achieve the goals and strategies of the organization” (Harris and DeSimone, 1994: 6). Armstrong (1992: 15) refers to three main principles of HRM, namely: Employees as valued assets. The fundamental belief underpinning HRM is that sustainable competitive advantage is achieved through people. They should therefore be considered not as variable costs but as valued assets in which to invest, thus adding to their inherent value. Strategy and culture are important. Organization effectiveness can be increased by paying attention to the development of integrated business and human resource strategies, and by shaping the culture of the organization. Emphasis on commitment rather than on compliance. The optimal use of human resources is reached by developing consistent, transparent and perspicuous policies, which give commitment to the organization, release the hidden creativity and energy of the workforce and as a result leads to enhanced performance.

4. The relation between job design and human resources management How the HRM function is carried out varies from organization to organization (Harris and DeSimone, 1994: 6). The authors claim that some organizations have a centralized HRM, while in other organizations the functions are decentralized and effected throughout the organization. Generally, the HRM can be divided into primary and secondary functions. Primary function is directly involved with obtaining, maintaining, and developing

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employees, exacting recruiting and selection, human resource planning and development, compensation and benefits, employee’s labor relations and equal employment opportunity (Harris and DeSimone, 1994: 6). The secondary functions that may be shared between HRM units include the following: Research and information systems, performance management systems and job design (Harris and DeSimone, 1994: 7). The last mentioned function, job design, is of tremendous importance to individuals and organizations (Schuler and Jackson, 1996: 151). To strengthen their statement, Schuler and Jackson (1996: 151) note that the new technologies and rate of innovation alter the way work gets done and “jobs need to provide more motivational value to employees’ anticipation of a workforce that is more productive, satisfied, involved, and committed”. Garg and Rastogi (2006: 572) also emphasise the implication of job design for HRM. In their opinion it is essential to “[…] design jobs so that stress can be reduced, motivation can be enhanced, and satisfaction of employees and their performance can be improved”. According to Armstrong (1992: 63), HRM is concerned with giving people an opportunity to use their skills and abilities in order to achieve a better outcome. He emphasises that “jobs should not only be designed to satisfy the requirements of the organization for productivity, operational efficiency and quality of product or service” but also “must meet the needs of individuals for interest, challenge and accomplishment”. The objectives are interrelated and the purpose of job design is to link the needs of the individual and the organization (Armstrong, 1992: 64). In order to be able to respond to new technologies, to improve employees’ performance, and finally to meet the companies’ needs job design has to be an integral part of HRM.

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5. Definition, objectives, benefits and drawbacks of job design Werner and DeSimone (2006: 47) define job design as “the development and alteration of the components of a job (such as the tasks one performs, and the scope of one’s responsibilities) to improve productivity and the quality of the employee’s work life”. According to Rothwell and Kazanas (1994: 327), job design influences the people who have to be recruited, the career plans, the organization development initiatives, employees’ assistance programs, labor relations negotiations and compensations and benefit programs. The importance of job design lies in its strong influence on a broad range of important efficiency and human resource outcomes (Medsker and Campion, 1997: 451). The authors argue that job design has predictable consequences for outcomes including the following: Productivity, quality, job satisfaction, training times, intrinsic work motivation, staffing, error rates, accident rates, mental fatigue, stress, job involvement, absenteeism, and, turnover. These are almost all aspects where an individual and an organization interface to the greatest extent. It has to be considered, that the jobs that exist in most organizations have already been designed, so the issue of interest is job redesign. In this thesis, job design refers to changing the tasks or the way work is performed in an existing job. 5.1. Definition of job rotation Job rotation has been widely used but, surprisingly, received little attention in human resources literature. There is no uniform definition of job rotation and for this reason some will be introduced in the following paragraph.

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Orr (2006: n.p.) defines job rotation as “[…] a systematic process of moving selected internal candidates into targeted positions, to increase their breadth of knowledge about an organization and how it operates, and to strengthen their leadership capabilities.“ According to Cheraskin and Campion (1996: 31), job rotation is a systematic movement of employees from job to job within an organization, as a way of achieving many different human resources objectives, to stuff jobs, to familiarize new employees with the company, to prevent job boredom, to train employees, and to enhance their career development. Yauch and Hariyono (2006: 2156) view job rotation as “[…] lateral transfers of employees between jobs in an organization”. Job rotation refers to a job transfer or any change in assignment, usually indicated by a change in title or department but not in compensation level (Campion, et al. 1994: 1519; Yauch and Hariyono, 2006: 2156). The authors point out that job rotation occurs either permanently of temporarily but does not involve a promotion. Berthel and Becker (2003: 317) also mention that rotations compass changes concerning tasks, competencies, and responsibilities which imply no difference to relocation. Job rotation generally does not include movement back into previous assignments (Yauch and Hariyono, 2006: 2156). 5.2. Objectives Job rotation is used to achieve many different organisational objectives. The most frequently mentioned in the literature is that job rotation is related to “learning and skill acquisition” (Campion, et al. 1994: 1522; Jörger, 1987: 263). Therefore, job rotation increases the knowledge base of other functions and departments in the organization (Cheraskin and Campion, 1996: 36; Jansen, et al.

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2005: 1002). As pointed out by Campion et al. (1994) job rotation is a practice of progressive human resource development (HRD) and an integral way of enhancing the value of work experience for career development of employees. Here the literature discerns career development of managers (Saari, et al. 1988; Werner and DeSimone, 2006), high potentials (Burke, 1997), early career professionals (Wexley and Latham, 1991), manufacturing personnel (Miller, et al. 1973). Also Sullivan and Au (n.d.) emphasize that job rotation is not only a way to attract and familiarize new employees with the company, but it also rewards and trains the employees, which gives rise to enhancement of career development. When focusing on the structural element, rotation programs aim to increase competitive advantage either by adding flexibility to an organization’s hierarchy (Daft, 1998) or by integrating an organization’s technology and process knowledge (Moore, 1997). Finally, Noe and Ford (1992, as cited by Burke and Moore, 2000: 129) give a good descriptive overview of job rotation objectives, amongst others an opportunity to gain an overall appreciation of organizational goals, creation of a broader knowledge base of different functional areas, development of a network of organizational contacts, and the enhancement of skills. 5.3. Benefits Career affects Regarding the merits of job rotation most of the studies concern theories of industrial organization and management systems in the aspect of relationships between rotation and career development. These studies have recognized the importance of work experience and that career motivation can be influenced by experience gained through rotation (London, 1983). It is ar-

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gued that job rotation plays an important role in employee learning (Bhadury and Radovilsky, 2006: 4431; Arya and Mittendorf, 2004: 400) because of increased exposure to different tasks which can be viewed as a strategy for employees’ career development. Campion et al. (1994: 1522) show the relation of rotation to promotion, specifying “the rate of future job change has been predictable from the rate of past job change”, “work on mobility and executive development implies that the number of job experiences is important to career attainment” and the last “work on promotion proposes that broad experience within a company is linked to promotion as a result of employees’ acquisition of organization-specific skills and consequent incentive to organizations to promote from within”. Cheraskin and Campion (1996: 36) also emphasize the benefits of job rotation for career development and promotion which is connected with career satisfaction, involvement, motivation and commitment to stay with the company. Organizational integration Another benefit of job rotation is the organizational integration. According to Miller (1984), jobs and employees should be matched due to specificity of human capital. The proficiency of employees in different jobs could only be known if they were given an opportunity to rotate (Ortega, 1999: 2). Therefore, job rotation would be an effective instrument for optimally allocating labor forces. Eriksson and Ortega (2002) also find strong evidence for the connection of job rotation and the allocation of jobs amongst employees. If the employee can be observed performing different jobs and activities, it may be the best way of finding the most appropriate position (Eriksson and Ortega, 2002: 4). Moreover, the companies want to learn not only how well

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different employees match different jobs, but also how profitable the jobs are (Ortega, 1999: 2). This information is important for organizations where innovative production processes are being implemented or new products are being launched (Ortega, 1999: 2). It leads to the conclusion that job rotation can improve the company’s ability to deal with change (Coşgel and Miceli, 1999: 304) because it endows the employees with a wide range of skills and knowledge (Cheraskin and Campion, 1996: 36) that enhances their capabilities to deal with new operations. An important aspect is also the possibility for the employee to see organization from a wide range of perspectives (Nonaka, 1991), thus contributing towards creating strong personal relations among individuals from different divisions and with diverse functions. Large multi-national organizations frequently use rotation to develop the networks and organizational contacts (Sullivan and Au, n.d.; Huynh, 2003; Jansen, et al. 2005; Morris, 1956) and to transfer culture across organization (Campion, et al. 1994). Stimulating work In addition to the organizational integration merits, job rotation also affects the social and welfare aspects of labor. Rotations have namely a share in the reduction of boredom, fatigue and monotony (Huang, 1999; Sullivan and Au, n.d.). Hsieh and Chao (2004: 1109) refer to studies which indicate that “[…] boredom has an adverse influence on both individuals and organizations, as in feelings of depression and failure, quitting the job, turnover, diminishing organization commitment, lower productivity, physical sickness, and so on”. Job rotation provides a variety and challenge in tasks and skills (Huynh, 2003; Campion, et al. 1994; Schuler and Jackson, 1996) which leads to better understanding

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of different organizational functions. In addition, job rotation gives the employee an opportunity to work in new environments and strengthen the interdepartmental relations (Morris, 1956: 270). As an important advantage Gómez et al. (2004: 242) point out the influence on “[…] motivation and commitment to the organisation and to its objectives”. Personal development An important benefit associated with job rotation is the improvement of knowledge and skills (Campion, et al. 1994: 1536). They found job rotation to be useful for enhancing employees’ business skills, which include an enhanced knowledge of functional areas in the organizational structure, international issues, and company operations. Morris (1956: 269, 270) confirms this statement pointing out that rotation increases and broadens the knowledge and understanding of the various external and internal forces which affect the company. Moreover, he argues that problem-solving skills and the ability to deal with people are greater as a result of job rotation. Huang (1999) and Gómez-Mejía et al. (2001) claim that rotation permits individuals to gain wide-ranging job experience in various phases of the business, which broaden their perspective and gives them greater flexibility when mapping out their professional route and therefore, greater career opportunities. 5.4. Drawbacks of job rotation Increased workload and decreased productivity According to Cheraskin and Campion (1996: 37) job rotation may increase workload and decrease productivity for rotaters, managers and for other employees. The authors see the cause in a

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disruption of work flow and a potential focus on short-term solutions. During the training period employees make more errors while learning new jobs (Campion, et al. 1994: 1524). It is also noticeable that there is a temporary loss of efficiency caused by the uncertainty and the lack of knowledge in the new job (Morris, 1956: 272). Experienced employees do not always want to handover their current good conditions or share their knowledge and working experience to newcomers (Huynh, 2003: 7). For this reason, it is extremely important to get sufficient support from co-workers and superiors to speed up the period of familiarizing oneself with the new job. Increased learning costs Job rotation provides the employee with the opportunity to change jobs, which boosts the time spent on learning in an organization and therefore also increases training expenses (Zeira, 1974). The employees need to learn and integrate into a new job which is associated with inefficiency in the training period. It makes an impact on the increased departmental costs and significant administrative costs for operating the job rotation programs (Sullivan and Au, n.d.; Huynh, 2003). Decreased satisfaction and motivation Due to the pressures of day-to-day business the management is unwilling to let their high potential employees rotate to avoid vacancies or lower productivity encountered at the beginning of each rotation (Gerster and Sternheimer, 1999: 64; Friedrich, et al. 1998: 507). On the other hand, the employee may feel mistrustful having the feeling that the rotation is just a necessity, regardless of his or her ability, skills and personal career objectives (Jörger,

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1987: 266). In case employees have to give up a job in which they feel at home for a new position they may not be qualified as a resistance can arise due to the great demands put on them (Jörger, 1987: 265). According to Campion et al. (1994: 1537), rotation diminishes the satisfaction and motivation of non-participants in job rotation as it creates more work for them and may generate resentment among them. 6. Target groups Campion et al. (1994) conducted a series of interviews with executives and a full-scale employee survey from a large pharmaceutical company that utilizes job rotation on a regular basis. In order to best gauge the effects of job rotation, only those employees who had been through at least one job rotation, or had been with the company for a minimum of five years were maintained in the final research sample. Their consolidated findings are as follows: • Job rotation is more common for employees in their early career than for those in their later career. The junior employees may be more interested in rotation because they see it as having higher value to their careers than do senior employees. Another reason is that senior management may view rotation as a better investment when used with junior employees (Campion, et al. 1994: 1535). This hypothesis is also confirmed by Huang (1999) who conducted a survey in the largest Taiwanese companies. He provides evidence that the employees who are younger and junior in their careers tend to change their jobs within a company more frequently (Huang, 1999: 4).

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• Individual performance has a significant positive effect on the rate of job rotation. “It may be that executives use rotation to reward good employees and motivate future performance or that they view the utility gained from rotating better employees as higher than gains from rotating poorer performers” (Campion, et al. 1994: 1535). They emphasize that the purpose of rotation is not, as popularly assumed, to get rid of low performers. • The employees’ educational level has no significant effect on the rate of job rotation which means that rotations are “[…] not limited to those with graduate degrees (Campion, et al. 1994: 1536). Huang (1999: ¶ 5) does not confirm this finding, arguing that the more educated employees, the more likely to be unhappy in the work context and that they become more critical about the training effectiveness of the companies. He claims that job rotation might be part of the solution in such situation. 7. Forms of job rotation The design of job rotation can be regarded as three dimensional: hierarchical direction of motion, reach of motion, and function (Hungenberg, 1990, as cited by Berthel and Becker, 2003: 318). The following Figure 1 shows these dimensions as well as its forms.

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Figure 1. The dimensions of job rotation design.

Source: Adapted from Hungenberg (1990, as cited by Berthel and Becker, 2003: 318).

If job rotation occurs on the same qualification level it is described as the horizontal direction of motion (Berthel and Becker, 2003: 318). This situation is common for rotations on the assembly line. On the other hand the rotation comprises of increased skills and responsibilities which imply the vertical direction of the motion (Berthel and Becker, 2003: 318). This form of rotation is typical for promotion in higher-level jobs like those performed by supervisors (Gülpen, 2004: 184). Another dimension of job rotation is reach of motion including the geographical moves on national and international basis. Especially relatively large and international organizations have a high reach of motion due to

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costs associated with relocating their employees . The function, as a last dimension of job rotation design, is the most complex one, hence the most frequently mentioned in the literature. The following paragraphs show the differences between its two forms, within-function rotation (7.1) and cross-functional rotation (7.2) and give examples of the application in the workplace. 7.1. Within-function rotation Within-function rotation means rotation between jobs with the same or similar level of responsibilities and within the same operational or functional area (Bennett, 2003: 7). According to the author, an example of within-function rotation could be when an individual member of a permanent work team moves between some or all the jobs covered by the team over a period of time in order to maintain or improve motivation or to ensure optimum staffing. 7.2. Cross-functional rotation In cross-functional rotation which is the opposite of within-function rotation, the individual rotates through a number of jobs in different departments, business units or geographical locations (Bennett, 2003: 7, 8). Moreover, the jobs chosen and arranged for this form of rotation tend to broaden the individual’s experience or to expose him/her to increasing levels of responsibilities. A common example would be the moving of a technician or engineer into a business position like sales to increase his/her awareness of customer needs. Cross-functional rotations are also frequently used for trainees who might be expected to spend a specified period of time in a series of assignments to different positions or departments in order to prepare for the appointment

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to substantive post (Harris and DeSimone, 1994: 139, 140; Friedrich, et al. 1998: 507). Eriksson and Ortega (2002: 4) note that many companies practicing such rotations provide individuals with development opportunities to gather data about their skills, interests and potential to indicate their final placement. Bennett (2003: 9) notes that the cross-functional rotation contributes to the development of social as well as individual human capital by establishing new relationships across the organization, though the return on investment in cross-functional rotations can be comparatively low without the effective selection of arrangements. This is why the objectives of job rotation should be clear and aligned with the organization’s business needs at a corporate level (Bennett, 2003: 9). 8. Germany and its advantage of competitiveness Recovering from the destruction of World War II, West Germany’s economy experienced a long period of strong economic growth that has been widely referred to as the “German economic miracle” (Smyser, 2003: 133, 134). During this period, extensive and generous social services and benefits accompanied high-tech market capitalism. A broad cooperation between government, businesses, and labor complemented free market principles in economic decision-making. Companies were considered responsible not only to shareholders but also to employees, customers, suppliers, and local communities. But German businesses also faced problems. Many of them had to cope with pressures to modernize which emanated largely from the United States (Smyser, 2003: 135). The author argues that at the same time German businesses had to adjust to the opportunities and demands of European economic and political integration. Some firms began to

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react to those pressures during the 1990s by trying to find a way to combine their traditional management style with the demands of the new economy. After the reunification of Germany about 1 trillion € have been spent on the modernization of East Germany (Jacobi, 2003: 16). In the last years, German government has been working on decreasing the unemployment rate, increasing the labor market flexibility and international competitiveness by reducing the operation costs of German businesses. 8.1. German management features German management is a mirror-image of German national culture, reflecting the “conservatism and strength” of businesses in a country with - according to The World Bank -over 82 million people1. The beginning of German management goes back at least to the mid-nineteenth century, when the country began to form its own single market (Stopford, et al. 1991: 77). Regions like the Ruhr were the first to industrialize. By the early 1850s, Germany had gained over 10 per cent of the share of world trade in manufactured goods, with about the same proportion for the United States (Warner, 1998: 216). According to the author, new industries, electrical as well as chemical, were supported by technical institutes which grew to service Germany’s changing industrial needs. Between the two world wars, German industry was greatly undermined by reparations and hyper-inflation which led to a decrease in manufacturing production. Germany then began to prepare for military expansion and hegemony in Europe under the Third Reich. World War II subsequently led 1 Available from: https://www.google.pl/search?q=populacja+niemiec&i e=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b-ab&gfe_rd=cr&dcr=0&ei=zNzAWZ3iG7PVXtPyiIAC (Accessed: 19th September 2017).

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to vast devastation (Lawrence, 1980: 15). Post-war recovery followed, made possible by a combination of Marshall Aid and export-geared manufacturing investment (Porter, 1990: 335). Cut off from East Germany, the Federal Republic turned its attention westwards, taking a lead in the growing European market which is demonstrated by a high degree of political and economic stability (Warner and Campbell, 1993: 89). This process could not have occurred solely through effective management. German management has many distinctive features which are introduced as follows: • Economics and regulation. Although the social market philosophy of West Germany consistently emphasized the need for free markets and competition, the way in which this market has been designed and regulated differs from any standard neoclassical approach (Warner and Campbell, 1993: 93, 94). The authors view that the German emphasis on economic regulation tends to be practical and is based on what will support industrial success, rather than ideological which may damage competitiveness. German industry has tended to be highly resistant to the idea of hostile takeovers on the Anglo-Saxon model, and its stand is broadly in line with the rest of Western Europe, excluding the U.K. Warner and Campbell (1993: 94) argue that Germany typically operates on a basis of cultural values enforced by a regulatory framework. They add that German management tends to oppose de-regulation, particularly if carried out for ideological rather than practical reasons. Furthermore, long-term planning with regard to product development and manufacture is matched by an unwillingness to risk long-term relationships and carefully negotiated consensus for the sake of short-term gains (Warner and Campbell, 1993: 94).

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• Technology and management. Technology in Germany is assimilated by the industrial and managerial logics that have characterized long-term management (Warner and Campbell, 1993: 95). The conception and practice of technical work and training follows a distinctly German path which results in highly trained work-force thus resulting in high levels of performance (Warner, 1998: 216). According to Stewart et al. (1994: 177), German managers tend to be specialists rather than generalists, who are expected to know what their subordinates do and to provide a technical example for them. Hence the professional criteria are the most important promotion considerations in German firms. German managers are thus chosen for their positions on the basis of their expert knowledge (Schneider and Littrell, 2003: 133). • “Technik” and innovation. Germans are a nation of technical competence. Lawrence (1989: 154) uses the phrase “Technik über alles” to stress the three-fold distinction made by Germans between: “Wissenschaft”, as a formal knowledge, “Kunst”, as art, and “Technik”, as knowledge and skills related to work. This is seen in the exports within the European Community and manufacturing efficiency (Warner and Campbell, 1993: 102). The authors also point out that the German mechanical engineering sector has distinguished itself by rapidly adopting microelectronics into both products and processes. This serves as the impetus to rapid innovation and technical developments. It has been closely linked to maintaining a particularly strong base of intermediate skills, with workers being trained well beyond the demands of their job (Campbell 1991, as cited by Warner and Campbell, 1993: 103).

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• Institutionalization. Ebster-Grosz and Pugh (1996: 157) argue that German management is characterised by high institutionalization. According to them, it is demonstrated by an emphasis on a disciplined approach to work, a lack of creativity in management and the relative lack of taking initiatives. Institutionalization is associated with a greater degree of commitment in work attitudes which entail a lower degree of conflict and are accompanied by greater harmony in interpersonal relationships at work (Ebster-Grosz and Pugh, 1996: 157, 158). Figure 2. Organizational behavior in Germany.

Source: Adapted from Ebster-Grosz and Pugh (1996: 126).

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They conclude that the typical aspects of German organizational behaviour which are shown in Figure 2, are closely related and facilitated through the institutional framework relating to employment in Germany. This again is linked to the structured characteristics of the German environment and culture. • Vocational training. Investment in human resources has long been a pillar of German economic performance. Germany developed the system of initial vocational training, called “dual system”. It involves a combination of firm and college-based apprenticeship training, usually spread over three years, covering around 70 per cent of the age group (Shackleton, 1997: 303). For over 370 separate formally-defined occupations, it is tightly regulated at the federal and state level. Implementation of programmes is supervised by the local Chamber of Industry and Commerce or Chamber of Crafts which awards nationally recognized vocational qualifications (Shackleton, 1997: 303). In practice, many training programmes and reform proposals have to be assessed and confirmed by employers’ associations, trade unions and state governments (Lange and Maguire, 1998: 140). The vocational education is part of the collective bargaining process and is based on employers offering places to trainees. The most criticized aspects of “dual system” are that apprentices are used by many employers, especially small firms, as cheap labor and that the employees do not use the skills for which they were trained (Lange and Maguire, 1998: 141). Furthermore the authors point out that with a variety of training vocations comes a considerable variety of quality. According to Winkelmann (1996: 668) better apprenticeships are offered in industry and commerce, while the least qualified apprenticeships

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are in the crafts sector. On balance, however, most industry, commerce and the public services agree that the system works very well and that they should stick with it. 8.2. German approach to human resources management After World War II, traditions and historical experience led Germany to opt for a type of market economy which has become known as the “social market economy”. The concept is based on Christian social philosophy and neo-liberalism, such as market competition, and has become associated with German prosperity and relative social stability (Weitbrecht, 2003: 60). Social market economy is a principle of intervention and regulation in order to encourage and facilitate freedom of consumption, free access to markets, and market income through progressive income tax and socio-political measures (Blum, 1994, as cited by Jackson, 2002: 187). The interplay of legal system and industrial relations has a strong impact on HRM in German companies. The key impacting factors are as follows. 8.2.1. Collective bargaining

Employment relations in Germany are characterized by a centralized regulation through collective bargaining influencing HRM-policy (Weitbrecht, 2003: 61). In most industries, terms of individual employment, such as salaries or working hours, are framed by a general contract between trade unions and employer associations or individual employers (Jacobi, 2003: 19). These collective bargaining agreements are negotiated for the respective industry on a regional level. However, companies are not forced to be members of the employers’ association and thus to accept the collective bargaining agreements. Nevertheless, nearly 70 per

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cent of the workforce in West Germany and more than 50 per cent in East Germany are covered by collective agreements (Jacobi, 2003: 30). Consequently there is a high degree of standardization in employment conditions within industries. 8.2.2. Co-determination

Co-determination is probably the most inflectional labor market policy as far as HR aspects are concerned. The basic idea of the German co-determination model is to let employees participate in management’s decision-making processes (Giardini, et al. 2005: 68). The authors point out that it is an indirect participation of employees, as it functions through employee representatives and formalized bodies of co-determination, backed by an extensive legislation that grants a broad range of rights with regard to information and determination. There are two main institutions of co-determination: Co-determination at the board level and co-determination at the plant level in the form of works councils. Large German firms have a two-tiered board system comprised of a supervisory board and a management board (Begin, 1997: 176). The author claims that the supervisory boards are comprised of the workers’ representatives and external share holder representatives, the exact proportion of each depending upon which co-determination law a firm is covered by. Management boards are comprised of primarily full-time internal managers and the boards are responsible for the day-to-day management of the firm. Works councils are bodies elected by workers to represent their interests’ vis-à-vis management with rights such as participation in organizing work and hiring personnel (Begin, 1997: 176). Any firm with more than five employees should have a worker’s council and coal or steel firm of more than 2,000 work-

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ers is required to have 50 per cent of the company’s supervisory board composed of workers (Harris and Moran, 1996: 323). Due to the authors this illustrates an attempt to include a most important part of the economic structure, the worker. 8.2.3. Human resources management practices

Human resources management in Germany is rooted in its historically grown and legally shaped institutional environment (Giardini, et al. 2005: 77). According to the authors HRM practices from the U.S. are not ignored, but quite the opposite, often initially taken up without critical reflection. However, organisations adapting to social demands in order to survive are eventually forced to analyse whether these practices may be customized to the national business system. Thus, a strong position in favor of a universal HRM approach may interfere with institutional demands and efforts to gain legitimacy (Giardini, et al. 2005: 77). Furthermore, organizations in former East Germany had to cope with a radical change in the institutional environment. As a consequence, HRM in the western part of Germany and in the eastern part of Germany has been and still is quite different. Muller (1999) in his study shows the adoption of HRM practices in German companies. His research is based on 16 case studies of banks and chemical companies operating in Germany which comply with the requirements of the German labor market institutions of collective bargaining, co-determination, and initial vocational training, and hence operate under strong institutional constraints. In his analysis, he refers to the key HRM techniques, practiced by the respondents, which are: Selection and introduction (8.2.3.1.), training (8.2.3.2.). The following chapters will show the application of these techniques in the German context.

