improving students' speaking ability through communication games

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Jun 28, 2011 ... Siswa melalui Metode Permainan Komunikasi (Penelitian Tindakan Kelas ... ini adalah 45 siswa kelas VII SMP YMJ Ciputat pada tahun ajaran ...

IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY THROUGH COMMUNICATION GAMES (A Classroom Action Research in the Seventh Grade Students of YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Junior High School, Ciputat)

A “Skripsi” Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher’s Training in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata 1 (S. Pd) in English Language Education

By:

Musripatul Khoiriyah 106014000409 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA 2011

IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY THROUGH COMMUNICATION GAMES (A Classroom Action Research in the Seventh Grade Junior High School of SMP YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Ciputat)

A “Skripsi” Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher’s Training in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata 1 (S. Pd) in English Language Education

By: MUSRIPATUL KHOIRIYAH 106014000409

Approved by the Advisor

Drs. Sunardi Kartowisastro, Dipl Ed. NIP. 19440719 196510 2 001

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA 2011

ENDORSEMENT SHEET The Examination Committee of the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training certifies that the Paper entitled, “Improving Students’ Speaking Ability Through Communication Games” (A Classroom Action Research in the Seventh Grade of YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Junior High School Ciputat) written by Musrifatul Khairiyah, student’s registration number : 106014000409, was examined by the Committee on Wednesday June 28th, 2011 and was declared to have passed and, therefore, fulfilled one of the requirements for the academic title of S.Pd. (S. Pd) in English Language Education at The Department of English Education. Jakarta, 29 June 2011 EXAMINATION COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN

: Drs. Syauki M.Pd. NIP. 19641212 199103 1 002

(__________________)

SECRETARY : Neneng Sunengsih, S.Pd. NIP. 19730625 199903 2 001

(__________________)

EXAMINERS : 1. Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd NIP.

(__________________)

2. Dr. M. Farkhan, M.Pd NIP. 19650919 200003 1 002

(__________________)

Acknowledged by: Dean of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training Faculty

Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, MA. NIP. 19571005 198703 1 003

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ABSTRACT Musrifatul Khairiyah, (106014000409). Improving Students’ Speaking Ability through Communication Games (A Classroom Action Research in the Seventh Grade Students of YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Juniuor High School, Ciputat), “Skripsi”, Department of English Education, the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, 2011. This study was designed to improve the students’ speaking ability by using communication games. The objectives of the study was to find out whether communication games can improve students’ speaking ability and how communication games improve students’ speaking ability in the seventh grade students’ of YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Junior High School Ciputat. The method used in this study was Classroom Action Research (CAR). This study was applied by collaborative classroom action research. The researcher acted as the teacher whiles the English teacher of SMP YMJ Ciputat as an observer and collaborator. This study was done based on Kurt Lewin’s model with the following procedures: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. It was carried out in two cycles. Each cycle consisted of three meetings. The data of the study were gathered through the following instruments– interview, observation notes, questionnaire and test. The subjects of this study were 45 students’ seventh grade of SMP YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Junior High School Ciputat of the 2010/2011 academic year. The result of this study showed using communication games in teaching speaking was very effective to help the students improve their speaking ability. Most of the students gradually gained good scores at the end of each cycle. The score of Minimum Mastery Criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) of English lesson was 65 (sixty seven). The students’ mean score in pretest was 50.76, in the posttest I was 61.1 and in the posttest II was 70.84. On the other hand, the students who passed KKM were 9 students or 20% in the pretest, whereas in the posttest I there were 19 students or 42.2%, and in the posttest II there were 37 students or 82.2%, so the criteria of success was achieved. Then, from the result of questionnaire, it showed that 76.45% students were motivated during the implemented Communication games in learning Speaking. Moreover, the results of observation notes and interview showed that the students participated enthusiastically and communicatively. The class condition during teaching learning process was also good. In addition there was a positive response from the students and the English teacher about implementing the action. In conclusion Communication games can improve students’ speaking ability and it also can increase students’ motivation and participation. Key words: Speaking Skill, Communication Games

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ABSTRACT Musripatul Khoiriyah, (106014000409). Meningkatkan Kemampuan Berbicara Siswa melalui Metode Permainan Komunikasi (Penelitian Tindakan Kelas di kelas VII SMP YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Ciputat), Skripsi, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. Penelitian ini dirancang untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara siswa dengan menggunakan metode permainan komunikasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah metode permainan komunikasi dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara siswa dan bagaimana metode permainan komunikasi meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara siswa kelas VII di SMP YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Ciputat. Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK). Penelitian ini diterapkan dengan menggunakan penelitian tindakan kelas yang bersifat kolaboratif. Penulis berperan sebagai pengajar sedangkan guru bahasa Inggris di SMP YMJ sebagai pengamat dan kolaborator. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan berdasarkan model Kurt Lewin dengan diikuti prosedur-prosedur yaitu, perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengamatan, dan refleksi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakn sebanyak dua siklus, tiap siklus terdiri dari tiga pertemuan. Data penelitian dikumpulkan melalui beberapa instrumen yaitu wawancara, catatan pengamatan, angket, dan hasil tes yang diberikan pada siswa. Subyek penelitian ini adalah 45 siswa kelas VII SMP YMJ Ciputat pada tahun ajaran 2010/2011. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa permainan komunikasi dalam mengajar bahasa inggris sangat efektif untuk membantu siswa dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara. Kebanyakan siswa mendapatkan nilai yang bagus secara bertahap pada akhir siklus. Nilai kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) dalam pelajaran bahasa inggris adalah 65. Nilai rata-rata pada pretest adalah 50.76, pada posttest I adalah 61.1 dan pada posttest II adalah 70.84. Dengan kata lain, siswa yang lulus KKM adalah, 9 siswa atau 20% siswa pada pretest, sedangkan dalam posttest I sebanayk 19 siswa atau 42.2%, dan di posttest II sebanyak 37 siswa atau 82.2, dengan demikian kriteria keberhasilan telah dicapai. Kemudian dari data hasil angket diketahui bahwa 76.45% siswa termotivasi selama penerapan metode permainan komunikasi dalam belajar berbicara bahasa inggris. Lebih dari itu, hasil dari catatan pengamatan dan wawancara menunjukan bahwa siswa berpartisipasi dengan antusias dan komunikatif. Kondisi kelas selama kegiatan belajar mengajar tergolong baik. Selain itu ada tanggapan positif dari siswa dan guru bahasa inggris mengenai penerapan tindakan. Kesimpulannya, permainan komunikasi dapat meningkatkan kemampuan siswa dalam berbicara serta dapat meningkatkan motivasi dan partsipasi mereka. Kata Kunci: Kemampuan Berbicara, Permainan Komunikasi.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

All praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, who has given the writer His Mercies, Blesses and permission to accomplish this research paper “Skripsi”. Peace and salutation be upon the last prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, his friends and his followers. This research paper is presented to the Department of English Education, the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers Training State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Strata 1 (Bachelor of Art) in English Language Education. The writer would like to express her special great honor and deepest gratitude to her beloved parents, her mother (Hj. Gogoy Lugoyah, S. Ag) and her father, (Bpk H. Encep Saepullah, S. Ag) for their love which always warmed her heart, then for their help, support, motivation and moral encouragement to finish her study. Next, the writer would like to express her great gratitude and appreciation to her advisor, Drs. H. Sunardi Kartowisastro, Dipl Ed. for his valuable guidance, motivation, attention, correction and suggestion for the completion of this research paper. The writer would also like to express her gratitude to: 1. All lecturers in English Education Department who have taught the writer useful knowledge and skills. 2. Drs. Syauki, M. Pd. The head of English Education Department. 3. Neneng Sunengsih, S.Pd. The Secretary of English Education Department. 4. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, M.A. The Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training. 5. Drs. Trisno Yulianto, M. Pd. The headmaster of SMP YMJ Ciputat.

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6. Misbahuddin, S. Pd. The English Teacher of SMP YMJ and all of his students in the eleventh grade of Yunior High School at SMP YMJ Ciputat. 7. Irfan Prabudiansyah, M.Sc. Her beloved brother. Riza Tazkiyah and Wilda Sholihaturrabbi’ah. Her beloved sisters. And her friends in Department of English Education, especially: Syifa, Mumut, Fifi, Nur, Rina, Ulfa, Nia, T’ Eni, Ina, Dila, Evan, Ufi. Thanks for the kindness, attentions, and cheerfulness. May Allah bless all of them. The writer realizes that this paper is far from being perfect. Therefore, the writer would highly welcome any suggestions or critiques to make this paper better. Then, the writer hopes that this paper will give advantages for all.

Jakarta, 28 June 2011

The Writer

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ENDORSEMENT SHEET ...........................................................................

i

ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................

ii

ABSTRAK ..................................................................................................... iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................. vi LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................... ix LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................

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LIST OF APPENDICES ... ........................................................................... xi

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION A. The Background of the Study .........................................

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B. The Problem of the Study ................................................ 5 C. The Objective of the Study ............................................... 5 D. The Significance of the Study........................................... 5 E. Scope of the Study .......................................................... 6 F. The Definition of Key Terms .......................................... 6

CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Speaking ......................................................................... 7 1. The Understanding of Speaking… ............................. 7 2. The Elements of Speaking ....................................... 10 3. The Function of the Speaking .................................. 11 4. The purpose of Teaching Speaking .......................... 13 5. Kinds of Speaking Activities .................................... 16 B. Communication Games .................................................. 18 1. The Understanding of Communication Games ........ 18 2. The Significance of Communication Games............. 20 3. Types of Communication Games ............................ 22

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C. Teaching Speaking by using Communication Games …. 25

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. The Research Design...................................................... 27 B. The Research Setting and Subject .................................. 30 C. Research Procedure ........................................................ 30 1. Planning the Action .................................................. 31 2. Implementing the Action .......................................... 33 3. Observing the Action ............................................... 34 4. Reflecting the Action .............................................. 34 D. Data and Data Sources .................................................. 37 E. Instruments and Technique of Data Collection .............. 37 F. Technique of Data Analysis .......................................... 40

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS A. Findings before Implementing the CAR ......................... 43 1. The Result of Pre Observation.................................. 44 2. The Result of Pre Interview ..................................... 44 3. The Result of Pre Questionnaire ............................... 46 4. The Result of Pre Test .............................................. 48 B. Findings during Implementing the CAR ........................ 49 1. First Cycle ................................................................ 49 a. Planning ............................................................. 49 b. Acting ................................................................ 49 c. Observing........................................................... 52 d. Reflecting........................................................... 53 2. Second Cycle .......................................................... 54 a. Planning ............................................................. 54 b. Acting ................................................................ 55 c. Observing........................................................... 58 d. Reflecting........................................................... 59

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C. Findings after Implementing CAR.................................. 60 1. The Result of Post Observation ................................. 60 2. The Result of Post Interview ..................................... 60 3. The Result of Post Questionnaire .............................. 61 4. The Result of Post Test ............................................. 63 a. The Result of Post Test I ...................................... 65 b. The Result of Post Test I ...................................... 65

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion .................................................................... 67 B. Suggestion ..................................................................... 68

BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................... 70 APPENDICES ............................................................................................... 74

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LIST OF TABLES Page Table 3.1

The Schedule of the Implementing Communication Games in Teaching Speaking ...................................................................... 33

Table 3.2

Analytic Scoring Rubric of Speaking Skill .................................. 39

Table 4.1

The Result of Pre Questionnaire .................................................. 46

Table 4.2

The Result of Post Questionnaire ................................................ 61

Table 4.3

The Result of Students’ Speaking Score ...................................... 64

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LIST OF FIGURES

Page Figure 3.1

Classroom Action Research Design .......................................... 29

Figure 3.2

Problem solving cycle activities of CAR ................................... 35

Figure 3.3

Research Procedure of CAR ...................................................... 36

Figure 4.1

The Average of the Students’ Speaking Improvement ............... 66

Figure 4.2

The Percentage of the Students’ Speaking Improvement............ 66

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Page Appendix 1

Schedule of the Classroom Action Research ............................ 74

Appendix 2

Interview for the English Teacher in the Preliminary Study...... 75

Appendix 3

Interview for the English Teacher in the last Classroom Action Research ....................................................................... 78

Appendix 4

Questionnaire for the Students in the Preliminary Study........... 79

Appendix 5

Questionnaire for Students in the Last Classroom Action Research ....................................................................... 81

Appendix 6

Observation Note in the Preliminary Study .............................. 84

Appendix 7

Observation Note in the First Cycle ........................................ 85

Appendix 8

Observation Note in the Second Cycle .................................... 87

Appendix 9

Students’ Speaking Scores in the Preliminary Study................. 89

Appendix 10

Students’ Speaking Score in the Second Cycle ......................... 91

Appendix 11

Students’ Speaking Score in the Second Cycle ......................... 93

Appendix 12

Chart Improvement of Students’ Speaking Score ..................... 95

Appendix 13

Lesson Plan of the First Cycle .................................................. 96

Appendix 14

Lesson Plan in the Second Cycle .............................................. 110

Appendix 15

The Instrument of Pretest ......................................................... 122

Appendix 16

The Instrument of Posttest 1..................................................... 123

Appendix 17

The Instrument of Posttest 2..................................................... 126

Appendix 18

The Rating Scale of Speaking Test ........................................... 128

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter elaborates the background of the study, the problem of the study, the objective of the study, the significance of the study, the scope of the study, the definition of key terms, and the organization of the study.

A. The Background of Study Nowadays, with the economic and social development, English plays a vital role globally. It seems intuitively the most important, which has become the most prominent language in the world. As an International language, most countries in the world use English as medium of communication in entire aspects of life. It is necessary for those who want to make a good communication and good relationship with other countries. Therefore, English is taught in every institution in the world. English is quite different from other subjects. English is a language. The main purpose of learning language is to communicate with others. In Indonesia, the awareness of mastering English as the first foreign language is quite high. It also has been introduced to educational institutions from lowest (kindergarten) up to highest level of education (university). By mastering English, the learners can follow development in countries all over the world. In mastering the language, they have to learn the language by practicing and using it in their daily activities. As stated by Lee “A language 1

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is learnt by using it, and this means using it in situation and communicatively.” 1 Basically, there are four language skills that one must possess in learning English; listening, speaking, reading and writing skill. Speaking and writing, which are produced by learners, are considered to be productive skills, while listening and reading are the skills which lead the learner to get to comprehend the language are considered as receptive skills. As stated by Harmer that “Speaking and writing are obviously skills and involve some kind of production on the part of the language user. Listening and reading are receptive skills in that the language user is receiving written or spoken language”.2 To make students able to use English for communication, one of the skills that has to be mastered by the students is speaking skill. Furthermore, Indonesia involves English into education curriculum. Consequently, the government revealed the policy that English is the only foreign language which is included into National Examination standard as some special subjects such as Bahasa Indonesia, Science and Mathematics from Junior High School up to Senior High School. The current curriculum now is School-Based Curriculum (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) or what is so called 2006 curriculum. Based on School-Based Curriculum (KTSP) of speaking skill at seventh grade of second semester has two Competence Standard and four Basic Competence. In this study, the writer took one Competence Standard of speaking skill and one basic competence for conducting the research. The Competence Standard of speaking skill is: “to express meaning in the simple short transactional and interpersonal conversation to interact with around environment”. Then, The Basic Competence is: “to express meaning in the simple short transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal conversation by using oral mode accurately, fluently and accepted for interacting with around setting which involves expression: asking and 1

2

W R LEE, Language Teaching and Contests, 2nd Ed, (Oxford University Press, 1980),p.1

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (New York: Longman, 1989), p. 16

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giving opinion, expressing like and dislike, asking for clarification, and responding interpersonally. 3 It becomes the reason why the students have to possess speaking for communicating with each other. But, there were still some difficulties faced by the students in learning speaking. Based on the unstructured interview, observation and questionnaire result during preliminary study at SMP YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah), speaking is the most difficult skill faced by the students such as: First, most of students have difficulties to express their ideas by using English because they lack of vocabulary. Second, they are too shy and afraid to speak English because lack of practicing and afraid of making mistakes in speaking. Third, students mostly use uncorrected pronunciation. Then, they are bored in learning English because the teaching learning speaking activities are done in a monotonous technique. Besides, the teacher seldom creates any instructional media. Consequently, they are passive in teaching learning speaking process. Considering the fact and problems above, the English teachers have to work hard to solve the problems. The teacher should create a good circumstance for students, create the students’ motivation in English speaking, create the interesting teaching technique to improve the quality of students, change teaching methods and develop the learner’s communicative competence in English. So the writer needs to provide students with appropriate techniques for speaking class. Actually, there are many techniques can be applied by the teacher to create communicative atmosphere in the classroom and make their enjoyable of learning English, especially for oral communication activities. In this case, Harmer divides speaking activities into seven categories, they

are:

Reaching

a

consensus,

discussion,

relying

instructions,

communication games, problem solving, talking about yourself, simulation

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Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2006, Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (School Based Curriculum) 2006: Standar Isi SD, SMP dan SMA. Jakarta. (Translated by the Writer)

4 and role play.4 The teacher can choose one of those activities suitable to the material of speaking. The teachers should apply the appropriate teaching technique in order to solve the problem of the students in learning speaking skill, so the writer offers the teacher to use communication games in teaching speaking skill. The teacher can play an English game in class. No doubt, all students like to play games. In addition, an English game is a good way for students to participate. It can reduce students’ boredom and made students’ interested in teaching learning activities. It can also make learning process more enjoyable. McCallum said that games automatically stimulate students’ interest; a properly introduced game can be one of the highest motivating techniques.5 Based on the explanation above the writer is interested in improving students’ speaking ability and in this research she will try to apply communication games as a strategy in teaching Speaking. In this case, the writer will do an action research entitled: “Improving Students’ Speaking Ability through Communication Games (A Classroom Action Research in the Seventh Grade of Junior High School of SMP YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) in 2010/2011 Academic Year)”.

B. The Problem of the Study Problem of this research is stated in the following research question: 1. Can Communication Games improve students’ speaking ability? 2. How does communication Game improve students’ speaking ability?

C. The Objective of the Study 4

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching; New Edition, (New York: Longman, 1991), p. 122. 5

George P. McCallum, 101 Word Games. (New York: Oxford University, 1980), p.ix.

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1. To know whether the communication games can improve students’ speaking ability 2. To know how communication game improves students’ speaking ability

D. The Significance of the Study From the research which the writer performs is expected that it can be useful in terms of: 1. The Students a. To assist students in upgrading their ability to communicate in English. b. To motivate students in order get interesting learning. c. To improve students’ speaking ability, as consequence of their enjoyable learning. 2. The Teacher a. To give the alternative solution in teaching speaking skill. 3. The Writer a. To fulfil one of the requirements of having strata degree from the State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta of English Education Department.

E. The Scope of the Study This research is focused on finding out the students’ improvement in learning English especially in speaking skill by using communication game.

F. The Definitions of Key Terms The purpose of the clarification of key terms is to avoid misunderstanding. The terms to clarify in this study are: 1. Communication Games Communication games is used to make teaching learning process better, attractive, communicative, cooperative, competitive, and more enjoyable especially in improving students speaking skill. In this activity, there is something to be communicated to others or to be found out from others.

