India-East Africa Ties

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Volume 49, No. 1 February-April 2009

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India-East Africa Ties: Mapping New Frontiers

Shared destinies and future trajectories O Dialogue through dance O

Indian Council for Cultural Relations Azad Bhavan Indraprastha Estate New Delhi — 110 002 E-mail: [email protected] Registered with the Registrar of Newspapers of India Regd No. 14380/61

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Promoting Track-II diplomacy

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ALSO in the issue

A model of South-South cooperation O Lessons from South Africa’s elections O

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Indian Journal of African Affairs Volume 49 No. 1, February-April 2009

INDIAN COUNCIL FOR CULTURAL RELATIONS NEW DELHI

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contents

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INDIA-EAST AFRICA TIES: FUTURE TRAJECTORIES

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Led by a more coherent Africa policy, India’s engagement with Africa has expanded dramatically, says Sanjukta Banerji Bhattacharya

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FROM PERSECUTION TO REINTEGRATION

Bonnie Ayodele explores how the persecution of Indians and their eventual re-integration in Uganda has deepened India’s ties with Africa

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A MODEL OF SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATOION The ambitious Pan African e-Network Project underlines India’s enduring commitment to transferring skills and technology to Africa, says Dr. Renu Modi

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STRENGTHENING RELATIONS THROUGH CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

Globalisation may have boosted relations between India and Africa but its cultural exchanges that have taken these ties to a radically new high, says Dr. Rashmi Kapoor

26 CONNECTING EAST AFRICA AND INDIA For India, no region could be more suitable to start a multi-layered dialogue than East Africa, says Manish Chand

8 NEWS & EVENTS: Southern and Eastern Africa get hooked to India

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SOUTH AFRICA: CHARTING NEWER FRONTIERS? Sanusha Naidu and Hayley Herman say President Jacob Zuma needs to strike a delicate balance between South Africa’s interests in Africa itself and the country’s Look East policy

Long-expected fibre-optic cable, linking southern and eastern Africa to global telecommunications networks via India and Europe, has finally gone live, with high expectations it will lower the cost of telecommunications in Africa

30 DIALOGUE through Dance Neera Kapur writes about the different gestures, expressions and traditional values of Kenyan and Indian dance forms and the links between the two

72 BOOKS & IDEAS 78 CONTRIBUTORS

ORCHHA: A MEDIEVAL LEGACY IN STONE The palaces and temples built by Bundela rulers in the 16th and 17th centuries retain much of their pristine perfection, says Nandini Banerjee

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Rates of Subscription Annual Three-year Subscription Subscription Rs. 100.00 Rs. 250.00 US $40.00 US $100.00 £16.0 £40.0 (Including airmail postage) Subscription rates as above payable in advance preferably by bank draft/MO in favour of Indian Council for Cultural Relations, New Delhi. Printed and Published by Pavan K. Varma Director-General Indian Council for Cultural Relations, Azad Bhavan, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi - 110002

Africa Quarterly (Indian Journal of African Affairs) is published every three months.

The views expressed in the articles included in this journal are those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the ICCR. All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any from or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the permission of the ICCR.

Editor: Manish Chand

Editorial correspondence and manuscripts, including book reviews, should be addressed to:

Design & Production: IANS Publishing

The Editor Africa Quarterly Indian Council for Cultural Relations Azad Bhavan Indraprastha Estate New Delhi-110 002 E-mail: [email protected]

Cover Design: Shajan C. Kumar ISBN 0001-9828 6

The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), founded in 1950 to strengthen cultural ties and promote understanding between India and other countries, functions under the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. As part of its effort, the Council publishes, apart from books, six periodicals in five languages –– English quarterlies (Indian Horizons and Africa Quarterly), Hindi Quarterly (Gagananchal), Arabic Quarterly (Thaqafat-ul-Hind), Spanish bi-annual (Papeles de la India) and French bi-annual (Recontre Avec l’Inde).

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■ From the Editor’s Desk

Connecting India and East Africa

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e it biryani, pulao, samosa or chapatis, an Indian is sure to feel at home in East Africa, home to an over 200,000-strong Indian diaspora. Many Indian-origin words and expressions like duka (shop), kachumbari and harambee are firmly embedded in Kiswahili. In a sense, every time an East African sits down to eat, he is connecting to India and Indians. There are Indian malls and a number of Indian restaurants offering delicious cuisine from different corners of India. Bollywood films are popular and the latest songs from Indian movies can be heard in the hip discos in Nairobi and Kampala. It’s not just cultural connections that are bringing India and East Africa closer. Business ties go back centuries and are getting stronger by the day. Leading Indian industrial conglomerates like Reliance Industries, Essar and the Tata Group are now eyeing opportunities in the petroleum, telecom and infrastructure sectors in various East African countries. This edition of Africa Quarterly celebrates India’s engagement with East Africa in all its myriad dimensions, but at the same time takes a critical look at areas and issues that need to be addressed if this relationship is to flower to its full potential. Sanjukta Banerji Bhattacharya delves deep into the history of Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs) in East Africa and examines the impact they can have on contemporary ties between the two sides. In her article, ‘India-East Africa Ties: Future Trajectories’, the author points towards a dramatic expansion of bilateral trade and investment, especially after economic reforms in India in the 1990s. The reforms gave India the economic muscle and added global stature to reconfigure her terms of engagement with various nations, including African countries. On the other hand, East African countries are becoming more and more important to India and China, two of the world’s fastest-growing economies, due to their development curve and the conducive business environment they offer. The potential is huge. The East African Community started an East African Union in 2005. There are ambitious plans for a common market and a monetary union. But the author rues that bilateral trade, despite an impressive increase in recent years, does not amount to a critical mass. The author also calls for a fresh look at attitudes of the Indian diaspora in East Africa, whose relative affluence has bred resentment among the local population, and argues for a more imaginative approach, using PIOs to transform relations between India and East Africa. Moving beyond the hustle and bustle of commerce and the deft moves of realpolitik, author and danseuse Neera Kapur takes us on a journey into the world of dance where she is trying out new experiments in blending Indian and African dance forms. Recalling her experience of working

with African dancers and acrobats, Kapur brings out the differences between the dance forms and philosophies underpinning them, and the possibilities of their fusion with other styles and sensibilities. Dancing is rooted deeply in the texture of African life and speaks its own language which goes beyond the power of mere words. The experience of working with African dancers has transformed her deeply. “I will never dance in the same way as before,” she says. In a similar vein, Rashmi Kapoor underlines the growing importance of cultural diplomacy — what Joseph Nye has called soft power — in today’s world where power is increasingly seen not in terms of military might and economic muscle, but in terms of the cultural attractiveness of a nation. Cultural diplomacy for India has become an extended arm to reinforce its economic and political ties with Africa, Kapoor writes. The future of India-East Africa ties looks upbeat for now, but if one has to take the relationship to the next level, there has to be serious introspection about the glaring gaps in knowledge and information that continue to exist despite centuries of unbroken interaction between the two sides. Cliches and stereotypes continue to thrive stubbornly, clouding understanding of each other’s society, culture and ethos. The Tanzania-born Niranjan Desai, a former high commissioner of India to Uganda, makes a strong case for starting a Track-II dialogue to clear old stereotypes through which Africa and India continue to view each other. Whatever the sins of omission and commission in the past, it is now time to think about engaging the countries of East Africa in an imaginative way outside the framework of governmental and diplomatic channels, he writes. The need is to look at each other, so to speak, through our own eyes and that comes through sustained dialogue and engagement, he says. Besides East Africa, the journal carries two articles on the historic elections in South Africa, which Ethiopian writer Mammo Muchie praises as an inspiration for other African nations. Sanusha Naidu and Hayley Herman analyse how President Jacob Zuma needs to strike a balance between South Africa’s interests in Africa itself and the country’s Look East policy. They also argue that India’s experience in science and technology, IT and SMEs could help address South Africa’s developmental challenges and give it a comparative advantage over China in Africa’s most powerful country. In the end, it’s all about ways of seeing and the way we communicate what we see. The language we speak in about each other can transform our lives and relationships. The media and the intellectual community have a critical role in stimulating and sustaining a creative dialogue between India and Africa. Manish Chand

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Kenya takes a lead in outsourcing Fibre-optics will usher in a new technological era in Africa

A call centre worker in Kenya

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enya is eagerly awaiting the imminent switch-on of its first fibre-optic cable, which many hope will spark an explosion in hi-tech business and boost the East African nation’s struggling economy. While many businesses are yet to work out how best to take advantage of the bandwidth surge, one company is primed to ride the digital wave and steal a slice of India’s call-centre market. Horizon Contact Centres sits on the edge of the traffic-choked road that links the capital Nairobi to the airport and the coast. On the other side of the highway sit the open plains of Nairobi National Park, where wealthy tourists watch the wildlife. Only a few kilometres away lies Kibera, one of Africa’s largest slums, where an estimated one million people live in shacks. The contrast between these faces of Africa and Horizon Contact Centres could not be more stark. The building is a glistening temple to technology, with biometric entry systems, an array of electronic backups

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designed to ensure 24-hour operation and chill-out zones for stressed staff. Chief Executive Officer Dave Stewart persuaded a consortium of global investors to pump $6 million into the company, which he is convinced will open up a vital new income stream for Kenya.

Taking advantage of the bandwidth surge, Kenya is riding high on the digital wave and is slowly becoming the most favoured destination for business outsourcing Call centres are already wellestablished in South Africa, while some French-speaking countries in North and West Africa service their former colonial masters. In between, there has been only a void. The key to

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the new market is the impending arrival of several fibre-optic cables, which will replace the current satellite technology, not only jacking up Internet speeds but slashing costs in East Africa. “The fibre-optic cable is vital,” says Stewart. “Satellite is five or six more times expensive and it is unreliable.” The government-backed TEAMS undersea cable is due to be operational in a few months, followed closely by the Seacom and EASSy cables. Such is the expectation around the switch-on that President Mwai Kibaki compared it to the completion of the Kenya-Uganda railway line over 100 years ago. “The economies of the last century were driven by railway connections, the economies of today are largely driven by the Internet and other ICT (Information and Communication Technology) links,” Kibaki said at a ceremony to mark the arrival of the TEAMS cable in the coastal town of Mombasa. The government has an ambitious — many say unrealistic — plan to grow

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Softpro acquires IT firm Cura he acquisition of the small but well-placed South African software company Cura by Softpro of Hyderabad has presented an opportunity to the Indian firm to become the multinational company that it aspires to be, according to Softpro chairman Bala Reddy. “Cura is an $8-million company which we want to build into a $200-million governance, risk and compliance (GRC) leader within five years,” Reddy said at a dinner in Johannesburg to celebrate the $90-million buyout. Calling the acquisition the “first step” towards opportunities in the African country, Reddy said his company wanted a “long-term relationship with South Africa and its people”. Cura was chosen after a detailed search because it was regarded as a visionary company in the governance, risk and compliance area by leading analysts, the chairman said. “We see a huge potential in the GRC sector as governments and corporates place ever greater emphasis on risk to protect their economies and businesses, respectively,” Reddy added. The proprietary technologies developed by Softpro in India would be licensed for adaptation in the South African market, he said. Avi Eyal, chief executive of Cura, also welcomed the acquisition, saying it “shows that South African software companies can grow profitably and make it on the world stage”. In addition to growing existing staff and research and development in South Africa, Cura would in coming months “double and triple” staff in India with Softpro, the chief executive added.

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Graduates of a Monyetla Training programme for call centres

the economy by an average 10 percent each year. While analysts feel much needs to be done in terms of productivity and the regulatory environment to unlock the full potential of the fibre-optic cables, they see outsourcing as a way to drive the economy forward. “This industry would be another good foundation for the economy,” says Robert Shaw, a Nairobi-based economic analyst. “I would think as it gathers momentum... we will see an explosion in business.” Kenya is in need of a leg-up. The economy is East Africa’s largest, but the country has one of the worst income disparities in the world. The double whammy of the violence that followed the disputed 2007 presidential elections and the global recession has not helped. Kenya’s economy, driven by manufacturing, tourism and agriculture, maintained strong growth of around 5.5 percent annually until 2008, when it dropped to 2.3 percent. The World Bank estimates growth will be 2-3 percent in 2009, hit by reduced exports, foreign inflows and remittances. Stewart, however, believes the

global recession can work in Kenya’s favour as companies look to cut costs. Kenya has all the ingredients of an outsourcing destination. The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics puts the average salary in the formal sector at $407 per month, English is a lingua franca and there is a highly skilled workforce to call on. According to Stewart, the company received 6,000 applications within a few days of first advertising in February. Most of the company’s employees have university or college degrees. Horizon Contact Centres began servicing its first customer — a British financial services company — recently and at the moment only employs 80 staff. However, Stewart plans to employ 1,200 by mid-2010 and, if things take off, an extra 1,500 in an adjoining building after that. He believes it won’t be long before a major call-centre industry is operational in Nairobi. “We need competitors, a critical mass, to become successful,” he admits. “I think it will begin to happen over the next year.” „

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Southern, eastern Africa get hooked to India long-expected fibre-optic cable IP network to interconnect representalinking southern and eastern tives and dignitaries across the five Africa to global telecommuni- African countries. The Common market for Eastern cations networks via India and Europe has gone live with high expectations and Southern Africa (Comesa) that it will lower the cost of telecom- Secretary General Sindiso Ngwenya said that most countries in the Comesa munications in Africa. Its switch-on date was delayed for a region will connect to the cable for month after threats by Somali pirates broadband services. “In fact, in the Comesa region, we along the Indian Ocean route from India to Kenya disrupted cable installa- are constructing a fibre cable called the Lower Indian Ocean Network under tion plans. The cable has simultaneously the Indian Ocean that will connect to launched in Kenya, Tanzania, the SEACOM cable for broadband serMozambique, South Africa and vices to our member countries,” Ngwenya said. Uganda on July 23. Many other countries in the Comesa It is widely seen to be opening up opportunities for governments and region, Ngwenya said, are developing business to use the network as a plat- inland cables that will soon be connected to the form to compete globally and drive The $600 mn cable SEACOM cable. Comesa is a economic growth. links India and regional economic Backhauls linking Europe, making it the bloc which has Johannesburg, Nairobi, and first such to hook east more than 19 Kampala with coastal and southern Africa member countries including Kenya, landing stations have also been established. to India and Europe. Mozambique, Additionally, SEA- The 17,000-km cable Zambia, Ethiopia Rwanda and COM, the fibrecan transmit 1.28 Uganda, and is optic company terrabytes per second chartered to accelbehind the operation, erate the region’s is working with national partners to commission the economy through improved commufinal link to Kigali, Rwanda, and Addis nication and business. Broadband connectivity means the Ababa, Ethiopia. The US$600 million cable has direct region will have no problems linking to connections to India and from India to medical and educational institutions in Europe, making it the first cable to hook India for telemedicine and tele-educaeastern and southern Africa to India and tion, Ngwenya said. The SEACOM cable, which is priEurope. The 17,000 kilometre cable has a vately funded and three-quarters capacity of transmitting data amounting African owned, is expected to provide bandwidth on an open access basis, to 1.28 terrabytes per second. According to reports, SEACOM allowing all operators to have equal management is marking the launch of access to the cable. African countries currently rely on the cable with a one gigabytes per second live international connection and expensive and slow satellite connections live high-definition video feed over an for telephones and the Internet. „

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India offers to train Ugandans ndia has sought details of a request made by Uganda for training its police officials in ballistics, according to an official release. During a meeting with visiting Ugandan Minister of Internal Affairs Matia Kasaija in Delhi on June 25, Minister of State for Home Affairs Ajay Maken requested Uganda to furnish a detailed training proposal for its police personnel. The Minister also requested the Ugandan Minister to give a detailed proposal for computerisation of the Ugandan police system. “India has always been the partner in Africa’s development and its new resurgence towards prosperity and democratic governance,” Maken said, according to a press release.

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BSF forces in Congo n Indian paramilitary contingent left for Congo on July 7 as part of UN peacekeeping mission duties. The contingent comprising 125 personnel of the Border Security Force (BSF) was given specialised training on the country’s terrain and difficulties in Congo, human rights issues, and duties of the formed police unit. “Keeping in sync with the prevalent security situation in Congo, they were trained to combat the menace of civil war and assist the local police in maintaining law and order,” said BSF Director General M.L. Kumawat. “They were taught French and trained in mob dispersal, riot control, protective patrolling, driving, aid to civilians and human rights.” This is the fourth consecutive contingent to the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Sweet boost to Indian business in Africa

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ndia may have been slow off the block when it comes to tapping business opportunities in Africa, but its foray received a sweet boost after its flagship sugar factory project in Ethiopia got its first loan disbursement following the settlement of a two-year dispute between two Indian firms. The Export and Import (EXIM) Bank of India has finally released the first phase funding for the construction of Tendaho sugar factory following settlement of a row between the two Indian companies. Officials at the Ethiopian Sugar Development Agency and Tendaho Sugar Factory sent a letter to the bank, insisting on disbursement of the first phase of funding, citing a resolution to the disagreement, Ethiopian prime minister’s advisor on basin affairs and board chairman of the project Shiferaw Jarso said. The bank disbursed the first phase and the companies are now operating at their full capacity, he said. India had accepted Ethiopia’s project proposal and offered a $640 million soft loan for two expansion projects at Fincha and Wonji sugar factories (in central Ethiopia) and to construct the giant new factory at Tendaho in the Afar state in the northeast. This was the largest single line of credit India has extended to a foreign country. The EXIM bank was then appointed to execute the loan disbursement for Ethiopia in October 2007. The first instalment of $122 million was disbursed in 2008 and the second instalment amounting $166.33 million was disbursed two months ago. However, the bank halted Tendaho’s share from the two instalments due to the dispute between the two Indian contractors. The Ethiopian government had awarded the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract of the country’s biggest sugar factory to Overseas Infrastructure Alliance (OIA), an Indian company. The con-

A labourer harvesting sugarcane in a farm in Africa.

With EXIM bank releasing the first phase of funding for the sugar factory in Ethiopia, the business ties between the two countries have received a boost tract stipulated that OIA had to hire other Indian companies. The company contracted two Indian companies, IJAC for steam generation and Uttam Sucrotech for processing house installations. But Uttam was not happy about OIA’s role in the project and raised questions about the EPC tender process. The dispute reached the Bombay High Court, which led EXIM bank to halt the release of funds. Now, the companies have settled their differences, prompting the bank to transfer Tendaho’s share from the

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first instalment. It is learnt that the Ethiopian government had expressed its annoyance over the lingering dispute, which had led to the intervention of the Indian government to settle the matter. According to the two governments’ agreement, the bank was to disburse the total loan of $640 million within a five year period starting from 2007. In line with this, the EXIM bank is to disburse $213.33 million, $91 million and $47 million in 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12, respectively. At the end of disbursement period Tendaho will receive an aggregate of $367 million, out of the total amount, which would make it the biggest sugar factory with a capacity of producing 600,000 tonnes of sugar and 55 million litres of ethanol per year. The remaining amount will be for the expansion projects at Fincha and Wonji-Shoa sugar factories; the total share of Fincha will be $132 million, leaving the balance worth $141 million to Wonji-Shoa. — Groum Abate

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Ethiopians say ‘salaam’ to popular Indian envoy

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rdinary Ethiopians knock on his car window as he drives through the streets of Addis Ababa. They recognise the turbaned Indian envoy instantly and affectionately say “Salaam Babuji”. Four years is not a long time in diplomacy, but Indian envoy Gurjit Singh has reasons to feel proud that under his watch bilateral ties have blossomed in nearly all areas, with trade and investment surging manifold from $400 million to over $4.2 billion. “I was always touched while driving through the streets of Addis Ababa to find people often knocking at my window and saying ‘Salaam Babuji’. Through the media, we have reached vast multitudes of people in Ethiopia and I felt honoured whenever people recognised me,” recalls Singh. He is upbeat about Ethiopia’s future. “I see Ethiopia now in the same position India was decades ago. I’m very bullish about Ethiopia’s future. It has a very wise leadership and I see a bright future for it,” Singh said in an interview. “India is and will remain a partner of choice for Ethiopia,” he stressed. India is now the single-largest foreign investor in Ethiopia with Indian entrepreneurs getting licences from the Ethiopian authorities to invest $4.2 billion in 439 investment projects in the country. The envoy is clearly in a nostalgic mood as he gets ready to leave for New Delhi after an eventful four-year tenure in Ethiopia, East Africa’s emerging economy that is attracting large Indian investments, outstripping old favourites like Kenya. “Being in Ethiopia for so many years has been an unforgettable experience. The memories of this place will be firmly embedded in my heart and mind,” he said.

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Ambassador Gurjit Singh in conversation with the media

The ambassador, who returned to Addis Ababa after taking part in the 13th AU Summit in Libya, left for India on July 4. He will be back towards Julyend before formally leaving the country for his new post in the headquarters in the Indian external affairs ministry on August 9. Singh is widely recognised by Ethiopians to have worked tirelessly to transform relations between India and Ethiopia, an emerging economic hub in East Africa. There was a dramatic increase in bilateral engagement during his tenure in nearly all areas, including educational linkages, scholarship programmes, ITEC (Indian Technical and Educational Programme) training facilities, investments and capacity building. “We’ve managed to shorten the distance over the Indian Ocean between the two countries. I really take pride for being an ambassador here in Ethiopia at a time when the relationship between the two countries underwent a dynamic shift, a shift from a family kind of relationship to a more institutionalised South-South Cooperation,” he said. “Today, the two countries have a common stance on issues ranging from

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terrorism to ways of resolving the current global economic crisis.” Indians, who were known as traders and educationists, are now active in just every sphere of life and inspire respect and affection. India has its oldest embassy in Africa in the Ethiopian capital. Bilateral ties have acquired a sharper focus with the emphasis on development partnership — an approach India claims sets it apart from other countries like China that is seen to be driven mostly by the profit motive. The Ethiopian Military Court Administration (EMCA) members will head to India shortly and representatives of the Indian Customs Authority are already here helping their Ethiopian counterparts with modernising their database system. The EXIM Bank of India is planning to open its East African office here in Ethiopia, an important development in which Singh has played a crucial role. Gurjit Singh can now go to Delhi with a sense of accomplishment. “I won’t say I have accomplished my mission. It’s not possible to do everything in a few years,” he said. — Groum Abate

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IPL leaves indelible mark on South Africans

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he opening was dull and even tentative, but after 37 days of high drama and intense competition, the Indian Premier League (IPL) turned out to be a blockbuster that won over South African cricket fans as well the entire nation that was initially sceptical of the high-pitched Indian extravaganza. The fireworks, gyrating cheerleaders, and DJs belting out popular Hindi numbers, made IPL a heady cocktail of cricket and entertainment that was put together in a matter of three weeks. To add to the excitement, the quality of cricket in the 37-day, 59-match tournament was exhilarating. The IPL could not have hoped for a more thrilling finish with last year’s bottom placed team Deccan Chargers completing a fairytale journey to win the second edition of the tournament that has virtually shifted cricket’s centre of gravity to India. The atmosphere was electrifying as the packed New Wanderers stadium was first treated to a fitting finale by two bottom teams of inaugural season Deccan Chargers and Bangalore Royal Challengers and then there was plenty of entertainment at the glittering closing ceremony that showcased the diverse culture of India and South Africa. Even the uninitiated could not resist becoming a part of the IPL jamboree. The disappointment in India, after the tournament was shifted to South Africa due to the general elections, turned to cheers on foreign soil and left behind a rich legacy that has strengthened the ties between the two countries which share a slice of history. South Africa turned out to be a home away from home for the IPL and the huge success has now prompted cricket administrator Lalit Modi to

Deccan Chargers celebrate after winning IPL 2009 in South Africa

think of a second IPL every year overseas. The start was drab with rain playing spoilsport and keeping the fans away in the first week, but the game soon came to life in all the eight cities with thrilling close finishes drawing the fans to fill the stadium. The ambience and timing were perfect for an evening blast. Students, Indian expatriates and businessmen came out in hordes to cheer the IPL. Johannesburg-based Urvashi Naidoo is a cricket illiterate but the entertainment quotient brought her to the New Wanderers. “I am not a cricket lover. But I came to the stadium so that I can have a glimpse of Bollywood superstars Shilpa Shetty and Preity Zinta. Had it not been for cricket, we would have never seen them so close,” 28-year-old Urvashi, an English teacher, said in an interview. For Urvashi it might be the entertainment factor but for diehard fans like Neil Kar and Samuel Mphosa, cricket was the winner. “We have been to Twenty20 World cup matches. But IPL is different. It is cricket without boundaries. We can never see our local lads playing alongside Indian super stars. But IPL made

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it possible,” said Mphosa, who works in an MNC and came to watch his favourite cricketer AB de Villiers. The IPL also came as a welcome break for school students. They turned out in large numbers as the match timings allowed them to soak up the fun and frolic and return home before it was too late in the evening. Most places in South Africa are considered unsafe after sunset, but thanks to the IPL school children could enjoy big time cricket. The evening IPL matches were over by 7.30 p.m. local time and parents allowed their wards to watch cricket. For teenagers like Mohammad Imran and Kevin Cuan, roaming around without any escort in the evenings was a sign of adulthood. “Watching a night match is always exciting. But we don’t get a chance to watch day and night matches because our parents don’t allow us to stay out late since it is very unsafe. “But IPL match timings were tailormade for us to come and watch evening matches and get back home before it was too late,” said Imran, who studies in standard seven in the Waterkloof House. — Abhishek Roy

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India-East Africa ties: Future TRAJECTORIES Led by a more coherent Africa policy, India’s engagement with Africa has expanded dramatically, says Sanjukta Banerji Bhattacharya

The Uganda Railway line laid by Indian labourers brought in from British India. Construction of the line started at the port city of Mombasa in 1896 and reached Kisumu, on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria, in 1901

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ir Baghali was an honest and hardworking man. He was always helpful to the needy and was kind to both people and animals. He was known to be strong and athletic, and could run fast enough to catch a peacock or a vulture before it could fly away.... It is said that during construction of the railway, the kerai or vessel filled with concrete and sand which the workers usually carried on their heads, floated a few inches above his head. Pir Baghali was a pious man. It was said that through his prayers, he could help keep the wild animals away and thus keep the labourers’ camp safe. When he died, he was buried next to the railway line on Mackinnon Road. A mausoleum has been built there in his memory. Till today many travellers, regardless of whether they are Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs or Christians, stop by his graveside to pay their respects, give offerings and pray for