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8.2.3.1. Selection and introduction According to Guest (1987: 515), a great attention must be given to recruitment and induction in order to ensure high quality staff. Most skilled workers in large manufacturing firms are hired from apprenticeship programs within the company (Begin, 1997: 167). Professional employees are hired in entry positions from the universities. The most common way of selecting applicants is a multi-step procedure that consists of an initial screening of the application papers . In addition to written information, the HR expert and a supervisor for the position to be filled conduct at least one interview with the most promising candidates. The interview itself is predominantly unstructured or semi-structured (Giardini, et al. 2005: 69). Additionally, German companies generally refrain from the use of formal written tests, such as IQ tests or personality questionnaires (Dietz, et al. 2004: 84). A unique feature of the German hiring process is the extent to which workers are involved in the process through their unions or their works councils (Begin, 1997: 167). The author points out that unions through their collective agreements, may limit certain types of hiring like the employment of minors below a certain age or minors and women in certain hazardous occupations. Furthermore, agreements may require to hire certain categories of employees, or set the ratio of apprentices to other employees, or set the percentage of disabled or older workers that should be hired. Works councils also have impact on the hiring process since the employment of new workers implies the right to participate in the decision process that is the right to interview job applicants and to recommend rejection (Streeck, 1984). Turning to induction, there are several means to communicate values to new staff. Most of the companies offer structured train-

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ee programmes for graduates which lasts between a few months and four years (Muller, 1999: 34). In this period, the participants rotate through different departments, observe experienced employees, work on projects and participate in specific off-the-job training courses or meetings for this group (Muller, 1999: 34). Job rotation is the common form of trainee programmes in Germany (Mentzel, 1992: 182). The author argues that its purpose is to ease the change from theoretical studies at the university to professional experience. 8.2.3.2. Training A highly-qualified workforce is also considered as a central goal of HRM. This can be achieved through a large investment in training which may also support the goal of functional flexibility (Friedrich, et al. 1998). The German system offers three general types of training. First, as noted above, initial vocational training is highly regulated and, within the respective profession, a standardised form of training. Especially the German economy which is based on a relatively high share of well-qualified employees who frequently work in flexible, complex and diversified quality production, derives its main competitive advantages from human capital and therefore has a large demand for continuing vocational training (Appelbaum and Batt 1994, as cited by Zwick, 2005: 155). In 1998, German firms accordingly invested on average the substantial amount of 1,128 Euro per year per employee in continuing vocational training (Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft, 2002: 99). Apprentices are trained on-the-job in their company, as well as off-the-job in specific vocational schools (Giadini, et al. 2005: 70). Second, there is a nationwide standardised system of further vocational training. Here, technical as well as man-

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agement-related topics are covered. In some industries, certain certificates are officially required to obtain supervisory positions, for example, the “Industriemeister” and the “Handwerksmeister” (Giadini, et al. 2005: 70). Nevertheless, the investment in this training is limited, as a company usually only refunds part of the course fees, gives some release from work duties and pays a bonus after the successful completion of the exam (Muller, 1999: 35). Third, there is company-specific training on both technical and non-technical aspects (Giadini, et al. 2005: 70). Practically companies offer training that may be chosen by the HR department or the employee to reach certain qualification goals. The most popular training programs for German enterprises are listed below in Table 1. Training program

Expenditure (a)

Incidence

Formal internal training Formal external training Seminars and talks Training on-the-job Job rotation Quality circles Self-induced learning

562 215 39 111 Not available Not available 35

37% 55% 42% 40% 9% 13% 14%

Table 1. The most popular training program; training costs per employee and incidence of different training forms; (a) figures in Euro for 1998. Source: Adapted from Zwick (2005: 161). Muller (1999: 35) notes that due to some changes in the form and focus of training there are attempts to integrate on-the-job and off-the-job training more closely, as it seems that off-the-job courses do not necessarily result in behavioural changes, especial-

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ly if the environment does not facilitate this process. The author claims that the companies attach more importance to job rotation between functions, but mostly for high potential management. Traditionally, employees in Germany start in a certain function where, by and large, they will remain until the end of their career (Handy, 1991: 37). In general, labor market institutions in Germany limit to a large extent organisational autonomy on qualification issues (Giardini, et al. 2005: 70). According to the authors, there is some pressure from unions and politicians to train a certain quota of apprentices relative to the overall number of employees. Furthermore, works councils have rights regarding the implementation and change of training courses and to which extent employees have access to courses, even though these rights are not used extensively (Muller, 1999: 36). Career development The German system of training and education is vocationally oriented. The trade learned or the subject studied is intended to be the source of living. In societies like Germany, where there is a close link between vocational training and the requirements of the work sphere, employers are likely to avoid costly on-thejob training by recruiting workers who match their demands (Schaepert, et al. 2001: 64). As a consequence, mobility between skilled occupations without acquiring additional formal qualifications is comparatively rare, and job opportunities depend not only on the level of qualification but also on the occupation trained for the supply and demand ratio in particular occupational fields (Müller, et al. 1998, as cited by Schaepert, et al. 2001: 64). Due to occupational segmentation of the German labor market

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and its strong institutional ties with the educational system, vocational specialization, together with the level of educational attainment, turns out to be a major determinant in career development (Schaeper, et al. 2001: 64). According to the authors that social background and gender are significant as well, but they primarily affect the access to the level of general education and to a certain training occupation, thereby largely influencing the employment career indirectly, mediated through education. As far as graduates are concerned, 36.5 per cent participate in fast-track trainee programmes, 32.4 per cent receive on-thejob training, 29.5 per cent are so-called “direct entrants”, and 0.6 per cent become assistant to members of the management board or assistant to managing directors (Randlesome, 2000: 636). The author points out that given the increasing significance of lean management and the gradual decline in strictly functional forms of company organization, more and more trainees are encouraged to think along cross-functional lines, using the medium of in-company projects. Such projects can be of individual or group nature. The most open-minded companies, therefore, attempt to broaden particularly trainee programmes as well as the range of skillsets of future managers during the entry phase (Randlesome, 2000: 637). According to the author, competencies are rarely mentioned at this stage in a future manager’s career as it is assumed that such young people are still thoroughly incompetent. Even the brightest and best are deemed to require a lengthy apprenticeship in the company before they are promoted. Development on the management level takes place within the company by in-house-training staff, brought-in specialists, or senior managers (Thomson, et al. 2001: 56; Ramirez, 2004: 441). The larger companies send staff to open public courses or

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chamber of commerce, which has an important role in all training, from initial vocational training through apprenticeships up to management development (Thomson, et al. 2001: 57). However, the author argues, that small businesses in Germany, as well as elsewhere, are reluctant to provide management development, and for the usual reasons of lack of time and of relevance. In the last years, German management development put a lot of emphasis on international experience and intercultural competency development. The larger medium-sized companies are increasingly sending employees of mid-management abroad on general management programmes to help them develop intercultural competencies. Nonetheless, Germany has still a low level of mobility of managers (Den Hartog, 2004; Ramirez, 2004). According to the author, less emphasis is put on the development through exposure to different situations (Den Hartog, 2004: 190). He argues that managers spend more time in a single job and development of expertise is valued higher than variety. According to Thomson et al. (2001: 57), it may have many reasons, including strong regional identities, paternalistic companies, and non-transferable benefits such as holidays and pensions. Earnings also tend to be reasonably standard for similar jobs which reduce the incentive to move on. Systematic job rotation takes place only during trainee programmes and on the high potential management level, less after regular employment. Job rotation in management development The great majority of German managers make not sufficient effort to further development within their company (Finegold and Keltner, 2001: 80). The authors refer to the survey of over 800 large- and medium-sized firms which estimated that German

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managers spend three to five days per year on further training which is mainly devoted to “soft” management themes like motivation and communication. Further survey of European Union (EU) member states also found that German enterprises were the least likely in the EU to apply systematic job rotation or work periods spent abroad as tools of management development (Finegold and Keltner, 2001: 80). Moreover, a mere 7 per cent of German firms used employment abroad as part of their HR development, putting German industry last in the EU and considerably below the EU average of 17 per cent. Only 12 per cent of German firm respondents had job rotation programs, again a figure well below the EU average of 25 percent. Wever (1995, as cited by Finegold and Keltner, 2001: 80) claims that the lack of investment in ongoing management development is due to the corporate structure of German firms that “[…] may hinder their transition to more team-oriented form of work and the accompanying development of new managerial capabilities”. Finegold and Keltner (2001: 80) provide two reasons for these difficulties. The first is the residual hierarchy of German industry. This manifests itself in a preoccupation with certifying and ranking skill levels, e.g., the university over the university of applied sciences and the Meister (“Master”) certificate over the skilled worker. It also appears that German managers put high emphasis on all levels of technical expertise as a basis for their authority. Therefore the transition to less rigid organizational structure is difficult to be implemented. A second barrier for creating work teams is the low application of job rotation by German firms for the purpose of personnel development. Finegold and Keltner (2001: 81) view that “[…] because most managers, unlike apprentices, do not have opportunities to cultivate their skills in different functional areas, they may be less

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adequately prepared to organize and lead teams of functional experts”. In large German firms only small and elite groups of managerial workforce has access to management development (Finegold and Keltner, 2001: 81; Gülpen, 2004: 185). Gülpen (2004: 185) points out that assessment-centre, conducted by the companies, identify high-potential management candidates and intensively cultivate the next generation of top managers. Finegold and Keltner (2001: 81) claim that the high-potential programs typically consist of two elements. The first is job rotation through different functional departments, product divisions, and international operations. Switching employment positions relatively frequently allows the top managers not only to develop a sense for the company’s overall business but also to demonstrate a high level of initiative and commitment to the firm. Further training complements job rotation for this elite group. The purpose is to help the high potential to become entrepreneurs and business leaders. External seminars are the most common way of such training, as they are expected to stimulate creativity by giving managers distance from the organization and putting them in contact with other business leaders. Most organizations, however, consider external seminars too expensive to be cost-effective (Finegold and Keltner, 2001: 81). 9. Conclusion Germany is well known for its commitment to professional preparation. Universities provide a combination of theory and practice which is a standard part of the curriculum. For university students, completion of an apprenticeship is increasingly used

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to complement their stricter theoretical training with hands-on experience. Germany practices job rotation mainly in trainee programmes for the new hires as the main purpose is to get familiar with the organization. After finishing the programme employees are assigned to their clearly defined function and remain there until the end of their career which is especially common in German firms. This leads to a predominance of strongly functional career patterns. In Germany less differentiation exists between the internal and external labor market which causes higher mobility of employees. In Germany opportunities to take part in job rotation programmes, apart from trainee programmes, are open to only a small and elite group of the management workforce and mostly in large organizations. High-potential management candidates rotate within different functional departments, product divisions, and international operations. As an example, in Japan job rotation is an integral part of the organizations’ operations covering all employees on every level of hierarchy. Despite high costs caused by constant rotations, Japanese adhere to them because they believe that long-term benefits exceed the costs. German approaches create specialists in designated fields. Especially the German system of vocational training emphasizes the development of a highly specialized workforce. Labor market institutions in Germany limit organisational autonomy on qualification issues to a large extent. Furthermore, works councils have rights regarding the implementation and change of training courses, even though these rights are not used extensively.

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65. Schaepert, H., Kühn, T. and Witzel, A. (2001). The Transition from Vocational Training to Employment in Germany: Does Region Matter? In Restructuring work and the Life Course. Edited by Marshall, V.W., Heinz, W.R., Krüger, H. and Verma, A. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 66. Schneider, J. and Littrell, R.F. (2003). Leadership preferences of German and English managers. Journal of Management Development, 22(2): 130-148. 67. Schuler, R.S. and Jackson, S.E. (1996). Human Resource Management: Positioning for the 21st Century. 6th edition. St. Paul: West Publishing Company. 68. Shackleton, J.R. (1997). Training in Germany: a view from abroad. Education + Training, 39(8): 303-308. 69. Smyser, W.R. (2003). How Germans Negotiate: Logical Goals, Practical Solutions. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press. 70. Stewart, R., Barsoux, J.L., Kieser, A., Ganter, H.D. and Walgenach, P. (1994). Managing in Britain and Germany. London: Macmillan. 71. Stopford, J., Strange, S. and Henley, J.S. (1991). Rival States, Rival Firms: Competition for World Market Shares. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 72. Streeck, W. (1984). Industrial Relations in West Germany: A case study of the Car Industry. London: Heinemann. 73. Sullivan, J. and Au, S. (n.d.). Developing Word Class Job Rotation Programs to Improve Retention! Guide for assessing and improving job rotation programs. Available from: http://ourworld.compuserve. com/homepages/gately/pp15js25.htm (Accessed 18 April 2007). 74. Thomson, A., Mabey, C., Storay, J., Gray, C. and Iles, P. (2000). Changing Patterns of Management Development. Williston: Blackwell Publishing. 75. Warner, M. (1998). Book review article: German management, human resources and competitive advantage. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(1): 215-223. 76. Warner, M. and Campbell, A. (1993). German Management. In Management in Western Europe: Society, Culture and Organization in Twelve Nations. Edited by Hickson, D.J. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 77. Weitbrecht, H. (2003). Human Resource Management and Co-determination. In The Changing Contours of German Industrial Relations.

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Edited by Müller-Jentsch, W. and Weitbrecht, H. München, Mering: Reiner Hampp Verlag. 78. Werner, J.M. and DeSimone, R.L. (2006). Human Resource Development. 4th edition. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western. 79. Wever, K.S. (1995). Negotiating Competitiveness: Employment Relations and Organizational Innovation in Germany and the United States. Boston: Harvard Business School. 80. Winkelmann, R. (1996). Employment prospects and skill acquisition of apprenticeship-trained workers in Germany. Industrial and Labour Relations Review, 49(4): 658-672. 81. Wexley, K.N. and Latham, G.P. (1991). Developing and training human resources in organizations. New York: Harper Collins. 82. Yauch, C.A. and Hariyono, H. (2006). Job Rotation. In International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors. 2nd edition. Edited by Karwowski, W. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group. 83. Zeira, Y. (1974). Job rotation for management development. Personnel, 51(4): 25-35. 84. Zwick, T. (2005). Continuing Vocational Training Forms and Establishment Productivity in Germany. German Economic Review, 6(2): 155-184.

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Sabina Sanetra-Półgrabi The Pedagogical University of Cracow

Entrepreneurship as a multifaceted factor of development in the border areas

Introduction Areas located in the immediate vicinity of borders in the literature dedicated to theoretical aspects regarding regional and local development are very often treated as peripheral areas, characterized by a negative economic, social and spatial indices. However, not all border areas are illustrated this way, and, furthermore starting from the accession of Poland, Czech as well as Slovakia to the European Union and the emergence of a great variety of financial and institutional possibilities, addressed to the municipalities and poviats located on the border areas, the situation relatively has started to improve gradually. Thus, a great deal of importance is placed on analyses of factors and elements in order to assure local societies and particular social groups and entities with relevant, satisfactory living conditions and development on the border. Certainly, entrepreneur-

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ship is one of the significant areas determining affluence and the quality of labor market. Its stimulation occurs on many dimensions, both locally where at least theoretically self-government units have at their disposal various legal, institutional and financial instruments, and nationally. The article’s objective is to present the meaning and role of entrepreneurship in the border area. Undoubtedly, without appropriate work conditions, obtaining of an income, we cannot say on the implementation of other objectives relating to self-fulfillment and the improvement of life quality. First and foremost, as a starting point, the author has taken the way of understanding of entrepreneurship, also taking into account psycho-social aspects, and relations with creativity and features of an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship – multifaceted approach Entrepreneurship is construed and determined in a different way in scientific studies, and also in economic practice. For example, S. Sudoł adopted the following definition: “entrepreneurship is a feature of an entrepreneur and enterprise under which one should understand a readiness and ability to undertake and solve, in a creative and innovative way, new problems, with the knowledge of risk related to this, ability to use any new opportunities and occasions as well as flexible adjustment to the changing conditions” (e.g. [Sudoł 2002, p. 33]). Entrepreneurship can be defined as multifaceted approach contingent upon factors which can be included into two spheres: social and economic. As regards economic sphere, entrepreneurship is determined by factors which are individual characteristics of a human being: talent, personality, intelligence, level of educa-

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tion and ability to absorb knowledge, and also characteristics of the society: culture, values, social models, tradition, and religion as well. As regards economic sphere these are characteristics that define the quality of human resources and culture of organization: access to knowledge and a possibility to develop it, creativity, innovation and market-orientation (e.g. [Strużycki 2006, p. 161–170]). Entrepreneurship, the significance of which lays inter alia in creativity, innovation and readiness to undertake the risk is a driving force for a success of an enterprise – to strengthen its market position and obtain higher profits allowing for a development. Entrepreneurship, understood as undertaking of business activity and its effective conducting in the conditions of risk and competition constitutes an inseparable feature of governing societies and is dependent of economic, technical, cultural, social, ecological, legal and political conditions formed in the historical period of development. In relation to this, entrepreneurship more often is determined not only as economical phenomenon, but also as psycho-cultural phenomenon originating on the one hand from the needs and motivations of an entrepreneur, and on the other hand deeply rooted in its surroundings (e.g. [Kaczmarzyk 2008, p. 9]). Entrepreneurship forms for this activity a platform, together with many alternatives, individual ones, socio-cultural, organizational and these resulting from the situation as well. Since the mere nature of the phenomenon is complex, probably, the disputes as to its definition will be still long-lasting, and even more that the category of entrepreneurship has no unambiguous and universal interpretation. According to K. Kaczmarzyk the existing definitions of entrepreneurship and an entrepreneur can be classified into three basic categories:

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• definitions constituting a “functional” look at the entrepreneurship referring to economic functions of entrepreneurial operations in economy. The group of these definitions was historically first, and its precursors were, inter alia, the following famous economists: Richard Cantillon, Jean Baptiste Say, Joseph Schumpeter (e.g. [Kaczmarzyk 2008, p. 19], • definitions focusing on the personal features of particular units and personal characteristics of an entrepreneur. They put a special impact on psychological (e.g. creativity, the need of achievements, risk-taking, etc.) and social (e.g. environment and family conditions, childhood time, type and course of education, membership of a national minority etc.) sources of entrepreneurship (e.g. [Kaczmarzyk 2008, p. 19]), • definitions treating entrepreneurship as a type of managerial behavior being an essence of behavioral theory of entrepreneurship. This group of definitions sees entrepreneurship as a specific way of management (e.g. [Kaczmarzyk 2008, p. 19]). On the other hand, H. Gawroński, while reviewing various approaches (perspectives) of entrepreneurship draws attention to three following approaches: • a socio-economic approach, which encompasses the following terms of entrepreneurship, i.e. a synonym of briskness, ingenuity, dynamism, economic development factor of a country, based on an innovative combination of resources, transfer of resources from lower-efficiency areas to areas having higher efficiency, certain socio-economic force existing in different dimensions, • a business approach that includes the following definitions of entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial management oriented towards taking the use of opportunities, risk-taking, imple-

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mentation of innovations and practical operations of the participants to the organization, preparation of development concepts, management with their implementation, and thus, creation of new values, • a personal approach draws attention to the following understanding of entrepreneurship: characteristics of a person (not a personality trait), way of conduct, specific type of people’s activity oriented towards the use of the chances appearing in the surroundings and/or successful “coincidences” in the organization in order to obtain particular economic and non-economic profits, an attribute of conduct which are particularly managerial, creation of new valuable things, what people do and not who they are (e.g. [Gawroński 2005, p. 55]. As stems from the quoted definitions, entrepreneurship is described by way of the following terms: innovation (e.g. [Barcik, Owsiak 2006, p. 72, Moszkowicz 2000, Birski 2008, Czudec 2007, Strużycki 2006)]), flexibility, dynamism, creativity (e.g. [Strużycki 2002, p. 47]) and also tendency to take the risk (e.g [Bartnicki, Strużyna 2001, p. 39]) and competitiveness (e.g. [Kotowicz-Jawor 2001, A. Klasik Katowice 2006]). Owing to the subject matter of the study, the author focused on the links of entrepreneurship with innovation and has drawn attention to the role and features of an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship and innovation Entrepreneurship is inextricably connected to innovation, that is implementation of changes, revolutionization, transformation and presentation of new ways of operations. In fact, these two concepts are the two sides of one and same process, howe-

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ver while determining entrepreneurship an emphasis is put on a motivation-resulting side, whereas while defining innovation – objective and material aspect of changes (e.g. [Barcik, Owsiak 2006, p. 72]). Vulnerability to innovations is one of the main factors deciding on the company success, not only to the extent of development and unit’s expansion, but also its survival. Innovation is a feature of economic entities or economies. Innovation is connected to implementation of something new, inventiveness, reform, improvement. It may concern any actions and areas of impact in various directions. Innovation is not only related to the possessed resources (human, capital, subject matter and information), but also with an ability to use the so-called innovative maturity. The latter means an appropriate level of organizational culture which conditions the use of entrepreneurship, innovation, creativity and ability to create, absorb and implement innovations in different areas (e.g. [Tuziak 2006, Żołnierski 2008, Okoń-Horodyńska 2003]). Innovation can be defined at the following level: unit, organizational and macroeconomic. Within the scope of the first approach it is defined as an ability to learn mainly through acting during participation in the fulfilment of innovative processes. It is often specified as innovative competence. Knowledge obtained in the process of learning supports the implementation of changes in the organization, and this in turn, determines obtaining of new knowledge. Organizational innovation is contingent upon innovative potential that is an ability of an economic entity to implement and identify innovations. It is dependent of an organizational scheme of an entity, procedures, innovative processes and such innovations, the implementation of which allows for

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generation of new solutions. At the level of organization’s innovation one may distinguish product and process innovations. The former concern goods and processes, these are changes of any type, which consist in improvement of already produced goods by an enterprise or extension of assortment structure by a new product. Its technological features or purpose considerably differ from the previously produced product. Innovation in turn, means the changes in the production methods applied by the organization, as well as the ways of reaching the recipients with the product. On the macroeconomic level, the discussed economic category is considered with respect to economy/regions innovation. This is an ability and willingness of entities to look for and use in the economic practice the results of scientific studies, ideas, inventions, etc. Pro-innovative institutions, the so-called science and technology parks, incubators and innovation and technology transfer centers constitute highly important elements of the innovative system on the macroeconomic level. They are sources of knowledge and innovations which ensure economy with the development based on the knowledge (e.g. [Czternasty, Mikołajczak 2007, p. 30–31]). Undoubtedly, innovation constitutes an important part of entrepreneurship, especially in the context of identifying and seizing opportunities. It is also indicated that entrepreneurship is connected to the processes of values’ creation, setting-up and development of new profitable business activity, creation of a new product or service as well as purposeful creation of organization’s values by its participants, creation of something new through devoting indispensable amount of time and effort accompanied by financial, psychological and social risk that needs to be accepted, and also receiving awards in the form of financial and

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personal satisfaction which are the results of these actions (e.g. [Kozień 1999]). Entrepreneurship and an entrepreneur The core of most definitions of entrepreneurship is an entrepreneur together with his features, which include uniqueness, creativity, risk-taking, and the interacting innovative processes and formation of added value of an enterprise (e.g. [Gawroński 2005, p. 54]). The key role, in the process of entrepreneurship is performed by the entrepreneur, but it is impossible to define it within the functional categories: who is an entrepreneur and what is his function. Therefore, entrepreneurship require to link two phenomena: the existence of a unit and existence of opportunities so that the entrepreneurship can occur. (e.g. [Kaczmarzyk 2008, p. 12–13]). Among conditions determining entrepreneurial conduct, one should primarily provide: a positive acceptance of uncertainty and changes in the surroundings, formation of strategic assumptions which as a consequence have to replace uncertainty with identifiable and countable risk, confrontation with the risk as an inseparable category of economic ventures, treating the risk as a probability of achieving beneficial relations between revenue and costs, questioning of the acquired experiences that is feeling the need of change, active identification of the arising opportunities and seizing them, flexibility, creative thinking and action, as well as self-control (e.g. [Gawroński 2005, p. 56]).