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2. Speaking skill Speaking is one of the skills in English language that has to be mastered by students in an English classroom to achieve the language goal of speaking subject. It has to be elaborated for learners in order to can make a good communication and relationship with others. 3. The Classroom Action Research This research method of Classroom Action Research is carried out in a classroom to solve the speaking problem and improve the quality of teaching learning activities in the classroom.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter explains the review of related literature. It elaborates the understanding of speaking, the element of speaking, function of speaking, the kinds of speaking activities, the understanding of games, the types of language games, the significance of games, and describes the teaching learning speaking by using communication games.

A. Speaking 1. The Understanding of Speaking Speaking has an important part in human life. People use their speaking ability to communicate with others through share, express ideas, reveal feelings, exchange of ideas and opinion, and discuss something in order to attain several aims. It was a necessity for someone as a human being in this world. As Philips M. Burden stated “… Speaking is an activity which is done by a person to communicate with others in order to express ideas, feelings as well as opinion to achieve a particular goal. 1 McDonough and Shaw said, “Speaking is a skill used by someone to produce utterance when genuinely communicates may involve expressing ideas and opinions, expressing a wish or desire to do

1

Philips M Brudden, Effective English Teaching, 2nd Edition, (New York: The Bob’s Merril Company, 1995), p. 85.

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something, negotiating and/or solving a particular problem: or establishing and maintaining social relationship and friendship”. 2 Another expert said that speaking is intentional activity; it serves a purpose the speaker wants to realize.3 So speaking is someone’s skill which is produced intently to make an utterance for expressing ideas, expectation, emotions, and pretension to do something. It also can use to solve many problems, exchange different perspective, discuss and negotiate something in order can deliver their aims in private or social relationship. In addition, Nunan defined speaking as “the ability to carry out a conversation in the language.4 A good conversation will occur if people have ability in using good language or good speaking, thus people can add to their understanding towards each other, they encouraged to express their ideas or opinions by their own language. Furthermore, they can respond to each other in some relationship. “Speaking does not only make sound by the speech organs but ideas and emotions. Speaking is the active use of language to express meaning so that other people can make sense of them, therefore, the label of productive use of language can be applied to speaking”.5 Moreover, Woods said that “Speaking effectively depends very much on the speaker’s ability to interact with interlocutor. Successful speaking cannot therefore take place without effective listening skill. Speaker must pay attention to their listener, and

2

Jo McDonough & Christopher Shaw, Material & Method in ELT: A Teacher’s Guide, (Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1993), p. 151. 3

Williem J. M. Levelt, Speaking from Intention to Articulation, (Cambridge: A Bradford Book, 1989),p. 20. 4

David Nunan, Language Teaching Methodology. A textbook for Teacher, (Edinburgh: Longman Pearson Education, 1998), p. 39. 5

Lynne Cameron, Teaching Language to Young Learners, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 40.

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adapt their own responses and questions according to the need of the listener”.6 Communication is a collaborative achievement in which the speakers negotiate meaning in order to achieve the goal. Therefore, the speaker’s communicative success will be partly determined by the skills of the other person.7 In a typical interaction, two or more people talk to each other about things that they are mutually interesting and relevant in the situation. The aim can be to pass the time, amuse each other, share opinions or getting something done, or they can aim to do several of these and other things together.8 Communication will occur between two or more people. They use it for achieving their particular purpose or intention. “When two people are engaged in talking to each other we can be fairly sure that they are doing so for good reasons”.9 The reasons are in these following explanations: a. They want to say something. The speakers make definite decisions to address other people. b. They have some communicative Purpose The speakers want something to happen as a result of what they say. They may want to charm their listener. In this case, they are interested in achieving this communicative purpose, what is the important is the message they wish to convey and the effect they want it to have. c. They select from their language store. Speakers have an infinite capacity to create new sentences. In order to achieve the communicative purpose they will select (from the store of

6

Caroline Woods, Teaching and Assessing Skills in Foreign Language, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 41. 7

David Nunan, Second Language Teaching and Learning, (Boston: Heinle&Heinle Publisher, 1999), p. 236. 8

9

Sari Louma, Assessing Speaking, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 20

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching New Edition, (New York: Longman, 1991), p. 47.

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language process) the language they think is appropriate for this purpose. The writer concludes Speaking as a skill of language. The Language has transactional and interactional function, so it is used not only as a means of communication but also as a means of relating and building up relationship with other people. Therefore, the writer considered speaking as the way of communicating particular issues to other people. It is understood that by speaking people are able to express their feelings, ideas, emotions, thoughts, opinions, and bring into accord of different perspectives, deliver some purpose to the interlocutor, and also shares information to others. Speaking is the skill that the students will be judged upon most in real-life situations. It is an important part of everyday interaction and most often the first impression of a person is based on their ability to speak fluently and comprehensibly. So, the teacher has a responsibility to prepare the students as much as possible to be able to speak in English in the real world outside the classroom and the testing room. 2. The Elements of Speaking It is very important for people who learn the language to master the elements of speaking because they can acquire the ability to communicate. According to Harmer, there are two elements of speaking, the first is Language Feature among the elements necessary for spoken are as the following: a. Connected speech is the modifying in sounds production or utterances such as assimilation, omission, addition, weakened (through contraction and stress patterning) b. Expressive devices are the alteration of the speed, volume, and stress of utterances to show the feeling. The use of this device contributes the ability to convey meaning. c. Lexis and grammar related to the ability to use a number of common lexical phrases, especially in the performance of certain language functions.

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d. Negotiation language is the ability to get benefits from the negotiator language we use to seek clarification and to show the structure of what we are saying.10 On the other hand, mental or social processing is also including the element of speaking. Here are some explanations from Harmer: a. Language processing: the ability to process language in their own heads and put it into coherent order so that it comes out in forms that are not only comprehensible, but also convey the meanings that are intended. b. Interacting with others. This means that speaking also involves a good deal of listening, and understanding of how the other participants are feeling. c. Information processing: the ability to process the information the moment we get it. 11 3. The Function of Speaking Numerous attempts have been made to classify the function of speaking in human interaction. Based on Brown and Yule (1983) as quoted by Richards, the functions of speaking are classified into three kinds; talk as interaction, talk as transaction, and talk as performance. Each of these activities is quite distinct in term of form and function and requires different teaching approaches.12 Below are some explanations: a.

Talk as Interaction Talk as interaction refers to what we normally mean by conversation and describes interaction that serves a primarily social function when people meet, they exchange greetings, engage in small talk, recount, recent experiences, and so on because they wish to be friendly and to establish a comfortable zone of interaction with others.

10

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching. (London: Pearson Education Limited, 2001), p. 269. 11

12

Jeremy Harmer……, p. 270.

Jack C. Richard, Teaching Listening and Speaking From Theory to Practice, (Cambridge University, 2008) p. 21

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The focus is more on the speaker and how they wish to present themselves to each other than on the message. Talk as interaction has several main features as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Has a primarily social function Reflects role relationship Reflects speaker identity May be formal or casual Uses conversational conventions Reflect degrees of politeness Employs many generic words Uses conversational register Is jointly constructed

Some of the skills involved in using teaching as interaction are the following things: 1) Opening and closing conversation 2) Choosing topic 3) Making small talk 4) Joking 5) Recounting personal incidents and experiences’ 6) Turn talking 7) Using adjacency pairs 8) Interrupting 9) Reacting to others 10) Using an appropriate style of speaking13 Mastering the art of talk as interaction is difficult and may not be a priority for all learners. However, students who do need such skills and find them lacking report that they sometimes feel awkward and at a loss for words when they find themselves in situations that require talk for interactions. b. Talk as Transaction Talk as transaction refers to situations where the focus is on what is said or done. The message and making oneself understood

13

Jack C. Richard, Teaching Listening and Speaking From Theory to Practice, (Cambridge University, 2008) p. 23

13

dearly and accurately is the central focus, rather than the participants and how they interact socially with each other. The main features of talk as transaction are: 1) It has a primarily information focus 2) The main focus is on the message and not the participants. 3) Participants employ communications strategies to make themselves understood. 4) There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks, as in the example from the preceding classroom lesson 5) There may be negotiation and digression. 6) Linguistic accuracy is not always important. Some of skills involved in using talk as transaction are: 1) Explaining a need or interaction 2) Describing something 3) Asking questions\ 4) Asking for clarification 5) Confirming information 6) Justifying an opinion 7) Making suggestions 8) Clarifying understanding 9) Making comparison 10) Agreeing and disagreeing14 c.

Talk as Performance This refers to public Talk, that is, talk that transmits information before audience, such as classroom presentation, public announcement, and speeches. The main features of talk as performance are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

A focus on both message and audience Predictable organization and sequencing Importance of both form and accuracy Language is more like written language Often monologic.

Some of the skills involved in using talk as performance are: 1) Using an appropriate format 2) Presenting information in an appropriate sequence 14

Jack C. Richard, Teaching Listening and Speaking From Theory to Practice, (Cambridge University, 2008) p. 25.

14

3) 4) 5) 6)

Using correct pronunciation and grammar Creating an effect on the audience Using appropriate vocabulary Using an appropriate opening and closing.15

4. The Purposes of Teaching Speaking Teaching is a profession. Thus, teachers should pursue professional development to sharpen their teaching skills and maintain the quality of profession. Teaching speaking is a very important part of first foreign language learning. McDonough said that “with the recent growth of English as an international language of communication, there is clearly a need for many learners to speak and interact in multiplicity of situation through the language, be it for foreign travel, business or other professional reason.16 However, today's world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance.17 “To teach speaking is necessary to understand the process involved in speech. Through speech one can express emotion, communicates intentions, react, to other persons and situations influence other human being.”18 Based on Bullock Report in Jon Davinson and Jane Dowson it is stated “The teacher’s role should be one of planned intervention, and his

15

Jack C. Richard, Teaching Listening and Speaking From Theory to Practice, (Cambridge University, 2008) p. 28. 16

Jo McDonough and Christoper Shaw, Material and Method in ELT, (UK: Backwell and Cambridge, 1993), p. 151. 17

Hayriye Kayi , Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language.( Nevada: University of Nevada, Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XII, No. 11, November 2006), p. 1. From: http://iteslj.org/ http://iteslj.org/Articles/Kayi-Teaching Speaking.html. (retrieved on august, 9, 2010) 18

Wilga M. Rivers, Teaching Foreign Language Skills, 2nd edition, (Chicago: the university of Chicago press, 1981), p. 90.

15

purpose and the means of fulfilling them must be clear in his mind. Important among these purposes should be intention to increase the complexity of the child’s thinking, so that he does not rest on the mere expression of opinion but uses language in an exploratory way”.19 Moreover, Taylor said “the goal or the aim of speaking component in a language class should be to encourage the acquisition of communication skills and to foster real communication in and out of the classroom”.20 While another expert said, “The aim of communicative activities in class is to get learners to use the language they are learning to interact in realistic and meaningful ways, usually involving exchange of information and opinion.21 A teacher in a speaking class can contribute more than just teaching the students to speak in the target language. Having a good interpersonal relationship in the classroom eased the students’ learning also contributes to the teacher’s well-being and performance in the class. Thus, it is very important for the teacher to convey warmth and empathy toward the students, creating a cooperative and supportive learning environment and providing educative learning experience that the students have the opportunity to develop as whole human beings. So the writer concluded that the purpose of teaching speaking skills is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. They can make a good communication by using spoken words to exchange feelings, ideas, opinion, and share information with the interlocutor, so they can understand and know something about the people who speak the language. 19

Jon Davinson and Jane Dowson, Learning to Teach English in the Secondary School 2 Edition, (New York: Routledgefalmer, 2003), p. 98. nd

20

Marrianne Celce Murcia (ed). Teaching English as a Second Language, (Boston Massachussetts: Heinle Publishers, 1991), Vol.2. p. 126 21

Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching; A Guide Book for English Language Teachers, 2nd Ed,. (Macmillan, 2005), p. 152

16

Hence, it is essential that language teachers pay great attention to teaching speaking. Rather than leading students to pure memorization, providing a rich environment where meaningful communication takes place is desired. Teacher also must create the best situation for real communication in the classroom.

5. Kinds of Speaking Activities It is important to give the students a variety of speaking activities so that they will be able to cope with different situations in reality. Variety also helps keep motivation high. The next reason for designing a variety of activities is that the students have different learning styles, so some kinds of activities may suit some students, while other activities may suit other students. The following activities are all designed to provoke spoken communication between students and/or between the teacher and the students. We will divide the activities into seven categories: Reaching a consensus, discussion, relying instructions, communication games, problem solving, talking about yourself, simulation and role play.22 Here are the explanations of numerous techniques concerned with speaking activities: a. Reaching a consensus In consensus activities students have to agree with each other after a certain amount of discussion. The task is not complete until they do. These activities have been successful in promoting free and spontaneous language use. b. Discussion Discussion is one of the most usual speaking activities. Pictures are an ideal stimulus for initiating discussion. Especially cultural differences are most likely to provoke discussion. It can help the students to arrive 22

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching; New Edition, (New York: Longman, 1991) , p. 122-125.

17

at any conclusion, share any ideas and look for some solutions at final. Besides, they can get involved in an “agree or disagree” discussion. c. Relying instruction In this type of activity students have to give each other instruction. The success of the activity depend on whether the students to whom instruction are being given perform the tasks successfully. d. Communication games These games are designed to provoke communication between frequently depend on an information gap, so that one student has to talk to his partner in order to solve the puzzle, draw a picture, put things in the right order, or find similarities and differences between pictures. e. Problem solving Problem solving activities encourage students to talk together to find a solution to a set of problems or tasks. These activities demand the student to communicate with each other to find out the best solution of the problem in order to can solve the problem and can complete the task. f. Talking about yourself This activity uses the students’ lives and feelings for any number of interpersonal exchanges. g. Simulation and Role Play Simulations and role-play involve a lot of conversations and discussions. Thus it may not be very suitable for a large class. The teacher has to spend a lot of time on interactions of students and he is not able to predict the process in the class. In this activity, students simulate a real life encounter, as if they were doing so in the real world.

When students felt speaking learning is too difficult, they start to lose their interest and motivation. Teachers know that learners like being

18

physically active as they learn by doing. Moreover, they are imaginative and creative and they learn without being aware of it. They also have to able in mastering speaking skill for their communication and relation to each other. Thus, the teacher decided that communication games are one of the appropriate techniques which help students to reduce boredom, meanwhile achieving teaching learning goal of speaking subject.

B. Communication Games 1. The Understanding of Games Games have become crucially important for English language learners and teachers not only because they provide enjoyment and relaxation, but also as they encourage students to use their language in a creative and communicative manner. Wright, Betteridge and Buckby stated “…. ‘game’ to mean an activity in which the learners play and usually interact with others”. They also said that “Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work”. Next, their opinion is “Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information”.23 Based on Elizabeth Rowell in her Journal of reading, Games for Language Learning are an excellent aid to the teacher who wants to make language learning more meaningful and more fun.24 Likewise, Hadfield defined games as “an activity with rules, a goal and an element of fun”. 25 A similar opinion expressed by LEE, “games are enjoyable. Enjoyable

23

Andrew Wright, et.al. Games for Language Learning, Third Edition, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) p. 1-2 25

Jill Hadfield, Intermediate Communication Games, (Edinburg: longman, 1996), p. v

19

also is the active cooperation with one’s fellows. In group or team activity, rivalry and cooperation go hand in hand”.26 In addition, T S. Rodgers in Connie L. Shoemaker states that games have four basic characteristics: a. b. c. d.

Competitive Governed by rules Goal-defined, engaging in that they challenge the participants. They have closure on a predetermined point at which they are finished.27

Considering that there are several experts opinion above, the writer concludes that games involve many factors such as employing rules, fostering cooperation while making learning fun. One can simply say that games are enjoyable. However, in addition to being enjoyable, games refer to rules to be followed pointing at a serious instructional planning and delivery process. It also allows students to work cooperatively, compare with each other, strategize, think in a different way, compare and share knowledge, learn from others, learn from mistakes, work in a less stressful and more productive environment, and allow people to have fun. Therefore, it is important that teachers should not see games as time fillers or tools designed for fun only, but integrate them into their foreign language teaching programmers. Competition, which is associated with games, plays a crucial role as for the nature of games requires. Learners are excited by competition because the question of who will win or lose remains unanswered until the game is over.

