multijurisdictional world, where voters' choices and incumbent behavior are
determined simultaneously. Voters are assumed to make comparisons between.
IncumbentBehavior: VoteSeeking, TaxSetting,and YardstickCompetition By TIMOTHY BESLEY AND ANNE CASE *
This paper develops a model of the political economy of taxsettingin a multijurisdictional world, where voters' choices and incumbentbehaviorare determinedsimultaneously.Votersare assumedto make comparisonsbetween jurisdictionsto overcomepoliticalagencyproblems.Thisforces incumbentsinto a (yardstick)competitionin whichthey care about what other incumbentsare doing. Weprovidea theoreticalframeworkand empiricalevidenceusing U.S. state data from 1960 to 1988. The resultsare encouragingto the view that voteseekingand taxsettingare tied togetherthroughthe nexus of yardstick competition.(JEL D72, H20, H71) The electoral cost of raising taxes is a stockpoliticalanecdote.However,while folk wisdomsuggeststhat incumbentsraise taxes at their peril, proper treatmentof the issue recognizes that voters' choices and incumbent behavior are determined simultaneously, and that the politicalconsequencesof a tax increase may vary by circumstance.If voters are skepticalaboutthe need for additional taxes,even a small increasemayforce the governor to look elsewhere for work. However,if taxes are risingeverywhere,voters may be convincedthat a tax increase is necessary.In this case, even a large increase may be politicallyacceptable.In a world in which voters make comparisons between states, incumbentsmay look to other states'
* Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, Bendheim Hall, Princeton, NJ 085441022.We are grateful to our anonymousreferees, and to Kristin Butcher, David Card, Steve Coate, Dan Feenberg, KaiUwe Kuhn, John Londregan,Gib Metcalf, Jim Poterba,Tom Romer,MichaelRothschild,Dan Sasaki, RichardZeckhauser,seminarparticipantsat Chicago, Columbia,the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, the NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,the Universityof Pennsylvania,SUNYAlbany,Virginia,and VPI for helpfulcomments,discussions,and encouragement. We also thankGena Estes for excellentresearch assistanceand the JohnM. Olin Programfor the Study of EconomicOrganizationand PublicPolicyat Princeton Universityfor financialsupport.None of the above is responsiblefor the product. 25
taxing behavior before changing taxes at home. This would give rise to a kind of (yardstick) competition between jurisdictions, each caring about what the other is doing.This paperbuilds a model of such tax competition,where voters choose whether or not to reelect officials based on their performancewhile in office, using neighboring jurisdictions to evaluate the performance of their incumbents.We provide a theoretical framework and an empirical analysisthat uses data fromU.S. states from 1960 to 1988. Our startingpoint is a world with asymmetric information between voters and politicians;the latter are assumed to know more about the cost of providing public services than the former. Politicians also differ in their type. Good ones do no rentseeking, whereas bad ones finance their whims at taxpayers'expense. The problem for voters is to distinguish between the two. Consonantwith the large literatureon multiagent incentive schemes (see e.g., Bengt R. Holmstrom,1982),we show that it makes sense for voters to appraise their incumbent'srelative performance,if neighboringstates face correlatedshocks. A theoreticalmodel of this kind predicts that the reelection performanceof one jurisdictionwill depend both upon the jurisdiction'sown tax policy and upon that of its neighbors.In particular,if a state has high
26
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
MARCH 1995
tax increases relative to its neighbors,citizens interpret this as evidence that their official is bad and unseat him at the next election. Our empiricalevidence is consistent with this view. A second theoretical prediction is that taxsettingbehavioris affected by electoral competition. In particular,states may trim tax rate increasesthat put them out of line with their neighbors.Thus, we have a kind
to be augmentedby a political framework. This paper has spawneda heated discussion (see e.g., J. Vernon Henderson, 1985).3 Whateverthe merits of these arguments,it seems reasonable to suggest that resource flows can only be a longrun solution to differencesin the tax policies of states. In the short run, the ballot box may serve an importantfunctionand even in the long run may be a less costly alternativethan migraof yardstick competition, studied previously tion.4 We shall therefore make this the foby Andrei Shleifer (1985) among others, in cus of our investigationhere. Our results which agents use the performanceof others supportthe view that electoral competition as a benchmark.This too is consistentwith affectsstate taxsetting. our empiricalresults. That a governor'schance of reelection The importanceof asymmetricinforma mightin part depend on his trackrecordon tion in local spending decisions has been taxes has long been noted in the politicalrecognized,inter alia, by David F. Bradford science literature. Thad L. Beyle (1983 p. et al. (1969)who arguethat it is difficultfor 215), for example,suggeststhat taxeswere a voters to infer the level of servicesthat will "key issue" in the defeat of 30 percent of be delivered for a given expenditurelevel, the governorswho were not reelectedin the 1960's and in the defeat of 20 percent of making efficiency in provision difficult to assess. Recent work in political economy, such governorsin the 1970's. In a similar such as JeffreyS. Banks and RangarajanK. vein, Susan B. Hansen (1983 p. 177) cites Sundaram(1991), David AustenSmithand evidence that tax issues began to "figure Banks (1989), and Kenneth Rogoff (1990), prominently in decisions to vote for or has also emphasized the importance of against a particularparty or candidate"in the mid 1970'sin determiningthe outcome asymmetricinformationand has studiedthe resulting political agency problem. We ex of congressional and presidential races. tend this type of model by consideringrela Moreover,taxes were mentioneddirectlyby tive performanceevaluationin voting deci15 percent of those surveyedin 1980 as a sions. factor in their ballot choices (Hansen, 1983 The predominant analytical framework p. 177). The politicalscienceliteraturehas for tax competitionis the Tiebout model,' also taken the idea of comparisons across which in its purest form argues that restates seriously,beginningwith the analysis source flows between jurisdictionsobviate of Jack L. Walker(1969). the need for political competition.2There The remainderof the paper is structured has however been much debate about the as follows. Section I introduces our data extent to which resource flows alone will and presents a preliminarylook at the eviwork.For example,Dennis Epple and Allan dence. Section II presentsa simpletheoretiZelenitz (1981) have argued that, even in cal analysisthat solidifies the ideas behind the long run, allowing individualsto sort the empiricalwork. Section III extends the into jurisdictionswill not eliminate rent extractionby states and that the model needs
'Other models include that of Ravi Kanbur and Michael Keen (1993), which examines implications of crossborder shopping, rather than individual relocation. This is, of course, most appropriate for indirect taxes. 2See Daniel Rubinfeld (1987) for a survey of Tiebout models, empirical and theoretical.
3Epple and Thomas Romer (1989) argue that the key assumptions concern the extent to which jurisdiction boundaries are flexible. 4The view that the time frame of the analysis is important is borne out in Epple et al. (1988). In addition, when key industrialists were surveyed by The New York Times (1991), taxes were cited as being only the 12th most important factor determining firm location decisions.
VOL. 85 NO. 1
BESLEYAND CASE: INCUMBENT BEHAVIOR TABLE
1REELECTION
HISTORIES INCUMBENT
Defeated
OF
U.S.