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Entrepreneurship as a development factor of border areas – theoretical remarks Many factors have impact on the development of border areas. The level of entrepreneurship is undoubtedly one of them, which is primarily influenced by location as well as human and organizational resources, that is instruments which are at the disposal of local authorities for the purpose of stimulation of investments and micro-entrepreneurship . K. Kuciński suggested a detailed typology of entrepreneurship determinants by distinguishing: morphological factors resulting from the physical-geographical features of the region, demographic factors reflecting the structure of human resources in the region, economic factors depending on the level of economic development, organizational factors that reflect the structure and efficiency of the authorities in the given area and structural factors, indicating the degree of adjustment of the location to the sales markets and distribution of resources, as well as the interaction factors (e.g. [Kuciński 1997, p. 11–12]). The said factors, in a variety of ways, influence entrepreneurship in border areas. In a strict way, the natural conditions that the peripheries have at their disposal, influence on the development of tourism. This is an area of business activity that can be defined as: “the entirety of connections and phenomena that occur as a result of changing the place and in relation to the stay of persons, for whom the new place of residence is neither a permanent place of residence nor a place of work. Therefore, one can assume that every enterprise that operates in the area of these phenomena belong to a tourism sector” (e.g. [Słowiak, Gajewska 2009, p. 155]). Many territorial units, especially those located on the southern and eastern borders, benefit from tourism and their industries

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are geared towards gastronomy, sports, entertainment or leisure. This results from several reasons, primarily, unskilled or medium-skilled people are employed in the tourism industry. Furthermore, job in this sector is generally offered to young people, often women or people residing on the other side of the border. The residents noticing that the emerging income opportunities, including additional ones, develop other – complementary fields of economic activity, a good example of which in case of rural areas – can be the development of agri-tourism, significantly affecting the living standards of people who earn their living by agricultural activity, or the development of small-scale production as well as handicrafts. In case of countries or regions where the territorial authorities contribute to taxes and fees related to tourism and economic activity in this sector, budget revenue is intended, inter alia, to support the development of infrastructure and services that can be used not only by tourists but also by the residents (recreational, cultural, transport, road infrastructure, etc.). Owing to the fact that tourists, in general, visit safe, clean and unpolluted regions, tourism affects the increase of the taking care of these attributes and the image of a given place, enhances ecological awareness. Undoubtedly, tourism stimulates revitalization and enhances the conservation of historical, cultural, ethnic heritage, etc. (e.g. [Ignasiak – Szulc 2009, p. 66-67]). As regards the development of border areas in respect of the tourism, one should pay particular attention to the opportunities that can be faced by the eastern border region of the EU. This is a common challenge of four eastern voivodships: Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Podlaskie, Lubelskie and Podkarpackie, as well as of eastern part of Mazowieckie voivodship. Regions of eastern Poland have de facto common development objectives

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that should become the subject matter of contacts between the voivodships. The main topics concern: thorough modernization and improvement of the north-south border road – arteries of the regional integration of the “eastern wall”, which fosters deepening of the internal economic, social and spatial coherence in the region, formation of common networks of regional centers of technology transfer and economic consulting allowing the support aimed at the development of local entrepreneurship, mainly the small and medium-sized enterprises sector, support of the development of leading public academic institutions - education centers and enhance cross-border cooperation, formation and support of institutions coordinating this cooperation. Therefore, the crucial significance of the eastern border areas is the formation of spatial system in the long-term time framework will have a European and national system of technical infrastructure (its superstructure is the system of motorways and express roads, modernized railways, airports, energy system, water management system). The following urban centers, located in the border zone are also worth noting: Elbląg, Suwałki, Siedlce, Biała Podlaska, Chełm, Zamość and Przemyśl. Traditionally, zones and tourism economy centers, the values of the natural environment and the unique values of material culture will contribute to the development of this part of the border region. A particular concentration of these areas occur in the north-eastern Poland, the so-called Green Baltic Ring (Zielony Pierścień Bałtycki), with which, inter alia, the initiative Green Lungs of Poland (Zielone Płuca Polski) is connected and the belt of mountain lands where Bieszczady are located (e.g. [Mochnaczewski 2004, p. 22-24]). The initiative Green Lungs of Poland had special institutional conditions for local entrepreneurship, which was implemented

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on the basis of the Agreement under the same name, the signatory of which were the representatives of central and local authorities in this area. The initiative constituted an example of the application of the subsidiarity principle in regional development, since its aim was to form and promote the principles of sustainable development of the Green Lungs of Poland, which complement the social, economic and ecological development factors, as well as the support whilst their implementation by local self-governments and government administration authorities. The activity of local authorities did not stem from the will to limit their rights and duties, but from the provision of support to local selfgovernments and economic entities within the scope of various national and international development initiatives and programs. The idea of the Green Lungs of Poland is almost 30 years old, it was initiated in July 1983 by Krzysztof Wolfram by way of his article published in the monthly newspaper “Światowid” and on 13 May 1988 the Agreement was signed in Białowieża. This was the first document rejecting the economic development based on the process of industrialization to the benefit of development based on pro-ecological premises. The core objectives of the initiative at the beginning of operations were as follows: inventory of the natural resources of the region and their protection in the form of protected areas, development of a functional spatial development plan based on a uniform methodology, which would form the basis for the formulation of the assumptions of regional policy of this area; increasing standard of cleanliness of environment thanks to pro-ecological investments supported by administrative operations, acquisition of as largest as possible financial resources from the external sources and promotion of ideas national-

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ly and abroad for the purpose of the area under the Agreement (e.g. [Adamowicz, Wawrzyńczak 2006, p. 44-55). Another example of the development of entrepreneurship based on tourism can be agreements on cross-border cooperation, which, by becoming formal, are referred to as Euroregions. The initiatives of this type, have been formed in the Polish border regions since 1991, and up to now, there are seventeen Euroregions at all borders, however the largest number on the southern and western borders. From the outset, representatives of the local authorities as well as social partners and economic entities have supported the development of cross-border projects concerning culture, the environment protection and tourism, pointing out that, due to the location of the Euroregions in environmentally valuable areas, the undertakings of this type will determine the development of border regions. For the purposes of this study, it is worth giving as an example the activity of Euroregions on the southern border of Poland, which successfully use tourism and complementary industries supporting at the same time the local entrepreneurship. For example, within the scope of the Euroregion “Śląsk Cieszyński” from the Phare Credo program, a Polish-Czech information system was financed, thanks to which numerous trainings and other initiatives regarding broadly understood European topics were held. The Information Point of the Euroregional European Information Center at “Olza” Association, the Polish co-operation partner, has commenced its activity in 2001. To the extent of another structure located also on the southern border of Poland, i.e. in the ”Tatra” Euroregion there operates a Euroregional economic forum, which is an example of an innovative combination of entrepreneurship and tourism. It includes conferences,

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product exhibitions, trainings on labor law both on the Polish and Slovak part. In turn, the project “Entrepreneurship without limits” is an example of an undertaking aimed at the development of a network joining the Polish and Slovak partners and improvement of the quality of cooperation of microenterprises operating in the tourism industry. It should be emphasized that in addition to the promotional and pro-investment activities envisaged stricte for the development of local border entrepreneurship, the authorities of the Euroregions also take initiatives in order to improve tourism infrastructure (e.g. [Sanetra-Półgrabi 2015, p. 290–291]). Summary In this article, the author made an attempt to characterize an exceptionally complex problem of entrepreneurship and the meaning of this category in the development of border areas. Primarily, the author indicated multiplicity of theoretical approaches, emphasizing economic, social and psychological aspect of entrepreneurship, and also broadly referred to the link between entrepreneurship and innovation and the role of entrepreneur. Undoubtedly, while describing the phenomenon, it has to be stated that in the context of border areas there is a particular emphasis on creativity and joining many complementary fields together, and this is intended to bring profits to the entire society living in the border area. In the final part of the text, the author referred to the role of an entrepreneurship in the border areas. First and foremost, the author presented many factors having influence on entrepreneurship development, starting from natural conditions to social conditions and to the policy of local authorities finally. Precisely,

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in the scope of the last one, institutional nature of factors there was indicated the role of cooperation, its initiation by local decision-makers, which measurably has impact on stimulation of local entrepreneurship based on tourism constituting in the experience of people living in the border areas a dominant field of economic activity.

Bibliography: Adamowicz Mieczysław, Wawrzyńczak Ewa (2006), The Green Lungs of Poland Agreement as a basis for the development of a cross-border cooperation, [in:] K. Gomółka (eds.), Cross-border cooperation and regional development, Warsaw; Elbląg: The Institute of Economics. The State University of Applied Sciences, Barcik Ryszard, Owsiak Dariusz (2006), The meaning of entrepreneurship in the local and regional development, [in:] A. Barcik, R. Barcik (red.), Local and regional development after Poland’s accession to the European Union, T. 1, Bielsko-Biała, The University of Bielsko-Biala, Bartnicki Michał, Strużyna Janusz eds. (2001), Entrepreneurship and intellectual capital, Katowice, The University of Economics, Birski Adam eds. (2008), Innovation, quality, entrepreneurship – a Chance for competitiveness, Olsztyn, The University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Czternasty Waldemar, Mikołajczak Paweł (2007), Innovation a competition condition with regard to the small and medium-sized enterprises on the European markets, [in:] J. Stankiewicz (eds.), Competitiveness and innovation of contemporary organizations, Zielona Góra, The University of Zielona Góra, Czudec Adam eds. (2007), Innovation as a factor of entrepreneurship development in the rural areas, Rzeszów, The University of Rzeszów, Gawroński Henryk (2005), Acquisition of entrepreneurship in the local society in the context of European integration, [in:] H. Horbaczewski, D. Rucińska, D. Tłoczyński (eds.) Social economy in the European

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perspective. The Warmia and Mazury region in the integrated Europe, Elbląg, The University of Humanities and Economics, Ignasiak-Szulc Aranka (2009), The role of tourism in the creation of economic development and improvement of competitiveness in the region, [in:] R. Barcik, G. Biesok (eds.), Local and regional development in theory and practice, Bielsko-Biała, The University of Bielsko-Biala, Kaczmarzyk Katarzyna (2008), Entrepreneurship as a way of thinking and operating, Warsaw, Promotor, Klasik Andrzej, eds. (2006), Entrepreneurship and competitiveness versus regional development, Katowice, The University of Economics, Kotowicz-Jawor Joanna, eds. (2001) 7th Congress of Polish Economists, January 2001. Volume. 4, Entrepreneurship and competitiveness, Warsaw, Polish Economy Association; Bellona Publishing House, Kozień Ewa (1999), Entrepreneurship in the development of enterprises, [in:] J. Targalski (eds.) Entrepreneurship and the local and regional economic development, Cracow, Cracow The University of Economics, Kuciński Kazimierz (1997), Spatial aspects of entrepreneurship, Warsaw, SGH Warsaw School of Economics, Mochnaczewski Piotr (2004), Tourism aspect in the border region, Warsaw, Interwest Publishing house. Moszkowicz Krystyna (2000), Innovation and entrepreneurship of Polish enterprises, [in:] B. Olszewska (eds.) Sources of successes and failures of Polish enterprises: strategic aspect, Wrocław, Wrocław University of Economics, Sanetra-Półgrabi Sabina (2015), The functioning of Euroregions on the southern border of Poland. A comperative study of the following Euroregions: “Śląsk Cieszyński”, “Beskidy” and “Tatry”, Toruń, Adam Marszałek, Słowiak Barbara, Gajewska Paulina (2009), European Union funds and the development of tourism enterprise, [in:] R. Barcik, G. Biesok (eds.), Theory and practice concerning local and regional development, Bielsko-Biała, The University of Bielsko-Biala, Strużycki Marian eds. (2002), Management of a small and medium-sized enterprise. European conditions, Warsaw, Difin, Strużycki Marian eds. (2006), Innovation in theory and in practice, Warsaw, SGH Warsaw School of Economics,

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Strużycki Marian eds. (2006), Entrepreneurship in the processes of development of local markets, Warsaw, Institute for Market, Consumption and Business Cycles Research, Strużycki Marian eds. (2006), Entrepreneurship in theory and in practice, Warsaw, SGH Warsaw School of Economics , Sudoł Stanisław (2002), Entrepreneurship: foundations of the corporate theory: management in theory and practice, Toruń, Scientific Association of Organization and Management “Organizer’s House”.

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Хлобыстов Евгений, Чечель Анна, Колосок Валерия, Верескун Михаил

Устойчивое развитие, повышение качества жизни населения и политика управления персоналом: точки взаимодействия Концепция устойчивого развития человечества явилась ответом на вызовы глобализации и стремительного расширения международной торговли. Интеграция капиталов сверхкрупных промышленно финансовых групп наделила существенной силой и влиянием новые бизнес – образования, от уровня корпоративной культуры и бизнес целей которых зависит качество жизни регионов и стран. Новым вызовом глобализации также становится изменение профиля конкурентной борьбы – при истощении природных ресурсов планеты возникла конкуренция за рынки сбыта и прибыли не только между бизнес – структурами, а и между странами. Конкурентные преимущества все больше зависят от эффективности создания и внедрения новых технологий, высокотехнологичной продукции и услуг с высокой интен-

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сивностью использования знаний, а не ограниченных природных ресурсов. Скорость роста в экономике теперь связана с разработкой новых технологий и возникновением на их основе новых отраслей. Развивающиеся высокотехнологичные сектора представляют собой главные пути экономической экспансии и становятся основной ареной конкурентной борьбы ХІ тысячелетия [2,20,2122,23,24]. Концепция человеческого развития позволила определить меры и методы оценки для определения уровня человеческого развития, достигнутого каждой страной в мире. Предложенный Программой развития ООН индекс человеческого развития (ИЧР) признан во всем мире как интегральный показатель состояния социально-экономического развития страны, отражающий совершенство и справедливость социально-трудовых отношений в государстве [1]. Индекс человеческого развития (ИЧР) учитывает оценку 3 компонентов: • ожидаемая продолжительность жизни при рождении; • степень доступности образования (уровень грамотности среди взрослого населения и уровень охвата населения школьного и студенческого возраста начальной, средней и высшим образованием); • уровень обеспеченности в обществе достойных условий жизни для каждого человека, позднее названный уровнем качества жизни (показатель ВВП на душу населения, выраженный через паритет покупательной способности). Именно эти три измерения отражают ключевые возможности в обеспечении всего процесса человеческого развития. ИЧР рассчитывается как среднее арифметическое значение суммы 3 индексов: Ilife - индекс продолжительности жизни;

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Ieduc - индекс уровня образованности; Iinc - индекс скорректированного реального ВВП на душу населения [2,3]. ИЧР может иметь максимальное значение 1 и минимальное 0. После оценки все страны размещаются в порядке убывания ИЧР, и наибольшее внимание привлекает их место в  индексе, а не его абсолютное значение [4,5]. ИЧР является своеобразным рейтинговым показателем, позволяющим в целом методологически корректно и информационно обоснованно определить место каждой страны на единой шкале. В индекс вошли измерения, которые поддаются точному количественному выражению и возможности получения достоверной и точной информации во всех 179 странах мира. Концепция человеческого развития создавалась Программой развития ООН (ПРООН) именно для решения задач содействия человеческому развитию во всемирном масштабе, на международном уровне. В связи с этим методология расчета индекса человеческого развития ПРООН основывается на минимальном наборе показателей, по которым можно собрать достоверные сопоставимые данные во всех странах мира. Для характеристики справедливости социально – экономических отношений в обществе, разумеется, можно использовать и другие измерители, например: показатели занятости (или безработицы); политических свобод; преступности; коррупции; грамотности; толерантности и т.д. Среди таких показателей – индекс развития молодежи. Индекс развития молодежи (ИРМ) - комплексный показатель, котрый позволяет оценить уровень развития человеческого потенциала молодого поколения (молодых людей в возрасте от 16 до 24 лет) по трем основными направле-

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ниям: продолжительность жизни и здоровья, образование и уровень жизни. За основу методологии расчета индекса развития молодежи была взятая методика расчета подобного показателя, разработанная Департаментом ЮНЕСКО по Латинской Америке и использована при подготовке аналогичного доклада по Бразилии, а также метод построения индексов с учетом фиксированных максимальных и минимальных значений показателей, который применяется при расчете индекса развития человеческого потенциала. Таким образом, индекс развития молодежи целесообразно рассчитывать на базе 3 основных групп показателей (рис.1): индекса здоровья, индекса образования, индекса дохода с корректировкой показателей на индекс жизненного фонда населения, а именно демографических изменений в рамках определенной возрастной категории в исследуемом регионе. Концепция человеческого развития создавалась именно для решения задач содействия человеческому развитию во всемирном масштабе, на международном уровне. В связи с этим методология расчета индекса человеческого развития основывается на минимальном наборе показателей, по которым можно собрать достоверные сопоставимые данные во всех странах мира. Каждый из них призван выражать количественно одно из ключевых направлений (измерений) человеческого развития. Эти показатели время от времени пересматриваются, совершенствуются и т.д. Однако ключевые измерения человеческого развития остаются неизменными с тех пор, как Мегнад Десаи и Амартья Сен изобрели индекс развития человеческого потенциала (индекс человеческого развития – ИЧР, 1990 г.).

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Это именно три измерения, которые отражают ключевые возможности в обеспечении всего процесса человеческого развития: прожить долгую и здоровую жизнь (измерение – долголетие); приобрести, расширять и обновлять знания (измерение – образованность); иметь доступ к средствам существования, обеспечивающим достойный уровень жизни (измерение – материальный уровень жизни). Таким образом, для количественного представления трех базовых измерений человеческого развития используются следующие индикаторы: • средняя ожидаемая продолжительность жизни при рождении (показатель долголетия); • доля грамотных среди населения в возрасте от 15 лет и старше и совокупная доля учеников среди населения соответствующего возраста (показатели образованности); • откорректированный реальный ВВП на душу населения (показатель материального благосостояния). Перечисленные индикаторы вычисляются различными единицами измерения, изменяются они неравномерно и нередко разнонаправлены по своей природе. Поэтому для построения общего индекса человеческого развития (ИЧР) необходимо агрегирование этих индикаторов, то есть сведение их к единому интегральному показателю. Именно этот вывод является логическим обоснованием того, что в общем виде индекс человеческого развития рассчитывается по формуле простой средней арифметической индекса продолжительности жизни, индекса уровня образованности и индекса откорректированного реального ВВП на душу населения.

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ЗНАНИЯ

Охват образованием

Индекс образования

Качество образования

ЗДОРОВЬЕ, ДОЛГОЛЕТИЕ

УРОВЕНЬ ЖИЗНИ ВОЗРОСТНАЯ ГРУППА

Смертность вследствие несчастных случаев

Индекс здоровья

Смертность вследствие болезней

ВВП на душу населения

ВВП на душу населения ВВП на душу населения

Индекс дохода

Индекс развития молодежи (ИРМ)

Образованность населения в возрасте до 35 лет

Индекс жизненного фонда населения

Рис. 1 Модель методического подхода к определению

индекса развития молодежи (ИРМ) Рис. 1 Модель методического подхода к определению Таким образом, показатель ИЧР демонстрирует состояние и потенциал развития индекса развития молодежи (ИРМ) человеческого капитала в отдельной стране по сравнению с другими государствами.

Также ИЧР информирует о социальной составляющей устойчивого развития в пределах определенных целей: средней продолжительности жизни (до 85 лет), полной грамотности населения и общего охвата молодежи системой образования, и уровня среднегодовых доходов на душу населения в размере (из расчета 40 0000 долларов за паритетом покупательной способности национальной валюты). Чем ближе эти цели, тем более близким к единице становится значение ИЧР. Однако следует признать сложность получения достоверных оценок, и измерения таких показателей. Составляющие индекса человеческого развития время от времени пересматриваются, совершенствуются, однако ключевые измерения человеческого развития остаются неизменными [5,6]. Украина впервые включена в расчеты ИЧР в Докладе за 1993 г. Тогда, по сравнению с 1990 г., она занимала вполне приличное 45 место, абсолютное значение сводного индекса равнялось 0,844. Однако, в дальнейшем ИЧР Украины постоянно снижался, за исключением нескольких лет 2006 – 2009 гг. Причина этих малоприятных изменений связана с компонентом продолжительности жизни и индексом ВВП. По

Таким образом, показатель ИЧР демонстрирует состояние и потенциал развития человеческого капитала в отдельной стране по сравнению с другими государствами. Также ИЧР информирует о социальной составляющей устойчивого развития в пределах определенных целей: средней продолжительности жизни (до 85 лет), полной грамотности населения и общего охвата молодежи системой образования, и уровня среднегодовых доходов на душу населения в размере (из расчета 40 0000 долларов за паритетом покупательной

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способности национальной валюты). Чем ближе эти цели, тем более близким к единице становится значение ИЧР. Однако следует признать сложность получения достоверных оценок, и измерения таких показателей. Составляющие индекса человеческого развития время от времени пересматриваются, совершенствуются, однако ключевые измерения человеческого развития остаются неизменными [5,6]. Украина впервые включена в расчеты ИЧР в Докладе за 1993 г. Тогда, по сравнению с 1990 г., она занимала вполне приличное 45 место, абсолютное значение сводного индекса равнялось 0,844. Однако, в дальнейшем ИЧР Украины постоянно снижался, за исключением нескольких лет 2006 – 2009 гг. Причина этих малоприятных изменений связана с компонентом продолжительности жизни и индексом ВВП. По данным ООН, продолжительность жизни в Украине до войны составляла 67,7 лет, а индекс ВВП - 0,689. Основными факторами влияния явились многолетние внутренние и внешние кризисы, и безусловно военно – политические конфликты последних лет. Начиная с 2014 г. кризис обусловил резкое снижение показателей среднедушевого ВВП и существенное сокращение продолжительности жизни [5,8], Украина заняла в ИЧР- 2015 84 место, разделив его с Арменией. От цивилизованного мира Украина отделяют как минимум 40 позиций [5,8], что является отрицательной динамикой. По сравнению с предыдущим периодом рейтинг Украины опустился, и страна вошла в группу с низким уровнем человеческого развития. Подавляющее большинство старых европейских стран расположились в рамках первых 30 позиций рейтинга. При этом наши ближайшие постсоветские восточнославянские соседи Россия и Беларусь заняли в ИЧР-

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2015 соответственно 49 и 52 место, и вошли в группу стран с высоким уровнем развития. Другая наша соседка Польша - заняла 36 место, ожидаемая продолжительность жизни при рождении ребенка в этой стране на 6,5 лет дольше, чем в Украине (77,6 года). Молодые демократии Восточной Европы и Балтии заняли – Эстония 30, Литва - 37, Словакия - 40, Венгрия - 43, Латвия - 44 место. Первую позицию в ИЧР-2015 занимает Норвегия, где продолжительность жизни достигает 81,7 лет, а индекс ВВП - 0,982. В топ 5 рейтинга вошли Австралия, Швейцария, Дания, Нидерланды. Германия заняла 4 место, США и Канада поделили 10 место, а Великобритания - 16 [1,5]. Безусловно, методика ООН основывается на прошлогодней статистической информации, и показатель ИЧР не может предоставить глубокую и разностороннюю картину исследуемого феномена или процесса. Однако измерение и анализ ИЧР может позволить охарактеризовать доминантные тенденции социально – экономической ситуации в обществе. Логическим шагом продолжения работы ПРООН в Украине стало использование в национальных докладах Индексов человеческого развития регионов страны. Поэтому, начиная с 1995г., публикуются ежегодные отчеты о национальном человеческом развитии регионов Украины. Учитывая ряд причин, методика расчета ИЧР ПРООН должна быть расширена и усовершенствована при использовании внутри страны. Основные причины необходимости такого совершенствования такие [1,9,10]: предложенный ПРООН ИЧР учитывает только положительные факторы (стимуляторы) человеческого развития (увеличение продолжительности жизни, уровня образован-

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ности и дохода). Но есть также негативные факторы (дестимуляторы) развития общества (преступность, безработица и т.д.). Учет их дает важную информацию о ходе нежелательных, но имеющихся процессов в ходе человеческого развития; такой универсальный показатель развития общества, как интегральный ИЧР, должен иметь избыточную информативность, что является надежной гарантией против его искажения в сторону завышения или занижения. Применение большего количества промежуточных показателей повышает информационную надежность общего индекса; реально учитывать различные составляющие человеческого развития в общем индексе не с одинаковыми весами (как в методике ПРООН), а с разными, чтобы отобразить различную их значимость для общественного процесса. Названные причины побудили украинских ученых к разработке собственной методики оценки индекса человеческого развития, позволяющей снизить указанные недостатки и определить рейтинг каждой области Украины как по общему уровню человеческого развития, так и по отдельным его составляющим. Такая методика, адаптированная к национальным условиям, прежде всего к национальной статистической базе, разработанная в Украине специалистами Госкомстата [1]. Украинская национальная методика построения индекса человеческого развития - это трехуровневая система. Верхнюю ступень интегральный региональный индекс человеческого развития (РИЧР), вторая ступень - общие групповые показатели развития 9 основных аспектов человеческого развития: уровня образования населения; условий прожи-

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вания населения; материального благосостояния населения; состояния и охраны здоровья; экологической ситуации; социальной среды; демографического развития; развития рынка труда; финансирования человеческого развития. Третья ступень - характеристика каждого из аспектов человеческого развития регионов Украины, обеспечивается использованием 94 первичных составляющих 9 общих индикаторов. Итак, характеристика каждого из аспектов человеческого развития регионов Украины обеспечивается использованием обобщающего и составляющих индикаторов. Каждый показатель этой системы имеет самостоятельное значение и одновременно является составляющей общего показателя [1,11,12]. Результаты расчета групповых показателей ИЧР на региональном уровне позволяют определить ключевые проблемы и приоритетные направления развития для каждого региона. Количественные значения составляющих этого индекса в определенной степени отражают также эффективность деятельности органов государственной власти по развитию человеческого потенциала соответствующего региона. По градации ИЧР, лидирующие позиции последние годы занимают г. Киев, Киевская и Харьковская области. В тройке аутсайдеров по ИЧР размещаются Донецкая, Луганская и Кировоградская области, несмотря на то, что уровень доходов населения здесь один из самых высоких в Украине [1]. Процессы глобализации и информационной революции существенно повысили конкуренцию не только между компаниями, но и между странами, поставили уровень их богатства и процветания в зависимость от способности соз-