26

W R LEE, Language Teaching Games and Contests, 2nd Ed, (Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 1. 27 Connie L. Shoemaker, and F. Folyd Shoemaker, Interactive Techniques For the ESL Classroom, (Boston: Heinie and Heinie Publisher, 1997), p. 73

20

2. The Significances of Games Games provide language teachers and learners with many advantages when they are used in classroom. One of those advantages is that learners are motivated to learn the language when they are playing a game. As Ersoz holds that Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.28 Lee also said “They banish boredom and so make for willing learners.”29 Based on journal of Agnieszka Uberman, Hansen (1994:118) stated that “they are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings”. While Zdybiewska (1994:6) “Games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future”.30 Further support comes from Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen and Khuat Thi Thu Nga, Games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Then, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities.31 Basen on Lee Su Kim, there are many advantages of using games in the classroom:

28

Aydan Ersoz, Six Games for the EFL/ESL Classroom; The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000. http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/Lessons/Ersoz-Games.html. (Retrieved on January, 12 2011) 29

W R LEE, Language Teaching Games and Contests, 2nd Ed, (Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 1. 30

Agnieszka Uberman, The Use of Games For Vocabulary Presentation and Revision, Forum, Vol. 36 No 1, January - March 1998 Page 20. http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum/archives/1998/docs/98-36-1-d.pdf (Retrieved, Janury, 12, 2011). 31

Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen and Khuat Thi Thu Nga, Learning Vocabulary Through Games, Asian EFL Journal - December 2003. http://www.asian-efljournal.com/dec_03_sub.Vn.php. (Retrieved on January, 12 2011)

21

a. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class. b. They are motivating and challenging. c. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning. d. Games provide language practice in the various skillsspeaking, writing, listening and reading. e. They encourage students to interact and communicate. f. They create a meaningful context for language use.32 In addition, McCallum (1980) explains that there are many advantages of games such as: a. Focus students’ attention on specific structures, grammatical patterns, and vocabulary items. b. Can function as reinforcement, review and enrichment. c. Involve equal participation from both slow and fast learners. d. Can be adjusted to suit the individual age and language levels of the students. e. Contribute to an atmosphere of healthy competition, providing an outlet for the creative use of natural language in a non-stressful situation. f. Can be used in any language teaching situations and with all skill areas (reading, writing, speaking or listening). g. Provide immediate feedback for the teacher. h. Ensure maximum student participation for a minimum or teacher preparation.33 According to Martha Lengeling and Casey Malarcher as they wrote in their journal, they divided the general benefit into four aspects: a. Affective: 1) Lowers affective filter 2) Encourages creative and spontaneous use of language 3) Promotes communicative competence 4) Motivates 5) Fun. b. Cognitive: 1) Reinforces 2) Review and extends 32

Lee Su Kim, Creative Games for the Language Class Forum. Vol. 33 No 1, January March 1995, Page 35. http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum/archives/1995/docs/95-331-l.pdf. (Retrieved on January, 12 2011) 33

George P. McCallum, 101 Word Games: For Students of English as a Second or Foreign Language, (Oxford University Press, 1980), p. ix

22

3) Focuses on grammar communicatively c. Class Dynamics: 1) Student centered 2) Teacher acts only as facilitator 3) Builds class cohesion 4) Fosters whole class participation 5) Promotes healthy competition. d. Adaptability: 1) Easily adjusted for age, level, and interests 2) utilizes all four skills 3) requires minimum preparation after development34 So games making learning easier in an enjoyable way suggests that games are full of fun which leads to successful learning. In many games, learners are required to cooperate to achieve the goal and most learners enjoy cooperation and social interaction. It is believed that when cooperation and interaction are combined with fun, successful learning becomes more possible. 3. Types of Communication Games Classifying games into categories can be difficult, because categories often overlap. Hadfield explains two ways of classifying language games. She divides language games into two types: Linguistic Games and Communicative Games.35 Linguistic games focus on accuracy, such as supplying the correct antonym. On the other hand, communicative games focus on successful exchange of information and ideas, such as two people identifying the differences between their two pictures which are similar to one another but not exactly alike. Correct language usage, though still important, is secondary to achieving the communicative goal. LEE added that communication games are not necessarily lengthy or complex. There is something to be communicated to others or to be 34

M. Martha Lengeling and Casey Malarcher, Forum Vol. 35 No 4, October - December 1997 Page 42. http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum/archives/1997/docs/97-35-4h.pdf. (Retrieved on January, 12 2011). 35

Jill Hadfield, Intermediate Communication Games, (Edinburg: longman, 1996). p. v

23

found out from others, and the learners want to keep the game going because they are interested in it. 36 Moreover, Hadfield classifies language games into many more categories37: a. Sorting, ordering, or arranging games. For example, students have a set of cards with different products on them, and they sort the cards into products found at a grocery store and products found at a department store. b. Information gap games In such games, one or more people have information that other people need to complete a task. For instance, one person might have a drawing and their partner needs to create a similar drawing by listening to the information given by the person with the drawing. Information gap games can involve a one-way information gap, such as the drawing game just described, or a two-way information gap, in which each person has unique information, such as in a Spot-the-Difference task, where each person has a slightly different picture, and the task is to identify the differences. c. Guessing games These are a variation on information gap games. One of the best known examples of a guessing game is 20 Questions, in which one person thinks of a famous person, place, or thing. The other participants can ask 20 Yes/No questions to find clues in order to guess who or what the person is thinking of. d. Search games These games are yet another variant on two-way information gap games, with everyone giving and seeking information. Find Someone Who is a well known example. Students are given a grid. The task is to 36

W R LEE.. Language Teaching Games and Contests, 2nd Ed, (Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 2. 37

Jill Hadfield , Intermediate Communication Games, (Edinburg: longman, 1996), p. v-vi

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fill in all the cells in the grid with the name of a classmate who fits that cell, e.g., someone who is a vegetarian. Students circulate, asking and answering questions to complete their own grid and help classmates complete theirs. e. Matching games. This game involve matching corresponding pairs of cards or pictures and may be played as a whole class activity, where everyone must circulate until they find a partner with a corresponding card or picture. f. Labeling games These are a form of matching, in that participants match labels and pictures. g. Exchanging games In these games, students barter cards, other objects, or ideas. Similar are exchanging and collecting games. Many card games fall into this category. h. Board games Scrabble is one of the most popular board games that specifically highlight language. i. Role play, simulation and drama games. Role play can involve students playing roles that they do not play in real life, such as dentist, while simulations can involve students performing roles that they already play in real life or might be likely to play, such as customer at a restaurant. Dramas are normally scripted performances, whereas in role plays and simulations, students come up with their own words, although preparation is often useful.

In addition, Harmer classify communication games into four categories,38 those are: a. Find the differences or similarities 38

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching; New Edition, (New York: Longman, 1991) , p. 126-129

25

Students are put into pairs. In each pair Students A is given a picture which is similar, but the different in some vital respect. They are told that they must not look at each other’s material but that they must find out a certain number of differences between the two pictures through discussion only. b. Describe and arrange Students are told they are going to work in pairs. In each pair Student A is given the following pictures and told not to show them to Student B. on the other hand, student B is given the same pictures but cut up so they are not in any order. Consequently, Student B must arrange the pictures in the same order as students A’s. c. Story reconstruction Students are given different parts of a picture story. They have to reconstruct the whole narrative even though individually they have seen only a small part of it. This is done because each member of group has seen a different picture; by talking about their pictures together the narrative emerges. d. Poem reconstruction The same principle of reconstruction can be applied to simple poems. Students have to reassemble lines which they are given. The activity mixes reading, listening and discussion. C. Teaching Speaking Through Communication Games With the introduction of communicative language teaching, English language teaching and learning has become much more demanding for teachers and learners just like any other innovation poses challenges for its users. In teaching learning speaking process, the teacher should have a variety and fit techniques to convey the materials of the speaking subject in order to create the communicative activities. In this case, the writer use communication games to teach speaking. Those are very useful for the students to encourage their motivation to speak English, make them enjoy and fun in teaching

26

learning activities. It also can reduce the boredom and make the classroom come alive. As Harmer said that “Games are a vital part of a teacher’s equipment, not only for the language practice they provide, but also for the therapeutic effect they have.”39 The use of games in learning environment will not only change the dynamic of the class, but it will also rejuvenate students and help the brain to learn more effectively. The more exciting and interactive a teacher can make the learning environment, the more a teacher tries to introduce games and activities. The more a teacher changes shapes and manipulates both the language and the environment, the better the circumstances. In associating communication game in speaking activities, the first the teacher must do is preparing the material then determining game that suitable with the topic including the goal, linguistic function, vocabulary selection, and group work to engage student communicative, competitive and cooperative.

39

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching; New Edition, (New York: Longman, 1991), p. 101.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter elaborates the method of the research that describes research design, research setting and subject, and research procedure. In addition, the research procedures cover the preliminary study, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action and reflecting on the result of the action, including data, data resources, instrument and technique of data collection. A. Research Design This research employed a Classroom Action Research. This research was done by the teacher or practitioner in the classroom. It was aimed to reveal students’ difficulties in enhancing their speaking skill and to give the solutions to problems occurring by applying some games to solve students’ problem in speaking. According to Geoffrey E. Mills, Action Research is any systematic inquiry conducted by teacher researcher, principals, school counselor, or other stakeholders in the teaching/ learning environment to gather information about how their particular school operate, how they teach, and how well their students learn.1

1

Geoffrey E.Mills, Action Research, A Guide for the Teacher Researcher. (New Jersey: Merril Prentice Hall, 2003), p. 5.

27

28

Classroom Action Research tends to be directly to achieving result in the classroom setting. The researcher change one thing and observes the effect of the change. CAR is combination between action and research. Action is conscious activity to certain aim in order to solve the problem or improve the teaching learning process. Research is an observing activity through scientific method by collecting and analyzing the important data to solve the problem. So, the CAR is an appropriate method to cover the research. The research is based on the real classroom problem. Actually, there are two types of Action Research; individual action research and collaborative action research.2 In this study, the writer was using collaborative action research that collaborated with one of the English teachers of SMP YMJ. The teacher acted as an observer while the researcher acted as practitioner who taught by using determining the technique. The teacher is as an active participant who is not only functioning as an observer but also taking actions by making lesson plan and giving assessment. Then collected and analyzed the data together with the researcher. During the learning activities, the researcher and the teacher guided the students to speak. The researcher wanted to see the students’ speaking improvement during teaching learning activity. That was why the researcher used the communication games to solve that problem. The CAR used in this research is Kart Lewin’s design. He is generally considered the ‘father of action research’. He was the first to coin the term “action research”. His CAR design consists of four phases within one cycle. They are planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. If the first finished but s till found any problem or there was no improvement, thus, it is necessary to continue to the second cycle with the same concept of the first cycle. Then so on.

2

Wijaya Kusumah, Mengenal Penelitian Tindak Kelas. (Jakarta: PT Indeks, 2009), p. 9.

29

Figure 3.1 Kurt Lewin’s Action Research Design3

ACTING

PLANNING

CYCLE I

OBSERVING

REFLECTING

ACTING

PLANNING

CYCLE II

OBSERVING

REFLECTING

3

Michael J. Wallace, Action Research for Language Teachers…, p.14

30

B. Research Setting and Subject Setting in this research includes research place, time, subject and object of research, and the role of the study. 1. The subject of the study The subject of the study is the students in the seventh grade of YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Junior High School, Ciputat - South Jakarta, and academic year 2010/2011. The numbers of students consist of 45 people. It is chosen because of the observation, unstructured interview and questionnaire result with the English teacher and the students at that class. 2. The object of the study The object of the study is communication games technique to improve students’ speaking ability. 3. The time and places of the study The research was done for almost four months starting from March up to May 2011. The time is decided based on the school academic calendar because classroom action research needs some cycles to do in order the teaching-learning process will be effective in the class and gain the action success. 4. The writer’s role on the study In this role, the writer is not only as the practitioner of action based upon the lesson plan that has been made but also she makes a lesson plan and the assessment or test before CAR (pre-test) and after CAR (post-test) in the final cycle. Furthermore, the writer also collects and analyzes the data then reporting the result of the study.

C. Research Procedure In this procedure of the research, the writer has done a number of steps from the CAR Design. That is a preliminary study or reconnaissance which is used as a basic consideration in planning the action to be applied. It is followed by planning the action, implementing the action, observing, analyzing, and reflecting. As Mills said “reconnaissance or preliminary

31

information gathering is taking time to reflect on your own beliefs and to understand the nature and context of your general idea.4 So the preliminary study is useful to analyze if there is any unsatisfactory condition or what the real condition of the students and teacher problems at the school is. Furthermore, the researcher can analyze and identify the problems faced by the students in learning speaking that needed to be solved. In conducting the preliminary study, the writer carries out several activities to find out the real condition of teaching speaking in the classroom, such as; observing the process of teaching learning speaking activities, interviewing the English teachers, giving questionnaire to the students regarding of learning speaking English, and assigning the students to rehearsing some expression of speaking skill (pre-test) in order to know their ability in communicating by using English during learning activities with their real teacher. After carrying out the preliminary study, the writer goes on to the next phase. That is beginning the first cycle of action which is done involving planning, acting, observing and reflecting. It is carried out in repeated cycle. 1. Planning the Action After finding the real condition of speaking problem from the preliminary study, the writer and the teacher planned the intervention that would be given to the students in the classroom. This session is very important part in the classroom action research because it formulates the suitable action and activities in the research process. In order to solve the speaking problem, the writer is planning and preparing several preparations for doing action as follows: (a) determining the teaching technique, (b) designing the lesson plan, (c) setting the criteria of success, and (d) preparing the instrument. To make it clear the writer explains the activities in planning the action as following:

4

Geoffrey E. Mills, Action Research: A Guide for the Teacher Researcher. (2nd ed), (New Jersey: Merril Prentice Hall, 2003), p. 26.

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a. Determining the Technique The researcher thought that the suitable technique to be applied in this action research is Communication Games. It becomes the focus of this study to be prepared, to be analyzed, to be reflected, and to be used again until it proves effective to solve the problems of students in learning speaking. b. Designing the Lesson Plan The writer makes the lesson plan based on the school based curriculum or KTSP related to the seventh grade for the second semester. It was developed on the basis of English syllabus which includes the following items: (1) the instructional objectives, (2) instructional material and media, (3) the procedures in teaching-learning activities, and (4) assessment. c. Setting the Criteria of Success Criteria of success were set up to determine whether the action in the research was successfully completed or not. The criteria of success for Classroom Action Research are derived from the classroom problems to be solved and the classroom goals to be achieved. Students’ academic achievement is one criteria of success. The minimum mastery of criterion (KKM) considering English subject gains score 65. So this study is regarded successful if (1) 70% of students attain the score equal or greater than 65 as the minimum mastery criterion for English subject (2) if 75% students participate in teaching-learning activities actively. If the study meets those criteria, thus the study is called successful, but if it has not met those criteria, it is called not successful yet and need improvement to meet the targets. The successful action is proven by the test, observation, interview, and questionnaire.

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d. Preparing the Instruments To gain the data, the researcher provided the research instrument, with such observation notes, questionnaire, and test. They were used to know the students achievement in the classroom.

2. Implementing in Action In this second step, both the researcher and the teacher collaborate to carry out the planned action. The researcher as a practitioner, she implemented the instructional activity the communication games in teaching speaking in the class based on the planning that has been prepared before, while the collaborator acted as an observer who observed the students’ activities and participation during the teaching and learning process of speaking through communication games activities by making observational note which would be analyzed as a reflection for the next cycle. This action involved three meetings in each cycle, two meetings for implementing the action and one meeting for posttest. The time table of the implementation of the action can be seen in the following table: Table 3.1 The Schedule of implementing the Communication Games in Teaching Speaking

Activity

Theme/Sub Theme

Communication Games

March 31st , 2011

Opinion poll

Matching Game

2

April 1st , 2011

Famous things

Guessing Game

1

April 8th , 2011

Sports and Hobbies

Matching Game

2

April 14th , 2011

Routine and Leisure Mil Drill Game Activities

Meeting

Date

1 Cycle I

Cycle II

34

3. Observing the Action Observing is the process of collecting data indicating the success of the strategy in solving the classroom problems. The focus of the observation is on the data related to the criteria of success that have been decided. It was used to explore the implementation of communication games to improve speaking ability. In this phase, the observer uses observation notes for gathering the result of observation dealing with the teacher performance, the students’ participation, the result of evaluation, the real situation and condition in classroom when implementation of the action. At this observing stage, which aims to collect data, the researcher and the collaborator have to define the type of data to be collected, the data sources, the instrument to collect the data, and the technique of data collecting. 4. Reflecting In this phase, the researcher and the teacher analyze data to determine how far the data collected have shown the success of the strategy in solving the problem. If there still be found some problems it need to goes on the next cycle with same. Then, they revised the lesson plan to find out some weakness in the instructional activities that have been done. This reflection is aimed to improve the instructional activities in the class and as a basis to formulate the lesson plan in the next cycle. Reflection is the process which is done by both teachers also the writer. They are analyzing Reflection also shows what factors support the success of the strategy or what other problems may occur during the implementation process. The discussion on data analysis is done under the reflection stage. The analysis of the result of observation is done by comparing the data collected with the target or the criteria of success. The reflection stage is aimed at evaluating which criterion or target of success has been achieved, which one has not been achieved, and what are the possible reasons that those targets are not achieved yet. The result

35

of the reflection is used to determine what part of the strategy needs improvement. The strategy is examined to find out how maximum improvement can possibly be made so that when implemented again all the targets of success can be achieved. The revised strategy (planning) is then implemented again, the result is observed, and then reflected in the second cycle. The cycle is repeated until the implementation of the strategy can achieve all the targeted criteria of success. Below is the brief explanation of what the writer does within these four phases in two cycles. To solve the new problem, the researcher moves on to the next cycle until she gains success. We can see the cycles at the following figure below: Figure 3.2 Problem solving cycles activities of CAR (modified by the writer)5

Revised Planning

Re-Reflecting Planning

Re-acting Reflecting

Acting Observing

Re-observing

5

Supardi, Penelitian Tindak Kelas, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2009), p. 177

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Below is the brief explanation of what the writer does within implementing the Classroom Action Research: Figure 3.3 Research Procedures of CAR

PRELIMINARY STUDY - Observing the class - Interviewing the English teacher - Giving questionnaire to the student - Carry out Pretest

ANALISYS AND FINDINGS Analysis : Analyzing the result of preliminary study Finding : Result of students’ problem in speaking skill - The students have difficulty to express their ideas in using English - The students lack of practicing English speaking. - The students felt doubtful to pronounce the word and sentence - The students lack of vocabulary - The students were passive in teaching learning speaking process - The teacher seldom created some instructional media - The students have low motivation to speak.

ACTING - Give expressions and vocabularies needed - Explain the instruction for practicing - Practice (sharing information with restricted cooperation) - Students Performing game in speaking class PLANNING - Designing lesson plan - Preparing the model of communication games - Preparing the materials and media - Setting the criteria of success.

REFLECTING - Evaluate teaching and learning process - Analyze students’ achievement - Revise the action planning for the next cycle

OBSERVING - Observe the class condition - Observe the teacher perform - Observe students’ participation.

RE-ACTING - Explain the instruction for practicing of group working - Group work ( sharing and processing information) - Discuss and evaluate a group decision to the whole class

REVISED PLANNING - Identify the problem in cycle 1 - Revise the lesson plan - Reselect the topic and teaching aid which will motivate D. Data and Data Sources students - E. Strengthen students’ motivation to speak English - Develop the activities toward spontaneous speak.

REREFLECTING - Analyze students’ progress in speaking English based on their score in the test. - Make a report of research.

RE-OBSERVING - Observe students’ participation. - Observe students’ achievement. - Observe students’ achievement in group work.

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Data and source of data in classroom action research consist of some resources: 1. Students The writer gets the data about students’ achievement. Besides that the researcher has to record all students’ activities in teaching learning speaking process. 2. Teacher The teacher here is the writer. She has to see the improvement of teaching speaking through communication games technique and the result of students’ achievement and also students’ activity in teaching learning process. 3. Collaborator Collaborator in this research is the real English teacher of SMP Yayasan Miftahul Jannah (YMJ), he is Mr. Misbahuddin, S.Pd. He acts as an assessor or observer, to see the implementation of classroom action research comprehensively, both from teacher and students’ side. F. Instruments and technique of data collection Before conducting the research, the researcher prepared some instruments. The instruments in this study were observation notes, interview, questionnaire, and test (pre-test and post-test). 1. Observation notes Observation was conducted before and during the implementation. Observation before the implementation was carried out to reveal the real condition of teaching learning speaking process and the problems that face by the students in their speaking skill. Moreover, the observation during implementation was carried out to reveal students’ speaking development by using communication games. In conducting the classroom action research, the writer use observational note for record all activities that happen in teaching learning process. It was used to find the instructional activities in the class during

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the method were implemented. In addition, it is used to know the good point from the student and the teacher view and things to consider for the next meeting. The writer and observer record a description of classroom atmosphere, the setting of the class, and the students’ activities and also the teacher activities during the teaching and learning of speaking by using communication games. 2. Interview The interview was about problem in speaking lesson before and after using communication games technique in speaking lesson. Interview before implementing the CAR was aimed to know the students’ difficulties in learning speaking, students’ condition involving in speaking activity and the strategy or method that the teacher usually uses in teaching speaking in the classroom. Furthermore, interview after implementing the CAR was carried out to know the students’ speaking development after they given the communication game method and to know the teacher’s and students’ response toward the idea of communication game activities in speaking lesson. 3. Questionnaire In conducting this study, the writer use questionnaire to know the students responds toward the process of teaching and learning speaking and also about their motivations and problems in learning speaking before and after implementing the communication games. This activity took all students in the seventh grade of SMP YMJ as the respondents. 4. Test Test was used to find out the students’ knowledge or ability in a certain field. In this study test was used to measure the improvement of students’ speaking ability. In order to get enough data, the researcher conducted pre test and post test. The pre test is directed to know students’ existing knowledge of speaking ability before implementing communication games activities. Meanwhile, the post-test is implemented after using communication games

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activities. It was used to know students’ final speaking skill improvement in the last of the cycle in implementing the method. In this research, the writer conducted an oral test. The content of the test would require the students for develop their speaking skill through four points in the oral English rating scales, according to Harris namely: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and fluency. To measure this step of test the teacher categorizes the score into criteria which referred to Harris as these following6:

Table 3.2 Analytic Scoring Rubric of Speaking Skill Rated qualities

Points

Behavioral statements

Pronunciation

5 4

Has few traces of foreign accent. Always intelligible, though one is conscious of a definite accent Pronunciation problems necessitate concentrated listening and occasionally lead to misunderstanding. Very hard to understand because of pronunciation problems. Must frequently be asked to repeat. Pronunciation problems so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible. Makes few (any) noticeable errors of grammar or word order. Occasionally makes grammatical and or word order errors which do not, however, obscure meaning. Makes frequent errors of grammar and word order which occasionally obscure meaning Grammar and word order errors make comprehension d must often rephrase sentences and or restricts himself to basic patterns. Errors in grammar and word order so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible.