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their safe journeys. People say that they arrive safely at their destinations because they had stopped at Pir Bahgali’s graveside. The trains running on the railway line he helped build customarily slow down at Mackinnon Road to pay tribute to this legend.” — Oral Literature of the Asians in East Africa1 This story illustrates a tiny fragment of the long history of people of Indian origin on Africa’s soil — a diasporic story as recorded through oral traditions. India has a long association with Africa, particularly its eastern region, which is relatively close to India’s western coast. Given the evidence of trade with neighbouring regions as deduced from the discovery of the ancient port of Lothal in Gujarat, it can be said that trade, particularly along the coast, went back thousands of years before recorded history. Apart from economic and other historical connections, there was even a geographical connection in millennia gone by: onshore aeromagnetic data and study of the topography of the ocean floor have pointed to the initial ‘tight’ configuration of

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Although Western developed countries continue to Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka and Antarctica during the Lower Paeleozoic era. It was in the mid-Jurassic period remain at centre-stage along with China, Japan and Russia that there was dextral transtension between Eastern and (and this is inevitable in the current world scenario), India Western Gondwana, resulting in oceans being created, and is looking at other regions and countries for trade, investIndia breaking away from the African landmass, making a ment and strengthened political relations, and Africa is U-turn and rapidly moving northwards. Thus, there is even increasingly coming into focus. African states too, for reasome topographic similarity between parts of eastern Africa sons of their own, are looking at the emerging middle powers with favour, as the terms of engagement are different and and western India. India’s early contacts with Africa went largely unnoticed. considered more positive than those provided earlier by It was only in the nineteenth century when Europeans began Western nations. This paper will concentrate on only to colonise Africa that some of them one part of Africa – East Africa, and evalremarked on the presence of persons Although Western uate the prospects of enhancing already from the Indian subcontinent in the developed countries existing linkages. East African countries region. They were themselves instrucontinue to occupy are becoming more and more important mental in the later influx of Indians into centre stage along to states like India and China not only various parts of the African continent during the colonial period. As such, in with China, Japan and individually but also because of the market that they may give entry to: the East the post-colonial period, apart from Russia, India is African Community (EAC) started an shared interest in anti-colonialism, antilooking at other East African Customs Union (EACU) racism, economic development etc between India and newly independent regions and countries among themselves in 2005. There is a planned common market in the offing, as African countries, post-colonial East for trade, well as a monetary union, and ultimateAfrican states contained a fairly large investment and ly a political federation by 2013. When Indian diaspora to maintain continued engagement between their adopted strengthened political the process of regional integration is countries and the country of their origin. relations, and Africa is complete, the EAC will offer investors However, from the time of indepenincreasingly coming the second largest single market in Africa with over 100 million consumers. dence till the early 1990s, the relation into focus Moreover, through Kenya or Uganda, between India and these countries was, investors can have access to the to a large extent, based on ideological complementarities and was political. India, at the time, was Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMEstruggling with its own developmental problems, was itself SA), with around 385 million consumers, and the Southern a recipient of aid, and had hardly any left over capital to African development Community (SADC), which contains invest outside its borders. Trade too, was directed North, around 215 million consumers.3 according to the pattern set during colonial times: the conAs such, East Africa has enormous potential and proper cept of South-South cooperation could hardly take root studies should be conducted to gauge the positivities and under the circumstances. India’s economic reforms which began in the early 1990s, however, brought about a significant change in configurations — trade, aid, alignments, to mention a few. There has been unprecedented economic growth in the ongoing first decade of the twenty-first century, placing India among the middle powers of the world today with the potential to develop into a major power within the next quarter century. India now has capital to invest, finances for development, technologies for enhancing productivity, and an enormous market for exports.2 In its quest for further In this file photo (from left), Heads of State Paul Kagame of Rwanda, Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete of development, it has re-invented its Tanzania, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, Pierre Nkurunziza of Burundi and Mwai Kibaki of Kenya, terms of engagement with various pose before the start of the 5th Extraordinary Summit of the East African Community on June 18, nations. 2007, in Kampala, Uganda

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Sidi Sayyid built the Juma Masjid of Ahmedabad in 1573 with the help of African architects and craftsmen

negativities of the region. Further, East Africa is particular- — apart from trade. The Greco-Egyptian maritime manuly important because of the presence of persons of Indian al, Periples of the Erithraen Seas, written around the first origin (PIOs). The question is whether they provide a con- century A.D., mentions export of slaves from East Africa to structive connection — and this is significant especially in the northern shores of the Indian Ocean, but provides no figures. The rulers of the Sultanate periview of the role played by people from od brought in persons of African India who have settled in the United Several groups of descent. The earliest mention in Indian States (US) in improving India-US relaAfrican traders and annals of a person of importance who tions — or whether they will prove to be sailors migrated to was African was of Jamaluddin Yakut, historical baggage, considering the the stable master of Raziya Begum sometimes ‘troubled’ relations they have India. Eyewitness (1236-40). There is also mention of had with their adopted countries. It accounts by Tom African soldiers and mercenaries, some should be noted that impressions are Pires in the early brought in as slaves while others formed by contacts between people, and appeared to be freemen. these impressions can transfer themsixteenth century Also, several groups of African traders selves to relations between states. stated that many and sailors migrated to India. Eyewitness The current paper will first analyse Africans accompanied accounts by Tom Pires in the early sixhistorical links, which means the history of persons of Indian origin in East Gujeratis in their ships teenth century stated that many Africans accompanied Gujaratis in their ships Africa, particularly, Kenya, Uganda and from East African from East African cities like Kiowa, Tanzania and the problems they faced cities Malindi, Mombasa and Mogadishu.4 In during colonial times and in the postindependence period. In this context, it the pre-Ottoman period, they were genwill examine whether these can have any bearing on con- erally known as Habshis. Later, in some parts of the countemporary relations between India and these states. Finally, try, they were called Siddis — the word being derived either it will briefly outline current relations with the three states from Sayyid, since many were in the employ of Sayyid mentioned, and examine associated issues with a view to see rulers, or from saydi, meaning ‘captive’ in an African dialect how problems can be resolved. of Arabic. The Portuguese were also responsible for the II import of Africans into India. Reportedly, around 35,000 Linkages between India and East Africa existed, as men- Siddis settled in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, tioned, prior to written history. These are interesting Kerala, Karnataka, and the Portuguese enclaves of Goa, because they involve the movement of people — both ways Daman and Diu.

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A F R I C A Malik Ambar, the ruler of Ahmadnagar between 1601 and 1626 was reportedly of Ethiopian origin, while Sidi Sayyid, a wealthy ex-slave, built the Juma Masjid of Ahmedabad in 1573 with the help of African architects and craftsmen.5 They also rose to prominent positions in the armies and administrations of the Sultans of Bengal. There were various groups among the Siddis like the Sahelis, Shemali and Kafara Siddis: the Shemalis may have originated from Somalia, while there is an obvious connection between Saheli and ‘Swahili’. The Siddis were in the process of getting indigenised before British colonisation. The British, however, separated them from the Indian population and from each other, leading to a kind of ‘re-tribalisation’. Today there are about 76,000 Siddis in Gujarat alone and they are categorised under Scheduled Tribes.6 From the point of view of this paper, however, the presence of Indians in East Africa is more important, partly because of their economic success in the region and the impact this has had on the local people. Early scholars are of the opinion that their presence can be traced to the sixth or seventh centuries B.C.7 J.H. Speke, who explored the source of the Nile, wrote of meeting many Indians inland and was impressed with their knowledge of Africa.8 Portuguese accounts also mention the presence of Indian merchants: apparently the Indian Ocean spice trade became increasingly dominated by Gujarati traders from around the middle of the 15th century. It is further suggested that Vasco da Gama was guided to the Indian coast by an Indian navigator, Kanji Malam, whom he met along with other Indians when he arrived at Mombasa and Lindi (1497).9 Trade between the Indian coast and Africa was constrained by the monsoons: dhows sailed to Africa between November and March and returned between April and October, the main items of exchange being ivory, textiles, slaves, pottery, spices etc. It is likely that trade in gold became a significant component of this trade from the latter half of the 13th century with an increase in worldwide demand as economies from Egypt to Delhi became more and more monetised. The Arabian Nights, too, contains many stories dealing with merchant voyages along Africa’s coasts and across to India. While trade was prevalent, not much is known whether Indians settled in Africa in the early years before Europeans entered the scenario. The first definite importation of Indian labour into East Africa was in the sixteenth century when the Portuguese imported workers from Goa to help build Fort Jesus, their coastal trading post. Later, when the Omani Arab sultans took over Zanzibar (which joined with Tanganyika in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania) in 1837, the first Custom’s Master to be appointed was apparently an Indian named Jairam Sivaji. Later, Sultan Bargash encouraged Indians to settle with their families, giving even monetary incentives for the purpose.

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When Zanzibar became a British Protectorate, there was continued encouragement for Asians to settle with a commercial treaty guaranteeing the entry of British subjects. As a result, there were about 6,000 Indian settlers, mostly Muslim Khojas in Zanzibar in the early 1900s.10 The greatest influx, however, was the result of British policies: they colonised India as well as Kenya and Uganda and imported around 34,000 Indian indentured labourers to help build a railway between the Mombasa and Kampala. Of these, 2,493 died, some 28 being dragged away by lions, and 6,454 were seriously injured.11 Of the survivors, while many returned, around 6,700 opted to stay back. Most of them became dukawallahs, which is a derivative of ‘dukanwallah’ or petty shop-keeper, selling bric-a-brac. It was these dukawallahs who first moved into new colonial areas laying the groundwork for the later colonial economy. Between building the railway and World War II, the number of Indians in East Africa had increased to 320,000. The colonial governments categorised them on racial lines, and facilities set aside for their use were inadequate and inferior to those used by Europeans. One significant issue must be mentioned: land was issued only to Europeans and Africans; thus, Indians were effectively barred from agricultural work. However, they gained control over retail and wholesale trade, cotton ginning, coffee and sugar processing and other segments of commerce over time. They also occupied lower and middle grades of public health services and other sectors like railways but were unable to rise to higher positions. At the same time, they invested in education and many early schools were established privately, though they later got funding from colonial authorities, and quite a few qualified as lawyers, doctors, teachers and engineers even before these countries became independent. The apparent success of the Indians in the economic arena caused tension between them and the indigenous people. This success can partly be attributed to favours granted by the colonial powers to Indian traders in the non-agricultural sectors as long as these did not clash with their own interests. In Uganda, trade and processing of cash crops were virtually in the hands of Asians, and African attempts to break into cotton ginning, for instance, proved unsuccessful. Wealthy Baganda traders were almost eliminated by their

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Mombasa and Kampala railway

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The Indian Association, Uganda, is the leading community body that plays an active role in binding Indian groups in the country

Indian rivals, and therefore it is not surprising that when the issue of independence came up in Uganda, the discontented Baganda rioted in 1949 raising three issues, one of which was the removal of the Asian monopoly on cotton ginning, as a result of which obstacles to African cotton ginning were removed in 1952; but still, at independence, all but 12 cotton gins were in the hands of Indians/Pakistanis — Asians. The other factor for differences between Asians and Africans was religious and cultural, which was highlighted by the fact that Indians kept their separate cultural values alive and lived in exclusive communities, thus reinforcing an aura of superiority which was resented by Africans. According to Dr. Sultan H. Somjee, the curator of the Asian-African project at the Kenya National Museum, “Nationalism had a very racist component in it. If you talk anti-white, anti-Asian, you’re a good nationalist”.12 In the post-independence period, unlike Europeans who were protected both economically and politically by the new constitutions, Asians in East Africa lacked security. Under colonial rule, most of them had been British citizens or British protected persons. After independence they had the option of choosing citizenship of the country concerned or retaining their pre-independence status. As many Indians did not take up the first option, Africans were further alienated. After independence, each country adopted different policies towards Asian residents, but there are two common features: a distinction was drawn between citizens and noncitizens, and policies of ‘Africanisation’ were implemented

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whereby key areas of economic and governmental activities were assumed by citizens, the vast majority of whom were indigenous Africans. Legislations were passed restricting residence, trade activities and employment of non-citizens. In Uganda, the committee on ‘Africanisation’ in commerce and industry proposed the introduction of work permits and trade licenses in 1968 to restrict the role of Asians in the economy/professions. In 1969, Kenya passed the Trade Licensing Act by which non-citizens had their trade licenses revoked as part of their programme to promote African business.13 In Tanzania, major economic institutions were nationalised, a measure that adversely affected Indian private businesses. Facing an insecure future, many Asians sought resettlement and also began to transfer money abroad since only a limited amount of capital repatriation was allowed on emigration. This raised suspicions and further alienated the indigenous population. Indians had to face the worst situation in Uganda after Idi Amin came to power. Eight months after taking over, he announced in 1972, that all Asians, including 12,000 who were waiting for citizenship had to leave Uganda within 90 days. In fact, 15, 000 Ugandan passport holders also had their passports revoked and had to leave. In the last six weeks of the ultimatum period, 50,000 Asians left Uganda with no property and only £ 55 each. About 344,000 Asians had lived in the five countries of East Africa in 1968; by 1984, the numbers had come down to an estimated 85,000, with about 40,000 in Kenya, 20,000 in Tanzania and 1000 in Uganda.14 Subsequently, the next President, Yoweri Museveni, reversed Amin’s policies that

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had been disastrous for the Ugandan economy, and invited countries. On the one hand, they have contributed to the the expelled Indians to return. Some did, and there are about economic development of these countries as was evident from the state of the economy of Uganda after Asians, who 17,000 people of Indian origin living in Uganda today. It should be noted at this point that although East Amin called ‘blood-suckers’, were forced to leave, and its Africans and Asians have had differences in the past, Indians partial resurgence after they began to return. On the other hand, the resentment of the local people is have played an important role in their respective countries’ histories. While the PIOs are mainly defined by their eco- only natural, because the economic influence of the PIOs nomic contribution, some of them were also involved in is disproportionate to their numbers. They dominate induspolitics in pre-independence years like Joseph Murumbi, tries as diverse as tourism, fishing and sugar. Moreover, who was a member of the Kenya African Union (KAU) and there has been little attempt on the part of the Indian community to integrate with their adopted homelands, and it is Pio Gama Pinto. Since the earliest settlers were labourers, it is natural that a bit of a Catch-22 situation, because as long as they do not one of the founders of the labour movement in Kenya was feel secure and their economic ventures are attacked an Indian, Makhan Singh, who along with Fred Kubai, periodically, they have little incentive to integrate. Although formed the East Africa Trade Union Congress, the first Asian companies began returning to Uganda from the central organisation for trade unions in the country. One 1980s, they did so on a corporate rather than an individual should also mention Alibhai Mullah Jevanjee of Nairobi, basis. Many PIOs keep their options open and have connections who along with M.A. Desai, sought equal rights for all people in the country. Their activities led to the Devonshire with Britain, Canada, the United States and even India, so Declaration of 1922, which, while not securing equal rights, that if circumstances demand, they can leave at short notice. Additionally, PIOs have caused resentprevented full racial segregation as in Southern Rhodesia or South Africa.15 One of the founders ment in the past on hiring and payment issues, with Africans claiming that “some Matters have improved in recent of the labour of them behave like colonisers, the way years and there is recognition, however movement in Kenya they pay us”.18 tacit, that persons from India who settled in these states played an important role Tanzania, which was a German was an Indian, in their economic development. Yet, colony till the end of World War I, did Makhan Singh, undercurrents of insecurity continue to not have as many PIOs except in persist among the people of Indian ori- who, along with Fred Zanzibar; as such, the issues may be less Kubai, formed the gin in East Africa. This is further exaceracute there. But in Uganda and Kenya, bated by periodic violence in some of despite efforts to bury the past, there is East Africa Trade these countries, the fallout of which an undercurrent of wariness, which Union Congress, impacts PIOs. must be factored into India’s approach the first central For instance, Asian shops were loottowards these countries. This is impored and women raped following an organisation for trade tant because it is hoped that the PIOs unsuccessful coup attempt in Kenya in unions in the country can help in India’s new relationship by 1982, forcing many to leave the country. providing links, contacts, Again, in the violence following the last opportunities for new ventures and Kenyan elections in December 2007, 90 percent of Gujarati diplomatic support. owned shops were looted and burnt in Kisumu, resulting III 16 in a loss of about Rs.500 crore. In Uganda, an Indian Apart from the PIOs, India has had varied contact with national was killed in Kampala in April 2007, during violence East Africa and the relationship goes back to India’s indefollowing a protest against a plan by a sugar company, which pendence movement and the leadership of Mahatma was part of the Indian-owned Mehta group, to acquire land Gandhi, which inspired many African leaders. According to for expansion in a forest reserve. There were fears that the Tanzania’s first President, Julius Nyerere, “Gandhi argued country was heading for a repeat of the 1970s, but President a moral case” and his success “shook the British Empire”.19 Museveni stemmed it by sending a high-level delegation to Later, India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru activeIndia to reassure the government and pay a compensation ly espoused the cause of anti-colonialism and anti-racism, of $ 32,000 to the family of the deceased.17 two of the common planks that helped to strengthen the The reason that the history of PIOs in East Africa has Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), of which India was a been highlighted here is that India is on the path to a new founder-member. The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was an instirelationship with African countries. Tens of thousands of Indians have been living in the region for four or five gen- tutional member of NAM and by virtue of that, all African erations or more, and it is expected that the impression they member states of the OAU were members of NAM. have created will impact on India’s relationship with these However, some leaders took particular interest, for instance,

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Nyerere, who later became prominent in the Group of 77 with, and investment in, Africa than ever before, and East (G-77), which took up Third World issues like that of the Africa, which already has a sizable population of people of New International Economic Order (NIEO) in the 1970s, Indian origin, provides a fertile ground for further economic and had close relations with India. His concept of ujamaa relations. Here, a comparison of statistics will help to put this had many similarities with India’s post-independence poli- relationship in perspective. Kenya’s Gross Domestic cies, for instance, India’s policy of having a strong govern- Product (GDP) according to Purchasing Power Parity ment sector in industry. In fact, Nyerre received the (PPP) was around $61.83 billion in 2008, while that of Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding Tanzania was $54.26 billion, and Uganda’s was $35.88 bilin 1974 and the International Gandhi Peace Prize in 1995. lion for the same year.20 Kenya’s Human Development Shared perceptions, ideologies and aspirations went a Index (HDI) puts it among the middle ranking countries, long way in creating good understanding between India and but both Tanzania and Uganda are low ranked countries, East African countries, and in international forums, com- and the economies of these two are among the bottom 10 mon platforms were formed on economic, colonial, percent of the world’s economies in terms of per capita apartheid and other racial issues. As mentioned earlier, this income. relationship was largely ideological and political. India did However, in the last three years, the GDPs of these counnot have the kind of capital to make any difference in aid to tries have registered a growth rate of six to eight percent or trade with Africa; it faced enormous developmental prob- (although there was a significant decline in Kenya’s GDP lems, coping with which took up most of its resources. growth rate in 2008), which implies development, particuIt was only from the beginning of this century that India larly because the industrial production growth rate, which has begun to engage these countries in a was estimated at seven percent for different manner. India is still a devel- Shared perceptions, Uganda in 2008, has shown increase. Thus, the potential for trade and investoping country, but its economic growth ideologies and rate over the past few years has been ment has also grown. aspirations went a quite phenomenal considering the burIndia’s GDP (PPP), in comparison, long way in creating was estimated at $3.267 trillion in 2008, den it still has to carry of a billion plus population along with other indices of good understanding and although there was a decline in the GDP growth rate from nine percent in underdevelopment like poverty and between India and unemployment etc. These have not 2007 to 7.3 percent in 2008, it was still East African stopped India from trying to further its relatively high. As such, India is a development and emerge as a bigger countries. Common promising trade and investment partner. power in the world, economically, politIndia’s per capita income is on the lower platforms were ically and militarily. India’s new engageside and its HDI index shows a very formed on ment with Africa is sometimes viewed in mixed picture if it is done for individual economic, colonial, states within the Union. this context. However, there is another significant However, it should be remembered and racial issues element that should not be forgotten. that India’s population is more than a India has always maintained excellent relations with African billion, and all figures are divided by this very large numcountries and has strongly supported anti-apartheid and ber. So, while these indices may indicate a confusing sceanti-colonial issues in international forums and expressed its nario of poverty and underdevelopment appearing to be support for liberation movements. India-Africa relations almost endemic, there is no denying the surge in growth should also be seen from the point of view of the long polit- rates, which over time will help to lift up all indices. What ical and ideological associations it has had with countries in is important is that India can now pursue its ideals of SouthAfrica through organisations such as the NAM and institu- South cooperation because it has the means and capacity to tions like the G-77, where India and these countries had col- do so. Earlier, investment and aid to Africa were the domain of laborated to bring about a more politically and economicalWestern developed countries who attached conditionalities ly equitable world. India had always encouraged South-South cooperation like structural change and democratic reform to dealings as one way to help Third World countries move away from with African countries. Today, the scene has altered, and aid dependence on the North. However, it did not have the and investment are coming from middle-level countries like economic wherewithal, as noted, to put the ideas of South- India, and these are more attractive to African countries South cooperation into practice through most of the decades because they are not packaged in similar conditionalities. The impact is apparent: for the first time since indepenof the twentieth century, and had therefore expressed its goodwill and ideological affiliation, for the most part, dence, African countries have been registering increased growth rates and higher GDPs, something that Western through diplomatic support. The situation today is different. There is now more trade developed countries with their own agendas had never been

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A F R I C A able to achieve, preferring to write off most African states as ‘basket cases’. The East African states under study here are all agriculture-based, with 60 to 80 percent of the population employed in agriculture, producing tea, coffee, wheat, corn, sugar cane, vegetables, horticultural products, dairy products, fruit, poultry products etc. While there is some amount of industrialisation like in oil refining and agricultural product processing, there is scope for much more. Further, they are all rich in natural resources, for instance, limestone, soda ash, zinc, gemstones, gypsum (Kenya), coal, gold, diamonds, iron ore, natural gas, nickel (Tanzania), copper, cobalt, salt (Uganda), to mention a few. Uganda and Kenya have a large English-speaking workforce and are situated in a strategic time zone, and therefore have a potential to develop business processing industries. There is a lot of prospect for growth, but what these countries need to provide the spurt are investment, infrastructure building and technology transfer for further development, and they have actively been seeking these in the international market at terms beneficial to them. India now has the capital resources and expertise to invest outside its borders and sustain them through training and technology transfer. India had actually begun to share its developing expertise with African countries as early as 1964 when it had begun the Indian Technical and Economic (ITEC) programme, which has trained over 10,000 Africans so far in Indian institutions in fields varying from agriculture and engineering to diplomacy. It should be mentioned that 30 slots are given to Uganda under the ITEC programme each year apart from 13 scholarships offered by the Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) under different schemes. Tanzania is one of the biggest beneficiaries of the ITEC programme with 100 places in 2007-2008. Today, the terms of engagement have been further enlarged. India has expertise in industry, mining, infrastructure building, communications, information technology and pharmaceuticals etc. India is ready to invest in joint ventures, and can provide low cost solutions to poverty alleviation, for instance, through the use of biomass technology or solar or geothermal energy to provide electricity even in remote rural areas. Moreover, it is not exploitative and believes in genuine South-South cooperation that will be beneficial to both partners: India will of course, benefit, but at the same time it will assist in building capacity, infrastructure and human capital by training Africans in skills that in the long run, will lead to the sustainable development of African states. India has developed to a certain level itself and is thus able to pursue a policy of inclusive political and economic engagement that will be mutually beneficial. The cooperation offered is not only economic, but also diplomatic – India supported Tanzania’s candidature for a non-permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council recently, and pushed Ambassador Mchuma as Tanzania’s candidate

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for the managing Director of the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC). In the World Trade Organisation (WTO), India as a major developing country and East African countries as among some of the least developed ones, share views across a broad range of issues in the negotiation process. Although economic relations are not the focus of this paper, a few examples of India’s goodwill and desire for a genuine partnership with these countries will illustrate my point. India wrote off $5.236 million of government credit and interest to Uganda under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) in 2002. India has also established Lines of Credit (LoC) of millions of dollars through the Exim Bank of India to boost trade with Kenya. India also signed a new bilateral agreement with Kenya in December 2008 geared towards advancing trade, investment and technological cooperation. This stated that in order to enhance competitiveness in the agricultural sector in Kenya, the Indian National Research and Development Corporation (NRDC) will assist the country in value addition, packaging and technological interventions to enhance agricultural output. There was also agreement on development of infrastructure projects in Kenya with emphasis on ‘Build, Operate and Transfer’ (BOT) cooperation in business process outsourcing (BOP) and bilateral investment promotion.21 India has also given direct aid, for instance, 100 water pumps and 25 tonnes of hybrid maize in 1997, and Rs. 1.7 million as humanitarian aid in 2004 to Uganda. With each of the three countries of the region, India has set up institutional mechanisms like Joint Trade Commissions, Joint Business Councils and Joint Committees for Economic, Technological, Scientific and Cultural Cooperation that meet periodically to boost relations and iron out problems. The Pan-African e-Network includes all these countries and will provide opportunities not only for connectivity among themselves and other African countries and the outside world, but also will link some of the best hospitals and educational institutions in India with institutions in these countries for consultation through tele-medicine and tele-education.

A 15,000-km optical fibre cable will wind around the east of the continent between South Africa and Egypt, then on to Mumbai in India and Marseille in France.