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давать и использовать знания, идеи и новые технологии. В непрерывно меняющемся глобальном мире бизнес должен следовать за развитием новой конкурентной среды, характеризующееся экономической и социальной нестабильностью. Взвешенная стратегия и адекватный ответ менеджмента в системах управления бизнесом на вызовы внешней среды – вот основа устойчивого развития бизнеса и обеспечения его конкурентоспособности в перспективе. Распространение информационных технологий и автоматизации процессов управления практически во всех видах экономической деятельности, изменение образа мира с появлением Internet и мобильных средств коммуникации не только создают неограниченные возможности для создания и мультипликативного распространения новых знаний. Одновременно они требуют нового, высокого качества человеческих ресурсов в экономике, постоянного развития человеческого капитала в бизнесе. Основой любой организации и ее главным богатством являются люди. В условиях новой экономики роль и значение человека в организации не только не обесценились, а наоборот - выросли. При этом человек стал не только ключевым и самым значимым, ценным «ресурсом» организации, но и самым дорогим. Продвижение бизнеса на новые рынки и в новые регионы зачастую вызывается именно этим фактом. Качество трудовых ресурсов непосредственно влияет на конкурентные возможности и является одной из важнейших сфер создания конкурентных преимуществ бизнеса. Качественная организация стремится максимально эффективно использовать своих работников, создавая все условия для наиболее полной отдачи сотрудников на работе и интенсивного развития их потенциала. Это

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один аспект взаимодействия человека и организации. Но есть и другая сторона этого взаимодействия, отражающая обратную связь, то как работник воспринимает свою организацию, какую роль она играет в его жизни, что она дает ему, какую ценность он вкладывает в свое взаимодействие с организацией. Для качественного управления организацией очень важны оба эти направления взаимодействия компании и человека. Стратегическое управление призвано обеспечивать эффективность взаимодействия и компании с внешней средой, так и двухстороннего взаимодействия работника с компанией. В центре современной концепции управления находится человек, который рассматривается как наивысшая ценность для фирмы. Исходя из этой концепции, все системы управления нацелены на развитие разнообразных способностей работников для максимального их использования в процессе производства, а также для того, чтобы человек стремился к процветанию компании, в которой работает [1]. В новой экономике трудовые ресурсы рассматриваются как важнейший ресурс, который определяет философию и миссию предприятия, и является одним из главных ресурсов стабильного развития экономики. На смену теории, представляющей персонал как издержки, как ресурс, работающий по принуждению, без инициативы и влияние которого необходимо минимизировать, роботизировать, приходит другая теория, рассматривающая персонал как важнейший ресурс. Появляются новые подходы HR менеджмента, которые опираются на человеческий потенциал как на основу организации, ориентирует производственную деятельность на запросы потребителей, осуществляет гибкое регулирова-

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ние для создания конкурентных преимуществ, выживания и достижения целей в долгосрочной перспективе [11,13]. Индекс человеческого развития - это основной показатель, по которому в мире оцениваются достижения социально – экономической системы по развитию уровня жизни ее жителей, поэтому описанный подход предлагается использовать для оценки уровня развития персонала промышленного предприятия как со стороны бизнеса, так и со стороны государства [1,14,15,16,17]. Управление развитием персонала промышленных предприятий международных корпораций осуществляется под влиянием внутренних и внешних факторов [25] . Наиболее весомыми факторами внешнего социально - экономического воздействия на развитие персонала предприятия сегодня выступают как государственная, так и международная политика [7]. Именно поэтому ведущим отечественным корпорациям при разработке стратегического плана по управлению развитием промышленного персонала необходимо одновременно производить оценку уровня развития персонала не только в государственном, но и в международном аспекте. Это позволит установить целевые ориентиры развития персонала корпорации, выявить направления, которым уделяется меньше всего внимания на государственном и региональном уровнях и направить в них корпоративные инвестиции. Именно эти направления всестороннего развития персонала должны стать для предприятия первоочередными [11,15,16]. Управление развитием персонала предприятия оказывает воздействие на окружение человека как совокупности трех сред: макроокружения, непосредственного окружения и

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внутренней среды организации. Изучение социальной компоненты макроокружения направлено на то, чтобы осознать влияние на бизнес таких социальных явлений и процессов, как отношение людей к работе и качеству жизни, как существующие в обществе обычаи и верования, как разделяемые людьми ценности, как демографическая структура общества, рост населения, уровень образования, мобильность людей и т.п. Особенность социальной компоненты состоит в том, что она влияет как на другие компоненты макроокружения, так и на внутреннюю среду организации. Процессы, протекающие в социальной компоненте внешнего окружения, влияют как на входящие, так и на ее исходящие бизнес - процессы. Именно эта компонента оказывает наибольшее влияние на формирование потребительских предпочтений, от которых зависит направленность и величина потребительского спроса, и приверженность потребительского предпочтения. Еще одной отличительной особенностью социальных процессов является то, что они изменяются относительно медленно, но приводят ко многим очень существенным изменениям в окружении компании. Поэтому корпорация должна серьезно отслеживать возможные социальные изменения и использовать проактивный подход в управлении развитием персонала. Одним из весомых факторов управления персоналам является устойчивая корпоративная культура. Корпоративная культура влияет на кадровый, организационный, производственный, маркетинговый, финансовый потенциал корпорации, определяет корпоративный потенциал и ее перспективы. Организованная корпоративная культура пронизывает каждое подразделение интегрированного холдинга, проявляясь в том, как осуществляют

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свою работу сотрудники организации, как они относятся друг к другу и к организации в целом. Корпоративная культура должна обеспечивать сильное, устойчивое развитие каждого элемента структуры холдинга, и его в целом. Важное значение корпоративной культуры для стратегического управления также состоит в том, что она влияет на взаимодействие корпорации с внешним окружением, как относится к своим клиентам, к государству и обществу, в установлении позитивной коммуникации корпорации с внешними стейкхолдерами [18,19]. Организации с сильной корпоративной культурой стремятся подчеркнуть важность людей, работающих в ней, уделяют большое внимание разъяснению своей философии, пропаганде своих ценностей. Для понимания и принятия работниками корпоративной культуры, необходима прозрачность информации о построении системы карьеры в организации и критериях продвижения работников. Принятию линейным персоналом и управленцами корпоративной культуры, а следовательно и повышению эффективности системы управления развития персоналом, способствует изучение миссии и целей корпорации, норм и образцов поведения, выявление лидеров в корпорации и т.п. Построение сильной корпоративной культуры является первым шагом в формировании системы управления развитием персонала предприятий. Основными процессами управления развитием персонала выступают – управление компетенциями и обучением персонала, управление карьерным продвижением, управление эффективностью работы и мотивационный.

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Социально ответственные корпорации понимают, что успех бизнеса, как и успешное общее будущее стран и регионов, зависит не только от ситуации на рынках и в глобальной экономике, но и от стиля и принципов ведения бизнеса там, где он касается интересов людей и общества. Доверие со стороны общества - это сложная, динамичная система отношений, требующая постоянной работы и усилий. Годы экономического кризиса в Украине особенно наглядно показали, насколько важен кадровый вопрос, вопрос человеческого развития для успеха любой компании и развития страны в целом. И перед всеми нами - общественностью, учеными, государственной властью, бизнесом - возникает новый вызов «А что дальше?». Что нас ждет завтра и через 10 - 20 лет, если согласно последнему исследованию Research & Branding Group 55% украинцев до 30 лет готовы сегодня покинуть страну? Эта тенденция приобретает опасный для страны характер из-за потери демографического, социально-экономического и интеллектуального капитала. Рассмотренные подходы к формированию системы устойчивого развития персонала корпоративных предприятий, качества трудовой жизни, энергоэффективности и безопасного производства, имеют корпоративные методики и метрики оценки человеческого развития, позволяющие оценить динамику состояния развития персонала на предприятии. В корпоративных регламентах рассчитываются практические результаты работы промышленных предприятий, с помощью которых оценивается существующее состояние развития персонала предприятия по 4 направлениям, а также их влияние и проявление во внутренней и внешней среде корпорации. Система показателей оценки

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уровня развития персонала предприятия содержит следующие группы показателей, позволяющие системно и полно охватить весь спектр, рассматриваются показатели, характеризующие состояние развития: материального благосостояния персонала предприятия, здравоохранения, состояние интеллектуального и культурного развития персонала. Это новейшее направление устойчивого развития, предусматривающее, наряду с созданием достойных и безопасных условий труда, снижением воздействия на окружающую среду и повышением энергоэффективности, вынесение на первое место задачи постоянной подготовки и обучения не только персонала корпораций, но и школьников и студентов - будущего трудового потенциала государства. Выводы: Выводы: устойчивое развитие предполагает учет всех факторов, влияющих на индекс человеческого развития, который должен быть адаптирован к потребностям отдельных регионов и использоваться при разработке и внедрении стратегических документов различного уровня. Одним из путей достижения устойчивого развития на локальном уровне является эффективная и ответственная кадровая политика, которая стимулирует инициативность, креативность и учет гендерных особенностей (что выше, чем гендерное равенство, т.к. предполагает особое внимание к ряду проблем женщин при выполнении ими функциональных обязанностей). Кроме того, сегодня необходимо стимулировать повышение профессионализма, оценивать перспективу развития персонала, исходя из прогнозируемых задач или лакун бизнеса в будущем. Требует корректной оценки работа со стейкхолдерам и устойчивая корпоративная культура.

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Так, сегодня мы должны оценивать корпоративную культуру не только по критериям эффективности выполнения текущих задач, но и по устойчивым позитивным отношениям и перспективам развития кадрового потенциала. Устойчивое развитие территории опирается на устойчивые отношения в коллективах, сообществах и в гармонизации социальных приоритетов. Аннотация Концепция устойчивого развития человечества возникла как ответ мирового сообщества на вызовы глобализации и стремительного расширения международной торговли, экспансии капиталов, росту влияния международных промышленно финансовых групп. Концепция человеческого развития, как составляющая устойчивого развития, определяет целевые ориентиры государств и экономических субъектов в обеспечении этого процесса: прожить долгую и здоровую жизнь; приобрести, расширять и обновлять знания; иметь доступ к средствам существования, обеспечивающим достойный уровень жизни. В статье представлены результаты исследования опыта практической реализации концепции устойчивого развития промышленными предприятиями, а также анализ измерения индекса человеческого развития в Украине. Проанализирована целесообразность использования индекса развития молодежи (ИРМ), который позволяет оценить уровень развития потенциала молодого поколения. Охарактеризована украинская национальная методика построения индекса человеческого развития, представлены

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результаты расчета групповых показателей ИЧР регионального уровня позволили определить ключевые проблемы и приоритетные направления развития для каждого региона Украины. Интеграция капиталов сверхкрупных промышленно финансовых групп наделила существенной силой и влиянием новые бизнес – образования. Развитие уровня корпоративной культуры и устойчивость бизнес целей международных холдингов на сегодняшний день определяет качество жизни регионов и стран. Определены принципы управления развитием персонала украинских промышленных предприятий, принадлежащих интегрированным международным корпорациям. В центре современной концепции социально ответственного менеджмента международных холдингов находится человек и его развитие, которые рассматриваются как наивысшая ценность для корпорации. Определены основные факторы достижения устойчивого развития на локальном уровне - эффективная и справедливая кадровая политика, которая стимулирует инициативность, креативность и учет гендерных особенностей. Развитие персонала предприятия требует также повышения компетентностей персонала, стратегической оценки перспектив развития кадрового потенциала, устойчивой коммуникации со стейкхолдерами и развитой корпоративной культуры. Устойчивое развитие территории опирается на устойчивые отношения в коллективах, сообществах и в гармонизации социальных приоритетов.

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Ключевые слова: устойчивое развитие, индекс человеческого развития, социально ответственный бизнес, промышленные регионы, развитие молодежи Annotation The concept of sustainable development of mankind emerged as a response of the world community to the challenges of globalization and the rapid expansion of international trade, the expansion of capital, the growing influence of international industrial and financial groups. The concept of human development, as a component of sustainable development, defines the targets of states and economic actors in ensuring this process: to live a long and healthy life; to acquire, expand and update knowledge; have access to livelihoods that ensure a decent standard of living. The article presents the results of a study of the practical implementation of the concept of sustainable development by industrial enterprises, as well as an analysis of the measurement of the human development index in Ukraine. The expediency of using the youth development index (YDI), which allows to assess the level of development of the potential of the younger generation, is analyzed. The Ukrainian national methodology of constructing the human development index is characterized, the results of calculating group indicators of the HDI of the regional level are presented, which allowed to identify key problems and priority directions of development for each region of Ukraine. Integration of capitals of super-large industrial and financial groups has given new business formations a significant force and influence. The development of the level of corporate culture

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and the sustainability of the business objectives of international holdings today determine the quality of life of regions and countries. The principles of managing the development of personnel of Ukrainian industrial enterprises belonging to integrated international corporations are defined. At the center of the modern concept of socially responsible management of international holdings is a person and his development, which are considered as the highest value for the corporation. The main factors for achieving sustainable development at the local level are identified - an effective and fair personnel policy that stimulates initiative, creativity and gender sensitivity. The development of the personnel of the enterprise also requires the enhancement of the staff ’s competence, the strategic evaluation of the prospects for the development of human resources, sustainable communication with stakeholders and a developed corporate culture. Sustainable development of the territory is based on stable relations in collectives, communities and harmonization of social priorities. Key words: sustainable development, human development index, socially responsible business, industrial regions, youth development

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Библиография 1. Колосок В.М. Стратегічне управління розвитком персоналу промислових підприємств: моногр. / В.М. Колосок, О.С. Богачов, А.В. Алістаєва. - Маріуполь: ДВНЗ «Приазовський державний технічний університет», 2011. – 234 с. 2. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 66 / 288. The future we want. URL: p://www.un.org / ru / documents / ods.asp?m=A /RES / 66 / 288. 3. Доклад Всемирной встречи на высшем уровне по устойчивому развитию, Йоханнесбург, Южная Африка, 26 августа — 4 сентября 2002 г. URL: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/ GEN/N02/636/95/PDF/ N0263695.pdf /OpenElement. 4. Доклад о человеческом развитии 2015: Труд во имя человеческого развития [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://hdr. undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr15_standalone_overview_ru.pdf 5. Отчет ООН по устойчивому развитию. [Електронний ресурс].- Режим доступу: http://www.un.org/ru/sections/general/un-and-sustainability/. 6. Офіційний сайт Державної служби статистики України [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua. 7. Проблеми та перспективи розвитку державного управління в умовах реформування: [колективна монографія] / Заг. ред. Чечель А.О., Хлобистов Є.В. – Бельско-Бяла (Польща): Вища школа економіки та гуманітаристики, 2017. – 493с. Режим доступу: http://dsum.edu.ua/2017/04/20/підс умки-міжнародної-науково-практи/ 8. Сталий розвиток — ХХІ століття: управління, технології, моделі. Дискусії 2017: колективна монографія / Андерсон В.М., Балджи М.Д., Баркан В.І. [та ін.]; Інститут телекомунікацій та глобального інформаційного простору НАН України; НТТУ Київський політехнічний інститут імені Ігоря Сікорського; Вища економіко-гуманітарна школа / за наук. ред. проф. Хлобистова Є.В. — Київ, 2017. — С.526-536 - [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: https://conftef.wixsite.com/conf 9. Колосок В.М., Верескун М.В., Дроботіна К.М., Угровата Ю.С. Порівняння ефективності діяльності підприємств гірничо

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- металургійних корпоративних структур України / В.М. Колосок // Схід. – 2012.–№1(115) – С.43-49. 10. Vereskun M., Kolosok V. The management of concentration and consolidation of industrial capital processes organization // «Business and Management–2010». – Vilnius: Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2010. – V.II. – P. 1113–1118. 11. Колосок В.М. Методологія стратегічного управління великих промислових підприємств: моногр. / В.М. Колосок. - Маріуполь: ДВНЗ «Приазовський державний технічний університет», 2012. – 247 с. 12. Kolosok V., Ugrovata Yu. The economic growth of enterprises in international holdings: application of transfer pricing in Ukrainian companies // Contemporary Research on Organization Management and Administration.- 2014, No. 2(1).- p. 74-99. 13. Kolosok V. Аspects of strategic management units of the industrial holding company / V. Kolosok // «Business and Management–2012». – Vilnius: Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2012. – V.II. – P. 1113–1118. 14. Про соціальний діалог в Україні: закон України [№ 2862-VI від 23.12.2010 р.]. [Електронний документ]. – Режим доступу: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2862-17 15. Про колективні договори і угоди: закон України [№ 274-VI (274-17) від 15.04.2008 р.]. [Електронний документ]. – Режим доступу: http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws/main.cgi?nreg=3356-12 16. Про організації роботодавців, їх об’єднання, права і гарантії їх діяльності: закон України ( зі змінами і доповненнями [ № 1666-VIII від 06.10.2016 р.].) [Електронний документ]. – Режим доступу: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/5026-17 17. Про державно-приватне партнерство: закон України (від 01.07.2010 № 2404-VI). [Електронний ресурс]. - Режим доступу: http://zakon.rada.gov.ua. 18. Колосок В.М., Цуркан М.Л. Концепція управління промисловим персоналом інтегрованого корпоративного підприємства у кризових умовах. / Колосок В.М., Цуркан М.Л. // Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Economics and Intellectual Property. – Issue 14. – 2016 – р. 249-255. Index Copernicus – Маріуполь: ПДТУ, Україна.

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19. Цуркан М.Л. Управління розвитком персоналу на основі крауд технологій / Науковий журнал «Бізнес Інформ» № 7’2017 р. (474) – С. 124-128. 20. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. URL: http://upload.wikimedia.org / wikisource / en / d / d7 / Our-common-future.pdf. 21. «Sustainable Energy for all» web-site. URL: http://www.sustainable-energyforall.org 22. Сталий розвиток для України [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://sd4ua.org/golovni-temi-stalogo-rozvitku/sotsialna-sfera/ 23. Климатическая доктрина и устойчивое развитие страны по результатам СОР 21. photo.ukrinform.ua/rus/current/photo. php?id=743548. 24. Повестка дня на XXI век. Принята Конференцией ООН по окружающей среде и развитию, Рио-де-Жанейро, 3—14 июня 1992 года. URL: http://www.un.org / ru / documents / decl_conv / conventions / agenda21.shtml. 25. Чечель А.О. Екологізація соціально-економічного розвитку промислових вугільних територій : [монографія] / А.О. Чечель. – Донецьк: Східний видавничий дім, 2011. – 234 с.

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Stanisław Ciupka The University of Economics and Humanities in Bielsko-Biała

The issues of profession and managing work in early Christian literature More or less in the middle of the 19th century, interest in the issue of physical labor grew stronger within the church, both in the individual and social aspects. The church considered the so called social issue in the spirit of Christian teachings, referring to its roots which reach as far back as the ancient times. It is worth to see how the Christian community attempted to solve these issues during the early Christian era. The Greco-Roman culture initially gave a high status to physical labor, especially craftsmanship, and was familiar with the idea of the dignity of craft professions. However, as time went by and in the course of customs, political, and social changes, the high value of human labor dignity has changed significantly. During the empire period, when vast land fortunes have been formed, an urban proletariat class was born and owning goods became more valued than any form of work. The fact that physical labor was usually performed by slaves had an impact on the negative manner of perceiving it. Work for a honorarium was gradually becoming more valued than craft work

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for remuneration. Labor for a remuneration received by a craftsman was socially perceived as close to the work of a slave and not a free man. A positive perception of labor, especially physical labor, became stronger during the early Christian era (Myszor, 1982, p. 231). Christians recognized the value of labor both in terms of personal as well as social life, and additionally within it noticed a form of working with God in the act of creation. Fortunately a beautiful text concerning this has been preserved in early Christian literature: “But receive everyone who comes in the name of the Lord, and prove and know him afterward; for you shall have understanding right and left. If he who comes is a wayfarer, assist him as far as you are able; but he shall not remain with you more than two or three days, if need be. But if he wants to stay with you, and is an artisan, let him work and eat. But if he has no trade, according to your understanding, see to it that, as a Christian, he shall not live with you idle. But if he wills not to do, he is a Christ-monger. Watch that you keep away from such.” (Didache 12, 1975, p. 19). The church has developed within a pluralistic society, in terms of a pagan society, and the peculiar social situation has lead to various tensions, distrusts, and persecutions. The mutual relations between the Christian and non-Christian communities were complicated by the attitude of a number of Christians who, awaiting a quick return of Christ (Parousia), did not express any attachment to material goods and did not engage in solving contemporary social problems, sometimes even avoiding work including that necessary to stay alive. It went so far that an intervention by Saint Paul was necessary, during which he stated that being ready for the second coming of Christ does not exempt Christians from executing family and social responsibilities.

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A positive attitude towards any work originates from the practice of the Gospel and the Christian ethos. However, the confrontation between the Christian principles of fait with the practice and reality of the pagan world was not easy. Let us try to present how it was attempted to solve the appearing difficulties, using a few examples coming from the early Christian era. Attempts of completely separating from the entire pagan society could not constitute a lasting solution. Preaching monotheism in a determined manner, novelties of Christian institutions, the strictness of their customs, practicing ceremonies unknown to pagans, and far from pagan communities had to evoke suspicions, concerns, and result in defamation. According to M. Myszor, a renowned expert on the discussed era: “As Christianity developed, at the end of the 2nd century and during the 3rd century, almost all of the problems concerning relations with the world, which to a different degree exist today, have already occurred in the conditions of a pluralistic society. What is characteristic for all early Christian stories is that Christians had no prejudices and preconceptions when assessing slave work. They did not strive to change the structures and social system in political terms, but general terms and superstitions were given a new and in fact internal content. Christians understood dignity of labor, also slave labor, in an integral and humanistic manner. Due to the dignity of man (…) work is not a bane but constitutes the means of sanctification and salvation for the entire world, a way for people to participate in the act of God’s creation.” (M. Myszor, 1982, p. 232). Christians were very sensitive concerning the relations between some professions and pagan cults, and it is worth to be aware how difficult it was for the students of Christ to avoid con-

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tact with pagan cults and morality. Some Christian attempts at solving these issues have assumed en extensively rigorous form. Tertullian, who lived between the 2nd and 3rd century, postulated that an academic teaching the skills of reading and writing should give up his profession, working at school, as then he avoids teaching about pagan gods. However, Hippolytus of Rome who lived in the 1st half of the 3rd century has agreed to accept a teacher into the team of catechumen. The Christian community spoke with more critique about performing the profession of an actor, as it accused the theatrical arts of being immoral: “Cyprian to Eucratius, his brother, greeting. In accordance with your love and our mutual reverence, dearly beloved Brother, you thought to consult me as to what seems best to me for a certain actor who, situated among you, is still persisting in the infamy of the same art and, as master and teacher, not for the instruction but for the downfall of youth, is also teaching others what he has unfortunately learned; [you wanted to know] whether such a one ought to communicate with us. I think that it is fitting neither to the Divine Majesty nor to evangelical discipline that the respect and honor of the Church should be defiled by such base and infamous contamination.” (Cyprian from Carthage, 1969, p. 29). The participation of Christians in military issues was also perceived in various ways. Military men were generally accepted for the sacrament of baptism, but already baptized Christians were not allowed to join the army: “But we are called to account as harm-doers on another ground, and are accused of being useless in the affairs of life. How in all the world can that be the case with people who are living among you, eating the same food, wearing the same attire, having the same habits, under the same necessi-

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ties of existence? We are not Indian Brahmins or Gymnosophists, who dwell in woods and exile themselves from ordinary human life. We do not forget the debt of gratitude we owe to God, our Lord and Creator; we reject no creature of His hands, though certainly we exercise restraint upon ourselves, lest of any gift of His we make an immoderate or sinful use. So we sojourn with you in the world, abjuring neither forum, nor shambles, nor bath, nor booth, nor workshop, nor inn, nor weekly market, nor any other places of commerce. We sail with you, and fight with you, and till the ground with you; and in like manner we unite with you in your traffickings— even in the various arts we make public property of our works for your benefit. How it is we seem useless in your ordinary business, living with you and by you as we do, I am not able to understand.” (Tertullian, 1947, pp. 171–172). The church had no significant objections concerning performing trade by Christians. However, Tertullian strictly opposed usury. Church Fathers defined usury as a peculiar kind of war which kills without taking advantage of a sword, as believed by Ambrose of Milan (A. G. Hamman 1989, p. 145). A different Church Father, Augustine of Hippo, used heavy words about usury when arguing with a strict usurer: “I don’t have the means to live? That’s something a robber would tell me when caught red-handed; something a burglar would say caught under someone’s house; something a person dealing with human trafficking would say, buying girls for debauchery; that is also what a magician would say ordering misfortunes and selling his uncertainty” (A.G. Hamman, 1989, p. 148.) Christians did not reject an honorary profit, but when someone achieved unfair wealth that person had to reckon with the possibility to fall subject of strict church penalties. A controversy concerning being wealthy existed at that time in Christiani-

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ty. Some damned wealth: “They of the third mountain, which had thorns and brambles, are those who believed, but some of them were rich and others taken up with many affairs. The brambles are their riches; the thorns are those affairs in which they were engaged. They who are entangled in much business and in diversity of affairs do not associate themselves with the servants of God, but wander, being called away by those affairs with which they are choked. And so they who are rich yield themselves with difficulty to the manner of life of the servants of God, fearing anything should be asked of them. These therefore will hardly enter into the kingdom of God.” (Hermas, 1924, p. 428 ff.). The other Church Fathers, contrary, assessed wealth in a very positive manner: “For those who formerly despised external things relinquished and squandered their property, but the passions of the soul, I believe, they intensified. For they indulged in arrogance, pretension, and vainglory, and in contempt of the rest of mankind, as if they had done something superhuman. How then would the Saviour have enjoined on those destined to live for ever what was injurious and hurtful with reference to the life which He promised? For although such is the case, one, after ridding himself of the burden of wealth, may none the less have still the lust and desire for money innate and living; and may have abandoned the use of it, but being at once destitute of and desiring what he spent, may doubly grieve both on account of the absence of attendance, and the presence of regret. For it is impossible and inconceivable that those in want of the necessaries of life should not be harassed in mind, and hindered from better things in the endeavour to provide them somehow, and from some source. And how much more beneficial the opposite case, for a man, through possessing a competency, both not himself to be in straits about