3 2 1 5 4 Grammar

3 2

1 5 Vocabulary

6

4

Use of vocabulary and idioms is virtually that of a native speaker. Sometimes use inappropriate terms and or must rephrase ideas because of lexical inadequacies.

David P. Harris, Testing English as a Second Language, (Bombay: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company ltd., 1977), p. 84.

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3 2 1 5 4 Fluency

3 2 1 5 4 3

Comprehension

2

1 Note: maximum sore = 25

Frequently uses the wrong words; conversation somewhat limited because of inadequate vocabulary. Misuse of words and very limited vocabulary make comprehension quite difficult Vocabulary limitations so extreme as to make conversation virtually impossible. Speech as fluent and effortless as that of a native speaker Speed of speech seems to be slightly affected by language problems Speed and fluency are rather strongly affected by language problems. Usually hesitant; often forced into silence by language problem. Speech is so halting and fragmentary as to make conversation virtually impossible Appears to understand everything without difficulty. Understands nearly everything at normal speed, although occasional repetition may be necessary. Understands most of what is said at slower-than normal speed with repetitions. Has great difficulty following what is said. Can comprehend only “social conversation” spoken slowly and with frequent repetitions. Cannot be said to understand even simple conversational English. (Cited from Harris, 1969: 18)

Score = the result of score x 100 Maximum score G. Technique of Data Analysis The process of data analysis was conducted from preparation activity to the last cycle. The data will be gathered using from observation, interview, questionnaire, and test. The data from observation and interview were analyze by descriptive analysis, while the data from test and questionnaire were analyzed by using numerical data, and then it is compared between students’ score in pre-test and post-test. Then it were interpreted to answer the research question and to draw some conclusion of the research.

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In analyzing numerical data, the writer finds out the average of students’ speaking score of action within one cycle. It uses the formula:7



X

 xi n

X : mean

Xi : individual score n : number of students Next, to know the class percentage which passes the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) 70, the writer uses the formula:8 P=

F  100% N

P : the class percentage F : total percentage score N : number of students The last, after mean of students’ scores of action is gained, the writer analyzes whether there is or there are no improvement scores on speaking from pre-test up to post-test score in cycle 1 and cycle 2. She uses the formula:9

P=

y1  y  100 % y

P : percentage of students’ improvement

7

Sudjana, Metoda Statistika, (Bandung: PT. Tarsito, 2002), p. 67

8

Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistika Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2008), p.43 9

David E. Meltzer, The Relationship between Mathematics Preparation and Conceptual Learning Gains in Physics: A Possible Hidden Variable in Diagnostic Pretest Scores,(Iowa: Department of Physic and Astronomy, 2008), p.3

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y

: pre-test result

y1 : post-test 1 P=

y2  y  100% y

P : percentage of students’ improvement y

: pre-test result

y2 : post-test 2 The formula used to analyze data from the percentage of questionnaire result: %

n 100 N

n : number of students who answered the option N : number of all students in the class

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS

This chapter elaborates the result of the action research. They were presented the data gathered from the activities of CAR. These activities covered data from the observation, interview, questionnaire, observational notes, tests, the implementation of teaching speaking through communication games activities and improvement result of CAR.

A. Findings before implementing the CAR A preliminary study was conducted to get data about the factual conditions of the problems faced by the teacher and students in the teaching learning process of speaking class. The preliminary study was conducted on March 11st – March 24th, 2011 which was done by (a) observing the process of teaching learning activity in the classroom, (b) interviewing the English teachers in terms of the techniques and activities employed in teaching speaking, (c) giving questionnaire to the students in terms of learning English, and (d) assigning the students to respond some expression in order to identify the students’ real competence and problems in speaking ability. It was held at seventh grade of SMP YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah Ciputat). The result of preliminary study will become a consideration in formulating planning in cycle 1.

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1. The Result of Pre-Observation The pre-observation was carried out to observe the process of teaching learning activity before implementing the action. It was held at seventh grade of Yayasan Miftahul Jannah Junior High School (SMP YMJ) Ciputat academic year 2010/2011 which consisted of 45 students in the class. It was conducted on Friday, March 11st, 2011. Here are the results of pre observation: a. The students less of preparation in learning English, especially for speaking class. Factually, most of students were still playing with each other in the outdoor class when they were waiting for the teacher to come. When the teacher was about to begin the teaching learning activity, there were some students who kept joking and talking with each other. They were just waiting for the teacher instruction for prepare the study. b. Just few students who were ready to pay attention when the teacher explained the material, while the other students did not pay attention and still kept talking with their friends. c. The teaching learning process was passive. It showed that the students did not respond to the teacher’s instruction directly. I meant that most of students have less motivation in learning speaking. d. Activity in classroom tends to teacher-centered. The teaching learning process was going on non-communicatively. The teacher didn’t use the instructional media or teaching aids to teach English speaking subject. The teacher more emphasizes taught writing and reading activities than speaking. So the students lack of practicing in English speaking. e. The students seem less enthusiastic in following teacher’s instruction in learning English. 2. The Result of Pre-Interview The pre-interview in this study was carried out the unstructured interview. It was held on Thursday, March 17th 2011, started at 10.05 A.M and finished at 10.45 A.M. The writer asked the teacher some questions.

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The questions consist of three categories of questions, involving: the general condition in English class especially in speaking class, the difficulty faced by students and their participation, and the strategy used by the teacher in speaking class, then discussing communication games for teaching speaking activity. Those are talked about the general condition in English class particularly on students’ speaking ability and performance, students’ learning activities and teachers’ strategy that was implemented previously. Moreover it talked about the difficulty faced by the students in speaking skill. The teacher said that speaking is the difficult skills to be learned whereas the students must achieve the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM). Furthermore it talked about the strategy used by the teacher in teaching English speaking. The teacher said that she had never used role play in teaching the students, she usually teaches speaking by introducing new dialogue to the students, then she reads the dialogue and was followed by students together, and then she gave the meaning of the dialogue. From the result of interview, there were some problems in teaching speaking. First, the teacher didn’t encourage the students to speak English in speaking class so the students have lack of practicing in English speaking and have not motivate to speak in English language. Second, the students feel doubtful to pronounce the words and sentences because of being afraid in making mistakes. Third, the teacher didn’t apply various methods in teaching learning process. Next, most of students did not like study English, because it is the difficult lesson so most of students gained low competence in English. 3. The Result of Pre Questionnaire The pre questionnaire was conducted to know about the students’ response about English lesson especially speaking skill. The questionnaire used in this study was a close questionnaire. The questionnaire was given to the students in the seventh grade of Miftahul Jannah Junior High School on Friday, March 18th 2011. The questionnaire had five questions which

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covered in five issues: the students’ motivation toward the English lesson especially in speaking skill, the most difficult skill in English lesson, the students’ feeling toward the teacher’s style in teaching speaking, the teacher’s implementation of the suitable technique in teaching speaking, and the students’ feeling toward their result in English lesson. The table below showed the result of pre questionnaire.

Table 4.1 The Result of Pre Questionnaire Percentage (%) No

Perception

1

The students’ motivation toward the English lesson The most difficult skill in English lesson The students’ feeling toward the teacher’s style in teaching speaking The teacher’s implementation of the suitable technique in teaching speaking The students’ feeling toward their result in English lesson

2 3

4

5

Strongly Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Agree Disagree 8.8

37.7

44.4

11

0

44.4

22

17.7

15.5

0

2.2

24.4

46.6

22.2

4.4

4.4

24.4

33.3

31

6.7

15.5

33.3

28.8

17.7

4.4

The first issue in Table 4.1 was on the students’ liking for English lesson. It indicated that 44.4 % of students felt fair to the English lesson, 37.7% of students like English lesson, and 8.8 % of students strongly agreed that they like English lesson very much, but 11% of students did not like English lesson. It can be concluded that most (44.4 %) of the students of English class felt fair to English lesson. The second issue is about the most difficulties skill in English lesson. There was 44.4 % of students strongly agreed that speaking was the most difficult skill to learn, 22% students agreed, and 17.7 % students

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felt fair, but 15.5 % of students disagree with that issue. It appeared some of students (44.4 %) assumed that speaking was the most difficult skill to learn. The third issue was on the students’ feeling toward the teacher’s style in teaching speaking. It was showed that 46.6 % of students neither agree nor disagree. Then, there were only 2.2 % of students strongly agreed, 24.4 % of students agreed that they felt appetizing in the way of the teacher taught, but 22.2 % of students disagree and also 4.4 % of students felt strongly disagree with the style of English teacher when he taught. It indicated that the students could hardly interest with their teacher style in teaching speaking. So, it needed innovation of teaching method to develop their motivation in learning speaking. The next issue was on the teacher’s implementation of the suitable technique in teaching speaking. The table 4.1 indicated that 33.3 % of students felt fair that the teacher’s technique could help them express their ideas easily. Those were only 4.4 % of students strongly agreed and 24.4 % of students agreed that the teacher’s technique could solve their difficulties in speaking. On the other hand, 31 % of students disagree and 6.7 % of students strongly disagree. It means that most of the students of English class still got difficulties in learning speaking skill. The last issue was on the students’ feeling toward their result in English lesson. It can be seen that 15.5% of students strongly agreed, 33.3 % students agreed that they were satisfied with their speaking score, and 28.8 % of student felt fair with their score. Besides, some of students 17.7 % felt not satisfied with their score and 4.4 % of them strongly disagree. Although many students were satisfied, it could not be said that the English scores were good because they still found that some of students were not satisfied with their English speaking scores. The conclusion in term of speaking problem was this class still got difficulty in speaking skill and need improvement to achieve the goal of

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speaking lesson and to reach the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM). 4. The Result of Pre-Test The pretest was conducted on Thursday, March 24th, 2011. In pretest, the students were assigned respond to some expression made by the teachers concerning student’s opinion and their hobbies. The teacher calls the students two by two as the partner to come forward then the researcher asked about their opinion of their partner and asked about their hobby including like and dislike while the teacher was scoring the students responses. The criteria of the test to be guideline were pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. Based on the result of the pre test, the data showed that the mean score of pretest was 50.67. There were only 9 students out of 45 students or 20 % of the students who achieved the Minimum Mastery CriterionKriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) meanwhile the other students were below that criterion. From that analysis, it could be seen that almost of students’ speaking skill is still very low. After analyzing the result of preliminary study, it could be concluded that most of the students at the seventh grade of Yayasan Miftahul Jannah had difficulty in speaking skill. So, it needs finding out a solution to overcome this problem. The writer used communication games in teaching speaking as an innovation in teaching learning process. The action needed to improve students’ ability in speaking skill. The action research was conducted in two cycles. Every cycle followed the procedures of action research involving planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Every cycle was conducted in three meetings.

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B. Findings During Implementing the CAR 1. First Cycle a. Planning There were some activities conducting in this phase. First, the writer was helped by the collaborator designed lesson plan for the first cycle. The lesson plan made in this cycle was three lesson plans. Second, the writer prepared the model of communication games. The communication games model used was matching games and guessing games. Third, the writer prepared materials and media. The material in the first cycle is about asking opinion, giving opinion and stating opinion. The media used were several pictures and card. Next, the writer and collaborator determined the criteria of success. The criteria of success were 75% of the students’ speaking score achieved the Minimum Mastery Criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) of English (65.0) or above and 75% of students participated in speaking class. b. Acting Action of the first cycle was done on March 31st, April 01st and 07th 2011. The writer implemented the teaching learning process based on the lesson plan had been made. In the teaching learning process, the researcher used three phase techniques; pre teaching activity, whilst teaching activity, and post teaching activity. In this acting, the writer tried to integrate students to participate in the classroom activities. In detail, the writer presents in the following action: 1) First meeting Function : Asking and Giving Opinion Topic

: Opinion Poll

Game

: Matching Game

Time

: Thursday, March 31th, 2011

i. Pre-Activity The writer opened the class by greeting, asking students’ condition, brainstorming, asking students’ readiness in learning and

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starting by reciting Basmallah. Then the teacher checked the students’ knowledge about some artists and musicians by asking the students then asked them to say anything about some people that teachers’ said. This is to stimulate students’ ability to describe someone. ii.Whilst-Activity In whilst-activity, the writer as a practitioner, she introduced new vocabularies related the material by modeling, and drilling. Then give the example by asking and answering about expression asking and giving opinion then she explained about that. The material involves the exponent of expressing asking and giving opinion and the lexical area is about adjectives for opinion. After explaining the material, she gave the instruction for implementing the game. Then she gave out opinion card game one card for each student. Each card consisted of three different subjects with different opinion. The students were assigned to find someone whose opinions are exactly the same as theirs. Then they were moving around the class to ask for and giving opinions on the subjects listed on their cards until they found someone who agrees with them about everything based on their card. The students who were very rapid in finding their same opinion got the best score. When conducting the game, some of students had great enthusiasts in playing the game. However, they still found difficulties in pronouncing some word, and still got confuse to express about asking and giving opinion. iii.Post-Activity Before closing the class, firstly the writer asked students difficulties during the teaching and learning process. The teacher gave some advice to the student to use their knowledge about giving and asking opinion in their daily life and also use the new vocabulary too. Then the teacher and the students closed the teaching learning process by recited Hamdallah and farewell.

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2) Second meeting Function : Stating Opinion Topic

: Famous things

Game

: Guessing Game

Time

: Friday, April 1st 2011

i.Pre-Activity The writer opened the class by greeting, asking students’ condition, brainstorming, asking students’ readiness in learning and starting by reciting Basmallah. Then the teacher asked the students’ about the previous lesson. ii.Whilst-Activity In whilst-activity, the writer as a practitioner, she showed the picture of famous places and then asked the students to guess the picture by describing it. After the students had finished describing the picture, the teacher explained how to describe it. The teacher and students thought about the other kinds of famous things, the teacher wrote down the students answer on the white board. After that she listed the vocabulary which related to each famous thing. She introduced those new vocabularies by modeling and drilling. The teacher then, divided the class into seven groups, and every group has to delegate a member as a chairperson. The teacher gave the instruction about role of the game until the students understood, then she gave out the envelope that contain picture of famous things (person, band music, and places) every group was given the different picture. The students discussed and analyzed the characteristics of the picture that they have accepted, and they gave some opinion about the picture. All members of the group presented the picture by introducing the characteristics and everything except the name of picture as clues for the group to guess the picture, one member describe at least one clue, whilst the other groups guessed name of the picture by raising their hand first, the other group asked to the presented group used the

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confirmation question if they still lack of information about the picture. The group which could guess the picture correctly would be the winner. When conducting the game, all students had quite enthusiasts in playing the game. They were motivated to speak by describing the picture and by guessing the picture. The cohesive team and the winner got some gift from the teacher. iii.Post-Activity Before closing the class, firstly the writer asked students difficulties during the teaching and learning process. Some advices are also given to students to motivate them to always practice their English and must be cooperate when they are in group. Then the teacher and the students closed the teaching learning process by recited Hamdallah and farewell. c. Observing In this phase the teacher carried out the observation. The teacher as an observer and the writer as a practitioner, the observer tried to notice all activities in the physical classroom activity. It was about the classroom situation,

the students’ response,

participation,

achievement

and

everything which is found during the teaching and learning process and she also observed the teacher’s activities and performance. The observer cased it up through the observational notes. The result is the first meeting on the first cycle was not running well yet. From the student’s side, some of them looked confused, ashamed and afraid when they were asked to speak. They still have difficulties in expressing their ideas, opinion and thoughts, and they are still hard to pronounce the new vocabularies. Furthermore, the class situation was still uncontrolled yet, it was still noisy because there a student as a trouble maker which disturbs the other friend consequently the teaching learning process was ineffective. Moreover, most of students still did not pay attention to the

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teacher’s explanation. On the other hand, there were some of students keep paying attention, answering the teacher question actively and correctly. Meanwhile, from the teacher’s side, she spoke too fast when explaining the material and giving instruction of the rule game, the teacher’s management time was not enough since she took a long time in classroom management. However, the teacher presented the material systematically and guided the students to brave in expressing their ideas and opinion orally. The observation in the second meeting of the first cycle showed that there was slight difference from the first meeting. The students seemed more enthusiastic in following the teaching learning process. Some students paid attention to the teacher explanation though there were few of students still made noise. It was just a few of students who didn’t pay attention to the teacher explanation. Most of students looked be better and brave to speak up than before. But some of them did not work together in group work and they still looked uncooperatively. In the third meeting of the first cycle, in this observing phase there was also carried out the posttest 1 exactly after implemented the second meeting of the first cycle to measure how well the students’ speak comprehend of asking and giving opinion and stating expression that had been studied. The result data showed that the mean score of posttest 1 was 61.1. There were only 19 students or 42.2 % of the students who got the score above the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) meanwhile the other 26 students were below that criterion. It implied that the criteria have not been fulfilled yet. d. Reflecting In this phase the writer and the teacher discussed the strengths and the weakness of the actions and the post-test of the first cycle. They considered that the classroom action research still need to be improved though the writer and the teacher felt satisfied enough because their efforts to improve students’ ability had been developed although not all the

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targets could not accomplish yet. Therefore, they tried to modify the action and in order to achieve the goal of classroom action research and in order the students more fluent and comprehend in speaking and in order 75% of students in the class could pass the KKM. Moreover, the teacher and the writer had to still reflect the weakness of implementing communication games technique. They had to make the students more aware that mastering in English speaking is very important. They also had to encourage the students to participate in playing communication games and performance. They had to design the various games to motivate the students to take part in playing the game. The teacher’s explanation should be more clearly and slowly, she also should give more attention to the entire students in order the class not noisy and give the punishment for the student which didn’t participate and didn’t pay attention. However, regarding the first cycle, the writer and the teacher felt satisfied enough because their efforts to improve students’ ability had been developed although not all the targets could not accomplish yet. The reflecting phase above indicated that the action in first cycle did not achieve the action success yet, so the teacher and the writer had to move on to the next cycle. 2. Second Cycle a. Planning The second cycle was carried out to solve the problem found in the first cycle, which were students still low in speaking ability, especially to speak spontaneously and the participation in following the communication games activities. So, the writer and the collaborator made some new lesson planning for the action based on the revision of the first cycle. In this case, the writer modified the previous lesson plan based on the result of reflecting phase in the first cycle to make the teaching learning process was on the same line with the problem occurred. Like on the first cycle, the lesson plan on the second cycle also implemented the communication