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Apart from the government, the vibrant Indian private and semi-government sectors too are helping in the development of these countries, drawing them into the mainstream of international trade in an inclusive manner without being exploitative. According to Tanzanian government statistics, 118 companies with ‘Indian interest’ have invested a total of $825 million in the country.22 The Indian company, RITES, which has a 51 percent share in Tanzania Railways Limited (TRL) won a concession in 2007 to run Tanzanian railways for 25 years. Apart from this, the Bank of Baroda, the Bank of India, Tata International, the National Mineral Development Corporation and the Tanzindia Assurance Company Limited (a consortium of Indian insurance companies) are active in Tanzania, where three Indian funded projects are also being implemented: a small industry information centre (run by NSIC), a Centre of Excellence in ICT (run by C-DAC) and the Pan African e-Network project (run by TCIL). In Uganda, India’s United Telecom Limited (UTL) and Uganda’s Jinja Institute of Technology signed a joint venture agreement in May 2008 to set up a biotechnology park, the Victoria Information/ Communications Technology and Biotechnology limited (LAVIT). India’s TERI (Energy Resource Institute, Delhi) along with the government of Uganda and World Bank funding, has set up four biomass energy pilot projects in the country to bring about rural electrification (only 2 percent of Uganda’s countryside has electricity).23 Moreover, in an instance of very pertinent technology transfer, Cipla decided in May 2008 to jumpstart the local manufacture of key antiretroviral drugs to combat HIV/AIDS as a result of which the Ugandan local partner will be producing these drugs with Indian technology at a cost that can be as low as $10. Apart from the fact that HIV/AIDS is endemic in all the countries of the region, local production will also generate employment to trained scientists and mid-level pharmaceutical workers in a country where unemployment runs at around 35 percent.24 Indian companies are also entering the oil sector here. Essar Energy Overseas Limited, a subsidiary of Essar Oil Limited acquired a 50 percent stake in 2008 in a Mombasa refinery operated by Kenya Petroleum Refineries Limited, which has the capacity to process four million tonnes of crude a year. This is the only refinery in Eastern Africa and it is also the first downstream acquisition by any Indian company. Essar plans to upgrade the refinery for producing more petroleum products at a projected investment of $400450 million. The refinery’s products are not only sold in the domestic market but also exported to Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and Rwanda where the demand is estimated at 5 million tonnes per annum.25 Reliance Industries Limited, too, has acquired major stakes and management control over a Tanzanian oil company, the Gulf Africa Petroleum

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Corporation. India is one of the biggest exporters to East African countries, the main items being pharmaceuticals, bicycles, automobiles and automobile parts, two-wheelers, textile fabrics, sports goods, agro-processing machinery etc. Indian companies are also large investors — the Tata Group, APTECH Uganda, Roadmaster Cycles and Mahindra Tractors, have all registered local companies for operations in Uganda. The total amount of investment by ethnic Indians (PIOs and recent arrivals) was around $34 million in 2007 in Uganda. What is significant is that unlike in the past, there is an active effort on the part of the government and Indian industries, both the private and the government sector, to engage with these three countries economically in a positive manner. Earlier, it was the persons of Indian origin who had invested what they could and set up their shops and factories, but these were for private profit only, although they may have had a tangential developmental effect on the economies of the respective countries. Today, while profit is a motive and it has to be in any trade relationship, relations between India and the three East African countries go beyond that factor to promoting development through capacity and infrastructure building for mutual benefit. Ultimately, development will help these countries to edge into international globalising markets on terms that will be beneficial to them. IV While India’s relations with these three countries are reaching new heights, there are some issues regarding trade and other matters that should be kept in mind to ensure sustainability. Firstly, although bilateral trade has increased, it does not amount to any critical mass. For instance, bilateral trade with Tanzania is only $750 million, and while India is among the top exporters to that country, its imports from that country do not amount too much.26 India was the third largest exporter to Uganda in 2004 ($126.02 million), but did not figure among the ten largest export destinations of Uganda.27 The second point is related to the first – trade with these states is largely skewered in India’s favour, and in the ultimate analysis this can lead to resentment. For instance, in 2003, India’s exports to Uganda totaled Rs. 4.7 billion or 0.21 percent of India’s exports, while imports from Uganda totaled Rs. 54 million or 0.002 percent of India’s total imports.28 Moreover, what these countries export to India are largely raw materials, while imports from India consist of value-added items, leading to further imbalance in trade. This has to be corrected for sustainable trade. India is actually trying to do so through its LoCs that will help source capital goods from India, and also by transferring technology, setting up local units and investing capital in infrastructure and ICT development. But more needs to be done for trade to be balanced and this is perhaps one of the factors behind continued good commercial relations,

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A F R I C A which is a basis these days for further improvement in political relations. The third point is that India has many commercial rivals in the region, particularly European countries like the United Kingdom (UK), which is getting displaced by the new middle level powers, and China, which is also one of the largest trade partners of these countries. While Chinese companies which are government owned have far more capital for investment than Indian private owned companies, European countries may and do exercise pressure on African countries to counter both India and China, and sometimes this is harmful to India’s commercial and political relations with East African countries. A case in point is the pharmaceutical industry. Africa accounts for 14 percent of India’s $8 billion medicine exports. It is the largest supplier of pharmaceuticals and chemicals to Uganda (30 percent of its imports); in 200708, Kenya imported Rs. 342.4 crores worth of medicines; Ranbaxy alone sold medicines worth Rs. 563 crores in Africa in 2008. However, in December 2008, the Anti-Counterfeit Act was brought before the Kenyan parliament, which recognises intellectual property rights registered in any country of the world. This implies that even if a drug is not patented in Kenya (where it is sold) or in India (where it is manufactured) but in a third country, it would still be considered as counterfeit in Kenya. This would obviously harm India’s pharmaceuticals sale, and India is afraid that other African countries like Uganda and Ghana may soon follow Kenya. According to the Indian Pharmaceuticals Alliance (IPA), this is part of a smear campaign by Western multi-

Q U A R T E R L Y

nationals unable to cope with the competition provided by India’s cheap and efficient medicines. Developed countries had earlier failed to get a regime implemented through the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) that would make a patent granted in one country applicable worldwide.29 India, along with Brazil, will launch a complaint with the WTO against the European Union (EU) alleging that Europe based multinational pharmaceutical companies are persuading African countries to enact anticounterfeit laws. However, what is more significant for India vis a vis African states is that a majority of them are on the other side of the table in the ongoing talks to review the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) definition of ‘counterfeiting’. While India opposes all attempts to link intellectual property issues with ‘counterfeiting’, African countries appear to feel otherwise. The Kenyan definition is contrary to the IP Act, 2001, and does not distinguish between different categories of goods (for example, counterfeit trade mark goods, printed copyright products) as is done in WTO’s Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) regime. These are issues that have the potential to sour relations and should be resolved through diplomatic negotiations at the local, bilateral and international levels. And finally, India has an edge over other countries in that there have been people of Indian origin living in East Africa for a very long time, quite apart from the fact that other associations go back even longer. However, Indians in the region are still known as ‘Asians’ although they have lived there for gen-

India’s pharmaceutical industry is valued at $10.7 billion in Africa

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erations. The fault lies partly with the Indians who have done be made to remove the negativities and highlight the positive factors, so that the PIOs in these countries too can play little to integrate into African society, let alone assimilate. Although efforts are being made in recent years, like the a role, like in the US, in further improving India-East Africa holding of the Asian-African Heritage Exhibition in Nairobi relations. Moreover, as mentioned, there are many Indians of to highlight the contributions of Asians in the region’s history, and conducting a Miss India-Uganda contest, there is African origin in India. There are some groups who have still a bit of exclusivity in these enterprises as can be seen in developed a version of Sufi music that is a fusion of the Indian and the African, for instance, the Siddi Goma group, the hyphenated words keeping alive the separate identity. While keeping one’s culture alive in another country who have been playing internationally. If India were to promay be commendable, it should not lead to resentment in mote the Siddis as cultural ambassadors, it may go some way towards building a different kind of the host society as a result of a perception understanding between India and East that they are deliberately holding themIf India were to Africa. Thus, India has human assets selves apart. Since this exclusivity goes hand in hand with relative wealth, there promote the Siddis as both in India and in East Africa — it could also be a cultural ambassadors, should learn to use them. feeling of superiority-inferiority relait may go some way V tions, which could well feed into pertowards building a India’s relations with East Africa can ceptions of India. be said to be at two levels: one is at the It should be noted that Indians have different kind of bilateral level with each of the countries migrated to many parts of the world, volunderstanding concerned, and the other is with the untarily or forcibly, over the 100-150 between India and EAC, which is made up of Kenya, years — the US, the West Indies, East Africa. Thus, Uganda and Tanzania and the acceding Europe, Fiji, Malaysia, Singapore and of states of Rwanda and Burundi. course, Africa. It should also be menIndia has human entered in to a Memorandum tioned that they have largely integrated assets both in India of India Understanding (MOU) with the into the societies concerned (while and in East Africa EAC in 2003, the areas of cooperation maintaining their cultures to a large including pharmaceuticals, information extent) and are now playing important roles in the politics and economies of their adopted coun- technology, agriculture, human resources development, tries. Some have even been elected democratically to impor- tourism, industry, non-conventional energy etc, and later tant posts; others have made their presence felt in the inter- these were expanded to cover capital markets, railways, national economic arena, buying up large steel firms, head- capacity building in science and technology among other things.30 ing multinational companies, etc. While Indian interest in the US highlights the achieveThe EAC potentially provides a great opportunity to ments of the highly qualified Indians in that country, and connect up with the COMESA and the SADC as menthe names of cricketers of Indian origin in different coun- tioned earlier, and to the African hinterland particularly tries become household names in India, little is known of because Kenya re-exports much of its imports to other the successes of PIOs in Africa or their involvement in the African countries thus virtually providing an opening to politics of African countries unless it is a well known multi- many other countries. As such, it is important for India to billionaire family whose wealth was made in Africa. cooperate both bilaterally with the individual states and with However, there are a number of Members of Parliament the EAC. India’s trade and investment have been growing in South Africa whose forefathers were Indian, and they steadily with all three countries of the region but their limhave played a role in improving India-South Africa ited resources and capacity to trade have put some confines relations. In East African countries too, they are slowly on the size of trade, and skewed it in India’s favour. entering local politics and the diplomatic services, and in the India has however been investing in infrastructure long run, this may help smoothen relations. growth including the building of human capital in a true East Africa, of course, has a very different history from spirit of South-South cooperation. In the future, this is sure that of South Africa, where the indigenous people as well as to lead to closer ties, not only in the economic sphere but the Asians faced the worst rigours of the erstwhile apartheid also in international politics, because of past history and policy and fought together for majority rule. As such, there similar aspirations in present times. is no anti-Asian sentiment or any case of passage of laws that India should never forget the many shared moments in affected Indian businesses, which in any case were sup- the long struggle for an equal and just international order pressed by the white minority government. and should continue to help East Africa enter the merging Indians in East Africa have a different past, a past that has markets of globalisation in an inclusive spirit of Southcaused resentment among the local people. Efforts have to South cooperation. „

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References 1

Mubina H. Kirmani and Sanaullah Kirmani, Oral Literature of the Asians in East Africa, Nairobi, East African Educational Publishers, 2002, pp. 2-3. 2 For a study of India’s growing economic potential, see Tushar Poddar, Eva Yi, “India’s Rising Growth potential”, Global Economics Paper No. 152, January 2, 2007, Goldman Sachs, Economic Research from the GS Institutional portal, at https://portal.gs.com, accessed on April 28, 2009. 3 Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, Press Release, February 20, 2007, available at http://www.mea.gov.in/pressrelease/2007/02/20pr03.htm, accessed on May 2, 2009. 4 Nezar AlSayyad, Hybrid Urbanism: On the Identity Discourse and the Built Environment, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. 5 There are many scholarly books on the Siddis. Here, I will mention only a few: Joseph L. Harris, African Persons in Asia: Consequences of the East African Slave Trade, Evanston, University of Illinois Press, 1977; Jayasurya, Shihan de Silva and Richard Pankhurst, eds., The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean, Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, 2003; and, Amy Catlin-Jairazbhoy and Edward A. Alpers, eds., Sidis and Scholars: Essays on African Indians, Trenton, NJ, The Red Sea Press, 2004. 6 For details on language and culture, see Abulaziz Y. Lodhi, “Bantu Origins of the Sidis of India”, 2008-10-29, Issue 404, http://pambazuka.org/en/category/comment/51594, accessed on May 5, 2009. 7 See W.H. Ingrams, Zanzibar: Its History and Its People, New York, Cass & Co., 1931, p. 43, and Reginald Coupland, East Africa and Its Invaders, Oxford University Press, 1938, p. 16. Coupland believes that the coconut palm was introduced by ‘Hindus’, since there is mention of ‘nauplios’ or ‘narglios’ in Periplus, which is apparently derived from the Indian word, ‘naryal’. 8 J.H. Speke, “What Led to the Discovery of the Source of the Nile”, as cited in Ingrams, n. 5, p. 33. Also see, Shanti Sadiq Ali, The African Diaspora in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times, New Delhi, Orient Blackswan, 1996, p. 26 ff. 9 See http://asiansinafrica.com/history.htm, accessed on April 28, 2009. 10 Ibid. 11 Robert Hardy, The Iron Snake, London, Collins, 1974, p. 315. The quotation with which this paper begins refers to the building of this railroad. 12 Cited in “A New View of Kenya’s ‘Asians’”, Washington Post, March 15, 2000. 13 For details, see http://bbc.co.uk/dna/h2zh2gz/A3201624, accessed on May 12, 2009. 14 See http://www.faqs.org/minorities/Sub-Saharan-

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Africa/Asians-of-East-and-Central-Africa.html, accessed on May 12, 2009. 15 The Asian African Heritage Trust held an exhibition in the Kenyan National Museum on Asians in East Africa a few years back to highlight the contributions of Indians in the region. For details, see http://www.africanmeccasafaris.com/kenya/guides/afroasians.asp, accessed on May 13, 2009. 16 Times of India, January 3, 2008. It is said that Indians have strong business connections with the Kikuyu tribe, which dominates the Party of National Union (PNU) of President Mwai Kibaki, and this upset the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), which is dominated by the Luo tribe, and which challenged the election results. 17 See http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/200705/2007-05-04-voa.cfm?moderate=2007-05-04, accessed on May 13, 2009. 18 See Washington Post, n. 12. 19 Ikaweba Bunting, “The Heart of Africa Interview with Julius Nyrere on Anti-Colonialism”, New International Magazine, Issue 309, January-February 1999, reproduced in www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/30/049.htm, accessed on May 13, 2009. 20 The figures are all taken from the CIA World Factbook, available at http://cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook.html, accessed on April 28, 2009. 21 African Manger, December 22, 2008, available in http://www.bilaterals.org/articles.php3?id_article=14130, accessed on April 28, 2009. 22 Indian High Commission in Tanzania, http://www.hcindiatz.org/itrel.htm, accessed on April 29, 2009. 23 For details, see http://www.elmia.se/en/WorldBioenergy/Fan-news, accessed on May 2, 2009. 24 See http://www.thaidian.com/newsportal/health/technology-from-india-makes-aids-drugs-in-uganda_10053777.html, accessed on May2, 2009. 25 The Times of India, New Delhi, January 16, 2008. 26 This figure is from a report of the Seventh IndiaTanzania Joint Commission on Economic, Technological and Scientific Cooperation, held in February 2009. See http://tradeafrica.blogspot.com/2009/02/india-tanzaniatrade-volume-now-at-750.html, accessed on May 2, 2009. 27 See Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, website at http://mea.gov.in/foreignrelations/27fr03.pdf, accessed on May 15, 2009. 28 The figures are taken from the website of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce, http://www.ficci.com/international/countries/uganda/uganda-commercialrelations.htm, accessed on May 2, 2009. 29 Economic Times, New Delhi, May 2, 2009. 30 Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, Press Release, available at http://mea.gov.in/pressrelease/2007/02/20pr03.htm, accessed on April 29, 2009.

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Connecting India and East Africa No region could be more suitable to start a multi-layered dialogue, but cliches and stereotypes hamper better understanding between India and East Africa, home to a large Indian diaspora, says Manish Chand

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A view of downtown Nairobi. The city is home to a thriving century-old Indian community

n Nairobi, a six-feet tall Maasai man dances with a petite Indian girl half his size. They perform a perfectly synchronised exchange of contemporary dance movements culminating in popular Bollywood-style moves. For the next 20 minutes, the well-sculpted pair had the crowd mesmerised…“It’s called Indo-Maasai Fusion Dance,” which is becoming quite popular. Here, biryani has become a must for weddings, and samosas are forever. And during Christmas parties, chapatis are served. Indian-origin words like dukan (shop), chapati, kachumbari and harambee are firmly blended with Kiswahili. In most of the East African countries, all-Indian malls, Indian restaurants offering mouthwatering Indian cuisine and theatres showing Bollywood films are prevalent. Such familiarities and Indianness are not surprising at all for the more than 200,000 People of Indian origin (PIO) who have been living in East Africa for over a century.

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But the beauty of such a decades-long cultural amalgamation and fusion has not really led to better mutual understanding among the communities. On the contrary, prejudices remain firmly entrenched in the collective psyche. The result: relentless stereotyping and cultural clichémongering. At a recent seminar on Contemporary IndiaEast Africa Relations in Nairobi, an African gentleman could barely disguise his animus against PIOs in Kenya. When a scholar was presenting a document on the Indian diaspora in East Africa, the gentleman stood up angrily and said: “All Indians are corrupted.” The document was about why Indians in Africa were richer than the native Africans. The explanation was even more curious: Indians are frugal by nature and tend to save whereas Africans are spenders and live as though there is no tomorrow. An Indian-Kenyan woman in the audience was quick to reinforce this bias, saying she and her colleague earned the same salary and she managed to educate her children abroad whereas her colleague could barely manage to keep her family going. These

February-April 2009

A F R I C A

Q U A R T E R L Y

views bring to the fore subliminal tensions between Africans today’s wired world can’t be overemphasised. It is therefore and PIOs in the country. They also point towards a larger tragic that both East Africa and India continue to remain knowledge and information gap between India and East misreported and underreported in each other’s media Africa on one hand and India and the African continent on despite a veritable media boom, including the proliferation of new media like Internet and blogging. Pranab Mukherjee, the other. Led by a renewed focus by the Indian government on India’s external affairs minister at the time, said at an IndiaAfrican policy, the private sector is foraying into infrastruc- Africa Editors’ Conference last year: “A free discussion and ture, automobiles and mining. India’s economic engage- exchange of ideas can inform both our societies and play an ment with Africa has dramatically deepened in the past important role in both the political as well as social and decade. Leading Indian industrial conglomerates like economic growth of developing countries. The introduction Reliance Industries, Essar and the Tata Group, who already of new ideas, the analysis of different trends the protection have substantial business interests in Africa, are now eying and promotion of democracy, the encouragement of civil opportunities in petroleum, telecom and infrastructure sec- society and the exposure of corrupt practices are some of the tors in various East African countries. This resurgence of areas in which the media can play a lead role.” There is no dearth of success stories, but they often get Indian diplomatic and economic interest is not just confined to East and South Africa but encompasses the ethni- overlooked in favour of four Cs — Crisis, Conflict, cally diverse and vibrant continent. Today, Africa con- Catastrophe and Controversy. The story of Somali pirates is one of the handful of news tributes nearly 15 percent of India’s oil. Bilateral trade has increased from less than $1 billion in 1990-1991 to $36 bil- from Africa that have found their way into Indian newspalion in 2007-2008. Both the countries have now set up an pers recently. Soaring inflation in Zimbabwe and the antics ambitious target of achieving bilateral trade of $70 billion in of Robert Mugabe, whom an old generation remembers differently, and the “genocide” in Darfur the next five years. But this surge in India-Africa bilateral are other news stories that sometimes India’s engagement with Africa has not, it would appear, led to a corresponding trade has increased sneak into the international pages of Indian dailies. Africa is also in the news increase in popular contacts and knowlfrom less than when Indians living there are kidnapped edge about each other’s societies, culture, $1 billion in 1990(as it happened in Sudan last year) or institutions and values. Stereotypes and 1991 to hurt in violence (in Kenya last year). clichés continue to thrive stubbornly. The brighter stories about Africa conKenya is synonymous with the $36 billion in juring up “a continent of hope” that is wildlife safari for India’s rich and well2007-2008. Both the negotiating its own renaissance get sideheeled; dark memories of Idi Amin countries have tracked in the process. Not many know throwing out Indians in 1972 continue to about the Information and communicacolour the image of Uganda, and not now set up an many have heard of Tanzania, except in ambitious target of tion technology (ICT) revolution under way in East Africa or the fact that some some geography books. In media achieving bilateral of the world’s fastest-growing economies reportage and discourse, if Kenya and trade of $70 billion are in sub-Saharan Africa. Tanzania figure at all, it is largely in the How many are aware that Rwanda, context of the bombings of the U.S. in the next once the site of one of history’s most embassies in 1998 and as potential bases five years tragic genocides, is now leading the for the al-Qaeda. region in using IT for poverty-reduction On the other side, although there is greater recognition of India as a rising Asian power and tech- and education while its President Paul Kagame is setting new nological giant, there is still a glaring gap of accurate infor- standards of leadership and governance in Africa. Today, mation among Africans about what contemporary India is farmers in East African villages receive disease alerts on their like. Indians are also virtually non-existent or are nameless mobile phones. Ignorance and misrepresentation are pervasive. Nelson in the histories, memoirs and biographies written about East Mandela strikes a chord, but if you ask them about African African countries. Most African media platforms continue to depend on leaders like Kenya’s Mwai Kibaki, Uganda’s Yoweri Western news agencies — which control 90 percent of news Museveni, South Africa’s Jacob Zuma or Rwanda’s Kagame, flow about India to African countries — for stories about don’t be surprised if they stare back at you vacantly. For most India written from a Western perspective. Besides the gen- Indians, Africa is not a continent comprising 53 independent eral disinterest of the media, there is also a deficit at the level countries, given that they often speak of it as if it were one of exchanges between scholars, intellectuals, civil society, country. “Are you going to Africa?” You will be asked when you are actually going to Kenya or Tanzania. NGOs and think-tanks of the two sides. South Africa is easily the best-known African country in The role of the media in transformational diplomacy in

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Tata Africa’s Nairobi office. Other leading Indian industrial conglomerates like Reliance Industries and Essar are eying opportunities in the petroleum, telecom and infrastructure sectors in various East African countries

popular imagination in India and is often equated with the ple, has just held a month-long election, but one would whole of the continent. In April, South Africa was on prime hardly know it in Kenya. If local media coverage is used as time news on virtually every TV network in India, but not an indicator, one could conclude that the event has gone because of the elections or the historic transition of power largely unnoticed in this part of the world,” she wrote. “There has hardly been any mention of Mayawati under way there. It was because of a new glamourised, Bollywoodised version of cricket called the Indian Premier (dubbed as “India’s Obama”), a woman from India’s lowLeague. It’s not that such forms of popular culture are dis- est caste who vied for the prime minister’s seat. Nor has tracting or trivial that detracts from the process of more there been any in-depth analysis of the impact of the Indian election on Kenya or Africa in general. meaningful engagement. In fact, South Yet what happens in India is of supreme African President Jacob Zuma profusely thanked the Indian Premier League Jacob Zuma thanked importance, not just to Africa, but to the (IPL) for giving what he called a billion- the IPL for giving what world at large where power is shifting rand stimulus to South African economy he called a billion- rapidly from West to East.” international press has reported hit by the global downturn. And he was rand stimulus to the andThe reflected on the rise of India, but has all praise for Bollywood stars like Shah South African also been quick to pounce on any negaRukh Khan and Preity Zinta for making IPL a huge success. economy and he was tive story that could rekindle their old prejudices. The discourse has now “Misinformation about Africa has all praise for changed to the story of ‘Two Indias,’ (as become a growth industry in the West,” Bollywood stars like a Time cover story was titled last year) said British writer Ama Biney. While it has not become an industry in India yet, Shah Rukh Khan and that captured and dramatised the shocking contrasts between benumbing Indian media outlets, which primarily Preity Zinta poverty and opulence that exist in 21st rely on Western news agencies for Africa century India. And very often it is these stories, have been sucked into this game negative stories that stick in the mind. One is tempted to call of distortions by extension. The African media, too, has been blithely indifferent to it the ‘Slumdog Millionaire’ phenomenon, after the Oscarsweeping changes under way in India and often rely on winning British film set in India that shows a Western news sources which not too long ago portrayed tea seller winning a billion-dollar quiz show. The movie has India in despairing, grim and stereotypical imagery. In an rekindled an intense debate in India about how the country article in The Daily Nation, Rasna Warah, an author and is portrayed in the Western mass media, with critics columnist, has written perceptively about this neglect of deriding it as “poverty prone”. Put together, this forbidding wall of misinformation and contemporary India in media reportage in Africa. “The world’s largest democracy, home to more than a billion peo- misrepresentation have led to an impoverished under-