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money, and also to give assistance to those to whom it is requisite so to do. (…) Riches, then, which benefit also our neighbours, are not to be thrown away. (…)Such an instrument is wealth. Are you able to make a right use of it? It is subservient to righteousness. Does one make a wrong use of it?”. (Clemens of Alexandria, 1953, pp. 12–15). According to the latter, possessing wealth allowed for a man’s spiritual development, and could constitute a practical path for practicing mercy and love towards another human being. Precisely this argument was used most often by Christians in favor of possessions. The Christian literature of that period often includes reminders addressed at bishops for them not to neglect the care in favor of poor people. Bishops tried to organize financial aid for Christians unable to perform work, or those who could not perform their professions. They’ve put much emphasis on preparing young people for a specific profession, which would ensure a dowry for young women. Of course they were not naïve, so in various ways they’ve tried to protect their communes against people who tried to swindle alms, a significant group of false prophets: “Woe to those who have and yet swindle alms or take advantage of them, even though they could manage on their own. Because everyone who takes, on Judgment Day will have to account before God why did he take. (…) Whereas cheaters who take, despite the fact that they have, or lazy people who instead of working for their own living and helping others rather live from the help of others will have to account for their deeds, as because of them they have depleted the resource aimed for those really in need.” (Didaskalia, 1975, p. 328). Various forms of charity in favor of widows, orphans, travelers, or prisoners were heavily practiced in Christian communes. For example, we will refer to one text: “Christians (…)Falsehood

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is not found among them; and they love one another, and from widows they do not turn away their esteem; and they deliver the orphan from him who treats him harshly. And he, who has, gives to him who has not, without boasting. And when they see a stranger, they take him in to their homes and rejoice over him as a very brother; for they do not call them brethren after the flesh, but brethren after the spirit and in God. And whenever one of their poor passes from the world, each one of them according to his ability gives heed to him and carefully sees to his burial. And if they hear that one of their number is imprisoned or afflicted on account of the name of their Messiah, all of them anxiously minister to his necessity, and if it is possible to redeem him they set him free.” (Aristides, 1965, p. 24 ff.) The mentioned activity must have been very noticeable in Christian communes resulting in a positive reaction among pagans, thus it was met by a strong attack coming from pagan writers. For example, let us reach to a text by a well known opponent of Christianity – Lucian: “They still worship, the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult into the world. 12. “Then at length Proteus was apprehended for this and thrown into prison, which itself gave him no little reputation as an asset for his future career and the charlatanism and notoriety-seeking that he was enamoured of. Well, when he had been imprisoned, the Christians, regarding the incident as a calamity, left nothing undone in the effort to rescue him Then, as this was impossible, every other form of attention was shown him, not in any casual way but with assiduity (…)Indeed, people came even from the cities in Asia, sent by the Christians at their common expense, to succour and defend and encourage the hero. They show incredible speed whenever any such public action is taken; for in

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no time they lavish their all.” (Lucian 1962, pp. 347–349). Harsh criticism of Christianity concerning its attitude towards social issues, care for the poor, widows, people in need, evoked a justified pride in the Christian environment. At the same time, during the early Christianity period it was necessary to face the accusations publicly raised by pagans, stating that Christians are not useful for the Roman society and that they do not engage in the life of the state. Tertullian wrote about this widely in his Apology. Whereas, below we will present the remarks concerning this issue left for the ages by Origen: “Celsus also urges us to take office in the government of the country, if that is required for the maintenance of the laws and the support of religion. But we recognise in each state the existence of another national organization, founded by the Word of God (…). And it is not for the purpose of escaping public duties that Christians decline public offices, but that they may reserve themselves for a diviner and more necessary service in the Church of God— for the salvation of men. And this service is at once necessary and right. They take charge of all— of those that are within, that they may day by day lead better lives, and of those that are without, that they may come to abound in holy words and in deeds of piety; and that, while thus worshipping God truly, and training up as many as they can in the same way, they may be filled with the word of God and the law of God, and thus be united with the Supreme God through His Son the Word, Wisdom, Truth, and Righteousness, who unites to God all who are resolved to conform their lives in all things to the law of God.”. (Origen, 1977, p. 270 ff.). Therefore, Origen has noticed that Christians in no manner escaped their social lives, although they did not associate the totality of their engagement in the social and professional life with a state life. They were rather aware that by

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serving the Kingdom of God they also serve the human society. At this point of our discussion, it is worth to bring up the words of W. Myszor: “In many early Christian words we notice the echo of contemplations and theological disputes, an attempt to justify a commune’s ideas, a clearly noticeable polemic enthusiasm, and the zeal of apologetics. A careful reading introduces the contemporary reader to the problems of the lives of Christian communes, especially those concerning work, property, attitude towards material goods, social structure, starting with slaves and ending with members of the royal family” (W. Myszor, 1982, p. 233). Christians have lead family, social, and professional lives similar to the lives of other people living within the Roman empire at that time. When comparing the Christian and pagan ancient times Christians are presented among the people of that time as friendly by some and as suspicious by others, but still more and more noticeable during the decisive period for the development of their autonomy and community. Let the following words coming from a small piece regarded as a pearl of early Christian writing, namely the Epistle to Diognetus, serve as the justification of that statement: “Christians are indistinguishable from other men either by nationality, language or customs. They do not inhabit separate cities of their own, or speak a strange dialect, or follow some outlandish way of life. (…)But, inhabiting Greek as well as barbarian cities, according as the lot of each of them has determined, and following the customs of the natives in respect to clothing, food, and the rest of their ordinary conduct, they display to us their wonderful and confessedly striking method of life.” (The Epistle to Diognetus, 1988, p. 364). Of course the Church Fathers had no intention, capability, to speak about social issues as a whole, thus a valuable remark from

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that period: “If we have omitted something, then decide about it yourselves as we all possess the Spirit of the Lord” (Hippolytus of Rome). The Christians of the first centuries had to face two realities, meaning the Gospel and every-day life. There was a need to bring together life and faith, not to peculate it in the slightest way, and at the same time not neglecting common tasks, professional and social life, not searching for excuses (A. G. Hamman, 1990, p. 308). As it is postulated by the above mentioned author: “The everyday responsibility which a Christian executes within the womb of the family, own profession, own state, is not primarily about erecting an own act of creation, but placing own freedom within an economy guided by God. What creates the essence of a Christian, and his or her mission, constantly transgresses human developments, even if they are of an apostolic nature” (A. G. Hamman, 1990, p. 310). Summarizing the remarks concerning the early Christian approach to the issues of work and profession, expressed here in short, it may be stated that Christians which were in a way spread between the present and a promise, have built in a solid matter only in terms of their will to absolutely perceive God and do everything to meet him. The weight of hope perceived in such a manner in no way obstructed their earthly chores, but if anything pushed the center of gravity towards a relation with God, who for Christians becomes the beginning and the end. The efficiency of the Christian message resulted from the fact that at that time it satisfied the spiritual thirst of the era in which there were so many people overwhelmed by the surrounding pessimism, and at the same time ready to accept great ideas carried by the Gospel. The human masses of that era, similarly as the people of our vast communities, overwhelmed by work, crowded, living slop-

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pily, were tired and knew only the life of suffering. The incoming Christianity, apart from the possibility of salvation, gave them the sense of dignity. Literature: Arystydes. Tłum. Bober A. (1965). Apologia 15. W: Antologia patrystyczna, Kraków, s. 24 i n. Cyprian z Kartaginy. Tłum. Szołdrski W. (1969). List 2. W: Listy. Warszawa, s. 29 Cyprian z Kartaginy. Tłum. Szołdrski. (1969). List 42. W: Listy. Warszawa, s. Didache 12. Tłum. Michalski M. (!975). W: Antologia literatury patrystycznej I. Warszawa, s. 19. Didaskalia, czyli Katolicka Nauka Apostołów. Tłum. Michalski M. (!975). W: Antologia literatury patrystycznej I. Warszawa, s. 328. Do Diogeneta V. Przekład Świderkówna A. Opracowanie Starowieyski M. (1988). Kraków, s. 364. Michalski M. Tłum. (1975). Didache 12. W: Antologia literatury patrystycznej I. Warszawa, s. 19. Hamman A. G. (1989). Życie codzienne w Afryce Północnej w czasach św. Augustyna. Warszawa. Hamman A. G. (1989). Życie codzienne pierwszych chrześcijan. Warszawa. Hermas. Tłum. Lisiecki A. (1924). Pasterz- Dziewiąte podobieństwo 20. W: Pisma Ojców Kościoła. Poznań, s. 428 i in. Hipolit Rzymski. Tłum. Michalski M. (1977). Tradycja Apostolska 16. W: Antologia literatury patrystycznej I. Warszawa, s. 309. Klemens Aleksandryjski. Tłum. Czuj J. (1953). Jaki bogacz będzie zbawiony 12-15. W: Czy człowiek bogaty może być zbawiony, s. 15-18. Lukian Tłum. Bogucki M. K. (1962). O zgonie Peregrinosa 11-13. W: Dialogi II. Warszawa, s. 347-349. Myszor W. (1982), Zagadnienie pracy i zawodu w literaturze wczesnochrześcijańskiej. W: Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 15, s. 321-241. Orygenes. Tłum. Kalinkowski S. (1977). Przeciw Celsusowi VIII,75. W: Pisma Starochrześcijańskich Pisarzy XVII, z. 2. Warszawa, s. 270 i n. Tertulian. Tłum. Sajdak J. (1947). Apologetyk 42, Poznań, s. 171-172.

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Krystian Kucharczyk University of Economics and Humanities

Józefa Matejek Pedagogical University, Cracow

Family and contemporary society

Introduction An institution of a family is a basic (natural) community of people, in which a human being enters the world, develops, educates, grows up and dies. It is a specific community, one of a kind that is rooted in strong and constant relationships of kinship or similar connections. A family protects a human being in all aspects such as: emotional, expressive, caring, procreative, socializing and material. Indeed, it is irreplaceable support that can help a man to develop properly, shape the social values and build human relationships. The role of a family cannot be overrated in a human life and society. A family is the smallest unit of society – a sort of basic institution for each society. A family as an institution should be a subject to legal protection; it has its specific subjectivity (Hypś, 2012, 13–14; Kucharczyk, Ioseph, 2015).

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A family is an institution that has a primary place in society, although a family is also influential and changeable. The aim of this article it to uncover an institution of a family with its social changes and present some proper functioning of families in society. In fact, every aspect of the family in terms of its social and internal functioning is integral and connected (Tyszka, 1979, 5; Borutka, Mazur, Zwoliński, 1999, 181–196). Institution of a family Multidimensionality of an institution of a family shows that any attempt of defying such institution carries the risk of reductionism. It is worth showing the wide range of a definition of a family as an institution in order to understand it better. As M. Ochmański underlines that a family is a basic and common form of social life that covers some basic needs of its members – as a unit, general and social one. A family appears as the most important social link and the main upbringing institution that consists of spouses, their children (also adopted) and the spouses’ relatives (Ochmański, 1987, 99). A family in its kind, is a basic social unit. The historical development of this institution shows that family groups have existed since the earliest times. It would be hard to imagine the foundations of society without knowing and recognizing this group of contacts and relations between its members. A family is a superior institution that builds society, since it contains basic and fundamental functions – procreative and educational. A family plays a crucial role in a socio-educational process that creates optimal life conditions for families and other non-families (Tyszka, 1979, 5; Szlendak, 2011).The United Nations in 1959, and the Charter

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of the Rights of the Family (published by Vatican) in 1983 both show the superior functions of a family and its essential place in the society (Adamski, 2012, 27). Thus, a family could be characterized as a group that consists of people who are related in two types of social relationships: marriage and parents-children (Adamski, 2012, 27; Borutka, Mazur, Zwoliński, 1999, 181–196). A family becomes a structuralized and functionally connected set of units and specific sub-cultures, and social microelements that create a micro-group and at the same time a family becomes a social institution internally connected by the marriage containing the bonds of kinship, affinity or adoption, functions to individuals and society based on the regulators of the culture of behaviourism (Sakowicz, 2006, 107). It cannot be forgotten to mention H. Colley and his statement in which he shows a family as a primordial group that consists of friend-groups and neighbours. They cooperate with each other and are characterised by direct internal contact (Adamski, 2012, 29; Żmuda, 2007). J. Rembowski defines a family as a formal group that accepts, sanctions and controls a society. Its role is certainly underlined by positions and roles played by a family. A structure of a family is defined by a number and a type of relations of its members as well as a layout of their roles and social positions within special, three-dimensional position, strength, and their arrangement of institutional and psychological connections that link each members of a family with a partition of their duties and internal structured power or leadership with authorities that link closely with an arranged social position, and also an internal layout of love and considerations and a web of inter-familiar communication (Tyszka, 2010, 34; Kucharczyk, Ioseph, 2015, 14–48).

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Interestingly, A. Colman shows a dimension of social family underlining that a family is a basic social group (Colman, 2009, 640; Szlendak 2011). As a result, a family becomes a dynamic creation that is constantly changing, in which its members have an impact on each other; they are in constant interrelation and make emotional and social relations, and thanks to that, they do have a feeling of being in a community (Tyszka 1979, 36; Janke, 2004). The term family has become defined as a system that is characterized by having specific determined principles and standards as well as a kind of measures, which aim at maintaining the cohesion of the system. A family, therefore, has developed the certain ways to uncover the needs of individual members of a family with their basic social tasks (Ryś, 2001, 8). A family as a system self-determines its positions in society. This institution becomes an integral part of society as the smallest and basic unit; it can be said that this is the most important social group. A family is a basic group, which contains human beings that are very closely related by their personalities and duties or just social roles. At the same time, a family as a system becomes a human reference group of which a person consciously and firmly identifies as a man and a representative of co-creation and acceptance of beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviours (Pomykało, 1993, 695). In some way, a family is a common system of relations and ties building up its own individual world, which is defined by its consistency; it [family] transforms and shapes the aspects of all the members on their ideas and subjects and in the same time develops actions and emotional sphere of its members. A family creates its own unique organization within the internal system of relations. Relationships, interactions as well as the atmosphere

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in a family are extremely crucial and certainly influence on the personal and various development of the members in relations to the surrounding world (Ryś, 2001, 5). The coherent system of a family as an institution allows families to accomplish the functional tasks that belong to its institutional meaning (Adamski, 1984, 46–7; Matyjas, 2008, 96–7; Czekaj, 1998, 123–27; Ciczkowska-Giedziun,  Kantowicz, 2010). Among them, it can be recognized that material and economic functions play an important role. It aims to meet the needs of all members of a family. Above mentioned consist of four sub-functions, we read: gainful employment, service and consumption, production, economical. Even though these functions are linked, they can also occur separately; their range and how they will be realized depends on the main source of income in a family (Kozak, 2007, 137–38). The protective functions of a family outline the subject of material and physical care of its members containing livelihood and support of people with disabilities and others who need permanent or temporary care (Matyjas, 1984, 96-97). The procreative functions fulfil emotional and parental needs of spouses and the reproductive needs of society; it contains also the sexual function that provides a form of sexual intercourse between spouses and it cannot be omitted (Sztander, 1993, 5–14; Maraszek, 2010; Kucharczyk, Ioseph, 2015, 27–48). Another function has been distinguished in the literature, it is a socialising function. This function bases on two layers, which are: matched personalities of spouses and build-up of their children to play some social roles in their mature life. Another important function is called the allowing and controlling function, which is for the legalization of certain types

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of behaviour of the person and the mutual control of all family members (Adamski, 1984, 46–53; Matyjas, 2008, 96–97). The cultural function of the institution of a family widens the members’ vision on a culture of their society containing the norms and systems of values, and helps to cultivate national heritage within the tradition. An institution of a family plays also an important role, when it comes to recreational and social functions. A family house stands for a place where everyone can relax and communicate, which is a major issue for every human being. The last function that appears in an institution of a family is certainly emotional and expressive function that is based on emotional needs of family members. (Kozak, 2007,137–138; Bradshaw, 1994, 59; Borutka, Mazur, Zwoliński, 1999, 181–196) According to F. Adamski, a family should be treated as a social group that becomes a spiritual unity of a small group of people who are concentrated on their family relations by caring, helping, cultivating social and family traditions. A family as an institution stands for its function in a frame of given social rules and its formal status (Adamski, 1984, 21–22; Matyjas, 2008, 96–97). Typological diversity of the family institution One of the most popular typology of a family systems, is the concept of D. Fiedl. The author distinguishes five family systems. The first type of the bonding family is characterized by the proper relations between family members. In this system, parents generally appear as those they can rely on and at the same time as responsible and responsibly fulfilling their functions and tasks that are imposed on. In that family, relationships are based on mutual respect and positive feelings. Each member of a family is

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mutually motivated and encouraged to improve and explore their own abilities and talents. A marriage in this type of a family bases on respect between spouses that listen to each other and cooperate. Behaviours such as envy of self-pity, do not lie in the nature of spouses. Parents do not form some artificial distance, but they enjoy each other. They have strong personalities, which help to cope with difficulties. The parenting style in a family originates in mutual cooperation of spouses. So strongly formed a parental team gives children a great sense of security. Parents through observations and close acquaintance cope with their children, and as a result, their development is supported, but also they know how to determine their strengths and abilities. The situation in which a child decides to leave a family home is not terrible and dramatic event, thus parents permit them to leave home in the right time for a child. Children from this type of family system have little negative memories and that is why as adults, they take care of the behaviours above mentioned. Summing up, in this family system a balance between the relationship of parents and children preserves and maintains the need for individuality of each family member. The upbringing in a family gives an opportunity to be themselves (Field, 2006, 34–41). Another type of a family according to D. Field is the ruling family. That family has a very strong structure. Parents show a lack of interests and a lack of skills to build any relationship. They are focused on the efforts, destroying in the same time the existing relationships in a family. In such a family the principles are the most important, even more important than the relations between family members. Children who are under strong authority of their parents do not know that they are loved, although they know what their parents expect them to do. The marriage in this

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type of family is characterised by the division of responsibilities and roles, which are clearly defined. In some way spouses show their love, although it is done through their duties. Spouses are very strict. They also do not spend their free time together as a couple. Children from such families want rapidly leave their home. They visit their parents only by a sense of duty. In the adulthood, they do not listen to advice and stay emotionally independent from their parents. The ruling family becomes a strict family in which parents are not sensitive to their children’s needs, very often they foist their opinion or views on children. Parents appeal to have unquestioned power over their children, and as a result children from such families have the feeling that no one cares about them (Ryś, 2001, 12–13; Field, 2006, 34–41). The protecting family is another type of a family system according to the concept of D. Field. The members of that family are focused on feelings, they avoid quarrels and discord, because they prefer harmonious calmness. They do not reveal their true opinions, views or feelings. This family cultivates traditions and mutual loyalty. Children are in the centre of attention. In this family system, the welfare of children becomes a primary goal. Parents have a sense of authority, however they refer to it rarely. Parents pay attention on their children. In the relationship between spouses there are no serious conflicts. A mother that has children often recalls the days when her children were younger, and when she could have guided them; in this case one of the spouses may feel abandoned since children have become more important than a relationship. Marriage may suffer as it lacks closeness. In such family, children are supported, although they do know that adults would undergo, because parents want have good contacts and relations with their children. Parents are overprotective, and

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as a result they would even delay the moment of leaving home by their children. When leaving home, children are convinced that everything will go their way, but apparently if there are some problems, children immediately turn to their parents. Children receive an excessive care of their parents and as a result, children do not know the consequences of their actions, which causes a sense of uncertainty (Field, 2006, 57–65). The fourth family system according to Field’s categorization is the chaotic family, which can be described as bondless, often torn and badly organized. Each family member bothers others with their problems. In this family, conflicts often arise. Children tend to be ignored, and their plans are just underestimated. Sometimes children are forced to carry out the tasks and responsibilities of their parents. In this family there are no close ties and relations between children and parents. A marriage is characterized by very little love, warmth, honesty and empathy, very often with its complete absence. Marriage is an artificial relationship. Often spouses threaten each other. They do not see the meaning of being together and do not see the point of creating a family structure, which influences their decisions concerning divorces. Parents in the upbringing processes are just torn by the feelings. They also lack of consistency and authenticity of being an authority. Parents are irresponsible, they point errors and often use a physical violence in order to achieve an effect of humiliation. Children from such families have a sense of threat and lack of love and support in a family environment. Children often perceive themselves as bad and worse than others, considering themselves as those that do not deserve love. Children from those families leave home very early, as if running away from it and they come back there only because of the obligation. In such families children are often ne-

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glected and abused. The members of the chaotic families do not care about each other, their interests are limited, they think only about themselves (Ryś, 2001, 11; Field, 2006, 34–65). The last fifth type of family is the symbiotic family. In this type of family, parents’ attention is basically focused on their children. Because of the fragility of marriage, one or both parents are obsessively attached to their children. Parents somehow force their children to imitate their behaviours closing an opportunity to build their own individuality. Adults often act and think for achild by interfering and being invasive. The relationship between parents is very nice, they cooperate in the fulfilment of social roles. Children are focused on their parents’ desires. They surrender to parents’ expectations. In adulthood, children apply the same procedure in their families. Actually, children do not leave this family; physically they are moving away from home, but apparently they are still under control of their parents. To sum up, it is worth noticing that in such family every manifestation of individuality (of one of its members) is treated as a threat. As a single – each family member is weak, although together they are strong. Children feel obliged to stay with their parents (Field, 2006, 82–90). Summary A family is a natural community of people, in which a human being enters the world, develops and dies. It is a specific (community), one of its kind that is rooted in strong and constant relationships of kinship or similar connections. A family protects a human being in material and emotional aspects. It is an irreplaceable support that can help a man to develop properly and to shape the social values and to build human relationships. The

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role of a family cannot be overrated in the human and social life. A family is the smallest unit of the society – a sort of basic institution for each society. Such institution should be a subject to legal protection; it has its specific subjectivity (Hypś, 2012, 13–14). It is worth noting that the institution of a family plays an important role in human life. A man is born and brought up in a family. In some way, a family is a common system of relations and ties building up its own individual world, which is defined by its consistency; it [family] transforms and shapes the aspects of all the members on their ideas and subjects and in the same time develops actions and emotional sphere of its members. A family creates its own unique organization within the internal system of relations. Relationships, interactions as well as the atmosphere in a family are extremely crucial and certainly influence on the personal and various development of the members in relations to the surrounding world (Ryś, 2001, 5). The global society influences family by modifying its structure, functioning, definition, then a modified family affects the global society and its processes. If a society follows some intensive changes, the influence on a family is much wider. As a result a family is visibly modified and widens its range and strength of an influence on the global society. Bibliography Adamski F., Socjologia małżeństwa i rodziny, Warszawa 1984. Borutka T., Mazur J., Zwoliński A., Katolicka nauka społeczna, CzęstochowaJasna Góra 1999. Bradshaw J., Zrozumieć rodzinę, Warszawa 1994. Ciczkowska-Giedziun M.,  Kantowicz E., (red.), Pedagogika społeczna wobec problemów współczesnej rodziny. Polska pedagogika społeczna na początku XXI wieku, Toruń 2010

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Colman A, Słownik psychologii, Warszawa 2009. Czekaj K., Labirynty współczesnego społeczeństwa: kluczowe problemy społeczne w kształceniu pracowników socjalnych, Katowice 1998. Field D., Osobowości rodzinne, Kraków 2006. Hypś S., Ochrona rodziny w polskim prawie karnym, Lublin 2012. Janke A. W. (red.), Pedagogika rodziny na progu XXI wieku. Rozwój, przedmiot, obszary refleksji i badań, Toruń 2004. Kądziołka W. Dialog źródłem wychowania w rodzinie, Kraków 2012. Kozak S., Patologie wśród dzieci i młodzieży. Leczenie i profilaktyka, Warszawa 2007. Kucharczyk K., Ioseph G., La mediazione familiare ed il supermo interesse del mionore, Norwich 2015. Maraszek M., Związek małżeński na gruncie prawa polskiego oraz prawa kanonicznego, Warszawa 2010; Matyjas B., Alkoholizm rodziców jako przyczyna dysfunkcji rodziny w świetle analiz i badań, w: Pedagogika Rodziny 1(3)2008, 96-97. Ochmański M., Losy życiowe młodzieży z rodzin alkoholowych i jej charakterystyka psychospołeczna, Ciechanów 1987. Pomykało W. (red.), Encyklopedia pedagogiczna, Warszawa 1993. Ryś M., Systemy rodzinne. Metody badań struktury rodziny pochodzenia i rodziny własnej, Warszawa 2001. Sakowicz T., Dysfunkcjonalność rodziny a resocjalizacja, Kraków 2006 Szlendak T., Socjologia rodziny- ewolucja, historia, zróżnicowanie, Warszawa 2011. Sztander W., Rodzina z problemem alkoholowym, Warszawa 1993. Tyszka Z., Socjologia rodziny, Warszawa 1979. Tyszka Z., System metodologiczny poznańskiej szkoły socjologicznych badan nad rodziną, w: Sasin P., Rodzice wobec problemu narkomanii dziecka, Opole 2010. Żmuda T., Postulaty moralno-religijnej odnowy rodziny w nauczaniu Jana Pawła II, Kraków 2007.