55

games as a method to integrate the learning material for improving students’ speaking ability. The game in this cycle was “Sports and Hobbies” and “Routine and Leisure Activities” However, the language function in the second cycle was about asking and expressing about likes and dislikes. Beside of that, the writer still also prepared the observation notes to monitor the classroom activities and also prepared the posttest on to collect the data. b. Acting The implementation of the classroom action research cycle 2 was conducted on April 08th, 14th and 15th 2011. The action was done based on the second lesson plan. In cycle two, the writer as a teacher in CAR. And the collaborator is the real teacher. This phase occurred in twice meeting. She introduced new material by using dialog and asked the students to practice with their partner and continued the evaluation session by using communication games. 1) First meeting Function : Talking about Like and Dislike Topic

: Sports and Hobbies

Game

: Matching Game

Time

: Friday, April 08th, 2011.

i.Pre Teaching Activity The writer opened the class by greeting, asking students’ condition, asking students’ readiness in learning and starting by reciting Basmallah, and then giving brainstorming related to the topic. ii.Whilst Teaching Activity In whilst-activity, the writer as a practitioner, the teacher asked some students about their hobbies and their favorite sports including like and dislike. The students respond to the teacher question then she corrected the student expression and gave explanation how to express like and dislike. She introduced new vocabularies related the material by modeling and drilling she also introduced the new some expression

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about like and dislike by drilling the students. She also gave the grammatical role of that material. After explaining the material, she gave the instruction about role of playing the game and also gave the example to play it. The objective of that game is to find out the perfect partner. They should try to find someone who is the same as theirs card. The students moved around the class interviewed their friend about their like and dislike until they found someone whose tasted matched theirs. Most of students looked enthusiastic in playing that game. They looked happy when they found the perfect partner. There was still found the students’ wrong expression. After implementing game, the teacher reviewing and correcting the students’ expression about like and dislikes who are not correct yet. iii.Post-Activity. Before closing the class, firstly the writer asked students difficulties during the teaching and learning process. Some advice is also given to students to motivate them to always practice their English. Then the teacher and the students closed the teaching learning process by recited Hamdallah and farewell. 1) Second Meeting Function : Talking about likes and dislikes Agreeing and disagreeing Topic

: Routine and Leisure Activities

Game

: Mill Drill Game

Time

: Thursday, April 14th, 2011

i.Pre Teaching Activity The writer opened the class by greeting, asking students’ condition, brainstorming, asking students’ readiness in learning and starting by reciting Basmallah. Then the teacher asked the students’ about the previous lesson. ii.Whilst Teaching Activity

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In whilst-activity, the teacher asked some students about their likes of activity, and then asked another student to give responds about agrees or disagrees with the student’s answer before. The teacher corrected the students’ response by explaining and giving another example about agreeing and disagreeing of likes and dislikes expression. Then she gave vocabularies related the material by modeling and drilling. The teacher showed the picture and also wrote example dialogues on the board indicating the language the students should use on the game. (Picture card shows going to the bookstore) Student A: Do you like going to the bookstore? (Asking about like) Student B: Yes, I do.

(Expressing Like)

Student A: So do I

(agreeing)

(Picture card shows doing homework) Student A: Do you like doing homework?

(Asking about like)

Student B: No, I don't.

(Expressing dislike)

Student A: Neither/Nor do I/I do.

(Disagreeing)

After explaining the material, the teacher gave the instruction of the rule of game. After the students understood the teacher’s instruction, she gave the one picture card for every student. The students demonstrate the activity in their class using their pictures as prompts. The students moved around the class and asked and answered the questions with many different partners. In this part of the activity, the students repeat the same question several times. When the students have finished, they exchange cards and moved around the class again, this time holding their cards the other way round so the picture was faced their partner. The students took it in turns to ask questions using the pictures on their partners' cards as prompts. In this part of the activity, the students asked a different question each time they change partner. The students continue asking

58

and answering in this way until they have spoken to as many different partners as possible. When conducting the game, all students had great enthusiasts in playing the game. They were motivated spoken to as many different partners as possible. The teacher gave some reward for students who had spoken with many different partners. iii.Post-Activity Before closing the class, firstly the writer asked students difficulties during the teaching and learning process. Some advice is also given to students to motivate them to always practice their English. Then the teacher and the students closed the teaching learning process by recited Hamdallah and farewell. c. Observing In the second cycle, generally the class condition in learning process was better than the previous cycle. It could be seen from the students who were ready to follow the lesson. From the observation result during the teacher conducted the second cycle. The collaborator saw that most of students were enthusiastic to participate in learning speaking through communication games. They looked braver than before in expressing their ideas by using English language and they tried to communicate and interact with the other by English speaking. In doing task of performing game in individual work they looked self autonomous to interact with their friends, but there were still found the students who asked for their friend how to say likes and dislikes. Related to the teacher’s performance, she showed some progresses. It meant that students could understand easily and could play the game easily because the teacher’s explanation was explicit and not so fast. In the second meeting of this cycle, in doing the task, the students had performed game in individual work. They enjoyed doing game and they felt challenging to be competitive. The teacher prepared some rewards for the students who had a good performance in using game of

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their speaking. Automatically, it led a good feedback from students’ response in conveying their expression. Shortly, most of students seemed quite active in the classroom and in speaking through communication game. In the third meeting of cycle two, the teacher was held on posttest 2 regarding students’ speaking improvement through communication game activity were about asking and expressing about likes and dislikes, it was conducted on April 15th, 2011. Based on the result of the posttest 2, the mean score of the class in speaking test gained 70.8 in which there were 37 of 45 students or 82.2 % who passed the KKM 65 (sixty five). d. Reflecting The reflection of Classroom Action Research (CAR) was carried out after getting the score result of speaking test and posttest 2. They felt satisfied inasmuch their efforts to improve the students’ speaking ability through communication game strategy had been realized. The students could speak bravely and fluency. The feedback given makes students compete to get more points from the competition of playing the game. Since the games are applied in teaching process the writer applied the technique by using individual work, group work and pair bring about changes toward student; students who at the first time do not want to participate in the classroom, finally they tends to do their best and they also can make a good relationship with their friend by communicating. Then the satisfaction was proven by their improving scores from the pretest, post-test 1 until post-test 2. The result of the posttest 2 showed that 82.2 % of the students got the score above the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM). So it has got the criterion of success that 75% of the students must get the score above the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM). Because of the satisfied result, the writer and the collaborator did not have to revise the plan and they decided to stop the action.

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C. Findings After Implementing the CAR After the writer implemented the classroom action research in the class of seven grade students of SMP YMJ Ciputat, she carried out the post test in every cycle and also carried out interview to the English teacher who acted as collaborator and observer, to know her response about implementation the action and gave questionnaire to the students to know their response about the implementation of communication games method in teaching learning speaking. 1. The Result of Observational Note The observational notes revealed that the teaching learning process when implementing the communication games has been done well. Although there were some problems occurring in the process of the action such as some students still made noise in the class, some students had difficulty in expressing their ideas, and also some students had difficulty in following the instruction but those problems did not disturb the action. The students still enjoyed the activities and the activities have been done well. It showed that the implementing of communication games has given positive impact on teaching learning process. 2. The Result of Post Interview Post interview conducted in this study was the unstructured interview. It was held on Thursday, May 5th 2010 for the English teacher, started at 10.20 pm and finished at 10.55 pm at the resting time. The interview was done after finishing the second cycle. This interview was aimed to know the teacher’s view about teaching speaking through communication games technique that had been done. In this case, the writer divided into three criteria of questions. Those were the general condition in English class during Classroom Action Research, the difficulties in implementing communication games technique during Classroom Action Research (CAR), and the strategy that had been used to overcome the revised plan.

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According to the teacher, it was found that the students’ condition were better than before. In this sense, they looked enthusiast in participate, the students felt easier to interact with their friends, they can make a good relationship with their friends by communicate. The method built the students’ motivation in learning speaking. It also created fun atmosphere and tends to make the students comfort in their learning. So it reduced the students’ boredom and also reduced their stressful. By giving different worksheet to stimulate students’ desire to speak up and share their different information to create some interaction and communication in the classroom activity. From the summarized of the interview above, it could be conclude that the teacher gave a positive response toward the implementation of communication games in improving students speaking ability. 3. The Result of Post Questionnaire The

students’

response

after

learning

speaking

through

communication games can be seen from the post-questionnaire. The questionnaire used in this study was closed questionnaire. The postquestionnaire was given to the students in seventh grades on Friday, May 6th 2010. It was conducted to know about the students’ response after learning speaking through communication games technique. The postquestionnaire had ten questions which revealed in five issues. There was about the students’ liking for communication games technique, the usefulness, the students’ response, the extent of the role of peers’ responses in improving writing quality, and the teacher’ style during teaching speaking through communication games. The table below showed the result of post questionnaire. Table 4.2 The Result of Post Questionnaire Percentage (%) No 1

Perception The students’ liking

Strongly Agree 24.4

Agree 55.6

Neutral Disagree 20

0

Strongly Disagree 0

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2

3

4

5

for communication games method The usefulness of communication games method The students’ response about teaching speaking through communication games The extent of the role of peers’ responses in improving speaking quality The teacher’s perform during teaching speaking through communication games Total Mean

24.4

57.8

17.7

0

0

20

53.3

22.2

4.4

0

17.8

55.6

24.4

2.2

0

20

53.3

26.7

0

0

106.6 21.32

275.6 55.12

111 22.2

6.6 1.32

0 0

The first issue in Table 4.2 was on the students’ perception of their liking in learning speaking through communication games. It indicated that 24.4 % students strongly agreed and 55.6 % students agreed. Those neither agree nor disagree comprised 20 %. It was clearly indicated in the table that most of the students were like learning speaking through communication games. The second issue was on the students’ perception of the usefulness of communication games method. The Table 4.2 revealed that 24.4 % students strongly agreed and 57.8 % students agreed. Those neither agree nor disagree amounted 17.7 %. It indicated that most of the students agreed that communication games method could motivate them to participate actively in speaking class. The third issue was on the students’ response about teaching speaking through communication games. It was indicated that 20 % students strongly agreed and 53.3 % students agreed. Those neither agree nor disagree amounted 22.2 % and those disagree comprised 4.4 %. No one strongly disagreed.

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The fourth issue was on the extent of the role of peers’ responses in improving speaking quality. The table 4.2 also indicated that 17.8 % students strongly agreed and 55.6 % students agreed. Those were 24.4 % students neither agree nor disagree, but those comprised 2.2 % of students’ disagree and no one strongly disagreed. The last issue was on the students’ response about the teacher’s perform

during

teaching

learning

speaking

process

through

communication games. It was indicated that 20.0 % students strongly agreed and 53.3 % students agreed. Those neither agree nor disagree amounted 26.7 %. No one disagree and strongly disagreed. To sum up the result of the questionnaire from the students view, it indicated that 21.32 % students strongly agreed that communication games technique motivated them to communicate and interact to the other. Those agreed amounted to 55.12 %. Those neither agree nor disagree comprised 22.2 %. It was also clearly indicated in the table that 1.32 % students disagreed and no students strongly disagreed. It meant that 76.45 % of students were motivated during the implemented communication games method in speaking class. This implied that the first criteria of success had been fulfilled. 4. The Result of Post Test Based on the result of students’ speaking achievement, it was found out that the students’ speaking ability in the seven grade of SMP YMJ was gradually improving. It meant that there was a positive impact of communication games strategy toward the increase of students’ ability in English speaking. In the other hand, the use of communication games could increasingly help them became communicative, interactive, expressive, competitive, motivate, enjoy, fun and make them participate to learn for better speaking. Thus, most of them gradually gained good scores at the end of each cycle. To compare the test result between pretest and posttest of each cycle, the writer uses some steps. Those are calculating the students mean

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score of the test, calculating the class percentage, and calculating the students’ improvement score from pretest to posttest 1 and post test 2 into percentage. Here are the results from all the students’ score in this following table: Table 4.3 The Result of Students’ Speaking Score No

Name

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Adi Yandika Agus Priyono Ajeng Dinda Prasetya Aji Muhammad Fadli Andi Setiawan Anita Triyana Dewi Antika Febriyani Bayu Anggoro Putra Budi Ari Wibowo Chairul Jito Lesmana Devi Dwi Novatyani Diana Pungki Dian Ariani Dita Sartika Eki Nurohmah Eni Ida Yati Fajar Purwadi Farida Fauziah Fikri Zulfikar Nawa Perdana Gufron Haryadi Ifan Hasanda Putra Ishmah Nur Fajrina Kartika Ade Septiani Leylyta Maulana M Agus Syarifudin Muhammad Ridwan

y 40 36 48 40 36 48 52 68 44 40 48 56 48 52 72 68 72 68 44 36 40 68 48 40 36 44 44

Score y1 48 52 68 68 60 68 72 72 52 48 56 68 60 64 80 76 76 72 48 48 48 68 56 48 44 52 48

y2 60 64 76 76 72 72 76 80 72 60 68 68 68 76 80 80 80 80 68 60 64 68 72 68 60 68 64

65

28 29 68 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

Rijal Astian Hadly Neneng intan Pandini Nida Hadaya Rafly Adi Saputra Reynald Agusta Alex Riki Anwar Rizal Wahyudi Ruliansyah Sanju Yudistira Pradomas Septi Kris Triastuti Shafira Febianti Shifa Ulniza Suryani Susanto Vika Nurtila Adheliana Viqi Indrianto Wahyu Adia Widiasari Yosef Oktavianus Mauboy Total

44 48 52 48 44 48 68 68 44 56 48 44 52 56 60 36 68 64 2284

52 60 64 60 60 56 72 72 52 68 56 68 68 60 68 48 72 72 2748

60 68 72 68 72 68 68 80 68 68 68 72 68 80 80 72 80 76 3188

a. The result of post-test 1 The result of post test 1 showed that there are only 19 of 45 students who passed the KKM (65). The mean score from the students score is 61.1 and the percentage of students who passed the KKM is 42.2 %. The improvement prom pre-test to post-test 1 is only 20.37 %. That is why the writer and the collaborator considered continuing the second cycle of that action. b. The result of post-test 2 There is a great revulsion from the result of post-test 2. It showed that there are 37 of 45 students who passed the KKM (65). The mean score from the students score is 70.84 and the percentage of students who passed the KKM is 82.2 %. The improvement from pre test to post test 2 is 39.56 %. The post-test of cycle 2 has fulfilled the target of Classroom Action Research (CAR) success, that is above

66

75% students could pass the KKM. Automatically, it can be said that the Classroom Action Research (CAR) is success and the cycle is stopped Furthermore, the writer covered the result of students’ speaking improvement and class percentage including the pretest, posttest 1, and posttest 2 into charts as these following:

Figure 4.1 The Average of the Students’ Speaking Improvement

100 Pre test 50

Post test I

0

Post test II

Students’ Speaking Average

Figure 4.2 The Percentage of the Students’ Speaking Improvement

100 Pre test Post test I

50

Post Test II 0

Students’ Speaking Percentage

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTION

This chapter provides conclusions and suggestion. The conclusion in this study is derived from the data and factual conditions related to the technique used which are found during this research conducted. The suggestions are presented in two kinds of suggestions; suggestion for English teacher in teaching speaking, and suggestion for other researcher who want to conduct the study in similar field of study.

A. Conclusion According to the result of implementing classroom action research in the seventh grade of students’ of SMP YMJ (Yayasan Miftahul Jannah) Ciputat, it showed a great improvement that the mean score of students in pre test was 50.76, whereas from post test 1 was 61.1 and from post test 2 are 70.84. Besides, the students’ score percentage in the pretest is 20 %, from post test 1 is 42.20 % and 82.2 % from post test of students who passed the KKM. Next, the result of the students’ score improvement from pretest to posttest 1 is 20.37 %, and from pretest to posttest 2 is 39.56 %. So it achieved the criteria of success. Based on the result of observational notes it showed that the students enthusiastic, and actively participate in learning speaking by using communication games. Moreover the result of the questionnaire given to the students after using communication games in teaching speaking showed that

67

68

the students gave positive responses toward that action. It motivated students to learn speaking English which is reduced students’ hesitation in speaking and reduced the student boredom in speaking class activity. It could overcome their difficulty in term of pronouncing the word or sentences, structure, vocabularies, fluency, and comprehension. They can share their ideas by English speaking with their interlocutors. Finally, the teacher’s response about the implementation of communication games was positive and it would be alternative strategy in solving the problem of teaching learning speaking process. It can be concluded that communication games technique could improve the students speaking ability of the seventh grade of SMP YMJ Ciputat and also could make their classroom atmosphere more interesting and make students easier to speak up.

B. Suggestion After concluding the result of this study, the writer would like to offer some suggestions to the English teachers and to the other researcher. Firstly, for the English teacher, they are: 1. It would be better for the teachers to use the communication games technique because this technique is effective enough to improve the students’ speaking skill. Besides, it could be an alternative to overcome students’ boredom. Indeed, that students need to have interesting and enjoyable language learning in order to raise the students motivation in the teaching learning process. 2. The teacher could use this technique to measure the students speaking skill one by one. 3. The teacher can use various game of communication game in engage the students in communicative activity. Secondly for the future researcher, particularly those who have the same problem and are interested in conducting research, they are:

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1. It is suggested that teacher should continue this kind of technique using some modification of the procedure and improvement. 2. It is suggested that teacher should apply this kind of technique for another level. 3. The result of this study can be used as an additional reference or further research with different discussion. 4. Hopefully, there will be any further research of how to make this technique better.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Brudden, M Philips. Effective English Teaching, 2nd edition, New York: The Bob’s Merril Company, 1995. Bygate, Martin. Language Teaching: A Scheme for Teacher Education; SPEAKING, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Byrne, Don. Teaching oral English. Singapore: Longman Groups, 1986. Celce – Murcia, Marianne. Teaching English as A Second or Foreign Language (Third Edition), USA: Thomson learning, 2001. Davinson, Jon and Jane Dowson. Learning to Teach English in the Secondary School 2nd Edition, New York: Routledge Falmer, 2003. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Model Pembelajaran Yang Efektif, Jakarta: Depdiknas, 2009. Ersoz, Aydan Six Games for the EFL/ESL Classroom; The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000. http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/Lessons/ErsozGames.html. (Retrieved on January, 12 2011) Folse, S Keith. The Art of Teaching Speaking. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2009. Freeman, G. Ronald. 101+ Ways to Stimulate Conversation in a Foreign Language, New York: ACTFL Material Center. Garton, Alison and Chris Pratt, Learning to be Literate: The Development of Spoken and Written Language, New York: Basil Blackwell, 1989. Hadfield, Jill. Intermediate Communication Games, Edinburgh: Longman, 1996. Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching; New Edition, New York: Longman, 1991.