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Q U A R T E R L Y

standing of the nature of the India-Africa partnership and “When I was growing up, Indian movies were a regular feaits potential to spur the pursuit of common developmental ture in Mombasa. There even used to be a special instituand larger geostrategic goals. “It is our intention to become tion called Ladies’ Night — a screening of Indian movies, a partner in Africa’s resurgence,” Indian Prime Minister especially organised for ladies, where men were not Dr. Manmohan Singh told African leaders at the first India- allowed.” Mazrui feels that India’s “soft power” has had a much Africa Forum Summit in New Delhi in 2008. Underlining the need for creating “a new architecture for our engage- bigger cultural impact on Africa than the Chinese or the ment in the 21st century,” Singh said: “No one understands Japanese. “An older Asian power in Africa is Japan and it has better than India and Africa the imperative need for global next to no cultural impact except for economic, trade and institutions to reflect current realities and to build a more some diplomatic cooperation. You don’t easily get to listen equitable global economy and polity. Working together, the to Japanese music or Chinese movies,” he said. This cultural inter-connection shows that the seeds for two billion people of India and Africa can set a shining a dialogue of cultures between India and Africa is already example of fruitful cooperation in the developing world.” But if a one billion-plus people from both sides do not there, but they need to be nurtured carefully to let it bloom. understand each other adequately and know enough about The global recession, which has underlined the fatal flaws each other, how can they come together in the quest for of a recklessly predatory capitalistic system, is an opportunity for India and Africa to rediscover each other anew and resurgence? The India-Africa Framework for Cooperation, that was forge a new bond of understanding. It’s time for a new cultural Bandung, agreed upon by leaders at the end of the as the chairman of Unesco Executive India-Africa Forum Summit, sought to address this information gap and “When I was growing Board and eminent scholar, Olabiyi Babalola Joseph Yai, says. “I am no stressed promoting cultural, educationup, Indian movies al and media exchanges between the were a regular feature Orientalist, but I know that African culture and the culture of India are contwo sides. “Africa and India agree that in Mombasa. There vergent. The two cultures are based on closer linkages and cooperation in the even used to be a very similar weltanschauung. For millenfield of media and communications will nia, they have emphasised the oneness of generate greater synergy in their relaspecial institution tionship, enhance a South-South comcalled Ladies’ Night existence, the harmony between gods, nature and human beings. They both munication culture, enable more sys— a screening of believe in the formula: I am because we tematic use of their shared cultural and Indian movies, are,” said Yai in a lecture in New Delhi. social heritage and also improve the Quoting India’s poet-philosopher process of economic development in especially organised Rabindranath Tagore, Yai said Africa and Africa and India,” says the framework. for ladies, where men India have the potential for becoming the To bridge the information gap, were not allowed” “wisdom nucleus with the capacity to India’s Ministry of External Affairs is recognise those elements that could drive also supporting a pioneering initiative by IANS, an Indian news agency, to launch a website called our humanity back to the moral orbit, a sine qua non condiIndiaAfrica Connect that will serve as a one-window stop for tion for a newly appeased humanism and globalisation with important news and views on India. The portal is expected a human face.” Joseph Yai shows the path ahead for a new to go online in August. Indian news agencies also plan to post cultural dialogue (Africa Quarterly, Volume 47, Number 4). Conversation is central to any relationship, be it friendmore correspondents in key capitals of African countries. The India-supported Pan-African e-network, that seeks to ship, marriage or diplomatic engagement. In today’s intensebridge the digital divide among African countries, is already ly competitive, communication-driven world, telling stories on its way to becoming reality. Leading Indian think-tanks and listening to each other, sans intermediaries, is absolike the Observer Research Foundation are also planning to lutely essential to building better relations. Soft power, as Joseph Nye says, can be more effective than hard power. promote a Track-II dialogue between India and Africa. Let’s hope the walls of misperceptions and partial knowlTo sum up, no region on the continent is more suited to starting a vigorous and multilayered dialogue with India edge crumble in the days to come and a genuine dialogue than East Africa. Be it biryani, pulao, chapatis, a Kiswahili begins between the two billion people of India and Africa. full of Indian-origin words, every time an East African sits The media and the larger intellectual and creative community have a huge role to play in this Track II dialogue down to eat, he is in some sense connected with India. Bollywood films are popular and Hindi music has between India and Africa. In the words of U.S. President Barack Obama, the man impacted on African music. Mombasa singer Juma Bhalo is known for improvising on Indian film songs. Recalls Ali Kenyans love to call as one of their own: ‘Ndiyo Tunaweza’ Mazrui (political writer on African and Islamic studies): (Yes, We Can). „

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DIALOGUE through dance Neera Kapur writes about the different gestures, expressions and traditional values of Kenyan and Indian dance forms and the links between the two

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The author with Kefa Oiro, a choregrapher and dancer, at the GoDown Arts Centre in Nairobi

am a classical dancer with a background in Kathak and Bharatanatyam. But for many years now, I have been devoted to Odissi. Dance has enabled me to share, learn and communicate, and to cut across borders and “open up our universe” a little bit more. I worked with African traditional dancers many years ago. Two years ago, I worked with some Sarakasi dancers and acrobats at a month-long workshop, followed by a production of our collaboration at the GoDown Arts Centre in Nairobi. Lately, with the support of the GoDown Arts Centre, and the choreographer and dancer, Kefa Oiro, I have been experimenting with newer ideas within our two different cultural contexts to see how new aesthetics and meaning can be forged within and between traditional practices. The innovations are not perceived in terms of rupture, i.e. copy and paste, or as dismantling the classical canons but rather

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as continuous reinventions, without losing the traditional values. We are also aware of the fact that being in an urban environment brings to bear on our craft its own sensibilities and influences, where dances tend to become more stylised through communion with the styles of other communities and people. Or, that dances change their style and meaning in competitive festivals. Furthermore, traditional dances often do not appear in isolation but are parts of broader cultural activities. I will delineate three points of what it means to collaborate in this way and what we can gauge from the experience. The first point refers to the technical differences deeply rooted in cultures. Classical Indian dance can be either pure dance or storytelling in different ways. It could even be a story of someone telling a story. Gods, demons, animals, nature and musicians abound. The story may not be linear but the flavour is passed through gestures and emotions. Movement originates at a single point. This is at the navel. The back is held

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upright. From the concept of the plumbline arises the concept of deflection. Weight is equally distributed to show positions of calm or poise. Or, it is unequally distributed to create disturbances, dynamism, energy, movement or imbalance, suggesting various moods like erotic, heroic, pathos, disgust, anger etc. In this complex juggling act, the torso defines the movements. A whole class of movements, from the feet to the head, torso and eyeballs begin from the position of perfect equipoise leading to dynamic actions and return to the stillness. Elaborate hand gestures constitute a characteristic, serving as a language to convey a meaning. Emotions and sentiments are also expressed through head movements and glances. These body mechanics ultimately lead to the spirit until a state of what we call rasa, which is an elevated aesthetic enjoyment, is evoked in the audience. This, of course, means that the audience also needs to have some understanding of the gestures and expressions of the dance form to be able to appreciate and partake of rasa! Odissi uses geometric diagrams to harness cosmic forces. The Odissi aesthetic is not based on the straight or the linear gesture. Everything is curved, looped, or indirect with bends, ground while the men seem to gaze ahead straight into the curves and spirals. Even the training is logical and systematic space. No mime, often seen in Indian dance forms, is seen in African dances. but not linear. The second point that I have learnt is that African dance is Throughout the rendition, the body remains in a plie position with the feet turned outward and parallel to the ground deeply rooted in the events of life. It is integral to communal while the body retains a triangular stance. Gender manifests life. Again, Alphonse Tierou in his book quotes Leopold itself through posture. The movements are made stylistically, Senghor, “When I announced to my mother my success in the baccalaureate examinations, she did regardless of the performer’s gender. Natural surroundings not speak. She did not cry. She began This means that I can render the dance play an important role... to dance slowly and gracefully, her face of Shiva, the god of dance, and simulshining with joy.” taneously become his consort Parvati. The famous guttural The African dances mark different Just by taking a circle around myself, I sounds of the Maasai stages of life from birth to death. There can change my roles. But when it comes to the African Morans reflect the sounds are dances for men and for women, dance, the body is used as an instru- of wild animals, especially and for the old and the young too. ment to connect to ancestors. In their the lion. The red in their Some dances are therapeutic. It is believed that intense drumming and dances the body is lowered to the costume represents the acrobatic dancing of the ‘Akamba’ ground, connecting the dancer with blood of animals, white drive away evil spirits from the person the earth, the life giver. The knees are bent with the back hunched over and stands for milk, and the who possesses such spirits. The gentle graceful rhythms of the ‘kayamba’ are the feet kept in a parallel position to the blue for the skies of similarly used among the Mijikenda of body. Alphonse Tierou from West the arid lands... the Coast Province of Kenya. These Africa (now living in Paris) calls this are famously known as ‘Ngoma za position doople in his book “Doople, Pepo’. In the Dodo music and dance, the women voice issues loi eternelle de la danse Africaine”. Movement seems to emanate from the pelvis and there is a that they cannot verbalise but use it to educate young girls and tendency to shift the weight from one foot to the other. The the general public. There are dances for births, naming cereupper torso is held at an angle to the body while the lower monies, courtship, weddings, burials, initiation of boys and torso flexes to the knees and the arms swing back and forth. girls into adulthood, and appeasement of angry spirits and The earth is almost seen as an extension of the dancer’s body their capricious powers. The natural surroundings also play an important role for the or an extension of movement in time and space. The dance form is often strong, virile and vital with a feel of urgency. reasons of dance and dance techniques. The famous guttural Linear and circular formations are prominent in most African sounds of the Maasai Morans reflect the sounds of wild anidances. Women often tend to keep their eyes focused on the mals, especially the lion. The red in their costume represents

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the idea of the sacred? For example: Is space sacred? An Indian classical dancer will not start dancing till she asks the earth for permission. Through her brief gestures, she sanctifies the space. There is a strong relationship between man and earth and the spontaneity of everyday life in both forms, which lay equal emphasis on staying grounded while directing all movements towards the earth. Myths, folktales, legends are the vocabulary of both dances. Through them, people are instructed on traditions and how to behave in society, how to deal with people, and have contact with the spiritual world. Although our dance and music work together, Kefa Oiro and I have had very different work disciplines. I come from a very strict “Guru-Shishya” (master-disciple) learning experience, where the master is the know-all and the disciple strictly follows the given dance routines. The relationship is often one of obedience, bordering on worship, deep respect, and fear on the part of the disciple. Kefa’s contemporary dance background has given him much flexibility in terms of exploring the use of body movements and its various extensions within a single movement. This was and will be a very new reflection and freedom for me and my dance as well. As for Kefa, the extensive usage of hand gestures, eye movements, greater emothe blood of animals, white stands for milk, and the blue for tional expressions and sensuality in movements — the hallthe skies of the arid lands. The drumming of Luo rhythms is marks of most Indian classical dance forms — will (he tells me) further enhance his dance techniques. influenced by afternoon thunderMoreover, percussion has formed the storms of Lake Victoria. Among the When it comes to for most of his dance rouMijikenda, the Giriama male dancer worshipping, thanksgiving, background tines. Vocal or instrumental are new regards himself as a peacock and constantly opens his wings as he propels spirituality, sensuality, and possibilities for his work. And for me, his body forwards and sideways. relationships, we can see I am also getting used to dance withSome sacred dances cannot be more similarities between out sound. While working together, we were danced in public and are meaningless the Indian and African exposed to new techniques and new if performed on stage, like the Luo dances of death. Or the invocations traditional dance forms than chants in languages as varied as Sanskrit, Luo or Giriama. We also used to the sunrise or sunset by spitting one would imagine instruments like the shankh (conch towards them and asking for blesswithin an area of shell). In Hindu temples, the conch ings. Some dances can only be persacredness shell and the bell is often used as a call formed under a big evergreen tree or to prayer; it is similar to the kudu horn at an isolated rock. The third point refers to similarities between the Indian and or the cow horn in function. We tried to break the categories African traditional dance forms. When it comes to worship- of musician/dancer. For us, this has been a wholesome ping, thanksgiving, spirituality, sensuality, and relationships, approach. Today, as harvest and war songs are used to welcome or to we can see more similarities between the two forms of dance than one would imagine within an area of sacredness. What is entertain visiting dignitaries on official occasions, or to praise

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party officials, we need to understand our changing times and revisit history and culture. We know that tradition clashed fiercely with modernity when the first missionaries set foot both in Kenya and in India. In the coastal provinces of Kenya, the ‘ngoma’ dance which uses ritual music and dance for healing (ngoma means a drum, implying rhythmic chanting) faced its greatest challenge from Christian missionaries, right from the colonial times until as late as the 1980s. On the other hand, Indian temple dancers were looked down upon as prostitutes and their dances treated as pagan. But dance became a tool in the fight for independence as dancers, yogis and spiritual healers were jailed by the colonials. Odissi, as we know it today, was “reinvented” around half a century ago according to the so-called classical canons. Its strong links with witchcraft practices, the shakti and female energy cults, and tantrism and tribal influences were nearly wiped out. We are conditioned by preconceived ideas and notions and breaking away from comfort zones has not been and is not easy. Neither is it for the audience. For example, for me, the basic body position of African dance meant days of pain in the thighs. I am also aware of the constant motion in African dance, which differs from Odissi wherein the dance morphs into statuesque poses (as seen in temple sculptures) ever so often.To be an effective exponent of a dance form, we need to understand the ‘way of life’ it is rooted in. For instance, why is a particular dance form used in the traditional life of a particular tribe. Or, how are its magical, mystical and spiritual dimensions expressed? By extraordinary jumps? Leaps? Going into a trance? Yelling? Or, as in Indian dance, how the sense of awe is expressed through widening eyes, or through closed eyes, or simply by sitting in a meditative lotus position, head turned inward, and being still.

Q U A R T E R L Y

Tradition evolves. Art does not remain static. It borrows. It is symbiotic and an experience of sharing. We are challenged and inspired by how issues of identity, sexuality, globalisation, political and economic issues change the narrative content. As also by what should be the “creative process” to help integrate movements, concepts, multimedia and other elements to give way to new directions. What happens, for example, when a ritual dance is taken on stage? We realise that when on stage, dance is no more a ritual but an art form with a different relationship between the performance and the performer producing a different experience for the audience. Our aim is that choreography becomes meaningful and escapes from the arbitrary. That it does not remain just a chance compilation of gestures. The journey is an important part for all of us. I am convinced that it is not just about dance but it is also about the GoDown Arts Centre, about meeting and interacting with other dancers and artistes, spending hours talking to Kefa Oiro, musicians Olith Ratego and Raymond Mackenzie about the idea of space in the African thinking, the meaning of the ritual of terro burro, the ngoma za pepo (we have chosen to work on these themes) healing rituals at the Coast, the idea of sacredness, humility, mysticism in Indian culture and dance. And all this has changed me as a person. My being Kenyan has taken deep roots. I have begun to see these rituals and philosophies as a part of my own, be they Luo, Indian, or Giriama — I am affected by them. I will never again be indifferent to them. I feel I belong in so many places with so many roots. And for sure, my Odissi has also been affected. I will never dance the same way as before. My pelvis will move! „

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Redefining terms of ENGAGEMENT Both India and Africa view each other through old stereotypes. Now the time is ripe to start a track of dialogue, says Niranjan Desai

In this file photo, leaders from India and some African countries pose for a group photo during the opening ceremony of the India-Africa Forum Summit, in New Delhi, on April 8, 2008

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fter independence in 1948, the government of India and the Congress Party under Jawaharlal Nehru took a special interest in establishing links with the emerging African leadership in the countries of East and Southern Africa which were then under colonial rule. To that end, as one of its many initial foreign policy initiatives, India established a diplomatic mission in Nairobi to cover East and Central Africa. Nehru had an able and dynamic spokesman in the scion of the Oundh family, Apa Saheb Pant, as the first Commissioner for East and Central Africa who in 1948 arrived in Kenya and quickly made his mark by working behind the scenes to spur on the African resistance movement and to marshal Asian support for it. He befriended African leaders and assiduously promoted the African cause among Asians taking every opportunity to propound his views on the freedom of Kenya. He

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exhorted Asians to fight racialism, sectarianism and communalism and to give shelter to Africans during the Mau Mau uprising. Apa Saheb, his wife Nalini Devi, and his First Secretary, Ambassador A.R (Ishy) Rehman, set an example for others to emulate — their office and residence became multiracial forums for discussions of many topics. Apa Saheb initiated a programme of scholarships for African students to study in India.1 He also encouraged fund-raising by Asians for African schools. The African response was gratifying. Apa Saheb became especially close to Kenyan leader Jomo Kenyatta while Senior Chief Mbiru Koinange, a prominent Kikuyu headman, adopted him as his eighth son and gave him land in Kiambu. Subsequently, he was made an elder of both the Kikuyu and Luo peoples. In 1952, when the young Kabaka, Mutesa III, fled from Uganda, he took refuge at Apa Saheb’s residence and when he finally appeared in public, it was at a picnic in the highlands arranged jointly by Apa Saheb and Kenyatta. Derek Marks, a British jounalist, wrote in London’s Daily

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From Left: World leaders, including Kenneth David Kaunda, Marshal Tito, Indira Gandhi, Julius Nyerere and Milton Obote attending the Third Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Zambia in September 1970.

when the countries of East and Central Africa were under Express in August 1972: “From 1948 to 1954, Mr. Pant was the envoy of the colonial rule. I remember vividly one occasion in 1960 or 1961 when Nehru government to East Africa. It was part of his duty to enlist the support of the Asians there to promote Nehru’s all African students where invited to attend a two-day conpolicy of encouraging anti-British nationalism among the ference on Africa organised by the ICA4 where a galaxy of Africans. Nobody has ever denied that Mr. Pant was most future African leaders from the regime like Julius Nyerere, successful in his enterprise, notably in Kenneth Kaunda and Milton Obote sending African students for indoctriamong others were participants. The conCongress leader nation in Indian universities. In fact, ference was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Balwant Rai Mehta Nehru. the last years of British rule in EA were set up the Indian significant for the Asian support of Unfortunately in 1969, ICA became a 2 rabid African nationalism.” victim of the Congress party split. Council for Africa, Subsequently, the ICA went into terminal Alarmed by his anti-colonial stand, with the aim of decline. It survived for a while before it European settlers in Kenya put pressure on the colonial government and providing an unofficial was absorbed by the Indian Council for the Colonial Office in London to have channel to develop Cultural Relations (ICCR). It is heartenApa Saheb recalled. Eventually, it is and foster dialogue ing that the ICCR has to some extent kept up interest in Africa through its quarterly believed, a document was forged by with the emerging journal, the Africa Quarterly, the sole jourBritish intelligence showing that he African leadership. nal in India devoted to African affairs. encouraged violence and on that basis It would not be out of place to mention he was recalled by Nehru in 1954. One can call it a first my good friend, the late Hari Saran Notwithstanding that Apa Saheb Track II mechanism Chhabra, who used to bring out his Africa became a legend in East and Central Africa and earned the eternal respect of with respect to Africa Diary, a compilation of events and developments in Africa and was one of the main African leaders.3 In India, Congress leader Balwant Rai Mehta set up the sources of information on African developments for the Indian Council for Africa (ICA), a grants-in-aid organisa- Africa Division of the Ministry of External Affairs. It is a pity tion, with the aim of providing an unofficial channel to that Hari’s pioneering effort at a time when there was little develop and foster dialogue/interaction with the emerging interest in Africa generally never got the recognition it African leadership. One can call it a first Track II mecha- deserved. Of course, he earned the gratitude of many gennism with respect to Africa. The ICA provided a valuable erations of African diplomats who served in India. I have narrated all this because this typifies the story of forum for discussing African and Indo-African issues and developing contacts with young African leaders at a time India’s engagement with Africa. In the initial years of India’s

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independence, there was a great deal of interest in Africa; India championed the cause of decolonisation and apartheid. Gradually, India turned inwards and became preoccupied with its own problems of development; while developments in certain East African countries impacting on the Indian diaspora, particularly the en masse expulsion of Indians from Uganda by Idi Amin in 1972, also had a negative impact on perceptions about Africa. Although the Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth provided forums where the Indian leadership interacted with the African leadership, there was no mechanism to sustain and develop a continuous dialogue between Africa and India. While many African leaders visited India, few Indian leaders visited Africa. Indian and African students at a seminar in New Delhi Of late, there has been a gradual Even today, these perceptions are revival of interest in Africa for many reasons. Yet, the fact remains that the level of The need is to look at shaped by western media and opinion. engagement between India and Africa is each other, so to say, The need is to look at each other, so to mostly confined to government to gov- through our own eyes say, through our own eyes and that comes through sustained dialogue and ernment contacts and, to some extent, at and that comes engagement. For this purpose, there is an business level. The number of high level through sustained imperative need to set up a mechanism visits to Africa is still few in number comto institutionalise the process and suspared to those to other regions and even dialogue and tain it. It could be called Track II diahere it would appear that South Africa is engagement. For logue or something similar. always the preferred destination. this purpose, there Incidentally, speaking of Track II diaWhatever the sins of omission and logue with East Africa, I would like to commission in the past, it is now time to is a need to set up a cite one example of the successful prothink about engaging the countries of mechanism to cess set up by the British government East Africa in an imaginative way outside institutionalise the after Kenya’s independence. the framework of governmental or diplomatic channels. First and foremost, process and sustain it Independence came to Kenya after a bitter struggle and the parting came with the perceptions about each other need to change. Both India and Africa view each other through old acrimony with the last governor of Kenya describing Jomo Kenyatta as “leader to darkness”. stereotypes Africa inherited from colonial times. Worried about the future of a very large white settler community in Kenya, the British government appointed a Special Envoy to East Africa in the person of the accomplished diplomat, Malcolm McDonald (who served a stint as British High Commissioner to India), with a broad mandate to reestablish British influence in these countries, with key focus on Kenya. He successfully managed to reestablish British influence in Kenya and Kenyatta became an important ally of the British. It is sometimes said that McDonald was also able to undercut potential Indian interests in Kenya. Further, it is also said in the same breath that had India followed suit and appointed Apa Saheb Pant as Special Envoy Former South Africa President Nelson Mandela and then to East Africa, India would have been able to counter British Indian Prime Minister I.K. Gujral at Tuynhyus in Cape Town influence! on October 7, 1997

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Members of Indian NGOs visiting a natural resource management project in Senegal. Such technological exchange visits can go a long way in R&D efforts and capacity building

There was some talk of reviving the Indian Council for Africa when I. K. Gujral was Minister for External Affairs. During a meeting of Heads of Missions in Africa in Nairobi in 1989, this issue was briefly raised and Gujral had reacted positively but nothing seems to have come out of it. There is now an ever growing need for setting up academic exchanges and revamping our general scholarship schemes and training programmes under ITEC to suit the particular needs of East African countries to build their human resources. Cultural

There is now an ever growing need for setting up academic exchanges and revamping our general scholarship schemes and training programmes under ITEC to suit the particular needs of East African countries to build their human resources

exchanges between India and East Africa are minimal at present and these need to be augmented substantially in an imaginative manner through workshops and seminars between creative thinkers on both sides of the Indian Ocean, augmented by exchange of exhibitions and the performing arts. Another area of potential collaboration is tourism, which could definitely help to break down cultural stereotypes. The potential is enormous; what is needed is a willingness to fashion structures that will help launch these processes on the desired trajectory.

Notes & Refrences 1. During my tenure as Director-General, ICCR, one scholarship offered to Kenya was designated as Apa Saheb Pant Scholarship as a tribute to Apa Saheb’s pioneering initiative on scholarships. When I came to study at Delhi University in early 60s from Tanzania where I was born, the ICCR and a number of other organisations like the Rotary Club and the Lions Club used to have special events for foreign students (who were mostly from Africa) where they could meet locals socially. Every year, about 10 elected foreign students were invited to Teen Murti House to spend some time at the Prime Minister’s

House either at breakfast time or in the evening where they had opportunity to meet Indians from different walks of life. Indira Gandhi generally acted as the hostess. 2. Quoted by Sitanshu Das, Indian Express, August 19, 1972 3. I vividly recall Apa Saheb’s visit to Kenya in 1968 when he came to deliver the Gandhi Memorial lecture. He was treated by Jomo Kenyatta’s government with great honour, befitting a visiting president. 5. Indira Gandhi was patron of the Council for sometime while the late Dinesh Singh was Secretary-General of the Council around that time.