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Józefa Matejek Pedagogical University of Cracow

Krystian Kucharczyk University of Economics and Humanities

Contemporary family – social changes and risks

Introduction Social and political changes within the current socio-economic situation have had impact on the living conditions of the entire society as well as of individual families over past few years. The functioning of the contemporary family is connected with influences of various economic and socio-political factors, which range with varying degrees influences daily life conditions. Within the changings that happen in the society; a family also changes, which has a massive impact on appearing some problems in its functioning. Most often, they involve dysfunctions in fulfilling material and economic functions – it is connected to the unemployment of one or two parents and often to pathology. Such situation causes emotional tensions, stress increase, a lack of

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financial resources causes also the family disintegration. The variety of problems in family changes because of the constant transformations of the social reality and the progress of civilization. Through the past years, new phenomena have started to exist, we read: euro-orphanhood, deconstructed families, monoparental families. Industrialization of social life has caused that extended families have started to disappear and nuclear ones have become more common. Sociodemographic situation influences the functioning of family members and their ability to deal with problematic and critical situations. Apart from already mentioned social changes and transformations, we observe such [negative] phenomena like: unemployment, impoverishment of individuals and social groups, addictions, abuses, violence, etc. The aim of this paper is to analyze chosen problems and risks that may occur in contemporary families. Family as an environment of human’s life Family is a natural and basic environment of human’s life and development. This is where the basic biological, psychological, emotional, spiritual and social needs are fulfilled. By a defined structure and by fulfilling the functions, a family influences crucially on the shape of one’s characteristics / personalities that are important for his or her functioning in society. In a family, a human being gets some examples of behaviors in different life situations. In family environment everyone can get also their first social experiences and indeed, they shape their system of social values: ,,a family is the environment, which by its characteristics, intimacy, directness, creates the conditions for developing and child-upbringing. It is also the first place of human relations,

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first psychological bounds of a child with their parents and siblings”(Danilewicz 2001, s.58). According to Józefa Brągiel, a family is ,,a basic, natural and primal environment, in which a child develops, grows up. What is more, this environment has a massive influence on the development of child’s personality, abilities within the abilities to success” (Brągiel 1994, s.12). Apart from many socio-historical and economic changes that were present in the transformation of organization and life style, therefore a family is still one of the most stable element of human’s development. As Marek Walancik writes, a family is ,,a strong structure, in which its members play specific social roles – it is a group of values that are passed on and have important meaning in development and social acts. Family creates its own school by introducing a unique culture that is rooted in parents’ attitude, spouses’ families culture, so there are different types of life style, experiences and norms” (Walancik 2014, s. 47). In literature, many definitions of family could be found and they include a description of family as an institution, social group or child upbringing environment, because the term ‘family’ is common in every civilizational societies in all their forms and shapes. Family is a unique community of people, who live together and for each other. Right there, its members play many important roles and achieve goals in order to uphold the cultural and biological continuity; a family fulfills basic needs of humankind such as: love, self-realization, belongingness and ensures the sense of security to all its members. As Franciszek Adamski underlines, a family is ,,a group of people connected with each other in one of two types of social relationships: marriage and parent – child relation”(Adamski 2002, s. 28). Zbigniew Tyszka determines a family as ,,the community of people connected with

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each other by bonds like: marriage, kinship, affinity or adoption” (Tyszka 1994, s.74), when it comes to Stanisław Kawula definition of a family in the social pedagogy field, he observes that ,,our concerns of family as a form of collective life, which influences crucially on shaping of manners, aspirations and life plans, systems of values, human’s personalities”(Kawula 2009, s.46). Apart from the variety of approaches (like: sociological, pedagogical and psychological) a family should be treated as a group of people that is connected by their goals, bonds and relations between particular members. When characterizing a family, its functions should be mentioned. Individual authors present family’s functions in different ways by giving different numbers or terms in order to determine a family. The authors use also different criteria when dividing a family. Zbigniew Tyszka determines family functions as ,,specialized or permanent actions and cooperation of family members who are connected by more less conscious actions that are designated by applicable standards and patterns of norms, standards, which guide them to defined main and secondary effects”(Tyszka 2001, 69). Most of the authors agree when it comes to giving basic family functions, we read: reproductive, care and socialization, economic, existential, and intimate functions (Kwak 2005, s. 16). A family has to fulfill given functions and actions towards family and society. The functions are fulfilled in every area of human’s life. ,,The specific feature of family environment is the fact that its functions are sort of limited, complex and homogenous integrity, which cannot be fulfilled separately. That is why any of disorders that may complicate fulfilling some of the basic functions causes (...) inability of family to function generally” (Kawula 2009, s. 58).

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The family and the terms that may relate to it can be considered from the theoretical perspective – as a reflection around different dimensions of its functioning and changes, and around the scientific area. Family is influenced by a variety of affects that decide together of the directions and the quality of social changes – in individual and group perspective of family members. Thus, all the time a family is being analyzed, because of many attempts to define and describe in various fields of social functioning (See: Kwak 1994; Cudak 1995; Cudak 1997; Adamski 2002; Tyszka 2004; Ziemska 2005; Kawula 2006; Plopa 2007; Kawula, Brągiel, Janke 2009; Szlendak 2012; Kucharczyk 2016). Problems and changes of contemporary family – chosen aspects Because of many problems like: socio-economic changes, increasing level of poverty, occurrence of social pathology, and additional problems, they all cause that some families are not able to fulfill their functions and tasks. ,,Contemporary family experiences the effects of globalization and post-modernity such as: relativism of moral norms, criticism, values, fluency, unclear social situations, loss of authorities, stability, uniqueness, changeability. The variety of situations and social phenomena within the weakness of natural family bonds are the results of migration or pathology, etc.”(Izdebska 2011, s. 96). When analyzing the functioning of contemporary family – very often it is hard to present clearly the reason of its problems. Such situations are caused by the group of factors like: increasing level of poverty, unemployment, migration, violence, and a variety of addictions and other worrying phenomena – all of them contribute to the family disintegration, and cause negligence on

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the part of the guardian and increase the family dysfunction. According to Jadwiga Izdebska ,,family dysfunction might be considered through the prism of difficulties in fulfilling its functions in aid of society and family members. A dysfunctional family does not fulfill completely their responsibilities towards children or generate the occurrence of already mention states. As a result such family does not reach expectations of its group and society”(Izdebska 2000, s. 34). Family dysfunctions may concern both performing tasks and the way of performing them. Several family dysfunctions can be distinguished, these are: economic, socializing, educational, protective and emotional (Cudak 2013, s. 8). The recognition of family dysfunctions is extremely complex, because very often the factors that cause dysfunctions occur in family and externally. Zbigniew Tyszka claims that the factors that are risky for the functioning of contemporary family are caused by: • increasing number of martial conflicts and divorces • relative regression of parents’ perceptions towards their children (because of consumption) • misconceiving of values and norms of individual family members • individualization of lifestyle, values, norms, patterns of career etc. (Tyszka 2003, s. 44). An important factor that influences on fulfilling functions by family is also constant weakening of family bonds between its members, but another factor concerns the changings of family structure. As Henryk Cudak underlines ,,an external family social environment has direct influence of emotional bonds in family, as well as social interactions between family members, changeability of social roles, atmosphere and life organization in

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family environment”(Cudak 2012, s. 8). Therefore, the problems that family experiences might have various forms, they also have different social range and multidimensional processing. Unemployment is one of the most influential factor when it comes to functioning of contemporary family. In the literature on the subject this topic is analyzed in many ways like: economical, socializing, according to law, and socio-politically (See: Kmiecik-Baran 2009; Kozek 2002; Gabryszak, Magierek 2009; Lubińska-Bogacka 2011; Retowski 2012). Unemployment is a complex phenomenon that influences not only economical dimension of society, but mainly generates the changings of functioning of unemployed person and his or her environment. We can talk about the unemployment in the social aspect when the number of jobseekers is higher than the number of vacancies. Work activity is not just a way to earn money, although it is also defined as a value that develops human’s personality, culture, civilization, morality – ,,nowadays among the most important values, Poles list work and education. Work as a desirable value has come in the fourth place after values such as: successful family life, health, love, friendship” (Zabielska 2010, s.85). By taking up activity in the labor market, an individual gains new skills and competences / experiences that shape his or her world view and influence relationship with their environment. Work activity motivates also for positive changes in a person, but also provides a certain position in society to someone who functions in it. An important feature of Polish unemployment is the high proportion of the long-term unemployed and the low-skilled unemployed; unfortunately it reaches also young people and women. The Act of the Promotion of Employment and Labor Market Institutions is a legal act that regulates matters connected with

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obtaining the right to the benefits for unemployed people (Ustawa z dnia 20 kwietnia 2004 roku o promocji zatrudnienia i instytucjach rynku (Dz. U. z 2004 r. Nr 99 poz. 1001 z późn. zmianami). According to the research conducted in our country, the number of registered unemployed in labor offices in December 2016 was – 1335,2 thousand people (including 712,2 thousand women). The number was higher than the number at the end of the third quarter 2016 by 11 thousand people (i.e. 0,8%). The unemployment rate at the end of December 2016 was 8,3% of the civilian population. Of the unemployed, who are in a special situation on the labor market, at the end of December 2016, there were 56% of registered people who were long-term unemployed (Główny Urząd Statystyczny 2017, s. 13-20). The phenomenon of unemployment of young people is worrying. According to the already mentioned statistics, unemployment still affects mainly young people. At the end of the described quarter of the year, the most numerous group of unemployed people was aged between 25 to 34 (the number was – 370,1 thousand), and their percentage in the total number of unemployed was 27,7%. 13% of the total number of unemployed refers to people under 24 years of age. People in a particular or special situation on the labor market are mainly long-term unemployed people; this type of unemployment is more common among women. Almost 44,2% of women, who are registered in labor offices at the end of December 2016, were unemployed for more than 12 months. Among men, at the end of the fourth quarter of 2016, the long-term unemployed rate was 36,6% (Główny Urząd Statystyczny 2017, s. 13-20). Work provides family with income stabilization and self-contained household functions. In the situation of losing work, there

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is a reduction in consumption, the abandonment of many material aspirations and life needs. The family in which the longterm unemployment has occurred, may face inevitable changes and transformations, which can be a challenge to overcome it independently. The effects of unemployment can be seen on four levels: social, political, and economic. They all correlate with one another influencing the overall situation of an unemployed person. When analyzing some unemployment issues, it should be remembered that this is a multi-faceted problem. It is important to look at this problem comprehensively within the consideration of both its causes and effects. It is also worth mentioning that unemployment both in Poland and throughout the European Union is currently a serious social problem that results in poverty, marginalization and, in extreme causes, social exclusion. Lingering unemployment in a family has a massive impact on the finances and income, and as a result it generates poverty, which lowers the living standards of a person and their family, but also influences many other aspects of family functioning in society. The poverty indicators in Poland are: ,,social minimum” and ,,minimum of existence” When analyzing the problem of poverty, it is important to remember that the subjective estimate of material living conditions are also taken into consideration. Determining the poverty threshold gives chance to calculate the so-called poverty rate that is an indicator of how much of the population, families, households income is below that limit, and below the threshold from which poverty begins. According to Henryk Cudak ,,in Poland, the number of families living on the border of material or economic poverty is increasing. It causes the lack of cultural, recreational, educational and social needs of family members, including children in particular” (Cudak 2013, s. 9).

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To a large extent, poverty correlates with pathology and family dysfunction. According to the Social Welfare Act (Ustawa z dnia 12 marca 2004 roku o pomocy społecznej (Dz. U. 2004 Nr 64 poz. 593 z późn. zmianami), families and people who experience poverty can receive support from the relevant institutions and social welfare workers. When analyzing the problems of the contemporary family, addictions should be considered as well. Undoubtedly, the most dangerous of them is addiction to drugs. However, due to the large scale of the phenomenon, alcoholism should be mentioned, because it influences on functioning of family. In such families (See: Sztander 1993; Osiatyński 2005; Woronowicz 2009; Pospiszyl 2009; Matejek 2014), very often children experience the negligence in caring and education, but also aggressive behaviors. The Act on Education in Sobriety and Counteracting Alcoholism is a legal act that controls alcohol-related issues in Poland (Ustawa z dnia 26 października 1982 roku o wychowaniu w trzeźwości i przeciwdziałaniu alkoholizmowi (Dz. U. 1982, Nr 35, poz. 230 z późn. zmianami). The Act indicates the legal person(s) responsible for counteracting alcoholism, it also defines a number of tasks related to it, and lists the institutions with which to cooperate when it comes to the implementation of prevention programs. An excessive consumption of alcohol affects the family’s budget negatively, resulting the decline of the economic family status. Alcoholism is a visible problem that affects the whole family system, and disturbs the family members (including their feeling of security), who often function in a state of permanent stress. Families with alcohol problems most often refer to activity in several areas, such as: • ,,this family is closed, its members live in isolation from the outside world, without close social contacts, friend-

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ships, or those contacts are superficial, conventional, there is lack of feelings, they are insecure and unable to ask for help; • an alcoholic family lives in a lie, lack of sincerity and telling the truth about the problems of the members, very often this family distorts the reality; • there is no mutuality in this family, no one helps anyone, they are focused on their ‘ego,’ and the problems of other members are ignored or the relationships are based on overprotectiveness of one another” (Ryś 2011, s. 95). Alcoholism affects the family system by shaping the relationships between family members, but especially it affects children who are brought up in families, in which one or both parents abuse alcohol. An alcohol addict does not control the amount and quantity of alcohol, which takes control of his or her life and represses all the needs and values. ,,Family with an alcohol problem are different from each other and it depends on: pace of development, personalities of family members or the material status, however, it is possible to distinguish typical stages of assimilation of members of this family” (Ryś 2011, s. 97). In family that experiences alcoholism there is disorganization of everyday functioning; as a result such family cannot ignore or run away from the problem. Abusing alcohol and drugs is the most often reason of violence (See: Pospiszyl 1994; Melibruda, Durda, Sasal 1998; Jarosz 2001; Badura-Madej, Dobrzyńska– Masterhazy 2000; Mazur 2002; Szluz 2007; Widera-Wysoczańska 2010). Violence in family is a complex phenomenon in both when it comes to its beginning and occurrence. ,,Violence is any behavior that is intended to inflict physical harm on another person, or the act that is perceived

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as intentional” (Badura- Madej, Dobrzyńska – Masterhazy 2000, s. 12). Violence was also defined in the provisions of the Domestic Violence Act (Ustawa z dnia 29 lipca 2005 roku o przeciwdziałaniu przemocy w rodzinie, (Dz.U.2005 Nr 180, poz. 1493 z późn. zmianami) as a single or repetitive willful act or omission infringing the rights or personal property of people. In particular, putting those people at risk of losing their lives health, infringing on dignity and inviolability of bodily freedom including sexual harassment, harm to their physical or mental health, and causing suffering in people affected by violence Ustawa z dnia 29 lipca 2005 roku o przeciwdziałaniu przemocy w rodzinie, art.2, pkt 2). Most often violence is caused by: alcohol problems of one or two spouses, socio-cultural situations (within the need of conjugal dominance), various types of stressful situations, such as economic problems – unemployment. The effects of domestic violence are felt by the victim, who is directly exposed to the attack, and also children who cannot find themselves in school and home environments; this is also felt by family as a whole, because the perpetrator’s behavior destroys the ability of the individual members to function normally. Violence in the family often reaches children. It has different forms like: neglect, sexual and physical abuse. Children who live in such families, they experience the difficulties in having relations with peers, and children have problems with assimilation in the school and social environment. Furthermore, some emotional problems like depression may occur. So the phenomenon of domestic violence destroys the family as a whole – the family values and functions that are fulfilled just disappear. When describing the social context of the changes of the contemporary family, it is worth mentioning also incomplete families

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– they are present since parents have decided to labor migration, and as a result there is an increasing number of children separated from their parents. They are called euro-orphans. Foreign migrations (Kaczmarczyk 2005; Danilewicz 2006; Kawczyńska-Butrym 2009) are very dynamic phenomena that have been rooted in the history of Poland, many European Union countries and the world. One of the most important social phenomena in the modern world is the issue related to labor migration and its impact on family, its safety and functioning. ,,Migration as a phenomenon is a process of spatial displacement of people, change of residence of people who move from place of origin (place of departure) to destination (place of arrival)”(Kozak 2010, s. 17). The decisions on migration are most often due to political, economic, social, religious and family reasons. Migration is treated as a multifaceted phenomenon. The basic motive for migration in Poland is the economic factor, especially high unemployment, low wages and often poverty. The main destinations of migration among EU countries have been and still are: Great Britain, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Italy. The phenomenon of migration is difficult to measure, and the available data is approximate according to the latest estimates. There were 2 196 thousand people out of Poland in 2013, so about 66 thousand more than in the previous year. Among the emigrants, there were people whose trip abroad was connected with taking up or searching of it. (Główny Urząd Statystyczny 2015, s. 15). Undoubtedly, the migration of parents affects the functioning of the family. The consequences of migration can be extensive – form the stress of the trip to the problems of family disintegration. Migration can also cause the family disorganization and weakening of emotional ties, lack of emotional support for chil-

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dren, longing, and destabilization and dislocation of the social roles of individual family members. ,,(…) the absence of a parent that lasts less than 6 months is acceptable and does not weaken family relationships. Any possible negative consequences might be redress when a parent returns home, however, any longer parental absence is already hard experience for a child. Sometimes it becomes necessary to provide a family with psychologist care. When the parent is absent for a longer (than 6 months) time, the effects might be more serious”(Pawelec 2011, s. 123). The consequences of separation also depend on the age of a child, as well as on previous relationships in a family. Migration caused by economic issues improve the living standard of family members, but it also influences negatively on family functioning and on upbringing of the children at home. Hence, the important task is to support family not only in the traditional way, but prepare it [family] to be opened to the dynamics of socio-economic change and to the new areas of support, for instance. Summary Many socioeconomic changes that have taken place over the years, generate the family problems on the various stages of life. The development of modern civilization cause positive and negative phenomena. Families experience a variety of social problems within the complex pathologies caused by global changes, as a result families face various crisis situations. ,,It is worth emphasizing that the understanding of the long-term processes and conditions of modern family, requires a genetic approach, going back in time, an analysis of the determinants and the logic of its transformation” (Tyszka 1999, s. 193). The family is supposed to support the development of its members, to meet the needs and fulfill its functions properly.

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However, the new factors that affect the family, influence also on the standard of living and on its members. Therefore, when analyzing the functioning of contemporary family in the context of social changes and threats, we believe that when talking about social changes, the family cannot be separated and vice versa. If we want to explain the changes that take place in families, we should analyze it in the context of changes that occur in society.

Bibliography Adamski F., Rodzina – wymiar społeczno – kulturowy, Kraków 2002. Badura-Madej W., Dobrzyńska–Masterhazy D., Przemoc w rodzinie: Interwencja kryzysowa i psychoterapia, Wyd. 2, Kraków 2000. Brągiel J., Rodzinne i osobowościowe uwarunkowanie sukcesu szkolnego dziecka z rodziny rozwiedzionej, Opole 1994. Cudak H., Szkice z badań nad rodziną, Kielce 1995. Cudak H., (red.), Rodzina polska u schyłku XXI wieku, Łowicz 1997. Cudak H., Zaburzenia struktury rodziny jako konsekwencja makrospołecznych uwarunkowań ,,Pedagogika Rodziny” nr 2(4)2012, [dostęp online: 1.05.2017]. Cudak H., Ubóstwo ekonomiczne rodziny jako ważny paradygmat dysfunkcji środowiska rodzinnego, ,,Pedagogika Rodziny” 3(1)2013, [dostęp online: 2.05. 2017]. Danilewicz W.T., Rodzina jako środowisko życia [w:] Pomoc dziecku i rodzinie w środowisku lokalnym, W.T. Danilewicz, J. Izdebska, B. Krzesińska – Żach, Białystok 2001. Danilewicz W.T., Sytuacja życiowa dzieci w rodzinach migracyjnych, Białystok 2006. Gabryszak R., Magierek D. (red.), Wprowadzenie do polityki społecznej,  Warszawa 2009. Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Departament Badań Demograficznych i Rynku Pracy, Bezrobocie rejestrowe I–IV kwartał 2016 roku, Warszawa 2017.

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Izdebska J., Dziecko w rodzinie u progu XXI wieku. Niepokoje i nadzieje, Białystok 2000. Izdebska J., Rodzina dysfunkcyjna – wyzwania dla działań pomocowych. [w:] Wokół rodziny. Wychowanie, kultura, społeczeństwo, A. Garbarz, G. Grzybek (red.), Rzeszów 2011. Jarosz E., Dom który krzywdzi, Katowice 2001. Kaczmarczyk P., Migracje zarobkowe Polaków w dobie przemian, Warszawa 2005. Kawczyńska-Butrym Z., Migracje. Wybrane zagadnienia, Lublin 2009. Kawula S., Kształty rodziny współczesnej, szkice familologiczne, Toruń 2006. Kawula S., Rodzina jako grupa i instytucja opiekuńczo-wychowawcza, [w:] Pedagogika rodziny. Obszary i panorama problematyki, S. Kawula, J. Brągiel, A.W. Janke (red.), Toruń 2009. Kawula S., Brągiel J., Janke A.W. (red.), Pedagogika rodziny, Toruń 2009. Kmiecik-Baran K., Bezrobocie czynnikiem marginalizacji i ubóstwa, Gdańsk 2009. Kucharczyk K., Instytucja rodziny w kontekście aktualnych przemian społecznych. [w:] Možnosti uplatnění socialniho pedagoga/sociální pedagogiky v současné společnosti. I. Junová, G. Slaninová (ed.), Hradec Králové 2016. Kozek W., Bezrobocie jako zjawisko społeczne, [w:] Wymiary życia społecznego. Polska na przełomie XX i XXI wieku, M. Maroda (red.), Warszawa 2002. Kwak A., Rodzina w dobie przemian. Małżeństwo i kohabitacja, Warszawa. 2005. Kwak A., Rodzina i jej przemiany, Warszawa 1994. Lubińska-Bogacka M., Społeczno-edukacyjne problemy rodzin bezrobotnych, Kraków 2011. Matejek J., Zjawisko alkoholizmu jako problem społeczny – wybrane zagadnienia profilaktyki i wsparcia dzieci oraz dorosłych w rodzinie z problemem alkoholowym. [w:] Sociálne ohrozenia detí a mládeže v XXI. storočí a možnosti ich prevencie. J. Hroncová, I. Emmerová (ed.), Banská Bystrica 2014. Mazur I., Przemoc w rodzinie. Teoria i rzeczywistość, Warszawa 2002. Melibruda J., Durda R., Sasal D., O przemocy domowej, Warszawa 1998. Osiatyński W., Alkoholizm. Grzech czy choroba? Warszawa 2005.

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Ustawa z dnia 26 października 1982 roku o wychowaniu w trzeźwości i przeciwdziałaniu alkoholizmowi (Dz. U. 1982, Nr 35, poz. 230 z późn. zmianami). Ustawa z dnia 12 marca 2004 roku o pomocy społecznej (Dz. U. 2004 Nr 64 poz. 593 z późn. zmianami). Ustawa z dnia 20 kwietnia 2004 roku o promocji zatrudnienia i instytucjach rynku pracy (Dz.U. z 2004 r. Nr 99 poz. 1001 z późn. zmianami). Ustawa z dnia 29 lipca 2005 roku o przeciwdziałaniu przemocy w rodzinie, (Dz.U.2005 Nr 180, poz.1493 z późn. zmianami). Plopa M., Psychologia rodziny. Teoria i badania, Kraków 2007. Pospiszyl I., Przemoc w rodzinie, Warszawa 1994. Pospiszyl I., Patologie społeczne, Warszawa 2009. Retowski S., Bezrobocie i odpowiedzialność, Warszawa 2012. Ryś M., Role pełnione w rodzinie z problemem alkoholowym a poczucie własnej wartości i relacje interpersonalne z najbliższymi u Dorosłych Dzieci Alkoholików „FIDES ET RATIO” Kwartalnik Naukowy 4(8) 2011. Szlendak T., Socjologia rodziny. Ewolucja, historia, zróżnicowanie, Warszawa 2012. Szluz B. (red.), Przemoc: konteksty społeczno- kulturowe, t. 1, Rzeszów 2007. Sztander W., Rodzina z problemem alkoholowym, Warszawa 1993. Tyszka Z., Socjologia rodziny, Warszawa 1974. Tyszka Z., Rodzina współczesna – jej geneza i kierunki przemian, [w:] Rodzina współczesna, M. Ziemska (red.), Warszawa 1999. Tyszka Z., System metodologiczny wieloaspektowej integralnej analizy życia rodzinnego, Poznań 2001. Tyszka Z., Rodzina we współczesnym świecie, Poznań 2003. Tyszka Z. (red.), Współczesne rodziny polskie – ich stan i kierunki przemian, Poznań 2004. Walancik M., Działania profilaktyczne we współczesnej rodzinie w kontekście zachowań problemowych i ryzykownych dzieci i młodzieży, [w:] Aktuálne problèmy prevencie sociálnopatologických javov a jej profesionalizácie, J. Hroncová (ed.), Banska Bystrica 2014. Widera-Wysoczańska A., Mechanizmy przemocy w rodzinie: z pokolenia na pokolenie, Warszawa 2010. Woronowicz B.T., Uzależnienia. Geneza, terapia, powrót do zdrowia, Warszawa 2009.

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Zabielska J. M., Praca jako wartość, [w:] Wartości, interesy, struktury społeczne. Uwarunkowania ludzkiej kreatywności i partycypacji w życiu publicznym, J. Szymczyk (red.), Lublin 2010. Ziemska M. (red.), Rodzina współczesna, Warszawa 2005.