GOVERNORS
Year
Election
Primary
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
28 2 33 2 26 2 33 2 22 2 33 2 19 2 33 3 14 2 34 3 13 2 34 3 13 2 34 3 12
6 0 9 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 6 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 3 0 5 1 2 0 2 0 1
0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
19601988
OUTCOMES
Did not run
__________________
Number of elections
27
runot ~~~run;
Reelected Re l c d

Retired
Ran for Congress
reached limit
Reelected
Percentage
2 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 2 0 8 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 6 0 3 0 4 1 2
5 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0
8 2 6 2 7 1 9 2 4 2 5 2 4 1 7 1 2 1 11 3 1 2 4 2 3 1 11 2 1
7 0 13 0 11 1 13 0 10 0 13 0 7 0 16 2 5 1 12 0 7 0 17 0 4 1 15 0 8
25 0 39 0 42 50 39 0 45 0 39 0 37 0 48 67 36 50 35 0 54 0 50 0 31 50 44 0 67
model to give a workableempiricalspecification. Section IV presents the results, and Section V discusses some extensions and alternative models. Section VI contains some concludingremarks.
governorswho chose not to run for office again.
Table 1 suggeststhat a nontrivialproportion of governorseligible for reelection either chose not to run or were defeated at the polls.6Duringthis 30yearperiod, there
I. PreliminaryData Analysis
Our data are centered on the reelection bids of governorsin the continentalUnited States from 1960 through 1988. Table 1 shows the reelection histories of governors during this period. We will assume below that eligible governorswho did not run for reelection and who did not run instead for another office chose to step down because they assumedthey would lose or were pressured to do so by dissatisfiedpartyofficials. The empirical analysis controls for age of
5Repeating our analysis excluding the "retired" group just results in an increase in the standard errors. 6In many states, governors face a term limit. That is, by law they may be ineligible to succeed themselves in office. Elections in which the term limit binds are not included in our voting analysis. However, term limits will be used in taxsetting analysis as a natural means of separating those governors who should care about neighbors' taxes (i.e., those eligible to run for reelection) from those who should not (lameduck governors). For further analysis of gubernatorial term limits and policymaking, see Besley and Case (1993).
28
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
are only two years in which more than half of all incumbentsare reelected. In a majority of the evenyear elections, between 15 percent and 40 percentof governorseligible for reelection lost either in the primaryor in the general election. Our analysis makes use of two tax data sets. The first containsdata on the effective incometaxliabilities of joint filers in each of the 48 continental states. These data, generated at the National Bureau of Economic Research(Cambridge,MA) usingthe TAXSIM program,accuratelycapture the incometaxliabilitiesthat governorsand legislatures envisionedfor taxpayersin different income categories.These liabilities are quite appropriatefor the analysis at hand: the effectivetaxcalculationscontrol for the effects of federal taxes and local property taxes paid when calculatingthe taxes owed to state governments,and they reflect the will of the elected officials. However, because TAXSIM estimatesare availableonly for the period 19771988, and since the estimates are available only for income taxes, we make use of a second data series constructedfrom data publishedannuallyin the Statistical Abstract of the United States.
These tax data are real per capita income, sales, and corporatetaxes,collectedby state, for the period 19601986. Jointly, these taxes account for 90 percent of state tax collections in 1980.7 While having the advantage of being more comprehensivein terms of state taxes covered, such tax data may be a less accuratereflectionof elected officials'intentions,as taxes paid also reflect economicconditionswithinthe state. As the readerwill see, our results are robustto the choice of data set. Both data sets reveal tax liabilities that vary markedly between states in a given income category. For example, effective incometaxliabilitiesfor $60,000joint filers were $108 in Tennessee in 1980,while they
7Source: State Government Finances (1980), published by the Bureau of the Census.
MARCH 1995
were $4,700in New York State in that year. In large part these differencesreflect diversity across states in the division of taxing authoritybetween state and local levels of government.In addition,statesdifferin their provision of public services, which is also reflected in tax liabilities. It thus makes greater sense to focus on states' changesin tax liabilities, rather than on states' levels. We also maintain that a model based on agency problems due to asymmetricinformationabout shocksto the cost of providing publicservicesnaturallygivesway to a specificationin which changesin taxes matter. We are interested in the possibilitythat voters compare their own tax changes with those in neighboringstates before heading to the polls.8 Incumbents would then be more likely to face defeat if they increased taxes and less likely to lose, ceteris paribus, if their neighbors increased taxes. If this were true, elected officialswould be sensitive to their comparativeperformanceon taxation.Thus, we would expect to find two patterns in the raw data. First, electoral defeat would be positivelycorrelatedwith a tax increase in the incumbent'sown state and negativelycorrelatedwith tax increases in neighboring states. In addition, tax changesin neighboringstates would tend to be positivelycorrelated. Table 2 presents correlations between states' effective incometax changes (t [t  2]) and those of their geographicneighbors for the 10yearperiod 19791988, using the TAXSIM data. We define "neighbors' tax change"as the averagechange in tax liabilityor real tax revenues(depending on the data set) of geographicallyneighbor
8We assume throughout that voters are most interested in how they personally would fare in a neighboring state. Thus $40,000 earners look at the taxes faced by $40,000 earners in nearby states and so on. Incumbents may be more sensitive to a particular income group, if this group is either better informed or more apt to vote in the next election, or both. Our analysis allows voter and incumbent sensitivity to tax changes to vary by income level.
29
BESLEYAND CASE: INCUMBENT BEHAVIOR
VOL. 85 NO. 1
BETWEEN CHANGES IN TAx LIABILITY AND TABLE 2CORRELATION THE UNSEATING OF INCUMBENTS, 19791988 (TAXSIM DATA)
A. Correlationin NeighboringStates' Tax Liability Changes (t  [t  2]) Income groups
Pearson productmoment correlations:
$25,000
$40,000
$60,000
$100,000
0.18
0.24
0.29
0.30
B. CorrelationBetween Changes in Effective IncomeTax Liability and Governor Defeat at the Polls
Generalelection defeat Tax change(t  [t 21) Own Neighbors' Number of observations:
Primary+ generalelection defeat
Defeated or retireda
Income groups Income groups Income groups $25,000 $40,000 $100,000 $25,000 $40,000 $100,000 $25,000 $40,000 $100,000 0.25 0.12
0.17  0.09
0.07 0.11
0.21 0.10
0.14 0.09
0.07 0.11
0.22 0.07
0.17 0.05
0.18 0.08
66
66
66
69
69
69
85
85
85
a,"Retired"governors are those eligible for reelection who chose not to run and did not run for Congress.