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From persecution to RE-INTEGRATION The persecution of Indians and their re-integration in Uganda have deepened India’s ties with East Africa, says Bonnie Ayodele

Indians who fled Uganda in 1972 in the wake of the persecution unleashed by then dictator and president Idi Amin

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he contours of contemporary discourse on international economic relations have focused more on the Western/liberal economic paradigms and the relationship between the North and South economic divide. The discussion has largely centered on the triumph of Western/liberal economic paradigm over all other paradigms and how it can be adopted and used as a model by developing economies. However, this trend is gradually shifting with the emergence of some “soft power economic” countries in Asia. These countries, led by China, had seen their economic models recording significant improvement over the last three decades. Tagged as the ‘Asian Tigers’ (Onimode, 2000; 234), they have suddenly emerged as a powerful factor in global development discourse and have challenged the

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Western economic paradigm of development. While countries such as Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and China could be regarded as the silver lining of Asian economic development, the recent emergence of India as the world’s second-fastest growing economy has added a new dimension to the growing influence of the Asian countries globally (World Bank, 2005). It is a validation of the Asian economic paradigm as a model to be copied or borrowed by other countries seeking development. India’s success story and transformation may be attributed to several factors, including globalisation; nevertheless, its growth is also connected with various major reforms in both economic and political governance. Globalisation and Information & Communication Technology (ICT) may have indeed put the spotlight on India, its economic diplomacy and integration across borders. As also its technological development and pragmatic trade policies (Frankel, 2007: 310). Therefore, India’s development model and its sudden rise from Third World to Second or First World sta-

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tus has attracted many African countries — especially the introduction of Asian labourers into East Africa, however, countries of East Africa. The economic development, cou- occurred in the 16th century, when the Portuguese importpled with other historic experiences, has made India a suit- ed workers from their Goanese colony to help build Fort able partner for African countries who are currently Jesus, but it was the period of British colonialism that heralded the large-scale migration of Indians to East Africa. entrenched in poverty. The reasons for this include; It was colonial Britain that began the massive „ India’s success is a challenge and motivation to the importation of the Asians of Indian origin to participate in developing economies of Africa. „ India’s experience and economic success can be easily the economic development of East Africa. They were adapted to the present circumstances of Africa’s developing recruited as labourers in the construction of the MombasaKampala railway line, which was to transport goods for economies. British colonial interest. Consequently, „ India’s attitude is likely to be more acceptable to Africa as there may not China and India are over 31,000 labourers were eventually imported for this six-year task. In all, necessarily be any conditionality as in the becoming formidable 2,493 of these workmen would die, at an case of the West. allies of Africa’s average of 38 per month or four per mile Though Japan and China are developing of track, and another 6,454 were serigenerally perceived as the leading ‘Asian Tigers’, there is no doubt that India has economies. For this ously injured (Hardy, 1971: 315). The also observed that the Asians emerged on the block too. Increasingly, reason, scholars have British were more “efficient” than the Africans China and India are becoming argued that China is (Twaddle, 1975: 240). formidable allies of Africa’s developing The completion of the railroad in East economies. For this reason, scholars have becoming a “strong Africa led to a prosperous colony of argued that China is becoming a “strong power” while India Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. Cotton power” while India has emerged as a “soft has also emerged as became the mainstay of the economy, to power” state that can influence Africa’s economic relations and development a “soft power” state in the extent that Britain was no longer required to subsidise the colony. In due agenda. Africa’s economic course, coffee, tea and sugar also became Because of its “strong power” status, relations and important exports. This proved to be a China and Africa’s economic relations have received a lot of scholarly attention, development agenda significant source of tension between Uganda’s African population and the but this cannot be said of India’s growing influence in Africa. For example, the research conduct- Asian immigrants (ibid). Unfortunately, the British colonial government did not ed by the British Institute in East Africa, in Nairobi, Kenya, and Department of Geography, Cambridge University, consider it important to encourage the integration and London, on the ‘Changing Global Geographies of Power: acceptability of the Indians in the East African state, or to Contemporary Indian Relations’ (Mawdsley, 2008) noted portray them as a partner in the region’s development. They that India’s role and impact in Africa is yet to receive ade- were perceived by Africans as a coloured group who were quate academic and policy debate (ibid). Therefore, there is rather partnering colonialists in the process of exploitation. a need to examine India’s relations with other African coun- The divide-and-rule system of governance of the British tries within the context of their development and measure colonialists segregated the Indian community from others. This created the groundswell for animosity between the their growing economic influence. This paper focuses on the growing political and eco- Indian communities who were more prosperous because of nomic influence of India in East Africa, specifically in Kenya their involvement in trading activities, and the local Africans. and Uganda. Though the paper is analysed from a West This division of the rich and the poor later resulted in the African perspective, it nevertheless links India’s present eco- expulsion and confiscation of Asians’ property in 1972 . Because of the “efficiency” of the Asians, the British shut nomic reality to the sudden change in East Africa. And this has necessitated the renewed synergy for partnership in out the Africans from several economic activities. So, while development. The paper, therefore, begins by examining Africans were more likely to own and profit from their land, the British concentrated the trade and processing of these the historical background of Indians in East Africa. cash crops in the hands of the Asians. Africans’ attempts at breaking into cotton ginning, for example, were deterHistorical Background of Indians in Uganda and Kenya minedly put down. The sugar plantations also caused hard In Africa, India’s engagement began centuries before the feelings. Mostly Asian-owned, these large estates kept wages heyday of European colonialism; it has been recorded that low by importing migrant workers from the less-affluent trading along the African coast and across to India marked hinterlands, and even from outside the colony. This expethe beginning of relations (Mukherjee, 1985). The earliest rience forms the backdrop to the persecution of the Indians

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The animosity was carried over to the postindependence period, instigating the Obote government to issue a threat to nationalise many industries in 1969, based on the allegation of repatriation of wealth and large-scale graft and tax evasion. Though there was evidence of a loose tax system and corruption in the immediate years preceding independence, the new Obote government then accused the Indian population of “business as usual” — a worrying development that marked an increase in nationalistic rhetoric among the country’s various ethnic groups. In 1971, Prime Minister Obote was overthrown by his hand-picked protégé, Idi Amin. Amin was a controversial figure, partly because of his association with Obote and partly because of his notorious corruption. He was accused of selling off the Ugandan Army’s munitions to Congolese Uganda’s then Prime Minister Milton Obote (centre) who was rebels for personal gain. By 1970, Obote was forced to place overvthrown by his own protege Idi Amin Amin under temporary house arrest in order to ward off in the post-Obote period in Uganda. In Tanzania, it fueled accusations of his own complicity (Rizwan, 2007). After Amin came to power, he exploited the existing the 1980 nationalisation of Asian-owned businesses. In Kenya, Asian-owned shops and homes were looted and divisions to propagate his “hate campaign” against Indians Asian women were raped in the chaos that followed an by stereotyping and scapegoating them. Indians were attacked as ‘dukawallas’ (an occupational term that degenerunsuccessful coup attempt in 1982. ated into an anti-Indian slur during Amin’s time). Amin used this propaganda to justify a campaign of “deThe Persecution of Indians in East Africa: Indianisation” that eventually resulted in the expulsion and The Uganda Experience ethnic cleansing of Uganda’s Indian minority (Patel, 1972). Amin’s power rested in the army, but the army itself was By 1969, the numbers of people of Indian or Pakistani descent had risen to about 70,000 to 80,000 in Uganda. But, deeply divided. Maintaining control of his troops was a difficult and expensive proposition, and they were considered as foreigners, though half of them were born and Indians were attacked Amin’s own extravagance was a strain on the national budget. The obvious answer brought up there. Departing colonialists also did not integrate Indian nationals in as ‘dukawallas’. Amin to his pressing economic problems was the mainstream and this later fueled used this propaganda to confiscate the property of the Asian resentment against the Indians in to justify a campaign minority. Perhaps he was influenced by looting of the monasteries in Uganda. of “de-Indianisation”, the Reformation England, but more likely it According to Patel (1972), many Indians in East Africa and Uganda were eventually resulting in was the sort of crude logic outlined by American outlaw Jesse James. He in the textile and banking businesses, the expulsion and where they were kept by the British ethnic cleansing of robbed banks, said James, because “that’s where the money is” (Ofcansky, 1995). colonialists forcibly. Since the represenUganda’s Indian The expulsion of the Asians took place tation of Indians in these occupations minority in September 1972, and was trumpeted was higher than that of Africans, the by Amin as a victory for the “little man”. stereotyping of Indians in Uganda as bankers was common. Also, some Indians perceived them- The official line was that a pack of foreign exploiters had selves as coming from a more advanced culture than now been thrown out, and the Africans would get back what Uganda, a view not accepted by the Ugandans. This creat- was rightfully theirs. In practice, however, most of the proed the groundswell for Indophobia which predated the ceeds wound up in the hands of the army. This sudden regime of Milton Obote and Idi Amin. Politically, it was the influx of wealth bought him a solid corps of loyal troops. But 1968 Committee on ‘Africanisation in Commerce and it was not long before the Ugandan economy, already in a Industry’ in Uganda that made far-reaching Indophobic tailspin, began to manifest signs of reversal — and finally proposals like restricting the Indians from participating in collapsed under the mismanagement of the expropriated economic and professional activities. A system of work per- property. Unmaintained equipment and inexperienced mits and trade licences was introduced in 1969. Indians management brought most of these confiscated enterprises were thus segregated and discriminated against in Uganda to a grinding halt within the first few years. It finally led to the collapse of the Amin regime. (Patel, 1972).

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Indo-Ugandan Relations

In this file photo, Idi Amin addresses the UN General Assembly in New York, 1975

The expulsion resulted in a significant decline in Uganda’s Asian population. Many Asian businessmen were forced to leave Uganda or deported, although most of them were granted asylum in the UK. Around 30,000 emmigrated to Britain (Kasoli et al; 1994). In Britain, the Ugandan Asians were offered temporary accommodation in converted RAF barracks. Ugandan soldiers, during this period, engaged in theft and violence against the Asians with impunity. After their expulsion, the businesses were handed over to Amin’s supporters. Post-Persecution Era: The Reintegration of Indians in East Africa

In recent times, the relations between India and Uganda have not been problem-free, but episodic. The Indian community in Uganda played a prominent role prior to and in the early years of independence and this factor, as also the inspiration of Indian support to anti-colonialism, resulted in cordial relations from 1962 till the Idi Amin take-over in 1972. Relations suffered during the Amin era. The regime of President Museveni, since 1986, has sought more friendly and cordial relations, and has steadily improved the terms of trade and development. The depleted population of Indian origin in Uganda is currently estimated between 12,000-15,000. Out of this, about 5,000 hold Indian passports and the remaining hold British, Canadian, Ugandan and other passports. The profile of the Indian community is changing: Apart from the return of the South Asian/Indian community which was ousted by Idi Amin in 1972, there is an inflow of fresh entrants, mostly in the categories of professional, skilled and semi-skilled workers, including executives in the banking and insurance sectors, as well as information technology (IT) professionals. The Indian community in Uganda is by and large responsible for the growth of bilateral trade between India and Uganda. India-Uganda Bilateral Trade

Decades after Amin booted the Indians out of Uganda, President Yoweri Museveni, in 1995, urged Asians to return to Uganda at a fund-raising meeting at the Indian Association in Uganda. Museveni said: “Ugandan Asians are part of the people of Uganda and they have always actively participated in the country’s development” (Xinhua News Agency, 1995). The call for the return of Indians to Uganda was based on the need for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) which Uganda badly required for a semblance of economic development. Thus, the population of the Indian community in Uganda has risen dramatically in recent years. According to the Indian High Commission, the number of Indians (including people of Indian origin) in Uganda was estimated to be around 20,000 in 2005. However, only 2,000 of the estimated 70,000 forced to quit the country in 1972 have chosen to return (www.indianmuslimnews.info/news; downloaded 26th March 2009). Most of them are beginning life anew in Uganda, opening a variety of shops and business establishments in a country of 30 million, often referred to as the “pearl of Africa” (ibid). The Indian community has recaptured the position it once had, said a former Indian envoy. “Today Indians are present in all sectors, including manufacturing. They are employing tens of thousands of (Ugandan) people and also contributing to the economic development of the country,” he said (IANS, 1995).

The economic relations between India and Uganda are growing. Indian products and technologies are suited to meet the growing demands in Uganda. The numbers of Indo-Ugandan joint ventures and subsidiaries of Indian companies are increasing in Uganda. The volume of trade between India and Uganda has risen from $5.6 million in 1984 to $105.5 million in 2003. With improvement in the last four years, India’s exports to Uganda have significantly increased. India is now the second-biggest exporter to Uganda (after Kenya). Indian exports constitute around 8.5

External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee (centre) with African leaders at the India-Africa Business Partnership Summit in January 2009

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Trucks carry Indians to Fusagasuga on November 18, 2008. Thousands of Indians headed to Bogota to push for land rights and to protest against free-trade negotiations and attacks on the indigenous population in the country.

percent of Uganda’s total imports. Major export items are pharmaceuticals, bicycle and bicycle parts, automobile components, tyres, small industry and agro-processing machinery, two-wheelers, textile fabrics, sports goods, etc. Of the total pharmaceutical imports into Uganda, Indian products account for 30 percent. India is the largest exporter of pharmaceuticals and chemicals to Uganda. Imports from Uganda are negligible because the manufacturing base of the country is very narrow. It comprises mainly raw hides and skins, cobalt and alloys, teak wood, scrap, etc., all of which are imported in very small quantities. The India-Uganda trade is tilted largely towards India. Investments According to the Uganda Investment Authority, India is the largest investor in Uganda. The Tata Group, APTECH Uganda, Roadmaster Cycles and Mahindra Tractors have registered local companies for their operations in Uganda. The total amount of investments by ethnic Indians (PIOs and recent arrivals) stood at approximately $34 million; investments planned are estimated to be around $144 million. Bank of Baroda has been successfully operating in Uganda for 49 years. The Government of Uganda has disinvested its 51 percent stake in Bank of Baroda (Uganda), and the bank issued an IPO of 20 percent of its capital in September 2002, and listed with the Uganda Securities Exchange in November 2002. The lead-

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ing ethnic Indian groups are the Madhvanis, Mehtas, Mukwanos and Ruperelias. Indo-Ugandan Economic and Technical Co-operation Some current proposals under consideration are as follows: (i) Gujarat Communications and Electronics Ltd. had won $3.5 million contract to set up a Digital Video/Audio Earth Station in Kampala, and to supply 10 FM Transmission Stations on a turnkey basis. However, they have been unable to fulfill this so far contract because of the company’s difficulties in India. (ii) In January 2000, Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd., which has been present in Uganda since 1995, was awarded a World Bank-funded project to supply and install gates, hoists and cranes for the Uganda Electricity Board. It recently got a similar contract worth $1.5 million. (iii) In April 2000, HMT won an ADB-funded order worth $143,187 for supplying educational equipment to several of the Government of Uganda’s educational institutions. (iv) Uganda has expressed strong desire for a replica of EDII Ahmedabad. A proposal has been sent to Indian Ministry of External Affairs (MEA). (v) A proposal to revive India’s participation in the SITI/SIPI mini hydel projects has also been sent to the

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MEA. The National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC) of Indian origin living in Kenya also played an active role. has shown preliminary interest in the large Bujagali In the post-independence scenario, Kenya was one of the first countries in Africa where India established a diploHydropower Project. (vi) APTECH has been successfully running an IT train- matic mission (in 1948) that was later raised to the status of ing institution in Kampala, with degrees being offered by High Commission after Kenya gained independence (Biswas, 2001). After independence, Kenya and India have Manipal University. (vii) In December 2002, RITES Ltd. successfully com- also been cooperating with each other in international fora pleted work on the Kampala Urban Traffic Improvement like the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, Plan. The project was funded by World Bank/IDA and coor- Common-wealth, G-77 and G-15, as well as the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation. There dinated by the Kampala City Council. also (viii) The Government of India, in December 2002, wrote have off over $5 million credit plus interest as a part of the HIPC been educational and military relations between the two initiative. Despite this, around $83 million of commercial countries. credit and interest is outstanding. (ix) RITES Ltd. won the World Bank-funded construc- Economic Relations tion and supervision of the Kikorongo-Katunguru and The Indo-Kenyan economic relationship in the immeEquator Road projects in western Uganda. The job is curdiate post-independence era was very robust and cordial. rently underway. Trade links between India and Kenya (x) Intercontinental Consultants and strengthened following the signing of Technocrats Pvt. Ltd. has been shortTrade links between Indo-Kenya Trade Agreement in March listed for providing consultancy services India and Kenya 1981, under which both countries agreed for the Feasibility Study and Detailed to accord each other the Most Favoured Engineering Design for the up-gradastrengthened (MFN) status (Biswas, 2001). tion of Kabale-Kisoro-Bunagana Road following the signing Nation Following the introduction of ecoproject in Uganda. The company is one amongst seven companies short-listed. of Indo-Kenya Trade nomic liberalisation in both countries in The Ugandan Government received Agreement in March the early 1990s, the trade volume grew funds from the African Development 1981, under which further. The India-Kenya Joint Trade Committee, the India-Kenya Joint Bank for the project. both countries agreed Business Council and regular buyer-sell(xi) TVS Motor Company India Ltd. has appointed M/s Nirma International to accord each other er meetings between the business comLtd. of Uganda as their authorised dealthe Most Favoured munities have played a key role in boosting economic ties. er for the sale of TVS two-wheelers (the Nation status Kenya’s accessibility to the heart of Victor, Max and Scooty models) in East Africa has also helped Indo-Kenyan Uganda. Motorcycles form one of the major hire transportation systems in Uganda and adjoining economic ties. The Kenyan government has urged India to countries. Presently, the market is dominated by second- import more Kenyan goods to offset a widening bilateral trade imbalance that favours the Asian country. Lauding hand Yamaha motorcycles . Kenya-India relations that date back to the 19th century, Prime Minister Raila Odinga said that that the fact that India Indo-Kenyan Relations is Kenya’s sixth-largest trading partner underscores close The arrival of Indians in Kenya was similar to other East economic and cultural contacts between the two countries, African states; it was influenced by colonialism and trade. and has also helped the Indian population in Kenya (Xinhua, This was also complemented by the vast potential of Kenya 2008). Also, India ranked number four in terms of exports as a gateway to Africa, particularly Central, Eastern and to Kenya and was at number 10 among the major markets Southern Africa. Although trade links between India and for Kenyan products. There has been significant developKenya go back several centuries, the recent migration of ment in the Indo-Kenyan bilateral trade that has touched Indians to Kenya took place in the late 19th and early 20th $650 million. Odinga further asked India to increase its import of centuries as indentured labourers under the British to build Kenya’s farm and processed products. “The trade imbalance the Mombasa-Kampala railway line. There were about 70,000 persons of Indian origin and could easily be reduced if India increases its current imporIndian nationals in Kenya in 2005 and the population is still tation of sisal, coffee, precious stones, wool, soda ash, growing. They contribute around 35 percent to the Kenyan pyrethrum, wet leather, wattle and horticultural products,” economy (Kenyan Factsheet, 2008). Generally, India sup- he has said (ibid). Recognising India’s official development assistance to ported Kenya’s struggle for freedom, wherein many people

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Kenya, which has increased over time, topping $6.6 million as of 2008, the prime minister has sought increased India participation in the Kenyan economic development story. Some of the successful India-Kenya joint venture projects include the Birla paper plant at Webuie in eastern-central Kenya, the wines and distilleries unit of Mohan Meakins and the assembling unit of the Kirloskars. Indo-Kenya economic ties can increase manifold based on the complementarities of the two economies. There is a need to expand the existing areas of trade and investment, the areas of production of machine tools, setting up of mini cement plants, cotton ginning and mini sugar plants, harnessing water resources for irrigation, telecommunications, human resources development, etc. India also has appropriate technologies for the development of small-scale industries and thus there is vast scope to share this experience. Tourism and medical tourism are other areas where mutual cooperation can be quite beneficial. Several leading Indian companies like Reliance Industries and the Tata Group have availed of the investment opportunities in Kenya. Conclusion

A still from Mira Nair’s ‘Mississippi Masala’, a romance comedy-drama, which throws light on a third-generation Indian-Ugandan family living in Kampala, later expelled from the country in 1972 by the Idi Amin regime

India-East African relations could be described as a micro-analysis of growing India influence in Africa, where, of late, India has been actively promoting trade across the continent. To boost the country’s trade with the SubSaharan African region, the Government of India launched the ‘Focus: Africa’ programme a few years ago. To promote bilateral and regional commercial relations with the COMESA region, India’s Exim Bank has extended Lines of Credit (LOCs) to support the export of eligible goods on deferred payment terms. The operative LOCs covering this region include $5 million each to the Eastern and Southern African Trade and Development Bank, the Industrial Development Bank Ltd., Kenya, and the East African Development Bank. These LOCs seek to expand the export of product groups identified as those with potential to enhance trade between the two regions. On another front, the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh has signed a preliminary deal with Kenya and Uganda to send 500 farmers to cultivate land in the East African nations. The Andhra Pradesh government has signed letters of intent with Kenya for 50,000 acres (20,234 hectares) and with the Uganda Investment Authority for 20,000 acres (8,000 hectares). The Indian farmers would work as entrepreneurs and landowners, not as labourers. With East Africa lacking experienced manpower to till the land, Andhra Pradesh officials spotted a good opportunity to export its skilled manpower. The authorities in East Africa signed the agreements to give land on a 99-year lease

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to a farmers co-operative society from Andhra Pradesh. Land in Uganda is being given for $3.75 per acre, while the government is still negotiating the price for Kenya. The persecution of Indians and their eventual re-integration in Uganda has widened the horizon of the relationship between the two countries, while India’s ties with Kenya have been growing by the day. Today, India is fast emerging as one of the biggest trade partners of Africa. In the India-Africa Forum Summit held in New Delhi recently, attended by many African heads of states, Rwandan President Paul Kagame described the relation as a partnership of similar historical development experiences. He underscored three main points that put into context Africa’s development challenges, and the framework of India-Africa relationship for addressing them in a sustainable manner. The first issue he drew attention to was how Africa can confront factors that have historically obstructed the transformation and utilisation of the continent’s enormous human and natural resources to create prosperity. The second point revolves around the changing global realities — in particular, the rise of economically successful countries outside the traditional power bloc of the West, such as India, and the third point was about the importance of IndoAfrican relations in terms of practical steps for forming business partnerships. „

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References 1) BBC (1972) ‘Asians given 90 Days to Leave Uganda’. BBC On This Day. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/ hi/dates/stories/august/7/newsid_2492000/2492333.stm. Retrieved on 2009-05-17 2) Henckaerts, Jean-Marie and Sohn, Louis B. (1995) ‘Mass Expulsion in Modern International Law and Practice’. Oxford Press, London. 3) Hasu H. Patel,(1972) ‘General Amin and the Indian Exodus from Uganda’. Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Winter, 1972), pp. 12-22 4) Basajabaka, A. Kasozi, K and Musisi, N and Sejjengo, J. (1994) ‘The Social Origins of Violence in Uganda, 19641985’. Fountain Press, Kampala, page 119 5) Mukherjee, P. (1985) ‘Uganda: An Historical Accident, Class, Nation, State Formation’; Africa World Press, India 6) Ofcansky, T. (1995) ‘Uganda: Tarnished Pearl of Africa ‘ ISBN: 0813310598 Copyright: 1995 7) Twaddle, M. (1995) ‘Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians’; Published by the Athlone Press. Institute of Commonwealth Studies Commonwealth; page 240 8) Bristow, M. et al. (1975) ‘Ugandan Asians in Britain, Canada and India: Some Characteristics and Resources’. New Community, 4 (2), 155-166 9) Morris, H. S. (1968) ‘Indians in Uganda. A Study of Caste and Sect in a Plural Society’. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson 10) Hardy, R (1971) ‘The Iron Snake’, London, Collins 11) ‘The Shortchanged’ (1975): Uganda Citizenship Laws

and How They Were Applied to Its Asian Minority’; International Lawyer, Vol.9, No.1, January 12) A discussion of the “Asian African Heritage Exhibition” at the Punjabilok website (look for the Uganda Railroad section on page 2) http://www.punjabilok.com/heritage/ asia_africa.htm 14) Another article regarding this exhibition, and discussing the current state of Asian-African relations, may be found at Goa.com: http://www.goacom.com/news/news2000/ mar/msg00094.html 15) From the website of the Better World Society, a brief article describing a reunion of Asians from the Ugandan diaspora (from Asian Voice, 18 Aug 2001) http://fp.sistema.f9.co.uk/bws/bwsracism%20Africa%202.htm 16) The same site offers a snapshot of African/Asian relations today, focusing primarily on Kenya and South Africa: http://fp.sistema.f9.co.uk/bws/bwsracism2Africa.htm 17) Uganda and Africa Forum homepage (many links): http://fp.sistema.f9.co.uk/Africa/Ugforum.html 18) The discussion forum itself: http:// fp.sistema. f9.co.uk/Africa/UGdiscussionforum/disc19_toc.htm 19) The “Ugandan History” page from U. Penn’s African Studies centre. This touches on the relations between Asian and African Ugandans, but makes no mention of Asians prior to the 1930s. http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ African_ Studies/NEH/u-hist.html 20) Federal “Country Studies” page for Uganda at the Library of Congress: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ugtoc.html

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Strengthening Relations through CULTURAL diplomacy Globalisation may have boosted relations between India and Africa, but it is cultural exchanges that have taken these ties to a radically new high, says Dr. Rashmi Kapoor

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Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh meeting South African President Jacob G. Zuma during the G-5 Summit in L’Aquila, Italy on July 8.

ndia’s relations with the countries of Africa have been very ancient. Due to the proximity between the two regions, India and the east coast of Africa developed strong links, which date back to the period when trade was the predominant reason for Indian visitors on east African shores. Trade winds facilitated easy transit of traders between India and Africa. On the other hand, skills of the people and the location of the east African coast helped continue and sustain trade with visiting merchants. It was observed that the natives of the east coast of Africa were tolerant to visitors and neither were they averse to the idea of accepting the exogenous cultural influences that visited the coast. The oceanic trade and growing complementarities between Africa and Asia opened the African economy to the whole world

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of Indian Ocean. These regular contacts established and cemented the trust between the traders of the two regions. The visitors to the east African shores never went there with the purpose of colonising or settling down. They always remained peripheral to the social setup of the then existing societies. Thus the influence of the cultures on each other was either not seen or was very limited for it to have a long-term impact. Then there were regular exchange of visitors between India and Africa. To cite a few examples, Queen Hachepsut of Egypt had sent a large expedition to India. Siddis of India came from the East Coast of Africa in large numbers. Later the medieval traveller from Venice, Marco Polo, described the merchants from Gujarat and Saurashtra on Africa’s East Coast as “the best and most honourable that can be found in the world” (Desai P.37). Thus at the time Indian presence in Africa was familiar and recognisable. During the Portuguese period Indian com-

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A F R I C A merce and trade with East Africa intensified to such an extent that the “rupee gradually replaced the Maria Theresa thalers as the principal currency in east Africa” (ibid. P.38). These sustained linkages were established with a limited purpose — trade. Visitors had no interest in the political and socio-cultural lives of the natives. Few centuries later Indians began to settle there but their settlements were like enclaves of mini India surrounded by the local Africans. The contacts between them were formal and were not enough to establish relations which could affect the ways of life and behaviour. When the British decided to construct a railway line between Mombasa and Uganda, a large number of Indian indentured labourers were brought to Kenya. This changed the composition of the East African Community (EAC). After the completion of indentures many Indian ‘coolies’, as they were called, returned back to India. Those who remained, settled in these countries. After a few years they became an integral part of East African society. They opened shops or dukas and were called dukawallahs. The social fabric, the linguistic structure, the religious constitutions all changed with the presence of though small yet strong group of Indians who brought about a radical change in the East African economy. They opened the African interiors to the world and integrated them into the global economy. B.P.Singh (1999:58) believes that culture and trade have an old and enduring relationship: one literally facilitates the other. The commercial activities related to trade and patronage of the rulers greatly influenced literary and cultural activities (ibid. 60). The limited economic interests spun cultural bonds with the Africans. The pace of cultural linkages was slow initially but with time, Indian influence on the East African community and vice versa became substantial. Despite a long history of vibrant economic exchange externally, East Africa has been left with economic and developmental disabilities. Africa is still entrenched in backwardness and deep underdevelopment. Besides, ignorance about the land has left it marginalised economically, socially, politically and culturally. It needs strong partners to weave its way upwards through the spiral of a global framework of development. East African countries have reiterated several times to continue their strong economic relations with India. But acknowledging ageold trade ties and friendship is not sufficient to sustain economic relationships in the present scenario of crisscross economies and multiple linkages. It has to be put on a firm foothold, pledging not only economic and political commitment but has to be supported firmly on the twin pillars of social and cultural exchanges. This will reassure those who believe that the dependence and underdevelopment of African societies has been brought through exploitation on the basis of cultural deprivation or marginalisation. (Sihlongonyane). Both the regions of Africa and India are moving closer due to revitalising of South-South Cooperation (S-S Cooperation) and a firm conviction for mutual co-operation as equal partners. India’s skilled labour force, qualified human resource, high rate of GDP growth, diversified economy has pulled it out of the