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Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching (Third Edition), Edinburgh: Longman, 2001. . How to Teach English (New Edition), Edinburgh: Longman, 2007. Hoge, AJ. Powerful English Speaking, http://www.effortlessEnglishClub.com, (retrieved on July, 1st. 2010). Huyen, Nguyen Thi Thanh and Khuat Thi Thu Nga, Learning Vocabulary Through Games, Asian EFL Journal - December 2003. http://www.asianefl-journal.com/dec_03_sub.Vn.php. (Retrieved on January, 12th 2011). Kayi, Hayriye. Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language,http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kayi-TeachingSpeaking.html (retrieved on June, 17. 2010) Kim, Lee Su. Creative Games for the Language Class Forum. Vol. 33 No 1, January-March,1995. http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum/archives/1995/docs/9533-1-l.pdf. (Retrieved on January, 12th 2011) Larcabal, Rita Susana. The role of Game in Language Acquisition, Washington D.C: English Teaching Forum, 1992. Larsen Preeman, Diana. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (Second edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. LEE, W. R. Language Teaching Games and Contest (Second Edition), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. Lengeling, M. Martha and Casey Malarcher, Forum Vol. 35 No 4, October – December.1997.http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum/archives /1997/docs/97-35-4-h.pdf. (Retrieved on January, 12th 2011). Levelt, Willem J. M. Speaking: From Intention to Articulation, United States: The MIT Press, 1989. Luoma, Sari. Assessing Speaking, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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Lynch, Tony. Communication in the Language Classroom, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996 McCallum, P George. 101 Word Games: For Students of English as a Second or Foreign Language, New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. McDonough, Jo and Christopher Shaw, Material & Method in ELT: A Teacher’s Guide, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1993. Nunan, David. Language Teaching Methodology: A textbook for teachers, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1991. . . Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. . Second Language Teaching & Learning, Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publisher, 1999. Richards, Jack C, et.al. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. . Teaching Speaking and Listening: From Theory to Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Rivers, Wilga M. Teaching Foreign Language Skill, 2nd edition, Chicago: the University of Chicago press, 1981. Sahanaya, Wendy and Jeremy Lindeck. Preparation and Practice: Listening and Speaking. California: Oxford University Press, 2003. Scrivener, Jim. Learning Teaching: A guide book for English Language Teachers, Macmillan: Macmillan, 2005. Shoemaker, Connie L. and F. Folyd Shoemaker. Interactive Techniques for the ESL Classroom, (Boston: Heinie and Heinie Publisher, 1997), p. 73.

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Sudjiono, Anas, Drs. Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan, Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2006. Tarigan, Henry Guntur. Berbicara sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa, Bandung: Angkasa, 1986. Uberman, Agnieszka. The Use of Games For Vocabulary Presentation and Revision, Forum, Vol. 36 No 1, January - March 1998 Page 20. http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum/archives/1998/docs/9836-1-d.pdf (Retrieved on January 12th, 2011). Underhill, Nic. Testing Spoken Language a hand book of oral testing techniques. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Wallace, J Michael. Action Research for Language Teachers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Wallace, Trudy et. al. Teaching speaking, listening, and writing. The International academy of Education. http://www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/dept/smec/iae. (retrieved on July, 15th 2010). Wright, Andrew, et,al. Games for Language Learning (Third Edition), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Woods, Caroline. Teaching and Assessing Skills in Foreign Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

APPENDICES

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Appendix 2 : Interview for the English Teacher of SMP YMJ Ciputat in the Preliminary Study TEACHER’S INTERVIEW 1. What is your educational background? 2. How long have you been teaching English at YMJ Junior High School? 3. Have you ever found some problems in teaching speaking since you taught in SMP YMJ? 4. What kind of difficulties do you find in teaching speaking? 5. What are the causes of the students’ difficulties in learning speaking? 6. What are strategies or techniques do you use in teaching speaking? 7. How are students’ responses in speaking class? 8. How is the Minimum Mastery Criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Mengajar (KKM)? 9. How are their scores in speaking subject? 10. How is their speaking ability compared to their ability before they study in your class? 11. What should the English teacher do to improve the students’ ability in speaking? 12. Have you ever implicated communication games technique in teaching speaking in the classroom? 13. Is there any plan to break a way of the students’ difficulties in speaking?

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The result of Interview of the English Teacher of SMP YMJ Ciputat in the Preliminary Study

Interviewer

: Musrifatul Khairiyah

Interviewee

: Misbahuddin, S. Pd

Day/date

: Thursday, March 17th 2011

1. What is your educational background? I am the alumni of English Education Department, Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta. 2. How long have you been teaching English at SMP YMJ? I have been teaching English at YMJ Junior High School for 1 year. 3. Have you ever found some problems in teaching speaking since you taught in SMP YMJ? Of course I had ever 4. What kind of difficulties do you find in teaching speaking? When I find my students have different comprehension for speaking. 5. What are the causes of the students’ difficulties in learning speaking? They are unusual using speaking in their daily life. They were afraid in making mistake to pronounce the word and sentence. They still a lack of vocabulary. 6. What are strategies or techniques do you use in teaching speaking? I usually use the dialog or role play method in teaching speaking 7. How are students’ responses in speaking class? Their responses are quite good but most of them are passive in English speaking. 8. How is the Minimum Mastery Criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Mengajar (KKM)? The KKM for English subject are 65. 9. How is the students’ achievement in speaking subject? They achieve 68 % in average for speaking.

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10. How is their speaking ability compared to their ability before they study in your class? Hmmm. At first, Most of them were poor in English speaking but now they are quite good in speaking although most of them still found difficulties in expressing their idea by using English. They still felt comport speak bahasa than English. 11. What should the English teacher do to improve the students’ ability in speaking? The English teacher should vary the techniques; give the vocabularies before giving the theme of speaking. 12. Have you ever implicated communication games technique in teaching speaking in the classroom? No, I haven’t ever implicated it. 13. Is there any plan to break a way of the students’ difficulties in speaking? Yes, there are some plans to break away their difficulties. I as a teacher should prepare the interesting method in order to take their attention in learning speaking skill. I should create the various techniques to solve their difficulties.

Interviewer

Musrifatul Khairiyah

Ciputat, March 17th 2011 Interviewee

Misbahudin, S. Pd

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Appendix 3: Interview Guidelines for the English Teacher of SMP YMJ Ciputat in the Last Classroom Action Research TEACHER’S INTERVIEW 1. What is your opinion about the students’ condition in learning speaking after implementing the communication games activities? 2. Are they motivated in following the teaching learning process after using communication games activities in speaking class? 3. How about their speaking ability of seventh grade class compared to their ability before they learn speaking by using communication games activity? 4. How about their participation and enthusiastic when the teaching learning process used communication games activities? 5. What is your opinion about students’ speaking ability after implemented communication games technique in teaching learning speaking? 6. Do you feel be motivated after implemented communication games technique for teaching learning in your classroom? 7. What was the problem that can be seen when teaching speaking used communication games? 8. After you observed the classroom activities, is communication games technique effective to be implemented in teaching learning speaking? 9. In your opinion, can communication games technique improve the students’ speaking ability in learning English?

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The result of Interview of the English Teacher of SMP YMJ Ciputat in the Last of Classroom Action Research

Interviewer

: Musrifatul Khairiyah

Interviewee

: Misbahuddin, S. Pd

Day/date

: Thursday, May 5th 2011

1. What is your opinion about the students’ condition in learning speaking after implementing the communication games technique? I think communication game has made good condition for the students, they are interesting in the teaching learning speaking process. That technique makes the students active and interactive. 2. Are they motivated in following the teaching learning process after using communication games activities in speaking class? Yes, they are. I have seen that generally the students enjoyed to study in the classroom. It also created fun atmosphere and tends to make the students comfort in their learning. 3. How about their speaking ability of seventh grade class compared to their ability before they learn speaking by using communication games activity? Before using communication game, the students generally had no enough self confidence to speak up, so their speaking ability did not improve yet. On the other hand, they had low degree in speaking skill. 4. How about their participation and enthusiastic when the teaching learning process used communication games activities? Communication Game has made the students active and motivate when teaching learning process. In addition, when the students was given different worksheet it was stimulate students’ desire to speak up and share their different information to create some interaction and communication in the classroom activity.

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5. What is your opinion about students’ speaking ability after implemented communication games technique in teaching learning speaking? In my opinion, students’ speaking ability has been improved after using communication game, especially for the topic asking and giving opinion, and expressing like and dislike. The most important is generally the students have self confident to speak up. They also felt easier to interact with their friends, and they can make a good relationship with their friends by communicate. 6. Do you feel be motivated after implementing communication games technique for teaching learning in your classroom? Yes, I do. My students are more active in teaching learning process. 7. What was the problem that can be seen when teaching speaking used communication games? In my opinion, the problem that had raised when teaching learning process is the background knowledge of the students that caused a view of them still depended on another students, so the just have a little motivation to compete with the others. 8. After you observed the classroom activities, is communication games technique effective to be implemented in teaching learning speaking? Yes, it is. It is very useful for the English teacher and also for the students because the technique was effective and made students can communicate easily. 9. In your opinion, can communication games technique improve the students’ speaking ability in learning English? Yes, it can. By using Communication Game it creates the communication activity and gives a big opportunity for the students to learn orally than written. Besides, it reduced the students’ boredom and also reduced their stressful. Interviewer

Musrifatul Khairiyah

Ciputat, May 5th 2011 Interviewee

Misbahudin, S. Pd

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Appendix 4 : Questionnaire for the Students in the Seventh Grade of SMP YMJ Ciputat in the Preliminary Study

STUDENTS’ QUESTIONAIRE

PETUNJUK: 1. Pertanyaan – pertanyaan berikut ini berkaitan dengan pengajaran berbicara pada pelajaran bahasa Inggris. 2. Jawablah dengan jujur sesuai dengan keadaan sebenarnya 3. Bacalah dengan seksama setiap pernyataan di bawah ini 4. Beri tanda checklist (√ ) pada salah satu pilihan jawaban dalam kolom yang telah disediakan, dengan keterangan sebagai berikut: SS : Sangat Setuju S : Setuju BS : Biasa Saja TS : Tidak setuju STS: Sangat Tidak Setuju 5. Tidak ada jawaban yang bernilai benar atau salah, tetapi yang ada merupakan pendapat atau kondisi yang saudara/i rasakan 6. Kerjakan setiap nomor, jangan sampai ada yang terlewatkan. 7. Terimakasih atas bantuan dan kerjasamanya. Alternatif Jawaban No Pernyataan SS S BS TS STS 1 Saya sangat suka mengikuti pelajaran bahasa Inggris di kelas. 2 Diantara 4 (empat) kecakapan berbahasa: menyimak (listening), berbicara (speaking), membaca (reading), dan menulis (writing), Berbicara (Speaking) dalam bahasa Inggris adalah yang paling sulit. 3 Cara guru mengajar pada pelajaran berbicara dalam bahasa Inggris sangat menyenangkan. 4 Teknik yang digunakan guru dapat mengatasi kesulitan saya dalam berbicara bahasa Inggris. 5 Saya merasa puas dengan nilai bahasa Inggris materi berbicara (speaking) selama ini.

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The Result of Students’ Questionnaire in the Seventh Grade of SMP YMJ Ciputat in Preliminary Study

RECAPITULATION OF THE PRE QUESTIONNAIRE RESULT N o 1

2

Statements Saya sangat suka mengikuti pelajaran bahasa Inggris di kelas. Diantara 4 (empat) kecakapan berbahasa: menyimak (listening), berbicara (speaking), membaca (reading), dan menulis (writing), Berbicara (Speaking) dalam bahasa Inggris adalah kategori yang paling sulit untuk dipelajari dan di gunakan.

A

Score B c d

E

4

17

20

5

0

8.8 37.7

44. 4

11

0

20

10

8

7

0

44. 22 4

17. 7

15. 5

0

11

21

10

2

2.2

24. 46. 4 6

22. 4.4 2

11

15

14

3

4.4

24. 33. 4 3

31

15

13

8

2

15. 33. 28. 5 3 8

Cara guru mengajar pada pelajaran berbicara 1 dalam bahasa Inggris sangat menyenangkan. Teknik yang digunakan 4 guru dapat mengatasi 2 kesulitan saya dalam berbicara bahasa Inggris. Saya merasa puas 5 dengan nilai bahasa 7 Inggris materi berbicara (speaking) selama ini. Note: a = sangat setuju b = setuju c = biasa saja d = tidak setuju e = sangat tidak setuju

a

Percentage b C d

e

3

6.7

17. 4.4 7

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Appendix 5: Questionnaire for the Students in the Seventh Grade of SMP YMJ Ciputat in the Last of Classroom Action Research

STUDENTS’ QUESTIONAIRE

PETUNJUK: 1. Pertanyaan – pertanyaan berikut ini berkaitan dengan motivasi belajar berbicara dalam bahasa inggris dengan menggunakan metode communication games activities yang di terapkan di kelas anda pada pelajaran bahasa Inggris. 2. Jawablah dengan jujur sesuai dengan keadaan sebenarnya 3. Bacalah dengan seksama setiap pernyataan di bawah ini 4. Beri tanda checklist (√ ) pada salah satu pilihan jawaban dalam kolom yang telah disediakan, dengan keterangan sebagai berikut: SS : Sangat Setuju S : Setuju BS : Biasa Saja TS : Tidak setuju STS: Sangat Tidak Setuju 5. Tidak ada jawaban yang bernilai benar atau salah, tetapi yang ada merupakan pendapat atau kondisi yang saudara/i rasakan 6. Kerjakan setiap nomor, jangan sampai ada yang terlewatkan. 7. Terimakasih atas bantuak dan kerjasamanya.

No

Pernyataan

1

Communication Games adalah teknik yang menarik dalam belajar berbicara bahasa inggris. Teknik Communication Games mengajarkan saya untuk bisa mengungkapkan ide-ide dengan menggunakan bahsa inggris dan saling bertukar pendapat, berkompetisi, bekerjasama dan menghargai orang lain. Dengan strategi Communication Games, saya merasa mudah untuk merespon

2

3

SS

Alternatif Jawaban S BS TS

STS

82

4

5

dan menyampaikan pendapat mengenai materi yang sedang dipelajari. Dengan mengungkapkan pendapat saya di depan kelas, memotivasi saya untuk membiasakan berbicara menggunakan bahasa inggris dan belajar lebih giat lagi. Cara guru mengajar dengan menggunakan permainan sangat menyenangkan. Note:

a = sangat setuju b = setuju c = biasa saja d = tidak setuju e = sangat tidak setuju

83

The Result of Students’ Questionnaire in the Seventh Grade of SMP YMJ Ciputat in the Last of Classroom Action Research

No 1

2

3

4

5

RECAPITULATION OF THE POST QUESTIONNAIRE RESULT Score Percentage Questions a b c d e a b c d Communication Games adalah teknik yang menarik dalam 11 25 9 0 0 24.4 55.6 20 0 belajar berbicara bahasa inggris. Teknik Communication Games mengajarkan saya untuk bisa mengungkapkan ide-ide dengan menggunakan 11 26 8 0 0 24.4 57.8 17.7 0 bahsa inggris dan saling bertukar pendapat, berkompetisi, bekerjasama dan menghargai orang lain. Dengan strategi Communication Games, saya merasa mudah untuk merespon 0 20 53.3 22.2 4.4 9 24 10 2 dan menyampaikan pendapat mengenai materi yang sedang dipelajari. Dengan mengungkapkan pendapat saya di depan kelas, memotivasi saya untuk 0 17.8 55.6 24.4 2.2 8 25 11 1 membiasakan berbicara menggunakan bahasa inggris dan belajar lebih giat lagi. Cara guru mengajar dengan menggunakan permainan 9 24 12 0 0 20 53.3 26.7 0 sangat menyenangkan. Note: a = sangat setuju b = setuju c = biasa saja d = tidak setuju e = sangat tidak setuju

e 0

0

0

0

0

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Appendix 6: Observation Note in Preliminary Study Pre-Observational Note for Need Analysis1

Action : Pre observation Date

: Friday, March 11th 2011

Time : 11.10 AM – 12.20 PM Topic : Shopping What learners do

What this involves

 Reading the new  Students are dialog from LKS involved in book partner work  Listening and  Students try to Repeating the pronounce the teacher said sentence based  Performing on the teacher dialog with their said. partner  Translate the new vocabulary from dialog  Answering the question related to the dialog

Teacher’s purpose The teacher explained the new dialog and engaged students to answer the question related to the dialog individually.

Comment  Most of students didn’t pay attention to the teacher’s explanation; they keep talking with their friends  The teacher got some difficulties to attract the students’ attention  Most of students didn’t do the exercises and some was out of the class  Students are rarely active because they didn’t opportunity to participate in the classroom  The classroom activity tends to the teacher centered Observer

Misbahuddin, S. Pd 1

Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching; Practice and Theory, (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996), p. 323

85

Appendix 7: Observation Note in the Cycle 1

Observational Note for Need Analysis Action : 1st of 1st cycle Date

: Thursday, March 31st 2011

Time : 08.10 – 09.30 AM Topic : Opinion Poll (asking and giving opinion)

What learners do  Respond the teacher question  Drilling new expression  Playing game individually  Find out someone who matches with their opinion of card.

What this involves

Teacher’s purpose

 Students are respond interpersonally  Students are involved in individual work  Students try to pronounce the sentence of expression  Students try to communicate and shared information with their friend.

The teacher gave the some expression that will be used in teaching-learning activities and engage students to use that expression into communication games

Comment  some students didn’t pay attention to the teacher’s command  Some students looked confused, ashamed and afraid when they were asked to speak.  The teacher spoke too fast when explaining the material and when giving instruction of the rule game  The classroom management reduced in long time. Observer

Misbahuddin, S. Pd

86

Observational Note for Need Analysis Action : 2nd of 1st cycle Date

: Friday, April 01st 2011

Time : 08.10 – 09.30 AM Topic : Famous thing (Stating Opinion) What learners do  Reviewing the expression of asking and giving opinion  Pronouncing the new vocabularies related to the topic.  Doing games in each group  Competitive with another group

What this involves  Students are respond interpersonally  Students are involved in group work  Students discussed and shared information with their group.  Students stated their opinion in front of class.

Teacher’s purpose The teacher engage the students’ vocabulary size into semantic mapping to get the student know more word and help them to remember the new words

Comment  Most of students looked be better and brave to speak up than before.  The students seemed more enthusiastic in following the teaching learning process.  Some students paid attention to the teacher explanation though there were few of students still made noise.  some of them did not work together in group work and they still looked uncooperatively Observer

Misbahuddin, S. Pd

87

Appendix 8: Observation Note in the Cycle 2

Observational Note for Need Analysis Action : 1st of 2nd cycle Date

: Thursday, April 7th 2011

Time : 08.10 – 09.30 AM Topic : Sports and Hobbies (Talking about likes and dislikes)

What learners do  Listening to the teacher explanation about like and dislike  Responding the teacher question to express their hobbies and their favorite sports.  Pronouncing the new vocabularies  Pronouncing the expression of likes and dislikes.  Finding someone who same as their own.