ing states.9 Table 2 reveals that there is a significant amount of correlation between neighbors'tax changes and a given state's tax changes, with the Pearson correlation coefficientrangingfrom0.18 for the $25,000 income group to 0.30 for the $100,000 income group.For all groups,this correlation is significant.This could, of course, be explained by a numberof factors. Below, we will control for year effects and for the possibility that neighbors face common shocks. Correlationsbetween increases in effective incometaxliabilitiesand incumbentdefeat are also present in the rawdata. As the
9We choose a geographicaldefinitionof neighborliness for two main reasons.First,geographicneighbors are quite likelyto experiencesimilarshocksto theirtax bases and, for this reason,provideinformationon the size of the innovationto neighboringstates' voters. Second,geographicneighborscaptureas nearlyas possible the idea that states belong to the same media market,havinggood informationabout what is going on close by.
second part of Table 2 reveals,changesin a state's incometaxliabilityare positivelyand significantlycorrelatedwith unseatingan incumbent governor,with a correlationcoefficient of roughly 0.20. At the same time, changesin neighbors'tax liabilitiesare negatively correlatedwith defeat of an incumbent in a given state, with a correlation coefficient of roughly 0.10. Thus while neighbors'tax changes are positivelycorrelated with a given state's tax change, they are negativelycorrelatedwith the defeat of that state's incumbent. II. A TheoreticalExample
Our empirical specification, developed below, allows for an informational externality between neighboringjurisdictions,which affects both voting behavior and incentives for incumbentsto increase taxes. There are three premisesbehind this: Premise 1: Agency problems due to asym
metricinformationare a feature of political competition. Specifically,incumbentsknow more aboutthe shorttermevolutionof some key variablesthan do voters.
30
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
Premise 2: Voting is the main incentive mechanism used to discipline incumbents. This is a special feature of a politicalanalysis. The literatureon incentiveschemes under asymmetricinformationin general allows the principal(s)widerrangingincentive mechanismsthan just deciding whether or not to reelect an incumbent.'0 Premise3: Voters are able to appraise incumbents' relative performance.From the media or other sources,voters can gain access to information about what other incumbents are doing, which serves as a benchmarkfor their own jurisdiction. To fix ideas, it is useful to present a simple example. While this is specific, the ideas are quite general." Consider a "jurisdiction"whose government provides one unit of a public serviceof a given quality,'2 financedentirelyby taxes. The cost of providingpublicservicesis initiallyOi,which is stochastic and observed only by incumbents. The shock can take on one of three values: low, medium, or high (denoted L,M,H), which are evenly spaced with difference, A. The probabilitiesof the three outcomes are: (qL, qM, qH). The incumbent can chargerent on top of the cost of provision of either A or 2A, givingfive possible tax levels, denoted by {i7, T2 73, 74, 75}{OL, OM, OH OH + A ,OH
+ 2A}.13
'0There are other mechanisms of political discipline, such as party structures. These may be important in affecting the behavior of incumbent officials (e.g., if a governor might like to be selected to run for Congress or President in the future). However, these schemes are not at the discretion of most voters. "A more detailed presentation of some theory is available in our discussion paper (see Besley and Case, 1992). 12The assumption that quality is fixed is extreme, particularly so in an empirical context. More generally, one might imagine the government choosing tax/quality pairs. The absence of any measure of quality in our empirical work is apt to mean that we understate the sensitivity of voting to taxes, since some tax increases may be reflecting increases in quality and should not therefore result in taxpayer hostility. We explore alternative measures of fiscal performance in Section V. 13Thus we are assuming that the governor cannot claim unbounded rents. This could be justified, for
MARCH 1995
Each jurisdictionis run by elected officials, who are potentially of two kinds: "good" or "bad." The former do no rentseeking, providing public services at cost, while the latter engage in rentseeking, charging more than the cost of services in taxes. Thus the bad official adds either A or 2A to the tax burden. Incumbents' (pure) strategies are denoted T(Oi,i) (i E {L,M,H};j E {G,B}, where G stands for good and B standsfor bad).14 The behavior of the good incumbentsis alwaysT(OL, G) = T17 i(Om, G) = T2 and T(OH, G) = T3. The example has two time periods, and the voters'and politicians'discountfactoris 8, which we suppose satisfies1 > 8 > 2. The latter part of this guaranteesthe willingness of an incumbent to give up A to be reelected. A newlyelected officialis good with probabilityy. Voters observehis taxsetting decision and then choose whetheror not to reelect him. We assume that voters care about minimizing their expected period2 taxes and use period1taxes to update their beliefs (using Bayes' rule) that the incumbent is good. We denote voters' strategies by A(Ti)E [0, 1] (i E {1,2, 3, 4, 5}), which denotes the probabilitythat they will reelect an incumbentwho sets a tax of Ti. If reelected, bad incumbents face no period2 reelection discipline and hence set a tax equalto Oi+ 2A (i E {L,M,H}). Good incumbents provideservicesat cost in period2. We find perfect Bayesianequilibriaof the taxsettinggame.15 First, nature selects an incumbenttype and a cost shock. Bad incumbents then choose taxes to maximize their discountedutility.Voters observetaxes and update their beliefs using Bayes' rule. Their choice of whether or not to reelect the incumbentis based on minimizingexpected period2taxes. In equilibrium,voters and incumbentshave rationalexpectations.
example, by concerns about being prosecuted if found out. It could represent the limits placed by migration costs. If taxes are too high then it will be worthwhile for voters to leave. 14The Appendix exhibits some mixedstrategy equilibria. 15Readers unfamiliar with this should see Drew Fudenberg and Jean Tirole (1991).
VOL. 85 NO. 1
BESLEYAND CASE: INCUMBENT BEHAVIOR
Different equilibria(with both pure and mixed strategies) are possible at different parametervalues. A full characterizationis given in Appendix A. Voters will always believe that an incumbent who sets T4 or r5 is bad with probability 1, so that = O. With 8 < 1, there also A(TO = A(7) cannot be an equilibrium where r(OL,B) = and T1' i(OM,B)= T2, or T(OH, B) =T3, hence A,ir1)= 1. The following proposition
illustrates the full strategies of voters and incumbentsin an interestingcase. PROPOSITION1: If qH > 2, then the following constitute an equilibrium: (a) good incumbents set
(OL,
G) =
1
G) = 2' T(H(, G) =73; (b) bad incumbents set r(OL, B) = 3 T(OH, B)= 75; T(OM, B)=T73, (c) votersset ,(Tl1)=1, (TO2)=1, (T(3)= i(OM,
1, L(T4) = 0,
(T=5) =O.