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shackles of underdevelopment. Africa is becoming an additional source of energy for India. And India is an important source of human resource and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) besides other things. Manish Chand very aptly says that the trade winds that first brought Indian traders to the East African coast centuries ago continue to blow today in a metaphoric sense. He continues to say that today Africa contributes nearly 15 percent of India’s oil. Bilateral trade has increased from less than $1 billion in 1990-1991 to $36 billion in 2007-2008. The two sides have now set an ambitious target of achieving bilateral trade of $70 billion in another five years. But this surge in India’s engagement with Africa has not, as it would appear, led to a corresponding increase in popular contacts and knowledge about each other’s societies, culture, institutions and value-systems. Stereotypes and clichés continue to thrive stubbornly (Chand 2009). Thus besides economic co-operation, there is a need for more cultural exchange programmes. Cultural relations will strengthen and diversify already existing economic, political and energy exchanges. What Africa requires at the moment is that Africa should “Africanise globally: introducing its vocabulary, habits, interests and visions into the globescape.” This will affirm and expose Africanness to the world (Sihlongonyane). Thus culture should become an extended arm for diplomacy, an extension for markets (Satchidanandan 2008:74). Culturally speaking India and Africa have many things in common. The affinity that both the regions feel for each other is due to the commonality of cultural practices and processes. Yai (2008) reiterating the similar view insists that African cultures and the cultures of India are convergent. He further says that the two cultures are largely based on very similar “weltanschauung” or worldview. For millennia they have emphasised the oneness of existence, the harmony between gods, nature and human beings. They both believe in the formula “I am because we are” the word “we”, here includes the totality of those who exist and are yet to be born and those who have died. He states that the largely peaceful coexistence of bearers of African and Indian cultures is the result of the convergence of these cultures. Yai insists that the time has come for a new cultural Bandoeng that could trigger a vaster, deeper and healthier cultural dialogue. Another feature of the new cultural Bandoeng is its inclusiveness. Our duty is to (re) discover and (re) invent those traditions to suit the diversity of our modern globalised world (ibid. 47). The affinity due to traditional and spiritual kinship needs to be strengthened through frequent visits, cultural exchanges and cultural programmes. These will create cultural intelligence and increase the visibility of Africa. According to UNESCO, “culture comprises of whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterise a society or social group. It includes not only the arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs.” Culture is expressed through language and art, philosophy and religion, education and science, films and newspapers,

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radio and television, social habits and customs, political insti- sustainable development cemented by cultures — in this contutions and economic organisations, etc. (B.P. Singh 1999:146). text philosophies and worldviews of Africa, India, and preRegarding the role of culture, Huntington (1996) writes Columbian Americas are essential ingredients. He also insists that in the post-cold war world, culture is both a divisive and that if we really desire and hope for a globalisation with a human unifying force. People separated by ideology but united by cul- face, we must ensure that cultures are its driving force or engine. ture come together and many other countries with cultural Globalisation which will be due to cultural exchanges and is affinities co-operate economically and politically” (B.P. Singh based on people-to-people interaction. People-to-people interaction presupposes knowledge and 1999:126). This cultural understanding is necessary for reducing the distance between nations and cohesiveness globally understanding of others and to enter into dialogue to make (Sharma : 2008). Also culture is a powerful instrument to pur- one’s position acceptable. Thus co-option rather than coercion sue national interest in a non-intrusive, intelligent, convincing is the mantra for the necessary action. The power to attract and cost-effective manner. Cultures are utilised actively in bilat- without forceful exercise against one’s will is what Nye calls the eral and multilateral diplomacy to foster intercultural under- ‘soft power’ (Nye 1990, 2002). Ali Mazrui (2008:46) feels that standing and meaningful dialogue between nations India has soft power advantage in Africa, influencing important areas of African cultures and lifestyles. India is more of a cul(Diplomatist 2008:73). tural force in Africa than China is. In the modern period of history, Even though economic and political colonisation and globalisation has led to In the Post-Cold War engagements are two important forces to forunification of cultures. Globalisation world, culture was ward relationship at higher levels, people-toinvolves reciprocity, interdependency both a divisive and a people contacts can reinforce the economic and exchange of mutual skills and unifying force. In the and political contacts. This belief in cultural resources in a large measure (Y.Singh contacts as a new engine of globalisation is 2000:98). Globalisation expands the modern period the role of the State as being of scope and speed of cultural interactions globalisation led to the undermining prime importance in international relations across societal boundaries; the incidence unification of and political diplomacy as a supreme instruof migration and emergence of the cultural diaspora bring about intense cul- cultures... and a truly ment of political relations between nations (Sharma 2008). The present phase of globaltural, social and economic interactions. global culture was isation underscores interdependence and At the same time shrinking distances and formed as a result of multiplicity of linkages between nations and increasing porosity of national boundmassification and societies where coercion remains as an inefaries have facilitated more intensification fective tool for compliance. The non-state of people-to-people contact. It has marketisation of actors are gaining importance (Keohane & increased mutual understanding and culture... Nye 1989; Sharma 2008). promoted tolerance of people of differHence culture is convincingly creating a ent race, religion, ethnicity or language. Thus shrinking of the world due to the communication bond between human beings which requires not material interrevolution on the one hand intensifies civilisation conscious- vention, just an appeal to human consciousness and humaniness, while on the other it increases the awareness of difference ty. This has encouraged trade in cultural good and services, between civilisations (B.P. Singh 1999:125). The new which includes educational exchanges, exchanges in the field Islamic movement, movement of Hinduisation in India of science and technology, cultural exchanges in art, music, and Africanness in Africa are examples of civilisational dance, etc. Also, culture is common to many areas due to spread of the consciousness. Besides intensification of cultural consciousness, the process diaspora and the spread of different religions. Hence the emerof globalisation has created an influence of more than one cul- gence of culture as an important factor in determining and ture on Asia and Africa which has promoted a ‘world culture’ influencing other exchanges in the world is a natural outcome. and ‘world citizen’ who have a global understanding of econo- This creates harmony among different cultures. It can be posmy and polity, reflective thinking of their society and culture, sible only if an awareness and knowledge of cultures is but a nationality which could be truly called in future as ‘glob- exchanged freely so that conscious and unconscious mental al’. This has been made possible by massification and marketi- blocks do not hinder the flow of ideas. In such a situation it becomes imperative for the States to sation of culture. It has lead to non-institutionalised modes of inter-cultural contacts, such as through tourism, marketing of not only facilitate but further cultural dialogues between discultural objects, leisure enterprises such as hotels, etc. (Y.Singh parate and distinct cultures by making arrangements for the exposure of other cultures to their people and similarly expos2000:35). Yai (2008:44) insists that homo economicus as exemplified ing their culture to others. Indian leaders like Mohandas by all brands of capitalism has failed or is failing before our eyes. Karamchand Gandhi and Pandit Nehru did not favour a culFor humankind to survive, it must invent, perhaps, a variety of tural policy of isolationism (Y. Singh 2000). They believed in

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intermingling of cultures and absorbing cultural ideas that will enrich human existence. As Gandhiji believed that “the commerce between India and Africa will be of ideas and services, not of manufactured goods against raw materials after the fashion of western exploiters.” Indians in East African Countries The earliest recorded evidence of the ancient Indo-African links is to the found in the ancient Hindu scriptures the Puranas. It is remarkable that the Hindus had christened the source of the Nile (Desai). This shows clearly that the ancient Hindus must have had some kind of connection with different parts of Africa. It was only in the 19th century that the largest single influx of 32,000 indentured workers to build the Kenya-Uganda railway was observed. Also many people went to work in the colonial administration. The indentured workers were called coolies. A majority of Indian traders established themselves as petty merchants along the railway lines extending into the interiors. This was the beginning of the penetration of Indians into the interiors. More groups of Indians migrated for trade as the commercial prospects were very favourable and on the other hand economic stringencies in Western India were highly depressing. During the period of unfavourable economic conditions, culture and sentiment, as well as good commercial practice, dictated that they maintain and materially assist their Indian commercial and family connections. The position of the migrants was ambivalent. On the one hand migrants were assumed to have been integrated or ‘indigenised’ and on the other hand to have become a deviant personality — a marginal man, an outsider. By the beginning of the 20th century, Indians managed to open retail shops called dukas all over East Africa. Indians during the colonial period were largely conservative and pursed their own traditional ways and maintained their cultural mores and norms. Even though the Asian dukawalla or shopkeeper is still a characteristic feature of East Africa, today their main economic contribution is the supply of high and middle level manpower and capital. Indian culture is alive and vibrant in East Africa today. Walking down the streets of East Africa one may witness a strong presence of Indians. They have established retail shops, local trading centers, and bazaars in different districts. The familiarity with India and Indian things is not surprising; over 75,000 persons of Indian origin have been living here for over a century. Not only in food, which has a great influence especially Gujarati food, many Indians words pertaining to trade and commerce have an Indian origin. When the Indians decided to settle permanently in East Africa, they began to re-organise their social and religious lives. Each and every town of East Africa has a Hindu temple, a Muslim mosque or a Sikh gurudwara. Majority of Indian women still wear saris and traditional Indian dresses as salwar kameez in their daily life. These are easily available in the local shops. The longstanding Indian cultural impact has been possible

A typical Indian sweet shop in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

through active cultural exchanges taken place both under officially sponsored programmes and through a wide non-official network of numerous socio-cultural organisations of Indians in East Africa. Regular exchange of artists and cultural troupes take place between the two countries. Present Scenario India has been always recognised and appreciated by Africans who have excelled in their diverse endeavours by honouring them. Also, the Indian government has assisted various African governments in conducting high level programmes. India has honoured the 67 year old Wangari Muta Maathai, the iconic environmentalist with the prestigious Jawaharlal Nehru Award for international understanding. The Indian government helped Uganda host the 2007 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) by donating $2 million towards the transportation sector. Indian skilled professionals are working in different African universities and training African professionals. The involvement of quality Indian manpower resources strengthens Africa’s social sector. Not to forget the nationalist movement in East African countries which was highly influenced by Indian nationalist movements. The present Indian leadership following the policies of their predecessors reaffirmed the resolve to aid Africa become independent economically, politically and socially. “It is our intention to become a partner in Africa’s resurgence,” Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh told African leaders at the first India-Africa Forum Summit in New Delhi in 2008. He also said, “Working together, the two billion people of India and

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Africa can set a shining example of fruitful co-operation in the a cultural bond between India and other countries. This would developing world.” But if one billion-plus people from both help expand the existing cultural relations through universities sides do not understand each other adequately and know and other cultural organisations. The Indian Council for Cultural Relations on behalf of the enough about each other, how can they come together in the quest for resurgence? The India-Africa Framework for Co- government of India offers scholarships and fellowships to operation, issued at the end of the India-Africa Forum Summit, international students wishing to study in India in various prosought to address this information gap and stressed on pro- grammes and disciplines. Scholarships are available also for moting cultural, educational and media exchanges between the research work and non-formal courses (religion, classical music, dance and crafts). The ICCR offers scholarships to Kenya and two sides. Chand (2009) says that to bridge the information gap, India’s Uganda besides other countries. Every year the ICCR offers six Ministry of External Affairs is also supporting a pioneering ini- scholarships to Tanzanian students to study in India. A few huntiative by IANS, an Indian news agency, to launch a website dred Tanzanian students are studying in India (Mathews & called India-Africa Connect that will serve as one-window for Sharma 2002). An important Cultural Cooperation Agreement important news and views on India. The portal is expected to was signed with Tanzania in 1975, which is automatically be online in June. There is also a plan to promote Track II dia- renewed every five years. Under this, a Cultural Exchange logue between India and Africa. Leading Indian think tanks Programme (CEP) was signed in February 1991. Several like the Observer Research Foundation are also thinking of renowned Indian artists have performed in Tanzania under this programme. promoting a Track-II dialogue between Proper training is given to African youth India and Africa. India has been in industrial training institutes, medical colExternal Cultural Relations Report providing assistance leges, engineering colleges, business admininforms that a cultural activities proto Africa and istration, legal services, etc., either in Africa gramme, designed to promote mutual understanding and goodwill and to foster vice-versa but there or in India (CII, ICCR, IIFT, NIIT and others). It gives Africa’s unemployed youth an closer relations with foreign countries, is has been a lack of opportunity to achieve stability in their lives drawn up each year in consultation with the Ministry of External Affairs and the cultural understanding (Kumar 2009:24). East Africa has five perbetween the two cent of the bureaucrats, physicians, profesconcerned Indian missions abroad. The scope of this program is very wide and it countries... To bridge sors and engineers trained in India. includes exchange of delegations of this gap the Indian Technical and artists, students and scholars, exchange of publications, exhibitions and art objects, India-Africa Connect Economic Co-operation presentation of books, deputation of website has been As early as 1949 India instituted a scholIndian teachers for service abroad, particlaunched arship programme under which 53 young ipation in international congresses and Africans were sponsored for educational conferences, bilateral cultural agreements, creation of chairs of Indian Studies in other countries course in Indian institutions. The general cultural scholarship and assisting in the translation and publication of Indian clas- scheme provided an opportunity for young Africans to study sics into foreign languages and vice-versa. At non-governmen- arts, humanities and basic sciences in India (MEA Report). In tal level, a significant part of such activities is being carried on 1964, India launched the Indian Technical and Economic Coby the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) — an operation (ITEC) programme run by the Ministry of External Affairs. ITEC programs provided an institutional framework for autonomous organisation financed entirely by the Ministry. India in the post-independence period concentrated on its enhancing co-operation with the African countries in the true foreign policy towards creating and strengthening cultural ties spirit of S-S Cooperation (MEA Report). It was through the with the outside world. Jawaharlal Nehru reiterated the impor- ITEC programme that India could partner the development of tance of cultural diplomacy as an integral part of international the African countries. Over the past four decades, India has offered technical assisunderstanding and a means of co-operation for bilateral and multilateral organisations. Thus ICCR was established in 1950 tance of varied kind, from providing specialised training in difwith the aim to promote and foster understanding among dif- ferent field in India, sending out Indian experts for short or long ferent peoples and countries. Its aim was: to participate in the term assistance, carrying out feasibility studies and techno-ecoformulation and implementation of policies and programmes nomic studies, organising technical workshops, supply of equiprelating to India’s external cultural relations, to foster and ment and hosting economic delegations. Training facilities have strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding been offered in areas as diverse as rural development, agriculbetween India and other countries, to establish and develop rela- tural research, water resource development, veterinary science tions with national and international organisation in the field of and animal husbandry, small scale industries, jute and culture (iccr.org). It was believed that the council would create textile technology, industrial standardisation, railways, promo-

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A F R I C A tion of foreign trade, journalism, and insurance, town planning, constitutional and parliamentary studies among others. Education and training has been one of the main components of India’s assistance plan for Africa (MEA Report). Besides the Indian government sponsored study programmes, African government also provide several scholarships for their nationals to study in India. Dr. Bingu Wa Mutharika in his address on India-Africa relations recalls that many students from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda got an opportunity to obtain scholarships to acquire higher and better education. Most of the graduates of Indian universities rose to higher positions of responsibility and leadership in the public and the private sector. These includes Kintu Musohe of Uganda who served as Prime Minister, Salim Ahmad Salim, from Delhi University who was Foreign Minister of Tanzania and later Prime Minister and Secretary of the OAU from 1989-2001. Pranab Mukherjee (2008) informed that over 15,000 African students are currently studying in Indian universities and colleges. It is expected that in the next few years India will undertake projects in critical areas focusing on education, science, information technology, agriculture and renewable energy. Indo-Tanzanian cooperation has been greatly strengthened under the ITEC programme started in the mid-1960s. Training of Tanzanians started under ITEC/SCAAP from 1972-73. During the period from 1972-73 to 1996-97 a total of 760 Tanzanians have been trained in India. In 1996-97, India provided 50 slots under the Special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme (SCAAP) to Tanzania (Mathews & Sharma 2002). The Youth Employment Summit (YES) Network The YES network of Kenya and India have partnered to promote sustainable livelihood to young people in both countries and initiate projects targeting their youth members and organisations. The partnership will aim at establishing exchange programmes between the two countries, which will involve youth members from the two countries to engage in training programmes. Yamuna Pathak, the State Coordinator of Andhra Pradesh for YES has signed an MoU with YES Kenya that will help youth tap the enormous opportunities that stakeholders in India, committed to the global call of creating sustainable livelihood, will help foster. The Kenya and India partnership is an example of young people coming together bridging the distance between them and showing the world youth all over can come together and work to empower themselves. India announced an increase in the number of training slots and has also doubled long-term scholarships. Half a billion dollars has been allocated for this purpose. Government of India and the East African Community To deepen collaboration between the Government of India and the East African community, a MoU was signed on April

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20, 2003 in Dar es Salaam. At the invitation of the Government of India, an EAC Delegation led by Hon. John Arap Koech, chairperson of the EAC council of ministers for East African community of the Republic of Kenya, paid a six day official visit to India from February 19 to 24, 2007. Accompanying him were Hon. Eriya Kategaya, First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for EAC Affairs of the Republic of Uganda, Hon. Dr. Ibrahim Masabaha, Minister for East African Cooperation of the United Republic of Tanzania. The Indian delegation briefed the mission on the vision and direction of its support to East Africa for priority areas and intervention in regional programmes with emphasis on infrastructure development, agriculture, health, ICT, education, community development, trade, industrialisation, science and technology among others (Joint Communiqe 2007). Indigenous Knowledge Prakash (2008:36) highlighting the importance of knowledge says that it is transferred from one generation to the next and from one country to another through trading ties and social interactions between different communities. Despite geographical difference, the ways in which communities in India make effective use of their environmental and social assets provide useful lessons for similar communities in Africa. For the learning exposure 16 development practitioners from Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda visited India in September 2002 (ibid. 37). He believes that there is a wealth of indigenous knowledge (IK) practices but because of the lack of capacity it is not disseminated effectively. Thus IK remains un-utilised or under-utilised in the development progress. To bridge the knowledge gap, East Africa and South Asia organised a cross regional IK learning exchange. This would also foster new partnerships for SouthSouth dialogue, co-operation and technical assistance. The World Bank’s Africa Region organised a pilot five-day cross regional distance learning course on The Millennium Development Goals in March 2005. Over 100 participants attended the course through local Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) centres in Uganda, Tanzania, Sri Lanka and India. These included policymakers from health, agriculture and environment ministries, researchers and academia, engineers, NGOs, civil society and local practitioners including farmers and healers. The primary objectives of the multi- media course was to demonstrate how to address development challenges through the application of local knowledge (Praskash 2008:39). Indian Films, Dance and Music Koïchiro Matsuura, the Director-General of UNESCO, informed Africa News that “Film and video production are shining examples of how cultural industries — as vehicles of identity, values and meanings — can open the door to dialogue and understanding between people, and also to economic growth and development. This conviction underpins the

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UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity,” said Matsuura. “And this new data on film and video production provides yet more proof of the need to rethink the place of culture on the international political agenda,” Matsuura added. In the African countries where there is a general lack of statistical information on cultural issues, they can make their culture visible through films and videos. The first Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC) Film Festival was hosted in New Delhi from February 22, 2008. IOR-ARC is a regional cooperation initiative established in Mauritius in March 1997 with the aim of promoting economic and technical cooperation, including expansion of trade and investment and comprises 18 members including India, Kenya, Mauritius, and Tanzania. The IOR-ARC film festival was held at Siri Fort Auditorium in New Delhi from February 22 to March 1, 2008 in partnership with the Directorate of Film Festivals, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Ten films were screened at the Festival from IOR-ARC member countries, Mauritius, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and India. This was reported in business and cinema.com.team. Indian films and music are equally popular in East Africa. Top Indian artists keep touring East Africa regularly and receive overwhelming response. Indian cinema is a very strong ambassador influencing East African culture. It was in the early thirties that Indian businessmen in East Africa set up the first cinema to show Bollywood movies. Mithun Chakraborty is very popular in Tanzania. His film Disco Dancer was very popular (Hassen 2008). Bollywood films are very popular in the whole of Africa, not because of Indian diaspora, but because all the communities including Black, White and Arabs could relate to the values of Indian cultures portrayed in these films (ibid. 98). Mazrui (2008) recalls that when he was growing up as a child, Indian movies were regular feature in Mombasa. There was screening of Indian movies on “Ladies’ Nights”, especially organised for ladies where men were not allowed. Similarly Africans have a taste for Indian music. Indian singers like Lata Mangeshkar are a big crowd puller (Mazrui 2008). Hindi music has greatly impacted African music. Mombasa singer Juma Bhalo is known for improvising on Indian film songs (Chand). Taarab, a local music show very popular in Zanzibar, involves a singer who performs backed by 40 piece orchestra, drums, horns and strings. Taarab is a mixture of Indian, Arabian and African music. Indian and African Sufi music draw from the same mystical roots. Indian films have often absorbed foot tapping African beats and rhythm into their songs (Shubha Singh 2006:65). While Indian pop music can be heard from Egypt to Kenya to South Africa. Recently, there was a musical group of Cutchis from Mombasa (The Varda Brothers and Co) touring Kenya and Tanzania who have their own Swahili songs in their repertoire, together with Cutchi, Gujarati and Hindustani (Lodhi 2000:79). Lodhi (2000) informs that Ustaad Ramzan, his younger brothers Bape and Jussi, and Ustaad Mitu were taught Indian music by Ustad Ismail Raghi of Tanga, who introduced live

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Rajasree Mukherjee, a trained vocalist in Indian classical music and founder of Ma Sharda Institute in Nairobi

Indian music performances (in Mombasa, Tanga, Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar), and also harmonium, which has now been replaced by the portable accordion in Taarab performances. During the 30s, through the early 50s there was a theatrical group in Zanzibar organised by a North Indian Ustaad Shahjee and his close associate Ramzan Natakio. East Africa singers Beby Madaha and Feisal shot for their music video Amor and Hope with Indian television and film artists Amit Jain and Sajani Srivastava at Surve Farmhouse, Panvel recently. Beby Madaha and Feisal Ismail have recorded albums of nine songs each under a contract struck with Dar es Salaam based Pilipili Entertainment company. The producer of these albums is Pancho Latino. Rajasree Mukherjee, a trained vocalist in Indian classical and traditional music has lived in East Africa for the past fifteen years. She is a very popular performer and her concerts in Kenya, Tanzania and India have drawn full houses. She is one of the most reputed trainers in Indian music in East Africa. The Ma Sharda Institute, run by Mukherjee, has trained many singers who have become leading performers in Kenya, Tanzania and India. Her young performers have won numerous awards at Kenya National Music Festivals and have given several performances all over Kenya, Tanzania and India where they were invited to perform at the Indo-Kenya-Bangladesh cultural festival. Twenty-four year old African-American Malena Amusa from Missouri was in Delhi on a dance quest of her own — to unite black and brown dances on one stage. She has been learning bhangra since October, and she presented a performance combining West African moves and bhangra steps. “Black and brown dances will mediate the conversation between Africans and Indians, as they emerge as leaders of the 21st century,” she

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A F R I C A says. This is an expression and assertion of commonality and compatibility of Indian and African music and dance. Thus there is a strong confidence that audio-visual media including films, music and dance have an enormous potential to bring about intensified people-to-people contact. Music and dance know no boundaries and appeals to those who have an ear for it whether they are Indians or Africans. The obvious reason for this may be the convergence of cultures or similarities underlying them. Media The role of the media in today’s wired world cannot be estimated. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh at India-Africa Forum Summit stressed, “Africa and India agree that closer linkages and co-operation in the field of media and communications will generate greater synergy in their relationship, enhance a South-South communication culture, enable more systematic use of their shared cultural and social heritage and also improve the process of economic development in Africa and India. To cater to the emotional needs, the voice of Kenya Radio broadcasts Hindustani programmes daily. A great variety of music-classical, folk, film, pop are presented besides news and magazine programmes in Punjabi and Gujarati languages. The local Indian population has kept the rich traditional heritage active by conducting annual contests in classical music, instrument playing, folk dance, etc., in which people enthusiastically participate. Sport Sports is a culture. Sports leads to healthy interaction and training for team spirit. India and especially countries of East Africa have been collaborating in several sports for mutual development. Indian and African athletes have been participating in Delhi Half Marathons to express their solidarity in the field of sports. Interestingly, the top 10 finalists for both men and women were dominated by runners from Kenya and Ethiopia. The Afro-Asian Games are a series of inter-continental multisport competitions, held between athletes from Asia and Africa. These games are one-of-a-kind, since no other sporting competition brings athletes from these two continents together for one event, excluding the Olympics. These games provide a platform where Indian and African athletes participate in large numbers. Indian Food As for food, people of India origin in Africa like to eat their traditional food. Indian vegetables planted in East Africa long ago are sold in the vegetable markets. Indian condiments and spices are also available in plenty. Indian food is so popular that one finds many restaurants specialising in India food being visited by all types of people. Sanaa is the latest dining offering from

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Walt Disney World, opened in Disney’s Animal Kingdom Lodge’s Kidani Village. A dining experience here is an experience. The entrées here sound very Indian and are categorised by three main sections, From the tandoor ovens, slow cooked in gravy — simple and well seasoned, and African cooking with Indian flavours. Even the cuisines in East Africa have been considerably influenced by Indian cuisines. Indian dishes are part of daily meals in East African families. After an Indian meal the connoisseur can visit the paan or betel nut shops. Items found at breakfast, depending on the economic situation of the family, are chila or pancakes of rice flour, sweet milk chai or tea, prepared in the Indian way and called chai ya maziwa, is drunk after all meals. All the dishes are highly spiced in the Asian manner, the most common ingredients being kotmiri or coriander seeds, manjano or turmeric, jira or cumin, coriander leaves and tomatoes, and are accompanied with chatini or chutneys and achari or pickles of embe or mango (Lodhi 2000:84). The “poor man’s food” in Swahili is the mseto or kichiri or hotchpotch which is prepared by cooking chenga or broken rice of low quality with adesi or spilt or whole lentils, chooko or mung beans or njegere or peas and eaten with some ghee and raw onions. Swahili staple food has a lot of Indian influence in taste, thus most of their cooking is rich in spices (Lodhi 2000:84). Popular cuisines include pilau and wali that is, rice cooked in coconut milk, and served with a thick meat stew or fish. Be it biryani, pulao, chapatis, or Kiswahili. East African languages are full of Indian origin words and thus every time an East African sits down to eat, he is in some sense connected with India. Chapatis are served for Christmas and biryani is a must for weddings, and samosas are forever (Chand 2009). Language, Painting, Archeology A large scale infiltration of Indian culture can be seen in East African lifestyle and language. Swahili, which is spoken in some form in most of East African countries, contains many words of Indian origin. Mostly words relating to business show heavy borrowing from Hindi and Gujarati which may be due to the fact that Indians had gone to the East Africa predominantly for commerce and trade. According to Lodhi (2000:76) the other main unnoticed Indian influence is in the genre of painting. Modern painting as an art in East Africa was introduced by Indian sign writers such as retired wrestler Nura Pahelwan and the singer/actor Ramzann Natakio, both of Zanzibar, who mass produced Indian motifs on sheet glass to be put in frames on Indian and Swahili ‘Zanzibar beds’ which was also an important export item. The paintings usually had lilies and peacocks, a motif commonly found in Indian calendars, which were very widespread in East Africa where almost every importer of any item had a single piece calendar printed for him in Surat or Bombay. It was these calendars, and other colourful pictures in Hindu and Jain homes depicting Indian mythology, which inspired Tingatinga, who was a domestic servant in a Hindu