What this involves  Students respond interpersonally  Students interviewed their friend in classroom  Students are involved in individual work  Students interact and share with their friend about their likes and dislikes

Teacher’s purpose

Comment

 Most of students  The teacher let them to were communicate enthusiastic to with their friends participate in  Let them to find learning someone who speaking. same as their  Some of tasted students looked  Let them to braver than express their before in idea in expressing likes individual work and dislikes. to know how far  Few of students the students’ still depend on work by their their friend selves. although they have to work individually.

Observer

Misbahuddin, S. Pd

88

Observational Note for Need Analysis Action : 2nd of 2nd cycle Date

: Friday, April 8th 2011

Time : 08.10 – 09.30 AM Topic : Routine and Leisure Activities (Talking about likes and dislikes and agreeing and disagreeing) What learners do  Reviewing about like and dislike  Listening to the teacher explanation about agreeing and disagreeing  Responding the teacher question to express their like’s activities.  Pronouncing the new vocabularies  Pronouncing the expression of agreeing and disagreeing  Moving around the class to ask and answer the questions with many different partners.

What this involves  Students respond interpersonally  Student demonstrated the activity through picture.  Students interviewed their friend in classroom  Students asked a different question each time they change partner.  The students continue asking and answering in this way until they have spoken to as many different partners as possible.

Teacher’s purpose Teacher retained and enriched the expression about likes and dislikes also agreeing and disagreeing.

Comment  The teacher corrected the students expression  Students had great enthusiasts in playing the game.  Students were motivated spoken to as many different partners as possible.  Almost all of the student do their task well  The teacher gave some reward for students who had spoken with many different partners. Observer

Misbahuddin, S. Pd

89

Appendix 9: Students Speaking Score in the Preliminary Study

THE RESULT OF THE STUDENTS' SCORE IN THE PRELIMINARY STUDY No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 68 31

Name Adi Yandika Agus Priyono Ajeng Dinda Prasetya Aji Muhammad Fadli Andi Setiawan Anita triyana Dewi Antika Febriyani Bayu Anggoro Putra Budi Ari Wibowo Chairul Jito Lesmana Devi Dwi Novatyani Diana Pungki Dian Ariani Dita Sartika Eki Nurohmah Eni Ida Yati Fajar Purwadi Farida Fauziah Fikri Zulfikar Nawa Perdana Gufron Haryadi Ifan Hasanda Putra Ishmah Nur Fajrina Kartika Ade Septiani Leylyta Maulana M Agus Syarifudin Muhammad Ridwan Rijal Astian Hadly Neneng intan Pandini Nida Hadaya Rafly Adi Saputra

P 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2

G 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3

V 2 1 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 2 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2

F 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3

Total 10 9 12 10 9 12 13 17 11 10 12 14 12 13 18 17 18 17 11 9 10 17 12 10 9 11 11 11 12 13 12

Score 40 36 48 40 36 48 52 68 44 40 48 56 48 52 72 68 72 68 44 36 40 68 48 40 36 44 44 44 48 52 48

90

32 Reynald Agusta Alex 2 3 2 33 Riki Anwar 2 2 3 34 Rizal Wahyudi 3 3 4 35 Ruliansyah 4 3 4 36 Sanju Yudistira Pradomas 2 3 2 37 Septi Kris Triastuti 3 2 3 38 Shafira Febianti 2 2 3 39 Shifa Ulniza 2 2 3 40 Suryani 3 3 2 41 Susanto 2 3 3 42 Vika Nurtila Adheliana 3 3 3 43 Viqi Indrianto 2 2 1 44 Wahyu Adia Widiasari 3 3 4 45 Yosef Oktavianus Mauboy 3 3 3 Total 119 105 121 Mean 2.6 2.3 2.7 Maximum Minimum Note: P : pronunciation F: Fluency G: Grammar C: Comprehension V: Vocabulary KKM: 65 No Level Number of Students Percentage 1 65 - 100 9 20 2 0 – 65 36 80 Total 45 100

Researcher

Musrifatul Khairiyah

2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 107 2.4

2 3 4 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 4 4 119 2.6

11 12 17 17 11 14 12 11 13 14 15 9 17 16 571 12.7

44 48 68 68 44 56 48 44 52 56 60 36 68 64 2284 50.76 72 36

Ciputat, March 24th 2011 English Teacher

Misbahudin, S. Pd

91

Appendix 10: Students Speaking Score in the First Cycle

THE RESULT OF THE STUDENTS' SCORE IN CYCLE I No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 68 31 32 33

Name Adi Yandika Agus Priyono Ajeng Dinda Prasetya Aji Muhammad Fadli Andi Setiawan Anita triyana Dewi Antika Febriyani Bayu Anggoro Putra Budi Ari Wibowo Chairul Jito Lesmana Devi Dwi Novatyani Diana Pungki Dian Ariani Dita Sartika Eki Nurohmah Eni Ida Yati Fajar Purwadi Farida Fauziah Fikri Zulfikar Nawa Perdana Gufron Haryadi Ifan Hasanda Putra Ishmah Nur Fajrina Kartika Ade Septiani Leylyta Maulana M Agus Syarifudin Muhammad Ridwan Rijal Astian Hadly Neneng intan Pandini Nida Hadaya Rafly Adi Saputra Reynald Agusta Alex Riki Anwar

P 2 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 2 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

G 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2

V 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

F 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3

C 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 3

Total 12 13 17 17 15 17 18 18 13 12 14 17 15 16 20 19 19 18 12 12 12 17 14 12 11 13 12 13 15 16 15 15 14

Score 48 52 68 68 60 68 72 72 52 48 56 68 60 64 80 76 76 72 48 48 48 68 56 48 44 52 48 52 60 64 60 60 56

92

34 Rizal Wahyudi 4 3 4 35 Ruliansyah 4 3 4 36 Sanju Yudistira Pradomas 3 3 2 37 Septi Kris Triastuti 4 3 3 38 Shafira Febianti 3 2 3 39 Shifa Ulniza 4 3 3 40 Suryani 4 3 3 41 Susanto 3 3 3 42 Vika Nurtila Adheliana 3 3 4 43 Viqi Indrianto 3 2 2 44 Wahyu Adia Widiasari 4 3 4 45 Yosef Oktavianus Mauboy 4 3 4 Total 145 122 147 Mean 3.2 2.7 3.3 Maximum Minimum Note: P : pronunciation F: Fluency G: Grammar C: Comprehension V: Vocabulary KKM: 65 No Level Number of Students Percentage 1 65 - 100 19 42.2 2 0 – 65 26 57.8 Total 45 100

Researcher

Musrifatul Khairiyah

3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 122 2.7

4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 151 3.4

18 18 13 17 14 17 17 15 17 12 18 18 687 15.3

72 72 52 68 56 68 68 60 68 48 72 72 2748 61.1 80 44

Ciputat, April 7th 2011 English Teacher

Misbahudin, S. Pd

93

Appendix 11: Students Speaking Score in the Second Cycle

THE RESULT OF THE STUDENTS' SCORE IN CYCLE II No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 68 31

Name Adi Yandika Agus Priyono Ajeng Dinda Prasetya Aji Muhammad Fadli Andi Setiawan Anita triyana Dewi Antika Febriyani Bayu Anggoro Putra Budi Ari Wibowo Chairul Jito Lesmana Devi Dwi Novatyani Diana Pungki Dian Ariani Dita Sartika Eki Nurohmah Eni Ida Yati Fajar Purwadi Farida Fauziah Fikri Zulfikar Nawa Perdana Gufron Haryadi Ifan Hasanda Putra Ishmah Nur Fajrina Kartika Ade Septiani Leylyta Maulana M Agus Syarifudin Muhammad Ridwan Rijal Astian Hadly Neneng intan Pandini Nida Hadaya Rafly Adi Saputra

P 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3

G 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

V 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 4

F 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

C 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4

Total 15 16 19 19 18 18 19 20 18 15 17 17 17 19 20 20 20 20 17 15 16 17 18 17 15 17 16 15 17 18 17

Score 60 64 76 76 72 72 76 80 72 60 68 68 68 76 80 80 80 80 68 60 64 68 72 68 60 68 64 60 68 72 68

94

32 Reynald Agusta Alex 3 4 3 33 Riki Anwar 3 4 3 34 Rizal Wahyudi 4 3 3 35 Ruliansyah 4 4 4 36 Sanju Yudistira Pradomas 3 3 4 37 Septi Kris Triastuti 4 3 3 38 Shafira Febianti 4 3 3 39 Shifa Ulniza 4 3 3 40 Suryani 4 3 4 41 Susanto 4 4 4 42 Vika Nurtila Adheliana 4 4 4 43 Viqi Indrianto 4 3 4 44 Wahyu Adia Widiasari 4 4 4 45 Yosef Oktavianus Mauboy 4 3 4 Total 162 148 165 Mean 3.6 3.3 3.7 Maximum Minimum Note: P : pronunciation F: Fluency G: Grammar C: Comprehension V: Vocabulary KKM: 65 No Level Number of Students Percentage 1 65 - 100 37 82.22 2 0 – 65 8 17.78 Total 45 100

Researcher

Musrifatul Khairiyah

4 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 149 3.31

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 173 3.84

18 17 17 20 17 17 17 18 17 20 20 18 20 19 797 17.71

Ciputat, April 15th 2011 English Teacher

Misbahudin, S. Pd

72 68 68 80 68 68 68 72 68 80 80 72 80 76 3188 70.84 80 60

96

Appendix 13: Lesson Plan of the First Cycle

RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP) SPEAKING

IDENTITAS Satuan Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Kelas / Semester Tema Pertemuan/siklus Aspek / Skill Alokasi Waktu Jenis Games Tahun Pelajaran

: SMP YMJ Ciputat : Bahasa Inggris : VII (Tujuh) / 2 : Opinion Poll :1/I : Berbicara : 2 x 40 menit : Matching Game : 2010/2011

I. STANDAR KOMPETENSI Berbicara (9) Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks percakapan transaksional dan interpersonal sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat.

II. KOMPETENSI DASAR Berbicara (9.1) Mengungkapkan makna dalan percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) sangat sederhana dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat yang mellibatkan tindak tutur: meminta dan memberi pendapat.

IV. INDIKATOR Merespon ungkapan-ungkapan: 1. Menyatakan meminta pendapat 2. Memberi pendapat

97

3. Merespon secara interpersonal 4. Berinteraksi melalui permainan

V. TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa dapat: 1. Menggunakan ungkapan meminta pendapat 2. Menggunakan ungkapan memberi pendapat 3. Merespon secara interpersonal 4. Menemukan teman yang pendapatnya sama

VI. MATERI PEMBELAJARAN 1. Expression: a. Asking opinion

b. Giving opinion

What do you think about....

I think it’s...........

What about......

I don’t know. Maybe it’s…

What is your opinion about....?

In my opinion....

Do you have any opinion?

I fell...........

2. Vocabularies: Good voice, beautiful, handsome, ugly, awful, cute, funny, sweet, sexy, cool, attractive, etc. 3. Lexical area: Adjectives for opinion

VIII. ATURAN PERMAINAN 

Siswa di beri katru yang berisi pendapat mengenai artis.



Masing – masing diberi satu kartu yang berisi 3 orang artis.



Setiap kartu berisi pendapat yang berbeda dan ada juga yang sama.



Semua siswa harus berpindah tempat untuk mencari dan menemukan teman yang mempunyai pendapat yang sama mengenai ke tiga artis tersebut.

98



Untuk menemukannya mereka harus bertanya dan menjawab dengan ungkapan – ungkapan asking and giving opinion yang telah dijelaskan dan telah dilatihkan oleh guru.



Mereka tidak diperkenankkan duduk sebelum mereka menemukan teman yang setuju dengan pendapat yang ada di kartu yang mereka pegang.



Mereka harus mendata siapa saja yang pendapatnya sama dengan dirinya.



Siswa di beri waktu 10 menit untuk menemukan dan mendata teman yang setuju dengan pendapatnya masing - masing



Bagi yang tecepat menemukan teman yang setuju dengan pendapatnya akan mendapatkan poin.

VIII. METODE PEMBELAJARAN/ TEKNIK: 

Communication Games

IX. LANGKAH-LANGKAH KEGIATAN : KEGIATAN

Waktu ( menit )

I. Kegiatan awal : 10 Menit  Greeting (memberi salam dan tegur sapa)  Tanya jawab berbagai hal terkait kondisi siswa  Menyiapkan dan membaca Basmallah  Memberikan gambaran tema yang akan dipelajari (asking and giving opinion).  Brainstorming (guru mengabsen siswa sambil menanyakan hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan tema yang akan dibahas) II. Kegiatan Inti :  Guru menuliskan beberapa vocabulary yang 65 Menit terkait dengan materi, dan melakukan drilling.  Guru menunjukkan satu foto artis, lalu meminta siswa untuk memberi pendapat

Aspek / skill yang di kembangkan Menyiapkan diri siswa sebelum masuk materi baru.

Siswa dapat meminta dan memberi pendapat dengan lisan

99

   

  

tentang foto yang ditunjukkan, setelah itu siswa tersebut meminta siswa lain untuk memberikan pendapat yang berbeda mengenai foto tersebut. Guru menulis di papan tulis tentang pendapat beberapa siswa. Guru membenarkan beberapa kesalahan dari ungkapan siswa, dan memberikan penjelasan. Guru bersama siswa menarik garis besar cara meminta dan memberi pendapat. Guru memberikan instruksi mengenai matching game yang akan diterapkan dalam kelas. Setiap siswa diberi satu kartu yang berisi nama artis dengan karakternya masing-masing. Setiap siswa harus menemukan pendapat yang sesuai dengan kartu yang dipegang. Guru berkeliling kelas dengan memonitor kegiatan siswa, dan meluruskan ujaran-ujaran siswa yang belum tepat.

III. Kegiatan Akhir :  Menyimpulkan materi pelajaran.  Menanyakan kesulitan siswa selama KBM.  Menutup KBM dengan doa. X.

Merespon secara interpersonal Berinteraksi melalui permainan

5 Menit

Feedback dan reinforcement

SUMBER BELAJAR & MEDIA BELAJAR: a. Sumber Belajar 

Buku teks (Mukarto, Sujatmiko, dkk ”English on Sky for junior high school students”, Penerbit Erlangga, 2006, Jakarta).



Buku teks (Jill haldfield “Communication Games, Longman, 1985 Edinburgd)



Kurikulum KTSP Bahasa Inggris kelas VII



Silabus SMP Kelas VII

100

b. Media Belajar  Katru yang terlampir.  White board  Marker  Artis Pictures

XI. PENILAIAN a. Teknik

: Tes Bicara

b. Bentuk

: Lisan

XII. PEDOMAN PENILAIAN Lisan No

Aspek

Point

1.

Grammar

1–5

2.

Vocabulary

1–5

3.

Pronunciation

1–5

4.

Fluency

1–5

5.

Comprehension

1–5

Skor maksimum = 25 Nilai siswa = Skor perolehan x 100 Skor maksimum

Mengetahui

Jakarta, 31 Maret 2011

Observer

Researcher

Misbahuddin, S. Pd

Musrifatul Khairiyah

101

Lampiran: Lembar kegiatan matching game Berbicara

OPINION POLL

JUSTINE BIBER UGLY NIKITA WILY BEAUTIFUL SULE CUTE

JUSTINE BIBER AWFUL NIKITA WILY PRETY SULE GOOD VOICE

JUSTINE BIBER HANDSOME NIKITA WILY ATTRACTIVE SULE UGLY

JUSTINE BIBER GOOD VOICE NIKITA WILY BEAUTIFUL SULE SWEET

JUSTINE BIBER SEXY NIKITA WILY NICE SULE HANDSOME

JUSTINE BIBER HANDSOME NIKITA WILY CUTE SULE SEXY

JUSTINE BIBER CUTE NIKITA WILY SEXY SULE FUNNY

JUSTINE BIBER HANDSOME NIKITA WILY SWEET SULE AWFUL

JUSTINE BIBER CUTE NIKITA WILY SWEET SULE ATTRACTIVE

JUSTINE BIBER NICE NIKITA WILY SEXY SULE SWEET

JUSTINE BIBER FUNNY NIKITA WILY BEAUTIFUL SULE COOL

JUSTINE BIBER GOOD VOICE NIKITA WILY NICE SULE UGLY

102

RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP) SPEAKING

IDENTITAS Satuan Pendidikan : SMP YMJ Ciputat Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Kelas / Semester : VII (Tujuh) / 2 Tema : Famous things Pertemuan/siklus : 2/ I Aspek / Skill : Berbicara Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 40 menit Jenis Games : Guessing Game Tahun Pelajaran : 2010 / 2011 I. STANDAR KOMPETENSI Berbicara (9) Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks percakapan transaksional dan interpersonal sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat.

II. KOMPETENSI DASAR Berbicara (9.1) Mengungkapkan makna dalan percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) sangat sederhana dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat yang mellibatkan tindak tutur: meminta dan memberi pendapat

III. INDIKATOR 1. Menyatakan pendapat 2. Merespon secara interpersonal 3. Bediskusi melalui permainan

103

4. Berkompetisi melalui grup 5. Bertanya dengan menggunakan Yes/No question V. TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa dapat: 1. Menggunakan ungkapan memberi pendapat 2. Merespon secara interpersonal 3. Mendeskripsikan pendapat tentang sesuatu 4. Menebak subjek yang berkaitan dengan pendapat yang ada

VI. MATERI PEMBELAJARAN 1. List of famous things 

Band music: Ungu, Wali, ST12, etc.



Movies Harry potter, Laskar Pelangi, Detective Conan, Camp Rock, etc



Places Mountain, sea, beach, etc



Actor/actress Kim bum, Asmirandah, Marshanda, Agnes Monica



Foods Noodles, Pizza, burger, bread talk.



Technology Internet, computer, mobile phone, etc



Animals Rabbit, giraffe, elephant, etc

2. Ungkapan-ungkapan a. Asking opinion

b. Giving opinion

What do you think about....

I think it’s...........

What about......

I don’t know. Maybe it’s…

What is your opinion about....?

In my opinion....

104

Do you have any opinion?

I fell..........

c. Yes/No question Is she ……………..?

Yes, she is/ no it is not

Is he ……………..?

Yes, He is/no he is not

Is it ………………?

Yes, it is/ no it is not

3. Kosa kata terkait: Tall, short, narrow, wide, beautiful, handsome, oval face, white, black skin, big, talkative, cool, interesting, delicious, yummy, fresh, information, etc 4. Lexical area: Adjectives, noun, verb.

VII. ATURAN PERMAINAN 

Siswa di bagi dalam 7 kelompok.



Masing – masing kelompok di beri satu gambar tentang famous thing (band music, animal, place, food, movie, actor, technology)



Setiap kelompok di beri satu macam gambar tentang famous thing.



Setiap kelompok berdiskusi untuk memberikan pendapat tentang ciri khas atau karakteristik dari isi gambar yang mereka dapatkan.



Masing – masing peserta dalam satu kelompok harus mempunyai pendapat yang berbeda-beda.



Setelah

berdiskusi,

setiap

kelompok

harus

mempresentasikan

pendapatnya tentang gambar tersebut. 

Seluruh peserta dalam setiap kelompok harus maju ke depan kelas dan masing-masing harus mengungkapkan minimal satu pendapat tentang gambar.