other's type17 and that qH ?1 y. What happensif voters have access to information about taxes in both jurisdictions?To determine the implicationsof this, there are three cases to consider: (A) Both incumbents are good. This is straightforward:each sets taxes equal to Oi,i E {L,M,H}, as we had above. (B) Both incumbentsare bad. In this case, the equilibriumdescribedin the Proposition is a perfect Bayesianequilibrium for the two incumbents.18 Thus both incumbents decide to reduce their rentseekingwhen the cost shock is OM. (C) One incumbentis good and the other is bad. In this case, the bad incumbent knows that he will be found out by setting a tax above his neighbor's,and he can no longer sustain the strategy described above: playing T3 when the shock is
The bad incumbenttakes a reductionin rent when the cost is OM in order to be reelected. He is willingto do so since 8 > 12 Note that both voters and incumbentsare behaving rationally. Voters find it worthwhile to reelect any incumbentwho sets 73, since the probabilitythat the incumbentis good given a choice of T3 iS YqH/{yqH
+ (
y)(qL+
qM)}
2
31
0M
will result in his being
unseated. Thus we would now have T(OM' B) =T4 for a bad incumbent.Thus period1 taxes are higher under yardstick competition. However, since bad incumbentsare "foundout" in this case, the votershave lower expectedperiod2 taxes.19The good incumbentinflictsan
y
if qH ?24.16 Intuitively,a high enoughvalue of qH is needed for it to be sufficiently likely that an incumbentwho chooses T3 iS good, so that voters are willing to reelect incumbentsif they see T3. To get an informationalexternality,imagine now that there are two jurisdictionswith identicalenvironmentsand costs shocks,but which may elect officialsof differenttypes. We supposealso that incumbentsknoweach
16In a multiperiodmodel, with a sequence of twoperiod terms,voters have an extra incentiveto switch to a fresh incumbentwho, if bad, has better period1 incentivesto curtailrentseeking.This leads to a stiffer hurdlebeing faced by an incumbent;the criticalvalue of qH needed for the strategiesdescribedin Proposition 1 to be an equilibriumis concomitantlyhigher. Notes on this extensionof the modelare availablefrom the authorsupon request.
17This is a bit too strong. While it is probably reasonable to suppose that neighboringincumbents knowmore abouteach other thanvotersdo, full informationmaybe an exaggeration. 1 The voter in one jurisdictionnow decides to reelect the incumbentif he sees T3 in bothjurisdictionsif y2qH /[y2qH +(1  Y)2(qL+ qM)]> y, which reduces to qH> 1 y. This condition differs from that in Proposition1 because voters allow for the possibility that both incumbentsare good or bad in theirupdating after seeing T3 in both jurisdictions.The conditionfor this purestrategyequilibriumis weakerif y > 2; seeing both incumbentschoosingthe same strategygives the voter more confidencethat both are good when the probabilitythat any given incumbentis good is high enough. 19Yardstick competitiondoes not necessarilydominate ex ante in terms of expected taxes. It does so if y > 1/27. This makes sense intuitively;the value of yardstickcompetitionis in identifyingbad incumbents, while the cost is in termsof highercurrenttaxes. If y is high enough, then the selection advantagedominates.
32
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
externality on the bad one, reducing the latter'sreelection chances. This illustrates two key features of a yardstickcompetitionmodel.First, it provides a rationale for taxsetting to affect incumbent reelection chances. Second, it suggeststhat incumbents'taxsettingbehavior may be affected by voters looking at neighboringjurisdictions.It is these ideas that we exploit in our empiricalanalysis. III. EmpiricalSpecification
The essence of our approachcan be captured in a twoequation empirical model. The first equation examines the determinants of gubernatorialreelection, and the second examines the determinantsof taxsetting.The interdependencebetween these two is captured by crossequationrestrictions. Our empirical specification will use changesin taxes as the main taxsettingdecision. Such changes are most likely to representresponsesto shocksaboutwhichthere is asymmetricinformation.20Innovationsto costs can be thought of as fiscal crises due, for example, to increased medicaid expenses, increased infrastructureexpenses, or recessiondrivenrevenue shortfalls.It is after such events that citizens must determine whether the change in taxes is "appropriate." We use ArTi to denote the change in taxes in state i and Arit to
denote the change in state i's neighbors, both at time t. Since an incominggovernor may take more than a year to implementhis tax program,we use changes in taxes paid in year t relative to year t 2. (Similar
20Thisis strictlyspeakinginaccurate.Last period's taxes also reflectwhetherthe incumbentwas good or bad. In a more generalmodel, all past tax rateswould provide informationabout an incumbent'stype, and incumbents would strategicallymanipulate the sequence of tax rates to optimallyinfluencevoters' beliefs. Incorporatingthese elements into a structural model would requirea considerablymore complicated analysis,whichwe leave for futurework.
MARCH 1995
results are obtained with differences between t and t 3.)
A representative voter in state i on the eve of an incumbent'sreelection will desire to reelect the incumbentif the expected value of future tax increases under the incumbent is less than that with the challenger; that is, At1(ATit; ATit) < AT'(ATt;AT_jt), where At1(ATt;ATit)
is
the expected value of future tax changes with the incumbent and AT1(ATit;ATit) is
that expected of the challenger.21The probabilityofreelectionfunction is estimated in a random utilities framework;a shock to preferences denoted by Ei affects the election outcome.22The shock is assumedto be normallydistributedwith mean zero and standarddeviation a. For simplicity,we take a linear approximation to the gain from reelecting the incumbent: Qil(ATit, ATit)
ATi(
rit; 57it)
\ Ati(
Tit; ATit).
Thus the probabilityof reelection is (1)
Pr(fI(ATit; ATit) > =(((Pxit
=
Ri(Tit;

Eil
+iAr + y, ATit + + Y2
rit)lo)
ATit)
where F(.) is the cumulativedistribution functionof the standardnormaldistribution
21We expect the voter to care about the whole future sequence of tax increasesrather than just the next term'sfor the reasondiscussedin footnote 16. 22We interpretthis as follows.Voters are heterogeneous, since they care differentiallyabouthighertaxes, are differentiallyinformed, and may have different priors about the incumbent'stype. Assume that the probabilitythat a particularvoter votes dependsupon how stronglyhe or she feels, and that this is monotonic in Ar and Ari, in the way that our model suggests, for all voters.However,shockson electionday,such as inclementweather,makesome typesof votersmore or less likely to turn out. The actualelection outcome is therefore random even though it is affected by taxsettingin the way that our model suggested.
VOL. 85 NO. 1
BESLEYAND CASE: INCUMBENT BEHAVIOR
and xit denotes a vector of other characteristics thought to influence the representative voter. Shocks to voting behaviormay be correlated with shocks to tax changes
(ArTi).
is (3)
AiV=t
For
example,the discoveryof a toxicwaste dump may require additional tax revenues for cleanup purposes. It may also have an independenteffect on the governor'spopularity: voters perceive that the governor has put them at risk. Thus we present estimates of the reelection equation in which tax changes in state i (Arit) are instrumented
on state demographicand economic variables. As above, we allow incumbentsto differ in the value they place on rentseekingand index the latter, in the case of the ith incumbent, by Ai. (Above we had only good incumbentswith A= 0 and bad ones with A= 1.) The cost of providingpublic services is denoted Oit and is assumedto consistof a knowncomponent ci and an independently and identically distributed shock 8it. We assume that an incumbentwho can run for another term faces the following optimization decision over taxes at date t:
+ mY1 Arit + Y2 6f01)/.)
(Yl /o)4((txit
Ett+ t l(Oit+
=
(4)
1Tit m1

=
+
Xit2
(it
6Tit
r1[Ajo8r/(y1
E{JVti1})].