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family for several years after his arrival from Mozambique at the age of sixteen, to create the favourite art school named after him and copied all over East Africa. In the field of architecture, Indian influence is also enormous in East Africa; one can see the striking resemblance in the urban apartment buildings in East African towns to those in the Indian sub-continent. Lodhi (2000:77) observes that the coastal ‘Arab’ carved doors with brass knobs and another brass or copper details, and the Zanzibari wooden carved doors and chests with brass details, are also based on Indian carved doors and chests. In the old parts of the coastal town one can see beautiful examples of Indian influences in the mansions, the doors, windows and the balconies hanging over the stores on the street level. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus wrote of Osiris “from Ethiopia, he passed through Arabia, bordering upon the Red Sea as far as India. He built many cities in India, one called Nysa, after the city in Egypt where he was brought up” (Shubha Singh 2006:63). Archaeologists have discovered similar art forms in use in rock art in India and in Africa that provide indications of a commonality of cultural tradition in the prehistoric period. The Gedi ruins in Kenya show traces of pre-Muslim Indian architecture, the corbelled-out arches (Kirkman 1954:2-3). The Juma Masjid (the great Friday mosque) in central Ahmedabad in Gujarat was designed by an East African ‘Sidi’ and the beautiful and detailed masonry was the work of African artisans. Indian beads and coins have been discovered as far inland as South and Central Africa showing the range of the engagement. Even the most common Swahili garments, the khanga, has been given its due recognition as an Indian contribution, expresses Lodhi. Khomboi is a thin shawl of fine material, dyed red with black, white and yellow spots, used at weddings by the Cutchi and Sindhi. This is probably the origin of the Swahili khanga, the East African cloth, which was originally spotted like the kanga, the East African speckled guinea-fowl. Khangas were originally imported from India (2000:181). “Sarouelles” pants from Turkey, Africa and India though are from three continents, each unique, yet all three sharing similarities of cut. Even the word sarouelle is borrowed from the Indian word salwar, an Indian trouser. This cultural interconnectedness shows that the seeds for a dialogue of cultures between India and Africa are already there, but they need to be watered carefully to allow it to bloom. It’s time for a new cultural Bandoeng, as chairman of UNESCO Executive Board and scholar Olabiyi Babalola Joseph Yai says (2008). Educational and cultural linkages provide fertile fields for positive interaction in forming co-operation and harmony. A regular study exchange of scholars and statesmen should be planned to make India-Africa relations more vibrant and fruitful. Education CIL (Education Council of India Limited) has carried out projects such as preparation of an academic plan for a university in Kenya. Pant (2008) suggests that Indian and African leaders could consider the creation of ‘Special Knowledge Processing Zones’ as an Afro-Asian site for promoting focused activities for knowledge creation by developing

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facilities for training of manpower, cooperative platforms for research and development, creating joint incubators, sharing infrastructure and intensive engagement of scientists and academia. What will make this knowledge different is that its agenda will primarily address local rather than global issues. The 21st century is often described as the Asian century. India wishes to see the 21st century as the century of Asia and Africa, with the people of the two continents working together to promote inclusive globalisation (Mansingh 2008-08:22). Mazrui in an interview with Manish Chand stresses that dialogue starts with mutual knowledge. Africa does not know enough about India. And India must show genuine interest in Africa. The fact is that they don’t know each other sufficiently well. Therefore, create institutions where we can tell our stories to each other so that we know each other better. Yai acknowledging Mazrui’s views proposes that for a true dialogue it is paramount to establish institutions for the study of African cultures in India and, reciprocally, the creation of centres for Asian languages of higher learning in Africa. Conclusion Two myths of the last century, one that the State was the only actor in international relations and the other that the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) was the only alternative to spun development cycle in most developing countries, have been eroded in the present phase of globalisation. Both these assumptions could not deliver the desired outcomes. Failures of underdeveloped states to fully integrate themselves economically and politically with the global system left them in state of dependence and underdevelopment. The plausible reason could be that dependency is not essentially due to political or economic domination but is a function of cultural domination. Many believe that SAP should be replaced by Cultural Adjustments Programmes (CAPs). CAPs would help transform the nation’s ‘mentality’ to be more consistent with the present realities and at the same time retaining their uniqueness. Therefore it is imperative for the nations to develop their human resource, economic and political institutions, value system and fine arts so as not to ape the West but to enrich its culture. For these reasons, in the contemporary phase of globalisation, the role of political and economical diplomacy has slackened. On the other hand crucial cultural diplomacy is not a forum for demonstration of military might or a show of economic strength, but their humanitarian competition. It entails using the invisible power of moral persuasion to influence people and compete in the realm of soft power — by manifesting diplomatic and cultural strengths. Culture is expressed through its trained manpower, enlightened values, informed citizen, educated human resource and the gains in its fine arts which empower its people and enrich their culture. The sharing of these values and beliefs firmly and easily establishes human bonding.

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A F R I C A The cultural exchanges become valuable via media as they appeal to human consciousness and create understanding, co-operation, collaboration and co-option among nations besides bringing economic and political benefits. These cultural exchanges between India and Africa have put India-Africa relations on a radically new high. Cultural diplomacy for India has become an extended arm to reinforce its economic and political ties with Africa. Thus the cultural bridging is underpinning economic and political relations, making the world more cohesive and comfortably inter-connected. Disparate cultures seem to be in harmony. At the same time it is providing an alternative to the unilinear model of development, creating in nations a confidence of managing their own destinies. „

References 1. Africa News: Nigeria Rivals India in film. 2. B.P. Singh, 1999, India’s Culture: The State, the Arts and Beyond, New Delhi, Oxford University Press. 3. businessofcinema.com.team 20.2.08. 4. Desia, Niranjan, The Asian Influence in East Africa, Dr. J. K. Motwani and Dr. Jyoti Motwani (eds.), Global Migration of Indians, P.37, Col. John Speke in the Journal of Discovery of the Sources of the Nile writes “Col. Ridge gave me a most interesting paper with a map attached to it about the Nile and the Mountains of the Moon. It was written by Lt. Wilford taken from the Puranas. It is remarkable that the Hindus have christened the source of the Nile. This I think shows clearly that the ancient Hindus must have had some kind of connection with different parts of Africa”. 5. B. Erasov and Y. Singh, 2006, The Sociology of Culture, Jaipur, Rawat Publications. 6. Excerpts from the Joint Communique issued at the end of the official visit to India by the East African community Delegation in New Delhi on February 22, 2007. 7. External Affairs Minister, Pranab Mukherjee’s remarks at the Inaugural Session of 2nd IBSA Editors’ Forum, October 13, 2008. 8. T.J. Friedman, 2005, The World is Flat: A Brief of History of the Twenty-First Century, New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 9. F. Haseen, 2008, ‘Bollywood Casts its Spell’, Africa Quarterly, Vol.48. (1), P.100. 10. http:// portal.unesco.org 11. Samuel P. Huntington, 1996, The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon and Schuster. 12. Jawaharlal Nehru’s inaugural address (http:// ww.ICCR India.org). 13. Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye, 1972, Transitional Relations and World Politics, Cambridge, Harvard University Press. 14. Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye, 1989, Power and Interdependence, Second edition, Glenview, Scoot Forseman.

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15. J.S. Kirkman, 1954, The Arab City of Gedi, Oxford. 16. Klitgaard Robert, 1992, Taking Culture into Account: From ‘Let’s’ to ‘How’, in Culture and Development in Africa. Serageldin. 17. S. Kumar, 2008-2009, ‘Partnering a New Transformation’, Africa Quarterly, Vol.4{8.(4) p.24}. 18. P. Landell-Mills, 1992, ‘Governance, Culture Change and Empowerment’, Journal of Modern African Studies, U.K., Cambridge University Press, Vol.30 (4), P.543-567. 19. G.M.E. Leistner, 1983, ‘Black Africa in Search of an Economic Development’, Africa Insight, Vol.13 (3). 20. A.Y. Lodhi, 2000, Oriental Influence in Swahili: A Study in Language and Culture Contacts, Sweden, Acta Univeristatis Gothoburgensis. 21. L. ManSingh, 2008-09, ‘Notes Towards India’s New Africa Policy’, Africa Quarterly, Vol. 48 (4), P.22. 22. J.C. Maritz, 1987, ‘Social and Cultural Heritage in a New Era’, Africa Insight, Vol. 17 (2), P.120. 23. K. Mathews and V. Sharma, 2002, ‘Country Profile of Tanzania’, Africa Quarterly, Vol. 42 (1). P. 109. 24. Ali Mazrui, 2008, Interview of Dr. Ali Mazrui with Manish Chand published in Africa Quarterly. Vol. 48 (4) P. 46. 25. Joseph Nye, 1990, Bound to lead: The Changing Nature of American Power, New York, Basic Books Inc. 26. Joseph Nye, 2004, Soft power: The Means to Success in World Politics, New York, Public Affairs. 27. K.M. Otisa, 2006, Culture and Customs of Uganda, USA, Greenwood Press. 28. G. Pant, 2008, ‘Notes for a New India- Africa Dialogue’, Africa Quarterly, Vol. 48 (1), P.21. 29. S. Prakash, 2008, ‘South-South Co-operation in Action’, Africa Quarterly, Vol.48 (8), P.36. 30. Report of Ministry of Eternal Affairs, Government of India, www.mea india.nic.in. 31. K. Satchindanandam, 2008, Quoted in ‘Preserving Cultural Heritage’, in Diplomatist, Vol. 1 (3), P. 74. 32. K.A. Sharma, 2008, Internalization of Higher Education: An Aspect of India’s Foreign Relations, New Delhi, Gyan Public House. 33. Sideri, 1997, World Bank, ‘Creating Cities that Work, in the New Global Economy’, Policy and Research Bulletin. Vol. 10 (4). 34. M.F. Sihlongonyane, ‘The Invisible Hand of the family in the underdevelopment of African Societies: An African Perspective’, Scholarly Paper Series: Africa. 35. S. Singh, 2006, ‘Connecting with Africa’, Africa Quarterly, Vol.46. (1), P.65. 36. Y. Singh, 2000, Culture Change in India: Identity and Globalisations, Jaipur, Rawat Publications. 37. M.A. Watson, (ed), 2000, Modern Kenya: Social Issues and Perspectives, Maryland, University Press of America. 38. O.B.J. Yai, 2008, ‘In Quest of the Real Africa’, Africa Quarterly, Vol. 48 (3), P.44.

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A MODEL of South-South Cooperation The ambitious Pan African e-Network Project underlines India’s enduring commitment to transferring skills and technology to Africa, says Dr. Renu Modi

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External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee inaugurates the Pan African e-network at TCIL Bhawan in New Delhi

he Pan-African e-Network Project was launched by the government of India on February 16, 2009 as a part of its ‘Aid to Africa’ programme. This project connects the nodal centres in India with 53 nations of Africa through the use of electronic information and technology (ICT) and seeks to provide telemedicine and tele-education to its African counterparts. The pilot project in Ethiopia launched in mid 2007, linking educational and medical centres of excellence in India and Ethiopia, has proved to be a success. The tele-education and tele-medicine projects bear testimony to India’s commitment to transferring skills and technology to Africa and aims to change people’s lives through bridging the digital divide between them and their African counterparts within the framework of ‘South-South cooperation’. The goodwill generated by the project, an extension of soft diplomacy, will certainly help India further its economic and strategic diplomacy as well.

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The former president of India, Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam, also a renowned scientist, was the first to float the idea at the inaugural session of the Pan-African Parliament held at Johannesburg, South Africa. Kalam offered India’s help in bridging the digital divide in the continent by connecting 53 African countries through an international undersea fiber cable connection and via a satellite and fibre optics network. The project enables India to share its cutting-edge quality education and health care with its African counterparts despite the huge physical distance between them. The US Food and Drug Administration defines tele-medicine as “the delivery and provision of healthcare and consultative services to individual patients and the transmission of information related to care, over distance, using telecommunication technologies. Tele-medicine incorporates direct clinical, preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic services and treatment; consultative and follow-up services; remote monitoring of patients; rehabilitative services; and patient education”. (http://www.telemedicineindia.com/Telemed.htm) In addition the e-network also has provision for internet

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A F R I C A videoconferencing as well as supports e-governance, e-commerce, infotainment, resource mapping and meteorological services. (See www.panafricanenetwork.com/portal/about Ptoject.jsp) The project showcases India’s proficiency and core competence in the ICT sector. It was aptly described as a ‘shining example of South-South cooperation’ by India’s Minister of External Affairs Pranab Mukherjee at the formal inauguration of the project on February 16, 2009. This unique venture is an example of genuine cooperation between two long-standing partners, India and Africa. What is remarkable about this undertaking is the high priority that it accords to two social sectors, education and health that touch the lives of millions of people, both in the rural and urban parts of the continent. The project comes at a time when the African countries are hit hard by conditionalities imposed by international donors since the 1980s. In their attempt to keep inflationary pressure at bay, the African states have had to slash their spending on social sectors such as health and education. The state support given to hospitals and educational institutions has been reduced to the detriment of schools and heath clinics/hospitals. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank cutting back on recruitments and salaries, there has been a massive outflow of skilled personnel to mainly European countries over the past several years. Further, there has been a reduction in overseas financial aid from traditional donors such as Europe and America in the wake of the current global recession. The reliance on overseas development assistance (ODA) to fund state budgets is unfortunately high in several African countries. This decrease in the demand for and decline in the prices of African commodities has led to a sharp fall in export earnings. The general deceleration in trade and investments and the increase in trade deficits have further reduced the funds available for investments in the social sector. African governments have, therefore, been unable to meet their budgetary commitments in the two key social sectors of health and education. The enetwork adds to the existing health infrastructure that is des-

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perately in need of internal and external resources to scale up medical treatment for communicable diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cancer, heart and kidney ailments that the continent is grappling with. Thus, India’s e-network initiative comes at an opportune time for the African continent. About the Project The project, a joint initiative of the Indian government and the African Union, was approved by the Union Cabinet of India on July 5, 2007 at a budgeted cost of $110 million. This includes the expenses for supply, installation, testing and commissioning of hardware and software, end-to-end connectivity, satellite bandwidth, operational and maintenance (O&M) support for extending tele-education and tele-medicine services to 53 African countries for a period of five years through the implementing partners, Telecommunications Consultants India Limited (TCIL), a TATA enterprise, on a turnkey basis. It is hoped that in the coming five years the project will be finetuned and will be run under the auspices of the Africa Union. In the first phase of the project eleven African countries — Benin, Burkina Faso, Gabon Ghana Ethiopia, Mauritius, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, and The Gambia, will be connected via a satellite Hub Earth Station at Senegal and a high-tech data centre along with a studio for relay and transmission at the TCIL office. A total of 33 countries have signed the agreement with TCIL to be linked up via the project. The other countries participating in the project are Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Guinea, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Niger, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It is expected that other countries will join the project in the coming months. In the second and third phases, it is proposed that 18 more countries will be connected by the end of June 2009. An International Private Leased Circuit (IPCL) would connect the proposed hub station in Senegal with a submarine

Diplomats from African missions to India at the inaugural ceremony of the Pan African e-Network at TCIL Bhawan in New Delhi

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cable landing station in India. The data centre in India will con- Nekempte Hospital in Ethiopia with Care Hospital in nect with seven Indian universities — the Indira Gandhi Hyderabad was established. The first batch of 34 Ethiopian National Open University (IGNOU), Delhi University, students pursuing an MBA programme from IGNOU since University of Madras, Chennai, Amity University, Noida, 2007 would be completing their course in June 2009. The two and Indian institute of Technology, Kanpur (located in the Ethiopian hospitals have received online medical consultastate of Uttar Pradesh), the Indian Institute of Science (IIS), tion from medical specialists of Care hospital in the southern Bengaluru, Karnataka, and the Birla Institute of Technology state of Hyderabad in India. Over a period of five years it is and Science (BITS), Pilani, Rajasthan, through optical fibre proposed that the project will benefit 10,000 students; 5000 for based connections. diploma and certificate courses, 3000 for under-graduate and The network envisages the telecast of medical education and 2,000 for post-graduate courses. offers online medical services through tele-consultation by As a part of the tele-medicine project, live consultation is linking 12 super specialty hospitals in India to learning cen- being offered for one hour every day to each of the 53 memtres and hospitals in Africa. They include the All India Institute bers states of the African Union in 18 medical disciplines such of Medical Science (AIIMS); the Escorts Heart Research as cardiology, neurology, urology, pathology, oncology, gynaeCentre and Moolchand Hospital, New Delhi; Apollo cology, infectious diseases/HIV/AIDS, ophthalmology and Hospitals, and Sri Ramchandra Medical College and Research pediatrics. Tele-medicine brings healthcare within reach of the Centre, Chennai; Care Hospitals, Hyderabad; Amrita Institute population residing in medically inaccessible areas and allows of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala; Narayan Hrudalaya and patients to seek medical care in case of an emergency or othManipal Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka; KEM Hospital in erwise. With this technology, patients are able to share their Mumbai; Fortis Hospital, Noida; and Santosh Hospital, medical reports — videos or radiology images to ensure a Ghaziabad, both in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh. comprehensive investigation and an accurate diagnosis is done At present the African Union has through access to the patients’ medical shortlisted three leading regional unidata that can be converted into an ‘elecThe project aims to versities and two regional hospitals for tronic medical record.’ These electronchange the lives of participation in the e-network. These ic records can then be transferred to the people by bridging the tele-medicine centres in India where include the Makerere University, Uganda (east Africa); Kwame digital divide in the African qualified doctors are able to diagnose Nkrumah University of Science and the ailment and offer treatment. Telecontinent within the Technology, Ghana (west Africa); medicine thus offers cost-effective University of Yaounde, Cameroon framework of ‘South-South medical aid by specialists to patients (central Africa); Ebadan Hospital, Cooperation’. The goodwill located in remote and inaccessible areas. Nigeria (west Africa); and the generated by the project (www.tele Brazzaville Hospital, the Democratic medicineindia.com/Telemed.htm) will certainly help India Republic of Congo (Central Africa). In addition, offline consultation for In Africa, 53 e-learning, tele-education five patients per day from selected hosfurther expand its centres, tele-medicine centres and pitals has been provided for. The proeconomic and strategic ject also offers skill upgrade through VVIP communication nodes for hotdiplomacy as well line connection between Heads of the sharing of information with the States (i.e., one in each country) are medical personnel in the African being set up by TCIL. countries through its continuing medical education (CME) Under-graduate and post-graduate courses in sunrise sec- programme. tors, such as human resources, international marketing, business administration, tourism management and finance invest- Conclusion ment and analysis are being offered by the Indian counterparts. In addition, diploma and certificate courses in subjects with The tele-education and tele-medicine projects symbolise high job potential such as database and information systems, India’s enduring commitment to the development of the networking and operating systems, electronic instrumenta- African continent through promotion of education and bettion, accounting, child care and HIV/AIDS and language terment of health. The provision of tele-medicine to hospicourses in Arabic, English, French and German, are being tals in Africa, including those situated in remote areas through taught through e-connectivity. mobile clinics, provides the much-needed access to global quality medical expertise to rural Africa through Indian hosPilot Project pitals that have now earned a formidable reputation in the global health market. The African countries can branch out Ethiopia volunteered to be tested for a pilot project and the from their nodal connections and network with other rural or e-network project was formally inaugurated on July 6, 2007 distant educational or medical centres and thus cut costs and in the country. Connectivity between the IGNOU and the time on travel for the recipients of this unique service. The tele-education centres at Addis Ababa University and project will also help Africa achieve its targets vis-a-vis the Haramaya learning Centres in Ethiopia and the Black Lion and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in education and

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G-20 and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Other critics will see this ambitious venture as an attempt by India to counter the growing influence of China in the African continent. India probably cannot counter the sheer magnitude of investments made by China, mainly because it yet does not have the kind of economic muscle Beijing has. But it certainly can engage in Africa in a non-intrusive manner that works to mutual advantage of the two partners. It must be reiterated here that India, like China, is certainly interested in trade and investments in strategic sectors and the resources and markets that Africa has to offer, but wishes to do so within the framework of partnership and co-operation that is developEthiopian dignitaries at the inauguration of the PAN African e-Network Project mental, sustainable and touches the lives of the health sector. This is extremely crucial in a continent with ordinary people in the African continent. a total population of approximately 965 million people that The project was endorsed by the Dean of African comprise 14 percent of the world’s population (United Diplomatic Corps and Ambassador of Sudan to India in 2005: Nations 2006 at ) and has a dispropor- “The Pan African e-network is the biggest project in Southtionately low percentage of expenditure on the health and South Cooperation. It is giving Africa-India relations a new education sector sector. The WHO region of the Americas substance and content. It is not only bridging the digital divide, with 10 percent of the global burden of disease has 37 percent it is bridging the divide between the have and the have-nots.” of the world’s health workers and spends more than 50 per- Moreover, the goodwill generated by the project will enable cent of the world’s health finances. In contrast, the African India to expand its economic and strategic diplomacy in Africa region with 24 percent of the burden and a dismal 3 percent and help counter the intensifying presence of China in the of health workers spends less than 1 percent of world health region. The strong presence of the Indian diaspora in several expenditure! (WHO 2006 at www.who.int/whr/2006/ African countries will also help leverage ‘Brand India.’ en/index.html) The e-network project that aims to change lives of the Indian educationists and doctors are committed to this new African peoples through the use of ICT has several opportupartnership in the spirit of the earlier days of non-alignment nities and challenges. It has barely taken off and will probably and it is hoped that it will reinvigorate the emergent New face teething problems like any newborn does. The project is Asian African Strategic Partnership (NAASP) in the crucial indeed novel and people-oriented, but its success will depend social sectors of education and health. The project also illus- on its effective implementation. trates that support structures like the e-network venture can Africa has the opportunity to use the services of Indian effectively counter the reduction in social spending such as technical experts to improve their ICT connectivity and those under the structural adjustment programmes (SAPs). It extend it to the remote areas. The African Union (AU) has certainly is in the interest of Africa and other countries of the the immense task of steering the project in a direction that best South to build such counter hegemonic models of South- suits users’ needs by monitoring its progress and evaluating South cooperation. This project will certainly arouse interest the advantages and shortcomings of the project, so that they and curiosity among Africa watchers. India bashers may see can be overcome over the next five years when the onus of this initiative as based on vested self interest, interpreting it as running the project will be entrusted to the AU. The ultimate an attempt to seek the critical support of African countries for test of the project lies in shaping this government-to-gova seat at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and ernment model into a sustainable model of private-public to shore up India’s stand at other regional and international partnership which is cost-effective and affordable for the fora such as the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM), G-77, common man. „

References 1. Apollo Tele-medicine Networking Foundation at http://www.telemedicineindia.com/Telemed.htm 2. Pan African e-Network Project Launched at www.panafricanenetwork.com/portal/aboutPtoject.jsp Pan Africa e-network, Heralding new era in providing teleeducation and tele-medicine services to African countries. The Ethiopia pilot project highlights at http://www.tcil-

india.com/new/html/Pilot_Proj.pdf 3. United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision Population Database at 4. WHO, The World Health Report 2006 — Working Together for Health, at www.who.int/whr/2006/en/ index.html.

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South Africa: Charting new FRONTIERS? President Jacob Zuma needs to strike a delicate balance between South Africa’s interests in Africa itself and the country’s Look East policy, say Sanusha Naidu and Hayley Hermani

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President Jacob Zuma (centre) waving to the crowds during the recent IPL Twenty20 cricket tournament in Johannesburg

n the run-up to South Africa’s fourth democratic election, most international and domestic observers were preoccupied with the African National Congress (ANC) retaining its two-thirds majority.1 For the most part, however, the opposition parties framed their election campaigns around the moral integrity of its leader Jacob Zuma. As such, debates around policy issues and priorities were overwhelmingly concentrated on the domestic challenges that confronted rural and urban socioeconomic delivery issues and its impact on the plight of the economically marginalised and indigent.2 Of course, this is a natural focus in any election where bread and butter issues are what generally guide the behaviour of electorates and shape the electioneering of political parties. And so the repertoire of issues in the 2009 elections was no different, ranging from healthcare, education, and fighting crime to land reform, rural development,

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job creation and basic social service delivery. In fact, any reference to the realm of foreign policy issues was at most a fleeting footnote — a notable departure from the Mbeki Presidency and a clear indication of what would be the priorities under the Zuma Presidency. With the new government’s emphasis on domestic issues in trying to find the right policy mix between better managed government and effective governance, undoubtedly raises the contradictory juxtaposition of whether the secondary importance of foreign policy relations would gravitate towards a more ‘quiet diplomacy’ approach in welding South Africa’s foreign political and economic engagements. In short, we are asking two very simple but complementary questions: What and where will be the foreign policy impulses under the Zuma Presidency? And more specifically, what does this mean for South Africa’s Africa Policy and South-South engagement, especially with emerging giants like India and China?