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Stanisław Ciupka The University of Economics and Humanities in Bielsko-Biała

Aleksander Sapiński The University of Economics and Humanities in Bielsko-Biała Faculty of Management, General Tadeusz Kościuszko Military Academy of Land Forces

American perspective of stress management as a consequence of changes in the organization – scientific reflection

Initial notes Many people experience stress as a result of changes occurring during transformations of organisations. As scientists researching issues of workplace stress note, a significant part of employees experience symptoms of being over-worked and stressed, which are a result of restructuring and reduction processes, dynamic tendencies, and uncertainty, happening in their organisations(S.P. Robbins, D.A. DeCenzo,2002). Simultaneously, we re-

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alise that work is a crucial source of life activity and self-esteem for human beings, and at the same, a place where they can realise values held by themselves. Undoubtedly, it is only one point of view, while another claims that: “Specificity of work, functioning motivational systems – not always perceived as accurate and just, controversial actions aimed merely on increasing work efficiency, business environment dynamics, interpersonal relationships conditioned by personal or situational factors, frequently become a source of stress in the workplace” (Bartkowiak, 2009). The authors hope that the paper presented below will help, even in a  humble measure, in achieving fuller understanding of numerous determinants of human behaviour in an organisation. The term of stress Below, American definitions of stress will be presented, as well as scientific attempts at determining its sources, methods of its detection, and suggestions how to limit it for managers. One of the definitions of stress is as follows: “Stress is a dynamic state, in which a person in question faces an opportunity, a limit, or a demand, connected to what they want, and its result is perceived as both unsure and important”( S.P. Robbins, D.A. DeCenzo,2002). Simultaneously, when broadening the knowledge on the phenomenon of stress, the duality of its influence, both positive and negative, may be noted. In our musings, we are primarily interested in the negative image of stress, that is, a situation when it limits an individual or presents an individual with excessive demands. As the aforementioned authors point out: “Limits are barriers which stop an individual from doing what he wants… Limits take one’s control over the situation away… Meanwhile the demands

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may cause one to give up on something he wants… Limits and deamnds may lead to stress” (S.P. Robbins, D.A. DeCenzo,2002). As R.S. Schüler points out, if stress is connected to an uncertainty ofthe result, then potential stress transforms into real one (Schüler, 1980). Regardless of the situation, the only solution is to terminate the uncertainty or decrease its meaning. American scientists do not endeavour to minimalize the influence of stress on human life, but they note, that stress may be a result of both desired and undesired personal indicators. Moreover, when researching this issue, they are aware that stress in the workplace is a common phenomenon. They say: “ … when considering changes in American companies, such as restructuring, it is no surprise that stress is so common nowadays. How common? As research conducted by insurance company National Life Insurance shows, over 60% of the surveyed employees experience major stress in the workplace, which leads to over USD 150 billion of losses in result of lost time and decrease of efficiency”(Lynch, 1998). Another crucial issue of the field of research on influence of stress on employees life is made by the scientific community attempt of determining whether common causes of stress exist. It seems that factors causing stress may be divided into two categories: personal and organisational. “Inorganisations there is no shortage of factors that may cause stress, for example demands of avoiding making mistakes or fulfilling tasks in limited time, demanding employers or unpleasant co-workers” (S.P. Robbins, D.A. DeCenzo, 2002). In their paper, S.P. Robbins and D.A. De Cenzo reference research of J.H. Harris and L.A. Arendt and discuss five categories of factors causing stress, that is: task demands, role demands, interpersonal demands, organisation structure, and organisation

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leadership (Harris,Arendt, 1997). Task demands are related to the position of the employee in question and consist of: design of work, work conditions, and physical distribution. Work norms, if they are perceived as too rigorous by an employee, will cause a lot of pressure. S.P. Robbins and D.A. DeCenzo note that the bigger interdependence of tasks of an employee and tasks of other, the bigger stress may be caused. Moreover, jobs during which variety of temperatures, noise, or dangerous work conditions occur, may cause increase of stress level – similarly to a situation in a crowded room or in a place with frequent interruptions. Another category of stress intensity factors are role demands, that is, pressure caused by the function fulfilled in the organisation by the employee. “Conflicts of roles lead to expectation which are difficult to combine or meet. Overloaded role happen when the employee is expected to do more than it is possible in the given time”( S.P. Robbins, D.A. DeCenzo,2002). Another category of stress causes is connected to interpersonal demands, that is, the pressure exerted by other employees, bad interpersonal relationships, and lack of support from co-workers from the organisation. The fourth category of stress intensity factors consists of organisation structure, that is, abundance of regulations and lack of opportunity for the employee to be a part of decision-making process. The fifth of the factors is organisation leadership which, as the aforementioned authors point out: “…means management style of the organisation managers. Some of them create culture of tension, fear, and anxiety”( S.P. Robbins, D.A. DeCenzo,2002). When it comes to the personal stress intensity factors, they include: family problems, financial issues, and intrinsic personal characteristics. A detailed review of the issue was presented by V.J. Doby and R.D. Caplan . The manager of an employee, who is

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affected by stress due to personal problems, should have a knowledge in an area regarding employee personal problems. American researchers of the workplace stress claim that personality of an employee affects his stress susceptibility. That is why depending on the to stress, they divide employees personalities into type A and B (Doby, Caplan, 1995). Personality A employees, in their opinion, are characterized by a constant sense of lack of time, an intense tendency to compete, aversion to free time. Personality B employees are opposite, they don’t experience the pressure of time. Moreover, they are not impatient. However, what is worth pointing, currently, more accurate research are slowly limiting the differences in the occurrence of susceptibility to personality stress A and B. However, theoretical considerations state the minimization of differences between A and B personalities, then it is still a valid statement in the practice of professional activity, that: “From the point of view of the manager, it is important that type A employees have a greater propensity to show symptoms of stress, although organizational and personal factors are low”(Siegrist, 2001). Stress symptoms In the referenced American papers on the issue of influence of stress on employees in organisations, three major stress symptoms, such as: physiological stress, psychological stress, and behavioural stress. In the first step of stress research, the scientists focused on physiological symptoms, because their possessed knowledge had shown that the occurrence of significant stress leads to changes in metabolism, accelerated pulse and breathing, headache, and increased risk of heart attack. Then, an interven-

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tion of medical personnel becomes necessary. S.P. Robbins, D.A. DeCenzo suggests, that from the direction of the organization’s managers, they should pay much more attention to the psychological and behavioural symptoms of stress, because: “Psychological symptoms can consist of increased tension and anxiety, boredom and delaying tasks for the future - all of it can lead to a decrease in performance. Behavioural symptom effect can be similar - changes in eating habits, more frequent smoking and usage of the psychotropic substances, rapid speech, or sleeping disorders”(S.P. Robbins, D.A. DeCenzo,2002). Stress reduction Company management faces the following dilemma repeatedly. On the one hand, a certain dose of stress is necessary, since without it not enough energy is being used by the employees to fulfil their duties within the organisation. Therefore, it is postulated that stress reduction should be limited to the elimination of its dysfunctional aspects. Researchers of the issue strongly suggest that the first step in combating symptoms of undesirable stress should be an analysis whether employees were correctly selected for specific tasks and if they were informed of the employer’s expectations. Moreover, the employees should participate in the redesigning of their work and tasks(Brott,1994). On top of that, from the point of view of the organization, the factor optimizing the functioning of the employee in it becomes a stress audit to learn about the threat posed by work for various employee groups, its behaviour, management staff way of work, etc.(Bartkowiak,2009). Another way to reduce the destructive impact of stress, currently used in the US, is to organize health and care

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programs for employees so that they can get help if needed. S.P. Robbins and D.A. DeCenzo remind that “Modern employee assistance programmes (...) are a developed versions of programmes launched by American companies in the 1940s (...) Modern programmes cover new areas. Particularly noteworthy is their use to limit the growth of insurance premiums, especially in the area of mental health, and abuse of psychotropic drugs”( (S.P. Robbins, D.A. DeCenzo,2002). Healthcare programmes are directed at caring for the health of employees. They include various activities such as: quitting smoking, proper weight of an employee, maintaining good physical condition, protection from violence, and interventions regarding problems in teamwork. End notes The discussion of issues of the workplace stress presented above , points to a significant role of specific factors which help to overcome the negative effects of stress and optimize functioning of an individual in the organisation, both in the situation of emotional pressure, as well as of striving to achieve success. Another effect of removing negative stress effects is the sense of increase of employees well-being in the organisation and the increase of positive attitude to their own development and learning, which results in pursuing their own interests and seeking an optimal workplace for themselves(Campbell, 1995).

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Literature: Bartkowiak G., Człowiek w pracy /od stresu do sukcesu w organizacji/, Polskie Wydawnictwo ekonomiczne, Warszawa 2009, ISBN 978-83-2081823-9. Brott A.A, New Approaches to Job Stress, [w]: Nation’s Business, maj 1994. Campbell S., Belter Than the Company Gym, [w]: HRMagazine, czerwiec 1995. Doby V.J., Caplan R.D., Organizational Stress as Threat to Reputation: Effects of Anxiety at Work and home, [w]: Academy of Management Journal, wrzesień 1995. EAPs Etole to Heath Plan Gatekeeper, [w]: Employee Benefit Plan Review, luty 1991. Harris J.H., Arendt L.A., Stress Reduction and the Small Business: Increasing Employee and Customer Satisfaction, [w]: SAM Advanced Management Journal 1997. Robbins S.P., DeCenzo D.A., Podstawy zarządzania, Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, Warszawa 2002, ISBN 83-208-1373-5.

Human resources management – interdisciplinary perspective editors: Aleksander Sapiński, Stanisław Ciupka, Ievgen Khlobystov

Adam Pawlak Politechnika Częstochowska

Krystian Kucharczyk Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomiczno-Humanistyczna w Bielsku-Białej

Mobbing – terror psychiczny – jako patologia społeczna na współczesnym rynku pracy

Wstęp Zmieniająca się struktura rynku pracy, na którym od pracowników przede wszystkim wymaga się wszechstronności i dyspozycyjności, jednoczesne dążenie organizacji do zachowania konkurencyjności, a niekiedy tylko pragnienie przetrwania, sprawiają, że w gospodarce o cechach globalnych, pracownicy wykonują zadania pod niezwykle silną presją1.

1 Brus J., Europejska Fundacja Poprawy Warunków Życia i Pracy [w:] Agencje Unii Europejskiej, red. A. Dumała, Urząd Komitetu Integracji Europejskiej, Warszawa 2002, s. 40–56

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Badania przeprowadzone w wielu krajach europejskich wykazują, że zjawisko przemocy w miejscu pracy nasila się. Obecnie zjawisko to ma już cechy epidemii. W opublikowanej w 1998 roku przez Międzynarodowa Organizację Pracy raporcie pod tytułem: „Przemoc w miejscu pracy”, wskazano na ogromną skalę tego zjawiska. Najstraszniejsze jest to, że pojęcie psychoterroru w miejscu pracy istnieje we wszystkich cywilizowanych społeczeństwach Europy, Ameryki, Azji oraz Australii2. Znaczenie i źródło terminu mobbing Mobbing jest zjawiskiem wielopostaciowym, trudno wymiernym i subiektywnym, dlatego jego zdefiniowanie jest niezwykle ważne zarówno dla celów badawczych, jak też praktycznych3. Podstaw etymologicznych pojęcia mobbingu należy doszukiwać się w słowie pochodzącym z języka łacińskiego mobile vulgus o znaczeniu tłum o zmiennych uczuciach. W tłumaczeniu z języka angielskiego słowo „mob”, od którego pochodzi „mobbing”, oznacza „tłum, napaść, oblegać”. Świadczy to o sytuacji, w której znajduje się ofiara prześladowań, cierpiąca w  wyniku wrogich wobec niej zachowań. „Mob” oznacza również tłum zbierający się w celu wyrządzenia komuś krzywdy i szkody.4 Po raz pierwszy termin mobbing został użyty w  1963 roku przez laureata nagrody Nobla Konrada Lorenza (1903–1989) słynnego austriackiego ornitologa i zoologa. W świetle jego teorii Hirygoyen M. F., Molestowanie w pracy, W drodze, Poznań 2003, s. 11. Bechowska-Gebhardt A., Stalewski T., Mobbing; patologia zarządzania personelem, Difin, Warszawa 2004, s. 9. 4 Kopaliński W., Słownik wyrazów obcych i zwrotów obcojęzycznych, Wyd. Wiedza Powszechna, Warszawa 1967, s. 335. 2 3

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mobbing służył niczemu innemu jak charakterystyce zachowań małych osobników zwierzęcych względem dużego, którego atakowały poprzez jego zastraszenie.5 To samo pojęcie spotykamy w pracach szwedzkiego lekarza Petera Paula Heinemanna, który posłużył się nim analizując utrzymujące się przez dłuższy czas wrogie zachowanie grupy dzieci w  przedszkolu wobec jednego dziecka. W naukach o zarządzaniu termin „mobbing” został pierwszy raz użyty w 1984 roku przez pracującego w Szwecji niemieckiego psychiatry Heinza Leymann’a. Według H. Leymann’a mobbing to „terror psychiczny w  miejscu pracy, który angażuje wrogie nastawienie i  nieetyczne komunikowanie się systematycznie podtrzymywane przez jedną, bądź kilka osób w stosunku do innych, co w konsekwencji spycha ofiarę do pozycji uniemożliwiającej jej obronę. Działania te zdarzają co najmniej raz w tygodniu i trwają przez dłuższy okres czasu (co najmniej pół roku). Z uwagi na czas trwania i częstotliwość, maltretowanie to skutkuje zaburzeniami w sferze psychiki, zdrowia psychicznego i funkcjonowania społecznego ofiary”.6 Ważną definicję mobbingu szczególnie odnośnie środowiska pracy sformułowała Marie – France Hirigoyen – francuska psychiatra, według, której mobbing to: (…) wszelkie niewłaściwe postępowanie (gest, słowo, zachowanie, postawa), (…), które przez swa powtarzalność czy systematyczność narusza godność lub integralność psychiczną bądź fizyczną osoby, narażając ją na utratę zatrudnienia lub pogarszając 5 Jędrejek G., Cywilnoprawna odpowiedzialność za stosowanie mobbingu, Warszawa 2004, Lexisnexis, s. 82. 6 Merecz D., Mościcka A., Drabek M., Mobbing w  środowisku pracy. Charakterystyka zjawiska, jego konsekwencje, aspekty prawne i sposoby przeciwdziałania. Łódź 2005, s. 7.

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atmosferę w pracy (…) [mobbing] to przemoc w małych dawkach, która jest jednak bardzo destrukcyjna. Każdy atak wzięty z osobna nie jest naprawdę czymś poważnym, o agresji stanowi skumulowany efekt częstych i powtarzalnych mikrourazów7.

Pojęcie mobbingu opisane przez H. Leymann’a  i  Marie – F. Hirigoyen leży u podstaw definicji sformułowanych przez międzynarodowe organizacje. Mobbing w świetle twierdzeń Międzynarodowej Organizacji Pracy uznawany jest za „agresywne zachowanie, które możemy określić jako mściwe, okrutne, złośliwe lub upokarzające usiłowanie zaszkodzenia jednostce lub grupie pracowników (…) Obejmuje ono sprzysięganie się lub mobbing przeciwko wybranemu pracownikowi, który staje się przedmiotem psychicznego dręczenia. Mobbing charakteryzuje się stałymi negatywnymi uwagami lub krytyką, społecznym izolowaniem danej osoby, plotkowaniem lub rozprzestrzenianiem fałszywych informacji”8. Koncentrując się na terminologii mobbingu należy przytoczyć definicję Komisji Europejskiej, która zjawisko to uznaje za „wszystkie te sytuacje, w których pracownik jest obrażany, zastraszany lub atakowany w okolicznościach związanych z pracą i stanowi to wprost lub pośrednio zagrożenie jego bezpieczeństwa, dobrego samopoczucia i zdrowia”9. Kodeks Pracy – stan prawny na dzień 28.12.2015 rok Art. 3 94 . § 1. Pracodawca jest obowiązany przeciwdziałać mobbingowi. § 2.  Mobbing oznacza działania lub zachowania dotyczące Hirygoyen M. F., Molestowanie w pracy, op. cit. s. 10. Jarciniak J., Przeciwdziałanie lobbingowi w miejscu pracy: poradnik dla pracodawcy, Warszawa 2008, Wolters Kluwer Polska, s. 341. 9 Kmiecik-Baran K., Rybicki J., Mobbing – zagrożenie współczesnego miejsca pracy”, Pomorski Instytut Demokratyczny, Gdańsk 2004, s. 145. 7 8

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pracownika lub skierowane przeciwko pracownikowi, polegające na uporczywym i  długotrwałym nękaniu lub zastraszaniu pracownika, wywołujące u  niego zaniżoną ocenę przydatności zawodowej, powodujące lub mające na celu poniżenie lub ośmieszenie pracownika, izolowanie go lub wyeliminowanie z zespołu współpracowników10. Polski wkład w pojęcie mobbingu Szersze pojęcie mobbingu przedstawia Adam Szałkowski określając go, jako: (…) wszelkie zachowania w sytuacji pracy zawodowej, które wywołują wśród niektórych pracowników lęk, strach i długotrwałe obawy, których skutki ujawniają się nawet uszczerbkiem na zdrowiu. (…) Typowe czynniki mobbingu maja swoją genezę w  procesie pracy i  najczęściej wynikają z  fizycznych i  psychospołecznych warunków pracy. W  grę wchodzą te z  fizycznej przestrzeni środowiska pracy, warunki w  zakresie oświetlenia, hałasu, zapylenia, promieniowania i  podobnych czynników. Natomiast społeczne warunki pracy obejmują swoim zakresem gamę różnorakich zjawisk i procesów, wśród których wyróżnia się zbiór czynników kreujących tzw. stosunki międzyludzkie. W zbiorze tym znajdują się również wszelkie te czynniki, które wywołują stres w  procesie decyzji, bowiem prawie zawsze jest ona podejmowana z ryzykiem niepewności11.

Zatem mobbing to nic innego jak „poddanie ofiary przemocy ekonomicznej, psychicznej i społecznej w celu zastraszenia, upokorzenia i ograniczenia jej zdolności obrony.” Ponad to, zauwa10 http://prawo.money.pl/kodeks/pracy/dzial-czwarty-obowiazki-praco­ dawcy-i-pracownika/rozdzial-i-obowiazki-pracodawcy/art-94 (28.12.2015) 11 Szałkowski A., Problem mobbingu w  stosunkach pracy, Praca i  Zabezpieczenie Społeczne 2002, nr 9 s.4

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żamy, że wielu psychologów podkreśla rangę, iż to zjawisko jest odczuwane subiektywnie, jednakże dające się intersubiektywnie potwierdzić. Można więc domniemać, że okazuje się być wielofazowym procesem, w którym mobber stosuje wszelkie metody manipulacji”.12 Mobbing, nazywany w języku polskim również w sposób opisowy jako zacho­dzący w miejscu pracy terror psychiczny, przemoc psychiczna, psychiczne znęcanie się, nękanie, dręczenie, gnębienie, szykanowanie, poniżanie i upokarzanie, okreś­lany jest w literaturze anglojęzycznej jeszcze jako bullying (znęcanie się; przy czym w  USA termin  bullying  dotyczy tylko zachowań w  szkole wśród dzieci i młodzieży i oznacza bardziej agresję fizyczną niż psychiczną), a także jako ganging up on someone (sprzysięganie się przeciwko komuś), psychological terror  /psychoterror (terror psychiczny), psychological terrorization (psychiczne terroryzowanie),  emo­tionyl violence  (nękanie emocjonalne),  horizontal violence (nękanie poziome), psy­chological agression (agresja psychiczna),  psychological harassment (psychiczne napastowanie; podkreślmy, że chodzi o złośliwe napastowanie, którego podłożem nie jest płeć czy rasa: a form of nonsexual, nonracial harassment, jak mówią praw­nicy: napastowanie niezależne od statusu – a status-blind harassment) oraz – wów­czas gdy jest dokonywany drogą elektroniczną (by e-mail) – flaming (dopiekanie).13 W literaturze anglojęzycznej, poświęconej zagadnieniu przemocy w  miejscu pracy, funkcjonują dwa pojęcia: bullying oraz mobbing (termin bullying jest używany w Wielkiej Brytanii, Ir12 Bechowska-Gebhardt A., Stalewski T., Mobbing; patologia zarządzania personelem…, op. cit. s. 12. 13 http://www.supernat.pl/abecadlo_zarzadzania/hasla/mobbing.html (07.01.2016).

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landii i Australii; w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie przyjęto termin  mobbing; ten ostatni zadomowił się również w  Niemczech, Finlandii, Norwegii, Szwecji, a także w Polsce). W innych krajach europejskich – choć termin mobbing zdobywa tam coraz większą popularność – na określenie tego zjawiska używa się wyrażeń, które na język polski można przełożyć jako: molestowanie moralne – harcèlement moral (Francja), nękanie lub maltretowanie psychologiczne –  acoso lub maltrato psicológico (Hiszpania), przymus moralny –  coacção moral  (Portugalia), molestowanie psychologiczne –  molestie psicologiche (Włochy). Terminologia odzwierciedla zatem różnice kulturowe, występujące w poszczególnych krajach, a położenie nacisku na rozmaite aspekty przemocy w miejscu pracy, świadczy o złożoności tego zjawiska.14 Uwarunkowania i przebieg procesu mobbingu Matuszyński wskazuje na trzy główne kategorie czynników, sprzyjających zaistnieniu mobbingu15: • do kategorii pierwszej zaliczyć można czynniki indywidualne, wśród których wyróżnić możemy zarówno czynniki socjo-demograficzne (wiek, płeć, wykształcenie), cechy osobowości, staż pracy, pozycja w organizacji. Mobberami częściej są osoby młode, ze skłonnościami do zachowań agresywnych. Ofiarami mobbingu częściej niż mężczyźni padają kobiety, często samotne, o  niższym poziomie wykształcenia, a  także osoby introwertyczne, sumienne, uległe; http://www.mobbing.most.org.pl/publikacja_3.htm (07.01.2016). Matuszyński W., O źródłach i sposobach przezwyciężania mobbingu w organizacji”, referat wygłoszony na VIII Ogólnopolskiej Konferencji – „Etyka w życiu gospodarczym”, Łódź 2004. 14 15

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• kategorię druga stanowią tzw. czynniki organizacyjne. Na czynniki te składa się złe zarządzanie, niewłaściwa organizacja pracy, negatywne, często niespodziewane dla pracowników zmiany, jak np. cięcia budżetowe w firmie. Niewłaściwe zarządzanie może również prowadzić do mobbingu na skutek zaistnienia zjawiska tzw. sformatowania, gdzie pracownicy niższego szczebla kopiują zachowania zarządu, jego styl zarządzania w relacji ze swoimi współpracownikami; • do trzeciej kategorii zaliczyć można czynniki o  charakterze społecznym, gdzie na skutek globalizacji gospodarki pojawia się konieczność restrukturyzacji przedsiębiorstw, zmiany społeczne takie jak obniżenie poziomu wykształcenia, czy zubożenie społeczeństwa, wzrost przestępczości, a także wzrost tzw. szarej strefy (np. na skutek napływu imigrantów). Problem mobbera polega na tym, że ma on trudności z dystansem i obiektywnym spojrzeniem na swoje zachowanie. Trudno ten stan przypisać jedynie cynizmowi. (…) Działając, stają się zaangażowanymi aktorami i  nie rozglądają się dookoła. Osoby atakujące w sposób systematyczny i bezwzględny mają trudności z przyjęciem perspektywy ofiary zarówno w sensie emocjonalnym jak i poznawczym. Mobber ma kłopoty ze współodczuwaniem cierpienia obiektu swoich działań. Wydaje się, że osoba stosująca terror psychiczny w sposób systematyczny nie ma hamulców, w  które większość z  nas jest szczęśliwie zaopatrzona. (…) Brak zdolności dostrzeżenia cierpienia i włączenia się mechanizmów powstrzymujących agresję uniemożliwia tak zwaną empatię emocjonalną16.

Ludzie często nie dostrzegają swoich słabości i że dawanie im władzy nasila tę skłonność. Bardziej skupiają się wówczas na wła16 Romer M. T., Najda M., Mobbing w  ujęciu psychologiczno-prawnym, wyd. 1, Warszawa 2010, s. 138–139.