If we use the linear approximation
/C1 8E{J7+1})]
y E(_AVt
~Olzit +
nit
for some vector of state and incumbentspecific characteristics zit and a residual hit, we then have the following equation for the tax change in state i: (5)
/yl)xXit + (a
ATit=(
ATit
/yl)zit + n7it /yl
where we have made a standard identifying
Vti(oit) max
1)l
where +() is the density of the standard normal distribution. This becomes
(Y2 /yl)
(2)
33
assumption that oe = 1. it)
rrit
+ R'(Arjt;Ar_jj5E t +1(Oit+1)}ltit? oit}
where we have normalizedthe payoff from not being reelected to zero and E{ I denotes expectations.23 Equation(2) embodies the dynamic tradeoff that the incumbent faces; higher taxes today mean more rent but a lower probabilityof reelection. The firstordercondition associatedwith (2), assuming an interior solution where rit 2 Oit
23This formulation does not allow incumbents to strategically influence voters' beliefs in the future by changing voter tax rates.
We allow both for idiosyncratic shocks and for year effects (Y) when estimating (5). The latter may enter if, for example, business cycles or changes in federal fiscal policy move states' taxes in a synchronous way.24 Equation (5) then becomes (5')
ATit= (
/yl)xit
+ (a /yl)zit
(Y2 / YO 5rit =
Xit + a*zit +
+
1Y + Pit
5Arit + *Y+
Vit.
Because of the potential interaction between neighboring states' tax increases due
24 We also allowed for spatial correlation in the shocks received by neighboring states. However, in estimation we found no spatial correlation in the errors, and we removed reference to it here to simplify the presentation.
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
34
to strategic behavior, Arit on the righthand side of (5') maybe endogenous.To get consistent estimates of the coefficients (13/y1), (a /y1),
and
(Y2/Y1)
in this case,
we may use either an instrumentalvariables approachor a maximumlikelihoodestimation scheme. Instrumentalvariable estimation provides a check that correlation in taxes is not due to a common exogenous shock experienced by neighbors:once instrumented,correlationin taxes is due only to those partsof neighbors'tax changesthat are attributableto the state economic and demographicvariablesused as instruments. An alternative to instrumenting for tax changes in the reelection equation (1) is to estimate the equations (1) and (5') jointly. Details of the joint estimationare presented in AppendixB. There are two sets of overidentifyingrestrictions to test. The ratio of ( Y2 / Y1)' identified from the election equation (1), should equal the spatial correlationcoefficient p identifiedfrom the taxsettingcomponents of equation (5'). In addition,variables thought to influence a governor's reelection odds (elements of x) that are not thought to determine the incumbent'sexpected payoff from reelection (elements of z) provide a second set of overidentifying restrictions:the ratio of ( 0 / y1), identified from the election equation (1), should equal correspondingelements of *, identified from the taxsettingequation(5'). IV. Results
We estimated a numberof specifications of our equations for gubernatorialdefeat and changes in taxes. Table 3 presents estimates of incumbentgovernor defeat and retirement as a function of the tax change observedin the official'sown state and that observedin neighboringjurisdictions,using the TAXSIM data. We present estimates for two different income categories: joint filers with no dependents earning $40,000 and $100,000in 1977. For each income category, we present four sets of estimates, each based on different assumptionsabout the underlyingmodel. The first set of estimates for each income group [columns (i)
MARCH 1995
and (v)] presents the probabilityof incumbent defeat as a function of the change in taxes (t

[t 2]) in state i and changes in
taxes for state i's neighbors.For each income group,increasesin a state's own taxes increase the probabilityof incumbent defeat. However, if neighboringstates raise taxes at the same time, then neighbors'tax increasesoffset the effect of tax changes at home. These results are consistent with our model of incumbentbehavior.25However,it is importantto considerthe possibilitythat shocks in the incumbentdefeatequation may be correlated with shocks in the taxchange equations. Thus, we present estimates from models in which state tax changes are instrumentedwith state demographicvariables and year effects. Specifically, the second set of estimates [columns (ii) and (vi)] presents results in which tax changes have been instrumentedon year effects alone, and the thirdset [columns(iii) and (vii)] presents twostage leastsquares estimates in which tax changes have been instrumentedon changes in the proportion of elderly individuals(greater than age 65) in the state's population, the proportion young (ages 517), and year indicatorvariables.26While it is possible for changes in the proportionof the population who are elderly or young to have independent effects on the reelection odds of incumbents, overidentificationtests fail to reject the hypothesis that the instruments can be excluded from the secondstageequation.The instrumentalvariableresults are virtually identicalwith and withoutthe use of demo
25It is also consonantwith some findingsin Sam Peltzman(1992) who shows that incumbentsare punished for spending growth.However, Peltzmandoes not considerthe possibilityof yardstickcompetition. 26To increase the precision of the estimates, the firststageregressionfor the instrumentalvariables estimationin columns(ii) and (vi) includedall 48 states for all years. Overidentification tests for the twostage leastsquaresresults are F tests of the joint significance of the instrumentsin regressionsof the difference betweenthe electionoutcomeand that predicted (from the twostageleastsquaresestimation)by the taxchangevariable.
VOL. 85 NO. 1
BESLEYAND CASE: INCUMBENT BEHAVIOR
35
TABLE 3ESTIMATION OF INCUMBENTDEFEAT BASED ON LINEAR PROBABILITYMODELS USING TAXSIMDATA ON CHANGESIN INCOMETAXLIABILITY,19771988 (DEPENDENT VARIABLE:GOVERNORDEFEATED OR RETIRED)
Income = $40,000 Variable Own tax change
(i)
(ii)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
0.0001 (1.84) 0.0022 (1.56)
Own tax change (2SLS)b
0.0006 (1.67) 0.0015 (1.57)
0.0005 (1.80)
 0.0012  0.0014  0.0013 (1.94) (1.80) (1.94)
 0.0005  0.0007  0.0007 (2.85) (2.71) (2.82)
Unanticipated own tax changeC
0.0004 (1.35)
Unanticipated neighbors' tax changed A State income per capita ($1,000's)
Income = $100,000 (iv)
0.0004 (1.44)
Own tax change (IV)a
Neighbors' tax change
(iii)
0.0001 (1.58)
0.0008 (1.43)
0.0004 (2.31)
0.123 (0.79)
0.005 (0.02)
0.052 (0.29)
0.144 (0.93)
0.214 (1.42)
0.286 (1.55)
0.280 (1.56)
0.216 (1.40)
A Neighboring states' incomes per  0.089 (0.52)
 0.104 (0.47)
 0.098 (0.51)
 0.048 (0.28)
 0.003 (0.02)
0.137 (0.61)
0.124 (0.58)
0.008 (0.05)
0.082 (1.76)
0.088 (1.48)
0.085 (1.65)
0.088 (1.87)
0.069 (1.50)
0.043 (0.76)
0.046 (0.83)
0.083 (1.79)
A Neighboring states' unemployment rate
0.067 (1.17)
 0.059 (0.80)
 0.062 (0.97)
 0.078 (1.35)
0.045 (0.79)
 0.011 (0.16)
 0.014 (0.21)
 0.073 (1.28)
A Total state debt ($1,000's)
0.236 (0.69)
 6.77 (1.24)
0.502 (1.15)
0.249 (0.73)
0.317 (0.95)
0.739 (1.45)
0.700 (1.47)
0.317 (0.93)
A Total neighboring state debt ($1,000's)
0.701 (1.48)
1.354 (1.74)
1.095 (1.77)
0.790 (1.48)
0.724 (1.58)
1.087 (1.80)
0.001 (1.82)
0.821 (1.76)
Governor's age
0.024 (3.44)
0.022 (2.48)
0.023 (2.94)
0.023 (3.25)
0.025 (3.61)
0.022 (2.76)
0.023 (2.85)
0.023 (3.56)
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
capita ($1,000's) A State's unemployment rate
Number of observations: Overidentification test:e (P value for F statistic):
0.706 (0.716)
0.640 (0.774)
Notes: Numbers in parentheses are t statistics. "Retired" governors are those eligible for reelection who choose not to run and do not run for Congress. "Unanticipated" tax change is the difference between the actual tax change and that predicted by an ordinary leastsquares regression that includes changes in state income per capita, unemployment, proportion elderly, and proportion young as explanatory variables. aInstruments = year indicators. bInstruments = year indicators and changes in the proportions of elderly and young. CAT E(Ari Ixi, zi,Y). Ai E(ATjIlx,zi,Y). eTest of exclusion of year effects and changes in proportions elderly and young in a residual regression. See text for details.