Kelompok lain harus menebak subject mengenai gambar yang di deskripsikan oleh kelompok yang sedang presentasi.



Bagi kelompok yang bisa menjawab akan mendapatkan poin.

105



Kelompok yang kompak dan bisa menebak gambar kelompok lain akan mendapatkan hadiah dari guru.

VIII. METODE PEMBELAJARAN/ TEKNIK: 

Communication Games

IX. LANGKAH-LANGKAH KEGIATAN : KEGIATAN

Waktu ( menit )

I. Kegiatan awal : 5 Menit  Greeting (memberi salam dan tegur sapa)  Tanya jawab berbagai hal terkait kondisi siswa  Menyiapkan dan membaca Basmallah  Brainstorming (mengulang materi lalu dengan tanya jawab) II. Kegiatan Inti :  Guru menunjukkan satu gambar tempat 65 Menit rekreasi, lalu meminta siswa untuk memberi pendapat tentang gambar yang ditunjukkan, setelah itu siswa tersebut meminta siswa lain untuk memberikan pendapat yang berbeda mengenai gambar itu  Guru meminta siswa untuk menyebutkan object terkenal selain tempat rekreasi yang guru tunjukan.  Guru menuliskan jawaban objek terkenal yag diucapkan siswa.  Guru menambahkan dan melengkapi objek yang akan di pakai di permainan.(artis, film, tempat, makanan, teknologi, hewan, music) kemudian menuliskan macam-macamnya.  Guru memberikan kosa kata yang berkaitan dengan ketujuh objek tadi.  Siswa diminta mengikuti ucapan guru mengenai kosa kata  Guru menjelaskan materi yang akan di pakai di dalam permainan

Aspek / skill yang di kembangkan Menyiapkan diri siswa sebelum masuk materi baru.

Siswa menyatakan pendapat dengan lisan. Siswa menebak objek gambar. Merespon secara interpersonal Berinteraksi dan berdiskusi melalui permainan Bekerjasama dengan kelompok masing-masing Berkompetisi dengan kelompok lain

106

 Siswa dibagi dalam tujuh kelompok sesuai dengan tujuh objek yang diberikan guru  Guru memberikan instruksi mengenai game yang akan diterapkan dalam kelas.  Setiap kelopmok diberi satu amplop yang berisi gambar objek dan tidak boleh diperlihatkan kepada kelompok lain  Setiap kelompok berdiskusi tentang gambar dan masing-masing peserta harus mempunyai minimal satu pendapat tentang objek tersebut.  Guru memilih kelompok yang harus mempresentasikan objek gambar dan tidak boleh memberi tahukkan nama gambarnya.  Kelompok lain menebak gambar kelompok yang sedang presentasi.  Kelompok lain bisa bertanya dengan menggunakan yes/no question.  Guru memberi score kepada kelompok yang berbicara, bertanya dan yang menebak. III.Kegiatan Akhir :  Memberikan hadiah untuk kelompok yang 10 Menit mendapat score terbanyak.  Menyimpulkan materi pelajaran  Memotivasi untuk selalu menggunakan engkapan bahasa inggris dan vocabulary yang mereka punya.  Menanyakan kesulitan siswa selama KBM.  Menutup KBM dengan doa. X.

Feedback dan reinforcement

SUMBER BELAJAR & MEDIA BELAJAR: a. Sumber Belajar  Buku teks (Mukarto, Sujatmiko, dkk ”English on Sky for junior high school students”, Penerbit Erlangga, 2006, Jakarta).  Buku teks (Jill haldfield “Communication Games, Longman, 1985 Edinburgd)  Kurikulum KTSP Bahasa Inggris kelas VII

107

 Silabus SMP Kelas VII

b. Media Belajar  White board  Marker  Pictures of Famous things

XI. PENILAIAN a. Teknik

: Tes Bicara

b. Bentuk

: Lisan

XII. PEDOMAN PENILAIAN Lisan No

Aspek

Point

1.

Grammar

1–5

2.

Vocabulary

1–5

3.

Pronunciation

1–5

4.

Fluency

1–5

5.

Comprehension

1–5

Skor maksimum = 25 Nilai siswa = Skor perolehan x 100 Skor maksimum

Mengetahui

Jakarta, 1 April 2011

Observer

Researcher

Misbahuddin, S. pd

Musrifatul Khairiyah

108

Lampiran Lembar kegiatan Guessing game Berbicara

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

109

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

110

Appendix 14: Lesson Plan of the Second Cycle

RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP) SPEAKING

IDENTITAS Satuan Pendidikan: SMP YMJ Ciputat Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Kelas / Semester : VII (Tujuh) / 2 Tema : Sports and Hobbies Pertemuan/siklus : 1 / 2 Aspek / Skill : Berbicara Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 40 menit Jenis Games : Matching Game Tahun Pelajaran : 2010 / 2011 I. STANDAR KOMPETENSI Berbicara (9) Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks percakapan transaksional dan interpersonal sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat.

II. KOMPETENSI DASAR Berbicara (9.1) Mengungkapkan makna dalan percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) sangat sederhana dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat yang mellibatkan tindak tutur: menyatakan suka dan tidak suka.

III. INDIKATOR Merespon ungkapan-ungkapan: 1. Menanyakan suka 2. Menyatakan suka atau tidak suka

111

3. Merespon secara interpersonal 4. Berinteraksi melalui permainan

IV. TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa dapat: 1. Menggunakan ungkapan menanyakan suka 2. Menggunakan ungkapan menyatakan suka 3. Merespon secara interpersonal V. MATERI PEMBELAJARAN 1. Ungkapan- ungkapan a. Asking likes

Responds

Do you like ………?

No, I don’t.

Do you love ……..?

Yes, I do.

Dou you enjoy ……? b. Expressing Likes

Dislikes

I like ……..

I don’t like......

I Love.........

I (really) hate…..

I really enjoy...

I don’t enjoy …….

2. Kosa kata terkait: Cycling, walking, climbing, skiing, painting, football, tennis, gardening, playing the guitar, cooking, riding, climbing, prize, have won, free holiday 3. Lexical area: Action verb

VI. ATURAN PERMAINAN 

Siswa di beri katru yang berisi kegiatan tentang suka dan tidak suka.



Setiap kartu berisi kegiatan yang berbeda dan ada juga yang sama.



Semua siswa harus berpindah tempat untuk mencari dan menemukan teman yang kesukaan dan ketidaksukaan nya sama dengan mereka.

112



Untuk menemukannya mereka harus mewawancara siswa lain dengan ungkapan – ungkapan likes and dislikes yang telah dijelaskan dan telah dilatihkan oleh guru.



Mereka tidak diperkenankkan duduk sebelum mereka menemukan teman yang sama dengan dirinya.



Bagi yang tecepat menemukan teman yang setuju dengan pendapatnya akan mendapatkan hadiah dari guru.

VII. METODE PEMBELAJARAN/ TEKNIK: 

Communication Games

VIII. LANGKAH-LANGKAH KEGIATAN : KEGIATAN

Waktu ( menit )

I. Kegiatan awal : 10 Menit  Greeting (memberi salam dan tegur sapa)  Tanya jawab berbagai hal terkait kondisi siswa  Menyiapkan dan membaca Basmallah  Memberikan gambaran tema yang akan dipelajari (asking and expressing likes and dislikes).  Brainstorming (guru mengabsen siswa sambil menanyakan hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan tema yang akan dibahas) II. Kegiatan Inti :  Guru bertanya kepada siswa mengenai hobi 65 Menit siswa dan olahraga kesukaannya  Siswa merespon pertanyaan guru  Guru membenarkan jawaban siswa dengan menjelaskan dan mencontohkan cara mengungkapkan ungkapan suka atau tidak suka.  Guru memberikan kosakata yang berhubungan dengan materi game dengan cara drilling

Aspek / skill yang di kembangkan Menyiapkan diri siswa sebelum masuk materi baru.

Siswa dapat menanyakan suka menyatakan suka atau tidak suka Merespon secara interpersonal Berinteraksi melalui permainan

113

 Guru memberikan macam-macam ungkapan terkait likes and dislike dan juga menjelaskan cara merespon ungkapan tersebut  Guru juga menjelaskan tentang sistematika atau structure nya.  Guru memberikan istruksi tentang permainan matching game.  Siswa harus menemukan pasangan yang tepat yang sesuai dengan kesukaan atau ketidak sukaan siswa.  Siswa berpindah tempat untuk mewawancara siswa lain sampai dia menemukan pasangan yang tepat atau sesuai dengan dirinya III.   

Kegiatan Akhir : Menyimpulkan materi pelajaran. Menanyakan kesulitan siswa selama KBM. Menutup KBM dengan doa.

5 Menit

Feedback dan reinforcement

IX. SUMBER BELAJAR & MEDIA BELAJAR: a. Sumber Belajar  Buku teks (Mukarto, Sujatmiko, dkk ”English on Sky for junior high school students”, Penerbit Erlangga, 2006, Jakarta).  Buku teks (Jill haldfield “Communication Games, Longman, 1985 Edinburgd)  Kurikulum KTSP Bahasa Inggris kelas VII  Silabus SMP Kelas VII

b. Media Belajar  White board  Marker  Hobby cards

114

X.

PENILAIAN a. Teknik

: Tes Bicara

b. Bentuk

: Lisan

XI. PEDOMAN PENILAIAN Lisan No

Aspek

Point

1.

Grammar

1–5

2.

Vocabulary

1–5

3.

Pronunciation

1–5

4.

Fluency

1–5

5.

Comprehension

1–5

Skor maksimum = 25 Nilai siswa = Skor perolehan x 100 Skor maksimum

Mengetahui Observer

Misbahuddin, S. Pd

Jakarta, 7 April 2011 Researcher

Musrifatul Khairiyah

115

Lampiran: Lembar kegiatan exchanging game Berbicara

116

RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP) SPEAKING

IDENTITAS Satuan Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Kelas / Semester Tema Pertemuan/siklus Aspek / Skill Alokasi Waktu Jenis Games Tahun Pelajaran

: SMP YMJ Ciputat : Bahasa Inggris : VII (Tujuh) / 2 : Routine and Leisure Activities : 2/ 2 : Berbicara : 2 x 40 menit : Mill Drill Game : 2010 / 2011

I. STANDAR KOMPETENSI Berbicara (9) Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks percakapan transaksional dan interpersonal sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat.

II. KOMPETENSI DASAR Berbicara (9.1) Mengungkapkan makna dalan percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) sangat sederhana dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat yang mellibatkan tindak tutur: menyatakan suka dan tidak suka dan menyatakan setuju atau tidak setuju.

III. INDIKATOR Merespon ungkapan-ungkapan: 1. Menanyakan suka 2. Menyatakan suka atau tidak suka 3. Menyatakan setuju atau tidak setuju

117

4. Merespon secara interpersonal 5. Berinteraksi melalui permainan

IV. TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa dapat: 1. Menggunakan ungkapan menanyakan suka dan tidak suka 2. Menggunakan ungkapan menyatakan suka dan tidak suka 3. Menggunakan ungkapan setuju dan tidak setuju 4. Merespon secara interpersonal 5. Berbicara dengan partner yang berbeda sebanyak-banyaknya.

V. MATERI PEMBELAJARAN 1. Ungkapan- ungkapan a. Asking about likes

Respond

Do you like ………?

No, I don’t.

Do you love ……..?

Yes, I do.

Dou you enjoy ……? b. Expressing Likes

Dislikes

I like ……..

I don’t like......

I Love.........

I (really) hate…..

I really enjoy...

I don’t enjoy …….

c. Agreeing

disagreeing

So do I

I don’t

Neither do I

Nor do I

I do 2. Kosa kata terkait: Playing, listening music, cooking, watching TV, cinema, dancing, walking, shopping, driving, playing card, drink, coffee, eating, talking, playing game, singing, washing, cooking, reading, studying, playing tennis, playing football, basking, swimming, taking picture, etc. 3. Lexical area:

118

Action verb

VI. ATURAN PERMAINAN 

Setiap siswa diberi satu kartu berisi gambar kegiatan



Setiap siswa harus bertanya dan menjawab kegiatan dari gambar yang dipegang masing-masing



Kartu tidak boleh diperlihatkan kepada siswa lain



Siswa mendemonstrasikan aktifitas dikelas dengan menggunakan gambar



Siswa pindah keliling kelas dan bertanya jawab kepada banayk pasangan



Siswa mengulang pertanyaan sama kepada teman yang berbeda



Setelah itu siswa menukar gambar yang dia pegang dan keliling kelas lagi untuk malakukan tanya jawab lagi sampai mereka berbicara dengan pasangan yang berbeda sebanyak mungkin.



Siswa yang paling banyak berbicara dengan pasangan yang berbeda akan mendapatkan hadiah.

VII. METODE PEMBELAJARAN/ TEKNIK: 

Communication Games

VIII. LANGKAH-LANGKAH KEGIATAN : Waktu KEGIATAN

( menit )

Aspek / skill yang di kembangkan

I. Kegiatan awal :  Greeting (memberi salam dan tegur sapa)  Tanya jawab berbagai hal terkait kondisi siswa  Menyiapkan dan membaca Basmallah

5 Menit

Menyiapkan diri siswa sebelum masuk materi baru.

119

70 menit II. Kegiatan Inti :  Guru mengulang pelajaran lalu dengan Tanya jawab seputar kegiatan yang siswa sukai  Guru menunjuk siswa untuk menjawab pertanyaan guru  Guru melempar pertanyaan berikutnya kepada siswa lain tentang persetujuan siswa yang lain mengenai jawaban siswa sebelumnya.  Guru membenarkan jawaban siswa dengan menjelaskan tema baru tentang agreeing and disagreeing sekaligus memberikan contoh yang lainnya.  Guru memberikan kosa kata baru dengan mendrilll siswa.  Guru menunjukan sebuah gambar yang berisi kegiatan  Kemudian guru mencontohkan dialog yang akan digunakan dalam permainan.  Guru memberikan istruksi tentang permainan mill drill game  Setiap siswa diberi satu gambar kegiatan.  Siswa praktek melalui permainan tersebut.  Siswa harus mendapatkan pasangan yang banyak dan harus berpindah-pindah dengan menggunakan gambar yang dia punya. III. Kegiatan Akhir :  Menyimpulkan materi pelajaran.  Memberi hadiah kepada siswa yang berpindah kepada banyak partner dengan menggunakan ungkapan yang tepat.  Menanyakan kesulitan siswa selama KBM.  Menutup KBM dengan doa.

5 Menit

Siswa dapat menanyakan suka menyatakan suka atau tidak suka menyatakan setuju atau tidak setuju merespon secara interpersonal Berinteraksi melalui permainan

Feedback dan reinforcement

IX. SUMBER BELAJAR & MEDIA BELAJAR: a. Sumber Belajar  Buku teks (Mukarto, Sujatmiko, dkk ”English on Sky for junior high school students”, Penerbit Erlangga, 2006, Jakarta).

120

 Buku teks (Jill haldfield “Communication Games, Longman, 1985 Edinburgd)  Kurikulum KTSP Bahasa Inggris kelas VII  Silabus SMP Kelas VII b. Media Belajar  White board  Marker  Picture of cards’ activities

X.

PENILAIAN a. Teknik

: Tes Bicara

b. Bentuk

: Lisan

XI. PEDOMAN PENILAIAN No

Aspek

Point

1.

Grammar

1–5

2.

Vocabulary

1–5

3.

Pronunciation

1–5

4.

Fluency

1–5

5.

Comprehension

1–5

Skor maksimum = 25 Nilai siswa = Skor perolehan x 100 Skor maksimum

Mengetahui Observer

Misbahuddin, S. pd

Jakarta, 14 April 2011 Researcher

Musripatul Khoiriyah

121

Lampiran: Lembar kegiatan exchanging game Berbicara

122

Appendix 15: The instrument of Pretest

The Instrument of Pretest

Time

: Thursday, March 24th, 2011

Function

: Talking about opinion and likes/dislikes

Activities

:



The researcher calls the students two by two for interviewing their selves



The teacher gives the score for students’ speaking ability

Questions: 1. Tell me about yourself, please! 2. What is your hobby? 3. What do you want to be? 4. What is your opinion/what do you think about your friend beside you?

123

Appendix 16: The instrument of Posttest 1

The Instrument of Posttest 1

Time

: Thursday, April 07th, 2011

Function

: Talking about asking and giving opinion

Theme

: Things around us

Rules



The researcher calls the students two by two as a partner group based on the attendance list.



Every student who is called has to choose one of the pictures from the teacher



She/he has to ask opinion of the partner for giving opinion based on the picture situation that had been chosen.



They exchange opinion of the own picture by asking and giving opinion



The aspects that will be assessed by the teacher are: comprehension, fluency, grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation.

124

125

126

Appendix 17: The instrument of Posttest 2

The Instrument of Posttest 2

Time

: Friday, April 15th, 2011

Function

: Talking about likes and dislikes

Theme

: Interest, hobbies and experience

Rules



The researcher calls the students two by two as a partner group based on the attendance list randomly.



Every student who is called has to choose one of the pictures’ experience from the teacher



She/he has to ask about like and dislike to the partner based on the picture.



The student have to telling their experience to each other based on the picture’s topic that had been chosen



The aspects that will be assessed by the teacher are: comprehension, fluency, grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation.

127

128

Appendix 18: The Rating Scale of Speaking Test

Analytic Scoring Rubric of Speaking Skill

Rated qualities

Points

Behavioral statements

Pronunciation

5 4

Has few traces of foreign accent. Always intelligible, though one is conscious of a definite accent Pronunciation problems necessitate concentrated listening and occasionally lead to misunderstanding. Very hard to understand because of pronunciation problems. Must frequently be asked to repeat. Pronunciation problems so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible. Makes few (any) noticeable errors of grammar or word order. Occasionally makes grammatical and or word order errors which do not, however, obscure meaning. Makes frequent errors of grammar and word order which occasionally obscure meaning Grammar and word order errors make comprehension d must often rephrase sentences and or restricts himself to basic patterns. Errors in grammar and word order so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible.

3 2 1 5 4 Grammar

3 2

1 5 4 Vocabulary

3 2 1 5

Fluency

4 3 2

Use of vocabulary and idioms is virtually that of a native speaker. Sometimes use inappropriate terms and or must rephrase ideas because of lexical inadequacies. Frequently uses the wrong words; conversation somewhat limited because of inadequate vocabulary. Misuse of words and very limited vocabulary make comprehension quite difficult Vocabulary limitations so extreme as to make conversation virtually impossible. Speech as fluent and effortless as that of a native speaker Speed of speech seems to be slightly affected by language problems Speed and fluency are rather strongly affected by language problems. Usually hesitant; often forced into silence by

129

1 5 4 3 Comprehension

2

1 Note: maximum sore = 25

language problem. Speech is so halting and fragmentary as to make conversation virtually impossible Appears to understand everything without difficulty. Understands nearly everything at normal speed, although occasional repetition may be necessary. Understands most of what is said at slower-than normal speed with repetitions. Has great difficulty following what is said. Can comprehend only “social conversation” spoken slowly and with frequent repetitions. Cannot be said to understand even simple conversational English. (Cited from Harris, 1969: 18)

Score = the result of score x 100 Maximum score

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