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snych pragnieniach i potrzebach, a mniej na cudzych i zachowują się tak jakby zasady obowiązywały tylko innych. Ludzie posiadający choćby niewielką władzę nad innymi już mają tendencje do odczłowieczania podwładnych – traktowania ich z  dystansem, większym chłodem i  bardziej racjonalnie oraz postrzegania ich jako środka do osiągnięcia celu, a nie czujących i wrażliwych istot ludzkich17. Godny uwagi jest rys osobowościowy prześladowcy. Jest to człowiek o dwóch obliczach. Z jednej strony przybierający maskę wiarygodnego i uczciwego, dynamicznego i wykwalifikowanego, z drugiej strony służalczy, mściwy, czerpiący przyjemność z  zadawania bólu, niedojrzały emocjonalnie, niepewny, mający mocno rozbudowany przymus kontroli innych, a w końcu unikający odpowiedzialności. Roboczy portret mobbera zawiera się w słowach „narcystyczny zboczeniec”18. Specyfiką mobbingu jest tyranizowanie niewygodnej osoby. Mobber prześladuje, bo sam w  dzieciństwie doświadczył przemocy, czerpie radość z kontroli nad drugim człowiekiem, zdarza się, że pod wpływem mobbingowania doświadcza satysfakcji erotycznej. Na bazie rysu kryminologicznego, socjologicznego i pedagogicznego Irena Pospiszyl wyróżnia trzy typy oprawców pracowniczych – oprawcy autorytarni, antysocjalni i obsesyjno-kompulsywni19. Oprawcy autorytarni pojmują władzę jako podstawowy kanon odniesień międzyludzkich, bez niej nic nie potrafią zrobić. Mają zakodowaną uległość władzy bezwzględnie na okoliczności. W relacjach do ludzi chętnie powołują się na znajomości, koSutton R. I., Dobry szef, zły szef, MT Biznes, Warszawa 2012, s. 262–263. Kmiecik-Baran K., Rybicki J., Mobbing…, op. cit., s. 145. 19 Pospiszyl I., Patologie społeczne. Resocjalizacja, Warszawa 2010, s. 299. 17 18

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neksje i  układy. Wobec wyżej od siebie postawionych są ulegli, a  na niżej od siebie stojących patrzą z  pogardą i  narzucają dystans. Wobec siebie stosują zawyżoną ocenę, a poprzez postawę megalomana próbują wymusić szacunek i  zniechęcić rywali do wszelkiej rywalizacji. Dzieje się tak dlatego, aby ukryć swoje braki w kompetencjach i niewiarę w reguły uczciwości. Oprawcy antysocjalni należą do grona narcyzów20. Być narcyzem to być zakochanym w  samym sobie, to postawa samouwielbienia i  bezkrytycznego akceptowania własnych cech fizycznych i  psychicznych21. Najbardziej charakterystyczną cechą jest skłonność do manipulowania otoczeniem i  niski poziom empatii. Świetnie funkcjonują w  świecie zastraszania, koterii i  intryg. Umieją przyciągnąć do siebie ludzi ze względu na posiadaną władzę, lecz nie można przy nich czuć się bezpiecznie. Jeżeli jest to możliwe to używają przemocy. Trzeci typ oprawców mobbingowych to oprawcy obsesyjno-kompulsywni. Zazwyczaj są wewnętrznie zagubieni, nie umieją przewidywać skutków swoich decyzji i zachowań. Charakteryzują się niepewnością i niskim poczuciem wewnętrznej kultury. Z  tej racji dla ukrycia wspomnianych braków stosują wielką potrzebę kontroli otoczenia, lecz nie potrafią wyzbyć się schematyzmu działania. Są mało kreatywni, a ich skuteczność ograniczona jest do minimum. Zazwyczaj są niekompetentni, a jeśli udowodni się im niekompetencję i brak uczciwości to wpadają w depresję i nadużywają środków psychoaktywnych, najczęściej narkotyków i  alkoholu. W  stanie desperacji pękają i rujnują wspólnotę pracowniczą22. Ibidem, s. 290. Słownik wyrazów Obcych PWN, wyd. I nowe, Warszawa 1995, s. 756. 22 Pospiszyl I., Patologie społeczne…, op. cit., s. 290–291. 20 21

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Również specyficzne cechy osobnicze ofiary sprzyjają sytuacji, w  której dochodzi do mobbingu. Wśród ofiar mobbingu badacze tego zjawiska wyróżnili tak zwane „grupy wysokiego ryzyka”, czyli osoby szczególnie narażone na nękanie przez mobberów.23 Wyodrębniono 5 głównych grup „wysokiego ryzyka”: • osoby introwertyczne, izolujące się od otoczenia, samotne, o niskich kwalifikacjach, ulegle; • osoby młode, bardzo dobrze wykształcone, biegle posługujące się językami obcymi i wykorzystujące najnowsze technologie informatyczne. Takie osoby postrzegane są przez współpracowników i  przełożonych jako poważne zagrożenie. Każdy ma już w firmie swoją pozycję i boi się, że może ją utracić; • osoby starsze, względem których grupa i  przełożeni stosują mobbing w celu przyspieszenia u tych osób podjęcia decyzji o przejściu na emeryturę; • osoby w sposób szczególny wyróżniające się, kolorem skóry, stylem ubioru, orientacja seksualną oraz kobiety w ciąży, rozwiedzione czy samotne matki; • osoby zbytnio angażujące się w wykonywane zadania, podnoszące grupie poprzeczkę. Ofiara idealna to „osoba refleksyjna, która ma tendencje do roztrząsania problemów. Zazwyczaj bierze na siebie dużo obowiązków, jest uczynna i  uporządkowana. Zaatakowana robi więcej, lepiej, obwinia się. Przypisuje sobie odpowiedzialność za rzeczy, których w rzeczywistości nie dało się uniknąć albo są efektem manipulacji, czym daje agresorowi pretekst do częstych uwag. Powtarzające się negatywne komentarze, samooskarżenia, 23 Wawrzyniak J. (red.), Socjologiczne i psychopedagogiczne aspekty przemocy, wyd. Wyższej Szkoły Humanistyczno-Ekonomicznej w Łodzi 2007, s. 74

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nieświadomość, że dochodzi do nadużycia, doprowadzają ją do paraliżu psychicznego i może skończyć się depresją”24. Zjawisku terroru psychicznego w  środowisku pracy sprzyja również bezrobocie, szczególnie gdy jest wysokie, a gospodarka opiera się o rynek pracodawcy. Pracownik ze strachu przed bezrobociem, godzi się na wykonywanie zadań nieadekwatnych do zajmowanego stanowiska i posiadanej wiedzy, na pracę w warunkach zagrażających zdrowiu i życiu oraz na słowne szykanowanie w miejscu pracy. Współczesne środowisko pracy wiąże się również z postępującą indywidualizacją. Jak zauważa M. F. Hirigoyen: Dzisiaj mniej jest konfliktów społecznych, stłumiono je w zarodku, więcej jednak indywidualnego cierpienia: stresów, przemęczenia, lęków, depresji, molestowania moralnego. Każdy cierpi w odosobnieniu, nie mogąc podzielić się swoimi trudnościami z solidarną grupą. Pracownicy nie maja już poczucia przynależności do grupy zawodowej, która mogłaby umożliwić zbiorowe szukanie uznania swoich praw25.

Determinanty mobbingu maja swoje źródło w  osobowości ofiary, w  charakterze prześladowcy, ale również w  słabej kulturze organizacji. Niewątpliwie złe zarządzanie przedsiębiorstwem może być doskonałym środowiskiem dla rozwoju procederu mobbingowania. Pracownicy kompetentni demaskujący nieprawidłowości i  jawnie okazujący niezadowolenie stają się potencjalnymi obiektami ataków. Złe zarządzanie przekłada się na źle pojmowaną dyscyplinę, którą kojarzy się wówczas jedynie 24 Grabowska B., Psychoterror w pracy. Jak zapobiegać i sobie radzić z mobbingiem, Wyd. Wielbłąd, Gdańsk 2003, s. 129. 25 Hirygoyen M. F., Molestowanie w pracy, op. cit., s. 20–21.

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ze ślepym poddaństwem26. Chodzi o  to, że „aby decyzja pracy i współpracy – jak pisał ks. Józef Tischner – mogła być decyzją autentyczną musi być dopełniona w otwartej przestrzeni prawdy. Decyzja w ciemności jest zawsze decyzją pod przymusem. Jest lękiem i niepewnością. Warunkiem niepodległości pracy jest więc niepodległość prawdy – życie wolne od iluzji”27. M. Łoboda wymienia siedem stresorów w organizacji, z których wystąpienie czterech niżej wymienionych może prowadzić do zaistnienia mobbingu28. Są to: • stresory związane z relacjami interpersonalnymi charakteryzującymi się brakiem zaufania, wzajemna niechęcią i obojętnością występującą w grupie pracowniczej oraz nieodpowiedni i nieefektywny styl kierowania; • czynniki stresogenne związane z funkcjonowaniem jednostki jako elementu organizacji, przejawiającej się w izolowaniu, pomijaniu, niedocenianiu, czy braku możliwości wyrażania swojej opinii; • stresory związane głównie z  brakiem poczucia stałości zatrudnienia; • złe fizyczne warunki pracy, wynikające z  nieprzestrzegania zasad bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy29. Mobbing łatwo odróżnić od innych negatywnych dla pracownika działań w  organizacji, gdyż proces ten posiada specyficzną cechę: stawiane pracownikowi zarzuty nie maja odniesienia 26 Marciniak J., Mobbing, dyskryminacja, molestowanie – zasady przeciwdziałania, Warszawa 2011, s. 68. 27 Ibidem, s. 70. 28 Łoboda M., Czynniki stresogenne w organizacji, [w:] Stres w pracy zawodowej, Wydawnictwo KUL, Lublin 1990, s. 93. 29 Ibidem, s. 94.

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w rzeczywistości, przyczyny nękania pracownika nie maja racjonalnego uzasadnienia. Za sprawą podstępnej metody polegającej na dyskredytacji, ofiara traci stopniowo wiarę w siebie, a czasem nawet jest tak zagubiona, że może przyznać swojemu agresorowi rację. (…) W ten sposób destrukcja odbywa się w sposób niezwykle subtelny, aż do momentu, gdy ofiara sama zacznie poczuwać się do winy”30. Rodzaje i przebieg mobbingu Na podstawie badań Meschkutat i inni stwierdzili, że prześladowcami byli31: • w 38% przypadków wyłącznie przełożeni, • w 13% przełożeni i koledzy, • w 22% tylko jeden kolega, • w 20% grupa kolegów, • w 2% tylko podlegli pracownicy. W zależności od tego, kto jest prześladowcą, a kto prześladowanym określono następujące płaszczyzny mobbingu: • pionowy (wertykalny) – zstępujący występuje wtedy, gdy mobberem jest przełożony, a ofiarą podwładny, oraz wstępujący gdy następuje odwrócenie ról i to pracodawca staje się ofiarą mobbingu. Jest to jednak bardzo rzadka sytuacja. Pracodawca, który jest prześladowany, upokarzany przez swoich pracowników nie jest silnym przywódcą, nie ma umiejętności

Hirygoyen M. F., Molestowanie w pracy, op. cit., s. 72. Poradnik dla osób poszukujących pracy, Wojewódzki Urząd Pracy, Łódź 2010, s. 23. 30 31

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zarządzania ludźmi i dlatego zwykle ulega wszelkim ich wpływom, działaniom32; • poziomy (równoległy) występuje na jednej płaszczyźnie np. pracownik wobec pracownika. Polega na podejmowaniu działań głównie przez współpracowników wobec jednej osoby. Często jest to osoba płci przeciwnej i  zwykle to grupa mężczyzn szykanuje kobiety. W  tym kontekście ten rodzaj mobbingu może mieć podstawy molestowania seksualnego33; • mieszany – polega on na współpracy przełożonych z pracownikami w  celu wywierania presji psychicznej na wybranej ofierze34. Mobbing możemy również podzielić na stosowany czynnie jak i biernie. Mobbing czynny to obarczanie zbyt dużą odpowiedzialnością pracownika przy jednoczesnym ograniczeniu mu możliwości podejmowania decyzji, co powoduje poczucie zagrożenia, natomiast mobbing bierny to powtarzające się lekceważenie pracownika, nie wydawanie mu żadnych poleceń, wręcz niezauważanie go”35. T. Wyka i C. Szmidt w procesie mobbingu wyróżniają trzy rodzaje sytuacji: • Jeden mobber / jeden obiekt mobbingu – sytuacja ta przypomina pojedynek, w którym jedna ze stron, ta, która ma znaczna przewagę, zamierza użyć tej przewagi wobec wybranego 32 Szewczyk H. Mobbing w  stosunkach pracy. Zagadnienia prawne, wyd. Naukowe, Warszawa 2012, s. 24. 33 Lubrańska A., Psychologia pracy. Podstawowe pojęcia i  zagadnienia, Warszawa 2008, s. 32–33 34 Naszydłowska S., Mobbing – próba zdefiniowania pojęcia, [w:] Ius Novum 3/2009, Warszawa 2009, s. 96. 35 Romer M. T., Mobbing i jego konsekwencje, Prawo Pracy 12/2005, http:// zzpr.org.pl/lublin/publikacje/mobbing.pdf (07.01.2016).

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obiektu. Istotą tego procesu jest wyizolowanie danej osoby z otoczenia społecznego (poprzez dokonywanie ataków mobbingu bez świadków). Negatywnym skutkiem tej sytuacji jest bezkarność i ograniczenie liczby dowodów przeciwko mobberowi. • Jeden mobber / kilka obiektów mobbingu – ta sytuacja zdarza się rzadziej, lecz także występuje w  praktyce. Mobber podporządkowuje sobie cały kierowany zespół, bo nad nim przewagę. • Kilku mobberów / jeden obiekt mobbingu – zdarza się, gdy strona słabsza psychicznie jest otoczona przez wielu mobberów. Mobberzy wykorzystują każdą sytuację aby poniżyć, upokorzyć i pokazać osobę mobbingowaną jako tą, która nic nie umie, nie potrafi i nie nadaje się do ich grona pracowników36. • • •



Heinz Leymann wyróżnia cztery fazy mobbingu: Powstanie konfliktu – w tej fazie ofiara jeszcze nie ma świadomości z zagrożenia dla jej pozycji w środowisku pracy. Eskalacja konfliktu – konflikt wzbudza typowe działania mobbingowe, a ofiara w konflikcie z prześladowcą lub grupa prześladowców nie otrzymuje żadnego wsparcia. W  fazie trzeciej ofiara staje się „kozłem ofiarnym”. Prześladowany zaczyna być przez otoczenie postrzegany jako źródło zlej atmosfery w miejscu pracy, przyczyną destabilizacji, a wszelkie próby obrony potęgują napięcie. Ostatnia faza to kulminacja procesu mobbingu. Dla ofiary nie ma już drogi powrotnej do pozycji zajmowanej przez nią przed konfliktem. Stan nękanego pracownika pogarsza się

36 Wyka T., Szmidt C., Wieloaspektowość mobbingu w  stosunkach pracy, wyd. Poltext, Warszawa 2012, s. 123.

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w takim stopniu, że dalsze zatrudnienie w tym miejscu pracy jest niemożliwe. W literaturze naukowej obok 4 etapowego procesu mobbingu opisanego przez Leymann’a występuje podział na 3 fazy: • fazę wczesną odpowiadającą pierwszemu i drugiemu etapowi z podziału Leymann’a; • faza utrwalonego mobbingu oraz; • faza zaawansowana. Skutki mobbingu Mobbing pociąga za sobą wiele niepożądanych skutków, można je rozpatrywać w skali społecznej, organizacyjnej i indywidualnej. Mobbing działa destrukcyjnie na całe społeczeństwo. Przejawia się wzrostem napięć w  stosunkach międzyludzkich. Następuje powszechne niezadowolenie z sytuacji w pracy oraz wzrost agresji wobec władzy, która nie radzi sobie z eliminacją problemu. Pojawia się zwiększone zapotrzebowanie na programy prozdrowotne. Wzrastają koszty świadczeń zdrowotnych i  ubezpieczeń społecznych. Pogarsza się sytuacja budżetu państwa wywołana koniecznością wypłat rent i  wcześniejszych emerytur dla osób, które odeszły z pracy, bo utraciły zdrowie z powodu prześladowania37. Do najczęstszych skutków mobbingu, które odczuwają pracodawcy, należą: • konsekwencje finansowe – koszty spraw sądowych; 37 Babik M., Mobbing: prześladowanie psychiczne w  miejscu pracy, [w:] Badania problemów społecznych, tom VI, Kwaśniewski J. (red.), Warszawa 2003, s. 208.

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• zachwianie wizerunku firmy – w takim przedsiębiorstwie ludzie nie chcą szukać zatrudnienia, odchodzą klienci i kontrahenci; • wzrost fluktuacji kadr – przedsiębiorstwo musi ponieść koszty związane z rekrutacją i szkoleniem nowych pracowników38. Największe skutki działania mobbingu odczuwane są w skali indywidualnej. To prześladowany i jego najbliższa rodzina ponoszą największe koszty terroru psychicznego w środowisku pracy. Skutkiem mobbingu jest utrata motywacji do pracy. Jest to wynikiem wpływu tego negatywnego procesu na uniwersalne opisane przez dr Steven’a Reiss w Reiss Motivation Profile motywatory. Szczególnie spośród 16 najbardziej znanych motywatorów takich jak: 1. Władza – informuje, co jest ważniejsze: przywództwo i odpowiedzialność, czy świadczenie usług i wykonywanie zadań. 2. Niezależność – informuje, w jaki sposób kształtujemy swoje relacje z innymi ludźmi oraz na ile potrzebujemy psychicznej bliskości z innymi. 3. Ciekawość – informuje, jakie znaczenie ma wiedza i w jakim celu ją zdobywamy. 4. Uznanie – informuje przez „kogo” lub przez „co” budujemy swój pozytywny wizerunek. 5. Porządek – informuje, jaka role odgrywają w życiu uporządkowane otoczenie i klarowne zasady. 6. Gromadzenie – informuje, jakie znaczenie ma posiadanie rzeczy i otaczanie się nimi. 7. Honor – informuje o stosunku do pryncypiów. 38 Ibidem, s. 209

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8. Idealizm – informuje, jakie znaczenie mają działania pro bono oraz angażowanie się w sprawy społeczne. 9. Kontakty społeczne – informuje, jak ważne są częste kontakty z innymi ludźmi. 10. Rodzina – informuje, jakie znaczenie ma sprawowanie opieki nad najbliższymi i własnymi dziećmi oraz troska o nich. 11. Status – informuje o  potrzebie przynależności do elitarnej grupy. 12. Rewanż – informuje, co jest w  życiu ważniejsze: harmonia czy konkurowanie z innymi. 13. Piękno – informuje, jakie znaczenie maja estetyka i zmysłowość. 14. Jedzenie – informuje, jaki wpływ ma jedzenie na zadowolenie z życia. 15. Aktywność fizyczna – informuje, w  jakim zakresie ruch wpływa na zadowolenie z życia. 16. Spokój – informuje o znaczeniu stabilizacji emocjonalnej. Przemoc psychiczna w miejscu pracy uderza w co najmniej 6 spośród tych 16 wymienionych. Szczególnemu zaniżeniu jako motywatory u ofiary podlegają takie wartości jak: kontakty społeczne, status, uznanie, niezależność, ale również porządek i rewanż. Meschkutat i inni uważają, że mobbing w następujący sposób oddziałuje na zachowanie i efektywność ofiary (tabela 1).

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Tabela 1. Oddziaływanie na zachowanie i efektywność ofiar Oddziaływanie Byłem pozbawiony motywacji Stałem się bardzo smutny Stałem się nerwowy Byłem zdezorientowany i niepewny Wycofałem się Czułem się bezsilny Momentalnie zwolniłem się z pracy Dochodziło u mnie do blokady myślenia i działania Wątpiłem w swoje umiejętności Stałem się lękliwy (miałem stany lękowe) Byłem zdekoncentrowany w pracy Byłem pobudzony lub agresywny Popełniałem coraz więcej błędów Czułem się winny lub odpowiedzialny Nie odczuwałem żadnych skutków

W procentach 71,9 67,9 60,9 60,0 58,9 57,7 57,3 57,0 54,3 53,2 51,5 41,2 33,5 25,0 1,3

Źródło: Litzke S. M., Schuh H., Sters, mobbing i wypalenie zawodowe, Gdańsk 2007, s. 152

Indywidualne skutki mobbingu, można także zaobserwować po samym wyglądzie ofiary. Takimi objawami są m.in. gwałtowny spadek lub wzrost wagi ciała, choroby układu krążenia oraz nieprawidłowa praca serca, przewlekłe bóle migrenowe, dolegliwości trawienne np. wrzody dwunastnicy.39 Skutki psychiczne takie jak trudności w przyswajaniu nowych treści, zakłócona koncentracja, stany zwątpienia, załamania nerwowe, lęki, psychozy, depresje, a nawet próby samobójcze składają się na schorzenia opisywane przez psychiatrów jako potraumatyczne stany lękowe (PTSD - posttraumatic stress disorder) porównywane przez specjalistów do stanu, jaki opisywano u osób, które prze39

Marciniak J., Mobbing…, op. cit., s. 90.

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szły doświadczenie obozu koncentracyjnego i  obecnie głównie z powodu wytwarzania się takich samych objawów u ofiar przemocy w pracy, osoby mobbingowane są zaliczane do grupy pacjentów, ofiar psychicznego terroru40. U ofiar mobbingu powstaje bariera psychologiczna powodująca nieumiejętność radzenia sobie w  środowisku pracy, a  tym samym niemożność podjęcia pracy. Przełamanie jej jest procesem długotrwałym i  trudnym, ponieważ mechanizm działań mobbingowych powoduje, że osoba prześladowana przystosowuje się do roli ofiary i przestaje się bronić. Przeżyta przemoc, mimo leczenia i rehabilitacji, zawsze pozostawia jakieś ślady w  psychice człowieka, a  w  niektórych przypadkach głębokie, trwałe urazy41. Zostaje zakłócone funkcjonowanie rodziny. Przenoszone na środowisko rodzinne sytuacje z pracy powodują kryzys w utrzymaniu prawidłowych relacji, stwarzając poczucie bezsilności i  niezaradność wobec problemów, z  którymi boryka się jeden z jej członków. W sytuacji, gdy osoba mobbingowana traci pracę, a  jest jedynym żywicielem rodziny, zagrożony jest byt całej rodziny. Często następuje ucieczka w  alkoholizm, narkomanię i lekomanie. Dochodzi do różnych konfliktów w trakcie, których następują fakty przemocy domowej, co w  dalszej konsekwencji prowadzi do jej rozpadu42. Według Światowej Organizacji Zdrowia PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) prowadzi do trwałego wykluczenia z  rynku pracy. 40 Zych M., Mobbing w polskim prawie pracy, Wydawnictwo Beck, War­ szawa 2007, s. 56. 41 Ibidem, s. 58. 42 Łoboda M., Czynniki…, op. cit., s. 94.

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Podsumowanie Badania przeprowadzone Badania przeprowadzane w  ostatnich latach przez Europejską Fundację Poprawy Warunków Życia i Pracy i Międzynarodową Organizację Pracy ukazują zakres i  skalę mobbingu w  krajach UE (badania nie dotyczyły krajów, które do UE weszły 1 maja 2004 roku)43. Odsetek pracowników doświadczających przemocy w miejscu pracy kształtował się następująco: Finlandia – 15% Luksemburg – 7% Holandia – 14% Niemcy – 7% Wielka Brytania – 14% Austria – 6% Szwecja – 12% Grecja – 5% Belgia – 11% Hiszpania – 5% Francja – 10% Portugalia – 4% Irlandia – 10% Włochy – 4% Dania – 8% Średnio 9% pracowników jest poddawanych działaniom mobbingowym w  krajach UE (mobbing dotyka 10% kobiet i  7% mężczyzn pracujących zawodowo). Największe zagrożenie mobbingiem występuje w krajach Europy północnej: Finlandii, Holandii, Wielkiej Brytanii, a najniższe w krajach śródziemnomorskich. Ze względu na sektory gospodarki mobbing w krajach UE kształtuje się następująco: • administracja publiczna i służby mundurowe – 14%, • edukacja, służba zdrowia – 12%, 43 Kłos, op. cit., s. 4.; Di Martino, Hoel, Cooper, op. cit., s. 42; zob. też: P. Paoli, D. Merllié, Second European survey on working conditions, 1995, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Workin Conditions, Luxembourg 1996; Paoli, Merllié, Third European survey on working conditions, 2000.

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• • • • • • •

hotelarstwo, gastronomia – 12%, transport, komunikacja – 12%, handel (hurtowy i detaliczny) – 9%, nieruchomości – 7%, przemysł wytwórczy, górnictwo – 6%, budownictwo – 5%, usługi finansowe – 5%. Z  przedstawionego zestawienia wynika, że wyższe ryzyko mobbingu występuje w  sektorze publicznym niż prywatnym. Trudno podać przyczyny takiego stanu rzeczy. Badacze uważają, że tendencja ta związana jest z mniejszymi możliwościami zmiany pracy osób zatrudnionych w sektorze publicznym niż prywatnym44. Wielopłaszczyznowość mobbingu jest znacząca. Wraz z rozwojem techniki, nauki i innych dziedzin, mobbing jako patologiczne zjawisko ewaluował, przyjmując większe znaczenie negatywnego wpływu na jednostkę społeczną. Można zatem uznać, że mobbing stał się bezsensownym, szkodliwym oraz niesprecyzowanym procesem dezorganizującym pracę. W istocie powyższych rozważań, możemy mówić, że zjawisko mobbingu jest procesem rozległym, na który składa się wiele zewnętrznych czynników.45 Ze zjawiskiem mobbingu możemy mieć do czynienia wszędzie tam, gdzie przez dłuższy czas ludzie przebywają ze sobą w  grupie: w  środowisku pracy, w  wojsku, w  szkole, na wyższej uczelni, w rodzinie, a nawet w przedszkolu. 44 D. Zapf, S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, M. Vartia, Empirical Findings on Bullying in the Workplace, [w:] Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace. International perspectives in research and practice, dz. cyt., s. 37. 45 Jędrejek G., op. cit., s. 91.

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Jako społeczeństwo, ale również jako jednostka w obliczu narastającej fali mobbingu nie jesteśmy bezbronni. W Polsce, Konstytucja Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej z 2 kwietnia 1997 roku zawiera szereg zapisów chroniących osoby przed mobbingiem. Między innymi są tam: zakaz poniżającego traktowania, prawo do nienaruszalnej godności, równości wobec prawa, równego traktowania, ochrony prawnej, czci i dobrego imienia. Recepta na mobbing oprócz karania mobberów można uznać promowanie nowej kultury pracy w przedsiębiorstwach. Kultura ta wyraża się w idei partycypacji w przedsiębiorstwie opartej – jak powie Benedykt XVI – na prawdzie i ukazywanej przez nią miłości których nie da się „produkować, można je tylko przejąć”46.

46

Benedykt XVI, Encyklika Caritas in veritate, nr 52.

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