36
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
graphic variables as instruments.The results from instrumentalvariable estimation are consistent with those presented in the first set of columns: own tax changes increase the probabilityof incumbentdefeat, and neighbors'tax changesreducethe probability. All of our estimations in Table 3 allow gubernatorialdefeat to depend upon the state's relativeeconomicperformanceby including changes in state income per capita and neighboringstates' changes in income per capita as explanatoryvariables in the defeat equation.Changesin unemployment ratesboth at home and in neighboringstates are also allowed to affect the governor's reelectionodds. While we find that a state's indicators of economic wellbeing significantlyaffectthe probabilityof the governor's reelection,we find little evidencethat voters measure a governor'srelative performance in this way. Increases in state unemployment significantlyincreasethe probabilityof a governor'sdefeat under most specifications tested. However, neighbors' unemploymentrates have insignificanteffects on the odds of reelection. Increases in state income per capita increase the probability of reelection for $100,000 filers.27 while changesin income per capitain neighboring states do not appearto influencereelection probabilities.Thus, while it is possible for citizensto give the governora relativegrade based on these criteria,it does not appear that voters are judging governors in this way. This may be because such measures are regardedas a less good barometerof a governor'sperformancethan taxes. We include retirementsin our electionoutcome measure to capture retirements taken by governorswho anticipate defeat. We add the incumbentgovernor'sage as an explanatoryvariable in our reelection regression to control for retirement due to physical,rather than political, reasons. We
27Here, collinearity between state income per capita and state unemployment rates reduces the significance of state income estimates. Both appear to be picking up the same effect.
MARCH 1995
find that older governors are significantly less likely to be reelected. The results presented in Table 3 suggest that voters are sensitive to the tax changes they face, relative to those observed in neighboringstates, and that this sensitivity translates into votes against an incumbent whose tax changesare high by regionalstandards. The impact of such comparisonson gubernatorialbehaviorcan be seen in Table 4, which presents results from taxsetting equations.We model tax change as a function of state economic variables(including change in real state income per capita and state unemployment) and state demographic variables (including change in the proportion elderly and in the proportion young in the population).We also include state and year effects. The latterwill absorb the impactof changesin nationaleconomic climate and changesin federal fiscal behavior that mayhave similareffectson all states. That governorsoften face binding term limits, under which they are not allowed to run for reelection, gives us a simple (somewhat less structural)test of our yardstickcompetitionmodel.28If neighboringstates' tax rates are interdependent because of yardstickcompetition,then tax rates among neighbors should be uncorrelatedin those years in which a state is run by a governor who cannot run for reelection.Sensitivityto neighbors'taxingbehaviorshould be manifest only duringthose yearswhen the governor is eligible to run again. This is consistent with our findingsin both tax data sets: in years in which a state is governedby a lame duck, there is no sensitivityto neighbors' tax behavior.However,in states where the governoris eligible to run again,we find in both data sets that when a neighboring state increases/decreases taxes by one dollar, the home state will increase/decrease taxes by roughly20 cents. We take this as
28We owe the idea of splitting the sample to an anonymous referee. The raw correlations between tax changes in neighboring states, presented in Table 2, are also larger when the sample is restricted to states in which governors are eligible to run for reelection.
VOL. 85 NO. 1
BESLEYAND CASE: INCUMBENT BEHAVIOR TABLE 4ESTIMATION
37
OF STATE TAX CHANGES
Dependentvariables
Explanatory variable
Changein incometaxliability, $40,000joint filers19791988 Governor cannot Governorcan runfor runfor reelection reelection OLS OLS 2SLSa
Changein sales, income, and corporatetaxes per capita,19621988 Governor cannot Governorcan runfor runfor reelection reelection OLS OLS 2SLS
Neighbors'taxchange (t  [t  2])
 0.006 (0.05)
State incomeper capita
0.011
0.068
0.073
(0.34)
(2.09)
(2.16)
(3.70)
9.13
17.35
18.52
0.665
(1.58)
(1.71)
(1.77)
(0.45)
(2.07)
(1.25)
631.96
618.10
545.51
(2.17)
(2.63)
(2.17)
1,287.50 (1.75)
512.57 (1.18)
697.88 (1.46)
0.323 (1.12) 354
0.118 (0.50) 846
 0.096 (0.38) 813 0.20 (0.820)
(t  [t 2])
Stateunemploymentrate (t  [t  2])
Proportionyoung(aged517) (t  [t  21)
Proportionelderly(aged 65+) (t [t 2]) Governor'sage Numberof observations: Overidentification test:b (P value):
3,381.30 (0.74)
0.305 (2.49)
0.746 (1.81)
3,680.97
356.80
(0.80)
4,315.03 (1.05)
15,791.35 (2.33)
 7.75 (2.12) 113
0.126 (0.06) 302
(0.92)
12,813.98 (1.72) 0.027 (0.01) 302 1.26 (0.287)
0.086 (1.01) 0.023
0.216 (3.23) 0.016 (3.84)
3.17
0.538 (1.96) 0.014 (2.80)
2.19
Notes: Numbersin parenthesesare t statistics.All regressionsinclude state and year indicatorvariables.OLS denotes ordinaryleastsquaresanalysis;2SLSdenotes twostageleastsquaresanalysis. aFirststageregressionusingTAXSIMdata: Changein Neighbors'Tax Liability= Constant+ 14.70(Neighbors'Changein UnemploymentRate) [t = 1.66] 3.99 (Neighbors'Changein UnemploymentRate Lagged)[t = 0.43] 0.092 (Neighbor's Change in Income per Capita Lagged) [t = 3.79] + 5,551.04 (Neighbor's Change in Proportion Young Lagged) [t = 2.50]
+ state and year indicatorsand own state covariates
(those that appearin table above) (numberof observations= 302, R2 = 0.4413;observationsfor 1987 and 1988 restrictedto states with information availableon whetherincumbentgovernorcan run in next election). Firststageregressionusingsales, income,and corporatetax data: Changein Neighbors'Taxes= Constant+ 0.027 (Neighbor'sChangein Incomeper CapitaLagged)[t = 6.97] + 4.28 (Neighbors'Changein UnemploymentRate Lagged)[t = 3.23]
+year and state indicatorsand own state covariates (those that appearin table above) (numberof observations= 813, R2 = 0.7889). bF test of significanceof instrumentsin regression:[Art  bAr_'] on own state covariatesand state and year indicators,where b is the estimatedcoefficientfromthe twostageleastsquaresregression.
38
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
fairly strong evidence that political calculations are influencinggovernors'behavior.If sensitivitytowardneighbors'taxes was due, say, to states sharingcommon shocks, this sensitivityshouldbe as apparentin the years in which governors were bound by term limits as in those years in which they are eligible to run again. If taxsettingbehavioris strategic,we expect state tax changes to respond to tax changes in neighboring states (and vice versa). To cope with the potential endogeneity problem, we present estimates in Table 4 of the impactof neighbors'taxes on tax changes at home, using twostageleastsquares estimation, for the governorswho can run for reelection.29These results are the last column of estimates for each data series. Although impreciselyestimated, the results from both data sets suggest that neighbors'tax changes are positivelycorrelated with a state's own tax change. Since neighbors' tax changes are instrumented, this correlationis not attributableto common unobservableshocks that may have hit neighboringstates; the correlationis in the componentof neighbors'tax increases that is attributableto neighbors'observablevariables, used here as instruments. The two tax variablesare differentmeasures of state taxes, and for this reason, we expect them to respond differently to changesin economicand demographicvariables. For example, if unemploymentincreases in the state, this is apt to place a fiscal strain on the state and result in an increase in the incometax liability of $40,000 filers. This is consistent with the results presented in columns 13: ceteris paribus, an increase in the unemployment rate has a positive and significanteffect on the tax liabilityof $40,000 filers. However, using instead the per capita taxes collected by the state as a tax measure, we might expect increases in the unemploymentrate
29The neighbors' instrument list includes neighbors' demographic and economic variables and neighbors' demographic variables lagged.
MARCH 1995
to reduce the government'stax revenues. This is consistentwith results in columns 5 and 6: ceteris paribus,an increasein unemploymentreduces the taxes collected by the state. The same reasoningsuggeststhat income growth may be negativelyrelated to the incometaxliabilityof $40,000filers,and positivelyrelated to the sales, income, and corporatetaxes collected. This is also consistent with resultspresentedin Table 4. Governor's age has been added to the taxsettingequationbecause of its potential effect on the governor's reelection odds. Using the notation of Section III, this variable belongs to x (determiningreelection) but not to z (payofffrom reelection).This is a variablethat may be used in overidentification tests; we will discuss these tests for the maximumlikelihood estimatesbelow. The twostage leastsquaresestimates in Table 4 are consistent in the presence of correlation between shocks to the voting and taxsetting equations. They are also consistent if there is spatial correlationin the errors of the taxsettingequation, because we have instrumentedfor neighbors' tax changes. However, these estimates are not efficient if there is correlation in the shocks to the taxsettingand voting equations. For this reason, we have estimated these equations jointly, using data on per capita sales, income, and corporate taxes. We present these resultsin Table 5.3? The results of joint estimation for coefficients on taxsettingvariables are almost identical to those found in Table 4. With respect to the taxsetting equation, neighbors' tax changes continue to have a positive and significanteffect on a given state's tax changes;a onedollarincrease in neighbors' taxes results in roughlya 20cent increase in a given state's taxes. Increasesin
30We attempted to estimate a joint likelihood using our data on changes in incometax liabilities of $40,000 filers. However, when year indicators were included in the model, the program would not converge. A GAUSS program to estimate the joint likelihood is available from the authors upon request.
VOL. 85 NO. 1
BESLEYAND CASE: INCUMBENT BEHAVIOR
TABLE5MAxIMuMLIKELIHooDESTIMATION OFVOTINGANDTAxSETTING BEHAVIOR
Variable
Coefficient using data on changes in sales, income, and corporate tax per capita, 19621986
Tax change coefficients: Neighbors' tax change (t [t 2]) State income (t [t 2]) State unemployment rate (t [t 2])
0.177 (3.92) 0.017 (5.68) 3.313 (2.79)
Proportion young (t  [t  2])
6.563 (1.84)
Proportion elderly (t  [t  2])
6.988 (4.77)
Governor's age
0.135 (0.73)
Year effects
yes
Incumbentdefeat coefficients: Own tax change (t  [t  2])
0.015 (1.14)
Neighbor's tax change (t [t 2])
 0.033 (1.99)
State income (t  [t  2])
 0.317 (1.38)
State unemployment (t  [t  2])
0.044 (0.79)
Governor's age
0.023 (2.25)
Numbers of observations: Taxsetting Election
846 266
Note: Numbers in parentheses are t statistics.
unemploymentcontinue to reduce the per capita taxes collected, while increases in state income per capita add to per capita taxes collected. In addition, taxes increase with an increasein the proportionof elderly people and young people in the population. Consonant with the theory presented above, the probabilityof incumbentdefeat is increased by an increase in state taxes. However, this effect is offset if neighbors increase their taxes simultaneously.
39
We can formallytest whetherthe sensitivity to neighbors' tax changes is of a size consistent with the yardstickcompetition model,by testingwhether p =  )2 / 'y1iThe likelihoodratiotest statisticassociatedwith constrainingthis relationshipto hold is 4.48. Althoughthe rejectionholds in a 90percent confidenceinterval,it is not a strong rejection. We find the results to be broadlyconsistent with the model presentedin Sections II and 111.31 V. Extensionsand AlternativeModels A. Consistencyof the Results with the TieboutModel
It is interestingto speculatewhether our results are consistentwith Tieboutstyletax competition based on factor mobility. At first sight, a negativeeffect of own taxes on reelection is hard to justify in a Tiebout framework:individualsshould move if they are dissatisfiedwith the tax change. This would leave only contented voters in the state and thus enhance the probabilitythat the incumbent is reelected. Likewise, increasesin taxes in a neighboringstate would lead to an influx of voters into a state that disliked high taxes, thus loweringthe average tolerance to taxes at home.32Thus increases in neighbors'taxes tend to decrease the probabilitythat an incumbentwill survive. At face value, therefore, both of the predictionsof the Tiebout model would be contraryto what we find in our empirical results. It is importantto acknowledgethat some stories based on factor mobility could be consistent with our results. Suppose that highertaxes lead businessesto relocate and that this reduces property values, which
31Note that we cannot reject the null of equality in our second set of overidentification tests: P1*= (1 ,I/ y1). However, this is only because the standard errors on the coefficients in the taxsetting equation are large. 32However, to the extent that taxes are capitalized into property values, the incentive to move would be weakened.
40
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
makes voters unhappy.This is a hybridof our model and a Tiebout approach.Other explanationsthat emphasizefactor mobility might also be possible. All of this notwithstanding,we find the simpler and more direct explanationof the relationshipbetween voteseeking and taxsetting spelled out above to be a reasonableworkinghypothesis based on the evidence. However,future work might be able to suggest ways of distinguishing between alternative explanations. B. Alternative VoterInformation Sets
In our model, voters react to tax changes. However, if voters understandthe way in which changes in demographic and economic variablesinfluence tax changes,then they should penalize incumbents only for that part of any tax changewhichis unanticipated, given economic and demographic changes, and not matched by neighboring states. Thus imagine that each voter regresses taxes on state characteristicsand estimates a predicted tax change based on changes in the righthandsidevariablesof this regression.The cost "shock"is then the residualof such a regression.This view suggests that it is the residual in this regression, relative to the residual in such a regression for neighboringstates, that indicates whether a tax increaseis justified. To test whether this is the case, refer to columns (iv) and (viii) of Table 3, which present our estimatesof the effect of unanticipated tax changes on gubernatorialreelection using the TAXSIM data. Here, we see a pattern consistentwith that observed in the other columns of the same table: unanticipatedown tax increasesreduce the odds of reelection, while unanticipatedincreases in neighbors' taxes increase the probabilityof reelection. In spite of this finding,a word of caution seems necessary. One might question the plausibilityof assumingthat voters are doing regressionbasedevaluationsof incumbents in their heads. In formingestimatesof unanticipatedneighbors'tax increases,voters must be versed in the demographicand economic conditionsin both their own and
MARCH 1995
neighboring states. In addition, this approachwould give way to yardstickcompetition between states in unanticipatedtax changes.We would be unable,in this world, to distinguish correlation between neighbors' taxes that is due to common shocks from that whichis due to strategicbehavior. Given that voters appearto respondto both anticipatedand unanticipatedtax changes, we are comfortablewith the assumptionthat voters condition on neighbors'tax changes, without regard to whether it is a change that could have been anticipated with enough information.Nonetheless,the question of what informationvoters have and use to evaluate their incumbentsis worthy of furtherinvestigation. C. A More General Model
Our model of incumbentand voters' behavioris somewhatspecial in focusingonly on taxsetting.In reality there is a whole arrayof incumbentactions aboutwhichvoters care, directly or indirectly, and which they might use to decide whether or not to reelect an incumbent.A more general approach to the issues treated here would involve studying the links between all aspects of incumbentbehavior and electoral performance.This exercise requiresconsiderably more effort in data collection and analysis and must be left for the future. Nonetheless, we have some preliminary findingsto report. Tax and debt are substitute ways of financingexpenditures;some wouldeven take the Ricardianview that they are equivalent. It is thus interestingto know whether they have the same effect on gubernatorialreelection chances. The literature suggests possible crosscuttingreasons for asymmetries between the political effects of debt and taxes. The publicchoicetradition(e.g., James M. Buchananand Richard E. Wagner, 1977) has often argued that voters do not perceive the true cost of debt finance. On the other hand, current regulation of bond finance through referenda serves to increasedebt'svisibilityand cost. Of course, such hurdlescould be put in place by voters who fear excessive deficits because debt is
VOL. 85 NO. 1
41
BESLEYAND CASE: INCUMBENT BEHAVIOR
less visible. In either case, there is no reason to think that taxes and debt would have the same effect on reelection odds. To investigate the effect, we includedchanges in the level of state debt (t  [t  2]) and
a significantdeterminantof who is elected, rationalizingeffort put into curbingtax increases that are out of line with neighbors. Much scope remains, however, to study contexts in which policy choices and political fortunes are jointly determined.There may be additionalimplicationsof yardstick competitionfor governmentalbehaviorthat can be explored.Thus our paper only constitutes a beginning.Data on the U.S. states are a rich source for exploringthese issues. It is also a natural situation in which to consider yardstickcompetition, given that there is a significantcommoncomponentto incumbents'environments.
changes in neighbors' debt as righthandside variablesin the reelection equationsof Table 3.33 Own state debt levels do not appear to affect significantlythe odds of being reelected. This finding could also be explained by our use of total longterm debt, while in reality only certain kinds of debt financemay be politicallysensitive. A more complete model would also allow voters to evaluategovernorswith respect to expenditures(both level and'composition). APPENDIX A Recent work by Case et al. (1993) suggests that state spending may respond to spending decisions made in neighboringstates. PROPOSITION Al: In any equilibrium of While a complete expenditure model lies the taxsettinggame, good incumbents behave beyond the scope of this paper, preliminary as {r(OL, G) = r1, r(OM,G) =T2' T(OH, G) = investigationfound no effect of changes in 73}, and voters use {,(LLG) = 1, p(r4) = O, expenditure on the probability of ,A(75) = 0}. Bad incumbents set taxes as follows. reelection.34 VI. Concluding Remarks
The main achievementsof this paper are twofold. First, we have demonstratedthe importance of jointly estimating incumbents' policy choices and their likelihoodof reelection. If some policies yield electoral success, then we would expect to see more of them. Second, we have shown why one might expect a kind of yardstickcompetition in the political sphere. We have studiedyardstickcompetitionin states' taxsetting decisions between 1960 and 1988. The results are encouragingto the view that voteseeking and taxsetting are tied togetherthroughthe nexus of yardstick competition.Tax changesappearto be
(i) If
then:
qH 2 12,
1L(3)=l.
/(LC2)=l
(ii) If qH < 2,
then thereare threecases:
(a) if
then:
qL 2 12
withprobability qm /
(72 'r(OL,B)
3with probability
=
( q
r(OM,B) ('r2)
(b) if
=
qm
then:
73
=
(73
with probability (Hq)q
rT(Om,B)= )
74
with probability (qm
(u72)
=75 4(73) = 0.
1/(28)
qL < qH < 2,
7(0H,B)
/qL
r(OH,B)
=74
r(OL,B)
33These are changes in total state debt outstanding at the end of the fiscal year (Source: State Gouernment Finances, various years). 34Using data on total state expenditure from 1950 to 1990, we found no significant effect of changes in expenditure on the probability of incumbent defeat. This is true whether or not one controls simultaneously for changes in state income per capita, state unemployment rates, and taxes collected.
r(OH,B)=T5
T(OM,B)=T3
r(OL,B)=T3
=
+ qL
qH)/qm
75
=1
A(r3)=1/(28).
qL
MARCH 1995
THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
42
need to check that the voter is indifferent between voting out and reelecting at 'r2
(c) if q H < q