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High Commissioner to India and later in Malaysia. So, what kind of leadership would she bring to a Ministry that was essentially morphed into the Presidency under the Mbeki administration and undeniably made Mbeki a de facto foreign policy President?

In the aftermath of the election fever and its results, a new hype gripped South Africa’s political and media landscape. This time commentators became fixated on who President Zuma would enlist as his most reliable mandarins to deliver on the ANC’s election promises of a better life for all. But Business as Usual in Africa? knowing who was in and who was out was also a way of For the most part, South Africa’s foreign policy will be judging the final purge of the Mbeki Presidency. Many of the big names like Trevor Manuel, Nkosana business as usual. Its main impulse and indeed the pivot would be Africa. Something that the preDlamini-Zuma, Lindiwe Sisulu, Jeff Hadebe, Winner Mandela, Blade There will be a few vious Minister, Dlamini-Zuma, confirmed emphatically in a televised 2009 Nzimande, Tokyo Sexwale, Pravin certainties in the election debate. But, for most foreign Gordhan and Barbara Hogan were floated. The prized ministries included Zuma administration policy observers there is ambivalence about whether it is advisable for Pretoria Finance, Trade and Industry, Health, that will be an to continue in the same vein as President Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs, Justice extension of the Mbeki. and Constitutional Development and Mbeki years. The Of course, there will be a few certainthe newly constituted National Planning programme of the ties in the Zuma administration that will Commission. Of course, when it came to speculat- African Renaissance be an extension of the Mbeki years. For ing about whether Dlamini-Zuma will remain an anchor instance, the programme of the African Renaissance will remain an anchor of would retain her post as foreign minister, there was a definite consensus that of Zuma’s outreach to President Zuma’s outreach to the contiAfrica to strengthen nent as part of the endeavour to support she was going to be redeployed to the and strengthen Africa’s peace, stability Home Affairs portfolio. And, indeed the its peace, stability and development priorities.4 This is pundits were spot-on. Her successor, it and development was gauged, could either be the avantsomething that the Zuma Presidency priorities garde Lindiwe Sisulu whose previous sees as non-negotiable since it flows out experience as Intelligence Minister of the ANC’s policy document presentwould make her a prime candidate or the sleek and charis- ed to its 2007 policy conference and ratified at its national matic Tokyo Sexwale given his business linkages through his conference in Polokwane in December 2007. Undoubtedly, Black economic empowerment company, Mvelapanda this would be achieved by working through continental Holdings. multilateral structures of the African Union. But President Zuma’s preferred choice Maite NkoanaSecond, the Zuma Presidency would also be very keen Mashabane was a candidate whose name did not feature in to have greater synergy between the New Partnership for any of the media’s speculative lists and, in fact, caught many Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the development by surprise as a virtual unknown. At the time, it could have agenda of the African Union. Already, we are witnessing the been interpreted that the foreign ministry would actually be led by her two deputies — Ebrahim Patel Ebrahim and Sue van der Merwe. Both of them have enormous experience between them, especially Ebrahim who is a close confidante of President Zuma, a Member of Parliament’s International Relations Portfolio Committee and a strategic adviser in the ANC’s external relations department. Not so Inexperienced Yet, in judging Minister Nkoana-Mashabane as inexperienced is probably unfair.3 As much as she may not be a big name with the kind of political kudos like her predecessors, she nevertheless does come into this renamed Ministry of International Relations and Cooperation with some understanding of how foreign policy and diplomacy operates. After all she served in two ambassadorial posts in Asia — first as

Jacob Zuma being sworn in as President of South Africa by Chief Justice Pius Langa in Pretoria on May 9, 2009. Former South African President Thabo Mbeki (extreme right) and his wife Zanele are also seen

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whether the benign polemics advanced by the Mbeki regime about its role in Africa’s development, which was undermined by the veneer of a ‘South Africa First’ approach, would continue to be the modus operandi under the Zuma administration.6 In other words, would Africa’s pivotal role in Zuma’s foreign policy be all talk and more of the same? Finally, knitting all of this together is the proposal of formalising South Africa’s development assistance into a Department of Foreign Aid. South Africa’s development cooperation is not as formidable like its Southern partners, China and India. In fact, South Africa’s An African National Congress supporter at the party’s national conference in development assistance mainly focuses on Polokwane on December 16, 2008. Africa and is channeled through the current AU chair, Libya, proposing such an alignment. African Renaissance Fund, which is administered through And of course, under a Zuma presidency this proposal is the Department of Treasury. But the creation of a sure to be received favourably, notwithstanding the warm Department of Foreign Aid, which was one of the policy personal relations between Colonel Gaddafi and President outputs of the Policy and Polokwane Conferences in 2007, Zuma. So, in short, we are most likely to see the broad has been rattled by institutional uncertainty of its location architecture of Mbeki’s Africa policy remaining as a nor- either in the International Development Division of mative structure for the new administration. But, this is Treasury or the foreign ministry. As the new minister conprobably where the “business as usual” approach will stop. fronts this struggle, she and her deputies will also have to There are several issues we anticipate that will compel the ensure that any shift towards a formal development assisnew minister and her ministry to enforce cooperation in a tance programme does not advance South African mercanmore pragmatic manner. The most obvious is to re-estab- tilist and hegemonic interests in African markets. This will be a significant aspect of President lish and recast the African Agenda into one that is less about being the voice of The new ministry will Zuma’s foreign policy, especially with the continent and lofty ideals but one have to ensure that peace and development being at the core of the African strategy. that engages with mutual respect and any shift towards a It would seem that while South partnership. And perhaps, President formal development Africa’s Africa policy needs to be more Zuma’s affable nature and popularist hands on7, President Zuma and minister statesman-like personality would do assistance well in offsetting the Mbeki style of Nkoana-Mashabane would have to programme does grand ideologue and isolationism.5 bridge the divide between the perception not advance South that South Africa is the voice and the last Second, all eyes would be on the interplay between the new ministry and African mercantilist beacon of hope on the continent with a more malleable and sanguinary engagethe expansion of South Africa’s corpoand hegemonic ment that deepens partnership structures, rates. The push by South African capiinterests in signalling that Africa is more important to tal across the Limpopo River is viewed African markets South Africa than vice-versa. contemptuously in the continent. Setting guidelines to monitor outward SA FDI into Africa is something that will assist in offsetting Out of Africa the negative image of a sub-imperial agenda, which was Outside the African continent, the other strategic undeniably a factor during the Mbeki presidency. Third, South Africa’s diplomacy in global multilateral foreign policy impulse would be harnessing South-South institutions like the G20, Outreach 5, IMF, UN Security cooperation, and in particular, strengthening ties with Council, WTO and other North-South and South-South southern heavyweights like China, India and Brazil. This is no surprise as President Zuma visited China and configurations would be under the microscope from an African perspective to assess whether the Zuma presidency India as part of his presidential endorsement. In geois behaving like its predecessor. More importantly, African political terms, this was a strategic diplomatic play by state and non-state actors would be keen to determine President Zuma and a clear indication that South Africa’s

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Anand Sharma, then India’s Minister of State for External Affairs, and President Jacob Zuma in Durban on September 18, 2008

foreign policy will be calibrating a Look East Policy. From the Indian and Chinese perspectives, South Africa is a strategic, political and economic partner in Africa as well as within global multilateral institutions. In short, ‘caucusing’ South Africa’s support is vital to how both India and China wish to reconfigure the architecture and power relations of the global system. So, while the Mbeki presidency may have set the foundations for this engagement, the Zuma administration will enhance these strategic linkages because of its importance to South Africa’s domestic development environment. And this not least because of the ANC’s own socio-economic reconstruction policy in creating opportunities for decent work and a better skills-based economy. All of this is linked to attracting FDI where both India and China are strategic actors, especially in the current global uncertainty of the credit crisis. The India Factor India’s engagement with South Africa is underscored by Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence and New Delhi’s support to the ANC’s anti-apartheid struggle. This continues to be so, at least from the point of view of the official rhetoric of the respective governments, and the foundation of current engagements which snugly fit into contemporary relations. The synergies in their foreign policy outlook is found in their mutual engagement in multilateral organisations and summits from the UN to the G8, bridging the global North-South divide while at the same time promoting greater South-South investment and trade linkages with

other emerging economies. Perhaps the more significant fruition of their alignment is the formation of the IndiaBrazil-South Africa (IBSA) global South alliance. But judging from India’s own foreign policy transformation, the economic factor cannot be ignored. Trade between South Africa and India has increased to over $30 billion in 2008 and remains a pivotal area of interest for both countries. There has been investment and corporate expansion over the past several years with greater linkages being forged, especially through the Conclave Investment Hub forums. Most recently, South Africa’s First Rand Group opened offices in India.8 India’s own realignment of its Africa focus bodes well for Pretoria and New Delhi, especially since both are keen to push for greater development imperatives across the continent. The outlining of this Africa strategy at the first IndiaAfrica Partnership Summit held in April 2008, provides a base of priority sectors including greater economic and trade relations with Africa. In addition, support towards the development objectives of NEPAD9 makes India’s Africa strategy an ideal platform for South Africa to pursue trilateral partnerships with AU and like-minded African states — Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Senegal, Angola, Libya and Egypt — in furthering the Africa agenda in its development imperatives. But of course, there is the China dynamic that must be considered.10 With China’s global prowess and influence being interpreted in certain policy quarters as superpower qualities, it would be easy to assert that in this Look East Policy, China may be the preferred partner, which will enjoy

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The NEPAD e-Africa Commission is working for long-term solutions for the development of the ICT sector in Africa

ing, especially as the new minister has reaffirmed South Africa’s support to AU’s position that the International Criminal Court (ICC) arrest of warrant for Sudanese President Al-Bashir would be unconstructive to the peace initiative in Sudan. And so we have our first test of South Africa’s foreign policy under the Zuma Presidency and, indeed, its first ebb and flow. Perhaps, it is worth mentioning that Sudan has also been identified as one of the regions where the Zuma administration is seeking to push for a platform to pursue its peace-brokering efforts. But while we try to assess President Zuma’s foreign diplomacy, we must also India’s experience ask the corresponding question: what in science and does South Africa’s foreign partners seek technology, small, of a Zuma Presidency. From a Look East medium and micro Policy, South Africa is considered to be a strategic economic springboard for enterprises, its Asian investors seeking market opportualternative pharma nities across the continent. And China industry, IT, and the and India fully appreciate this. Second, South African corporate pencommercial learning etration of African markets has often accruing thereof can been interpreted as having a better risk exposure. Therefore, joint ventures or help South Africa address its domestic buying into South African companies with a large African market presence, developmental make for good business strategies that challenges would not be lost on either Indian or Chinese private and public enterprises.

the most favoured nation status. As much as China will push its engagement with South Africa and vice-versa, the Zuma presidency will be much more strategic and pursue rational choices in its assessment rather than Kung Fu diplomacy.11 In this regard, India’s experience in science and technology, SMEs (small, medium and micro enterprises), its alternative pharmaceutical industry, IT and the commercial learning that South African and Indian initiatives can result in the realm of R&D, can help address South Africa’s domestic developmental challenges. And here lies India’s comparative advantage over China. Conclusion As the world settles into a Zuma Presidency, there will be ebbs and flows in South Africa’s foreign policy engagements. As we have witnessed under the Mbeki presidency, the championing of the human rights agenda took a backseat, leading to much consternation amongst Western powers and advocacy groups. But it seems that the new minister is confronting this issue head-on by highlighting that the ministry will continue to prioritise human rights issues.12 Of course, determining by whose definition South Africa will forge ahead with its human rights priorities will be interest-

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A F R I C A The Standard Bank-ICBC deal is a case in point. Something that Indian companies would not want to lose the advantage to their Chinese counterparts who could wrest deals from them. The aborted Bharti Cell and Reliance Telecoms deals with MTN are good pointers. It is now rumoured that China Mobile is considering buying a stake in the company. Third, while South Africa may be seen as an important voting partner in multilateral institutions, be at WTO, the Doha Development Round or at other fora, it must be remembered that South Africa’s actions may not always be appreciated or seen by African actors as representing their interests. And if the Zuma Presidency is serious about strengthening its African relations, then relying on South Africa to speak in one voice with its Asian partners may not be a given. In this regard, President Zuma’s diplomacy may be aligned more towards consensus with its African constituency and the AU before committing to any decision that may prejudice Africa’s integration into the global economy. This may by far be a long shot since national interests precede everything else. But it could be worth considering for the Zuma administration. Finally, it will be myopic for India to use its historical connections with South Africa as a precondition for anchoring and strengthening its current relations with Pretoria. For one thing, the tag of South Africa’s largest Indian Diaspora as a connector in this regard is only beneficial to the business class in this group. For the rest of South Africa’s Indian population, their struggle is less about connecting with India and more about finding their own socio-economic space in a post-apartheid South Africa. Therefore, for New Delhi, the relationship with the Zuma government must be based on pragmatism and the signs of the time. Thus, in our overall assessment of President Zuma’s foreign policy, it would seem that while continuity is good, it could come good only if it manages to turn its shortfalls into windfalls. Notes 1 ) See Sanusha Naidu, ‘Reflections on South Africa’s 2009 Elections’, Pambazuka News, Issue 431, 7th May 2009. http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/comment/56123 2 ) See Sanusha Naidu, ‘South Africa’s 2009 Elections: Waiting to Exhale’, Pambazuka News, Issue 428, 16th April 2009. http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/features/55643 3) See ‘South African foreign policy to take a backseat under Zuma’, Africaasia, 14th May 2009. http://www.africasia.com/services/news/newsitem.php?area=africa&item=0 90514012842.sctijbab.php 4 ) ‘There will be no surprises in SA’s Foreign Policy. Really’, The Times, 10 May 2009.

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Chinese President Hu Jintao and then South African President Thabo Mbeki co-launched the South Africa-China Economic and Trade Cooperation network in Pretoria on February 6, 2007

http://www.thetimes.co.za/PrintEdition/Insight/Article.aspx ?id=995845 5 ) See Gerrit Olivier, ‘Zuma’s modest aims better than Mbeki’s lofty goals’, Business Day, 14 May 2009. http://www.businessday.co.za/articles/topstories.aspx?ID= BD4A999295. 6 ) See John Daniel, Varusha Naidoo & Sanusha Naidu, ‘The South Africana have arrived: Post-apartheid Corporate into Africa’ in John Daniel, Adam Habib & Roger Southall (eds.) (2003): The State of the Nation: South Africa 20032004, Cape Town: HSRC Press. 7 ) See Sanusha Naidu, ‘South Africa’s Africa Policy: Mixed Messages’, in Elizabeth Sidiropolous (2004) (ed.): Apartheid Part, Renaissance Future: South Africa’s Foreign Policy 1994-2004, Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs. 8 ) ‘First Rand wins banking licence in India’, Financial Times, 12 May 2009. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/2e6920223f1b-11de-ae4f-00144feabdc0.html 9 ) See Sanusha Naidu and Hayley Herman, ‘No ‘sleep walking’ in Africa’, Global Dialogue, Volume 13.2, August 2008, Institute for Global Dialogue. http://www.igd.org.za/index.php?option=com_remository&Itemid=69&func=selectcat&cat=4 10 ) Sanusha Naidu, ‘South Africa’s Relations with the People’s Republic of China: Mutual Opportunities or Hidden Threats’, in Buhlungu, S, Daniel, J, Southall, R & Jessica Lutchman (2005) (eds): State of the Nation: South Africa 2005-2006, Cape Town: HSRC Press. 11 ) Sanusha Naidu, ‘Kung Fu Diplomacy’, Pambazuka News, Issue 425, 26th March 2009. http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/africa_china/55132 12 ) See GCIS, ‘South Africa Foreign Policy to remain the same – Nkoana-Mashabane’, Bua News Online, 14 May 2009. www.buanews.gov.za/news/09/09051416251001 ■

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Lessons from South Africa’s ELECTION South Africa, for the third consecutive time, embarked on an irreversible democratic journey. It’s a journey that could inspire other African nations to replicate this model, says Mammo Muchie

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Supporters of the Congress of the People (COPE), South Africa’s youngest political party, at a rally during the 2009 presidential elections

ince 1994, South Africa has undergone three national elections with remarkable success and free from the incidents that often mar elections in much of Africa. Despite being under a peculiar form of racialist tyrannical rule prior to its democratically elected government in 1994, South Africa has surprised the rest of the world with the way its citizens have continued to express themselves peacefully. These citizens have maintained strong civic engagement and have harnessed their democratic rights through going to the polls and standing for hours in long lines with discipline and calm decency, all for the purpose of expressing their voices, making choices and casting their secret ballots to vote with record numbers. On April 22, 2009, for the third time, they did it again! They expressed their voices. They made their choices. After hearing spirited campaign debates, discussions and even heated exchanges (which in other places would possibly have descended into violence), they finally

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cast their ballot papers and voted. Back in 2004, I witnessed the election in Durban whilst working at the University of KwaZulu Natal on a leave of absence from an English university in London. Then, as it is now, the citizens went out with huge numbers and voted. Again in 2009, I saw the long lines of the election in Tshwane in person. There were lines almost everywhere in the city. I talked to a few voters. When I asked ‘Whom are you going to vote for?’, most answered that it was a secret ballot. A mother had a young child with her and I wondered if the child was going to vote too. His mother’s earnest reply was to let the child begin to learn how people vote, and when his turn comes it will perhaps be a routine matter to go and vote. A 97-year-old woman, Jeminah Moshanyana, also voted, just as the dignified and frail African liberation hero Nelson Mandela did with both humility and pride. Former President Thabo Mbeki also voted with cheerful interest. Those who have led the country know even more than others the importance of acting in a way which demonstrates that they are very happy to be led also. The former

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A F R I C A leaders know both to lead and be led, and when voting seem to enjoy the role of being led! The country continues to be among the highest scores — perhaps the highest in the world — for continuing to come out in massive numbers to vote. It looks that the cynic index in South Africa will not apply to the South African democratic voter! In Switzerland every person of voting age is legally obliged to vote. In South Africa, they vote without any legal compulsion. They vote from a deep commitment to civic engagement and expressing their citizenship rights, believing that their votes can make a difference. This is indeed a great achievement in itself, regardless of whether a winning party delivers on its programmes and promises.

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All the pundits were this time predicting that the election would run into some trouble. But it did not. While the reasons why the election succeeded require deeper analyses, here we can briefly highlight some of the tricky moments which could have marred the South African election process this time round. The Period of Doubt: COPE’S Split from ANC

The democratic process in South Africa appeared to go through difficult times. There was a time when it looked unlikely that the process could turn out to be peaceful. When some members of the African National Congress (ANC) broke away to form the Congress of the People (COPE) party, the media and some commentators tried to South African History Moves Forward suggest that imminent violence would result were the ANC’s share of the votes to be reduced. It appears that in South Africa history is neither repeating itself nor moving In Switzerland, every The main story that was replayed time backwards. On the contrary, history person of voting age is and time again was as follows: COPE’s strength was increasing at the expense of seems to move irreversibly forwards legally obliged to vote. the ANC and the latter would not tolermaking the journey to the future exemIn South Africa, they ate the shrinking of its electoral power. plary, full of possibilities, of optimism, desirable and even fun. Curiosity is vote without any legal The rhetoric of the ANC Youth League leader and others was seized upon and growing across the world around how compulsion. They the media’s suggestions of potential difSouth Africa oversees such free, fair and vote from a deep ficulties intensified, propounding the peaceful elections with massive turnout commitment to civic notion that the election might not go as and which take place without rancour, violence or destabilising quarrels. How is engagement, believing well as the previous two. Violence was it that this country, for the third consecthat their votes can feared, or even expected. Indeed, it was seen in some circles as perhaps even utive time, managed to achieve this level make a difference unavoidable. of democratic civilisation and history? As time went by, it appears that even This without any recognisable, reportable hitches or glitches in a country where the press those criticising the ANC still saw it as Africa’s oldest libwould be waiting hungrily to report any small incident to eration movement, one with plans to deliver better houshave taken place, even by accident. How come a country suf- ing, health, education, public services and job opportunities fering from a hostile media blitz goes in such massive than other parties, including the newly formed COPE. The numbers to an election and manages to vote, express its result is now obvious: the ANC has not alienated its base. voice and choices without scarcely an incident during the Its support is still intact. It is likely to enjoy such support process or afterwards? One can only congratulate this from the South African population for a long time if it conimportant African nation for its remarkable and exemplary tinues to deliver on the things that matter to the electorate. achievements in showing the world that it has embarked on The election’s anticipated violence never materialised. The an irreversible democratic journey, one that will long con- third South African election was as peaceful, disciplined, tinue and that will overcome the test of time and the haz- orderly and successful as the previous two. The other extraordinary turn of events was the extreme ards of any foreseen and unforeseen misfortune. We must be proud that we have at least one African coun- vilification of the ANC leader and now president, Jacob try that is a super example in managing democratic elections, Zuma. Even members of the foreign press like Britain’s The not only to Africa but to the rest of the world. South Africa Guardian got involved in the defamation. Nothing and is indeed a good example for all of us Africans the world nobody was spared. Undue focus on Zuma’s personality, his over. We must all try to learn with great humility what lack of formal education, his private life, his family, his brought this great historic achievement to this land. Above friends and so on became the delights of the media’s daily all, we must venture to ask: ‘Can other African states learn features and stories. The media became hysterical before and from the power of South Africa’s example? Can other coun- around the time of the split of COPE from the ANC. It is remarkable how any individual can weather the storm tries manage an amazing “incident and accident-free election”, in an African context where it is still hugely difficult of such attacks and carry on as if it is business as usual. Some opposition parties campaigned literally on what they called to pull off such free, fair and peaceful elections?’

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a ‘Stop Zuma’ slogan, using all these allegations and vilifi- cy to the rest of Africa is too important to be soiled by other cations as data and storylines for their campaigns. They used mundane concerns and personal distractions. All these political gyrations, tumultuous commotions, skewed logic and fallacies, claiming for example that if Zuma were to be president, the state as a whole in South Africa emotions, logical fallacies, insults and splits did not affect the would become also ‘criminal and corrupt’. This is like say- way the election ultimately went. That is what is extremeing that if the leaf is contaminated, the whole tree is also, or ly novel about South Africa’s election success; how in such that if the tree is contaminated, then the whole forest is too. a charged campaign did none of those involved not flip and The fallacy of such reasoning is evident, but such a fallacy take action to derail the election process? What can the rest did not bar those pedalling such fabrications from contin- of Africa learn from this remarkable process? What is the uing to use them. Nor however did Zuma or the ANC secret of this great success? bother much about such claims against them; they did not draw them from focusing on their own core message. In South Africa’s Election and Africa other parts of Africa, such a level of tolerance is not likely In other parts of Africa, it is hard to imagine that the level to be found at all. It would generate violence. In South Africa however, it was seen as part of the occupational haz- of insult witnessed in the South African election would be tolerated without those who hold or are near power misusard of running a democratic election. This is a country where there is a robust constitution, the ing or abusing their power to derail the election. What makes rule of law, the separation of powers and an active and free South Africa interesting is that it is not one of these states press. In the ANC, no individual seems to be above the in Africa to be distracted or to lose focus in the face of petty electioneering rhetoric. Those involved party, something demonstrated at Polokwane when the then seated This is a country where were able to ignore such rhetoric or use it to educate the public, instead of simPresident Thabo Mbeki was replaced by there is a robust turning it into a fight amongst the Jacob Zuma. Even Archbishop Desmond constitution, the rule of ply parties. It is fully demonstrated now that Tutu, who said he would not vote if Zuma was to be the next president, law, the separation of no matter what is said, South Africa can reversed his stance in the end and evenpowers, and a free manage its elections despite or even tually voted. Zuma will be the president press. In the ANC no because of any insults. It sounds counterintuitive, but it is this capable, collecof both the ANC and South Africa for one seems to be above tive management of a complex process in the next five years, whether one likes it the party, something a complex society that strikes us as an or not. After the election the heat cooled and the dust settled and we thought that proved at Polokwane extraordinary achievement. The election South Africans would all work together, when sitting President was not given to those who won on a silver platter, it was hard-fought. The winappearing as they do to be creative, tolMbeki was replaced ner earned the victory and was not given erant and above all to regard their counby Zuma it. The process was free, fair and just. try’s unity as priceless. The power of the The losers have no complaints about the example of their election and democra-

Helen Zille Democratic Alliance

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Jacob Zuma African National Congress

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process. The winner has no grudges. As Africans we must feel proud that South Africa has attained this level of world-class civilisation. We must feel enviable and wish that the rest of the continent reaches this level of achievement in the not-too-distant future. We cannot afford to be thin-skinned and turn violent in the face of the opposition’s criticism, however unfair it is. Opposition parties are not enemies. Ruling parties are not enemies. They are opponents with different programmes. They want to win badly. In the process of an election they can use many tactics, which may not all be ethical. But as long as the right to reply is not denied, there is no reason to turn this into a violent engagement. From South Africa, the rest of Africa can learn this important lesson. The sooner they do the better for Africa’s democratic and united future. Lessons for Ethiopia and the Rest of Africa Nearly all the pettiness and below-the-belt attacks that often trigger violence in elections in other parts of Africa A copy of South Africa’s national election ballot, 2009 (such as, for example, in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia) the African imagination from the 15th to also took place in South Africa. But remarkably South Africa’s election did If South Africa can do it the 20th centuries — is still unable to so well after half a run free and fair elections where results not degenerate into violence. Other are uncontested. Is Ethiopia’s 2005 eleccountries wishing to undergo elections generation of going to repeat itself in 2010? in Africa must learn from South Africa post-apartheid colonial tionIf Ethiopia succeeds in running a free with humility. What is it is that made the freedom, how is it that and fair election, history will move forSouth Africans prevent violence when it looked as though violence would come? much of Africa cannot ward with hope and possibilities for the Ethiopia for example is due to have an do it after half a century future of the country and Africa as a whole. But if Ethiopia fails to run such election in 2010. It is important that of freedom from an election, history will repeat itself or both the incumbent party and the opposition learn from and even invite South colonialism? It is even even move further backwards, exacting Africans to help level out tricky more surprising that a high cost on the future of the country’s moments during Ethiopia’s election Ethiopia is still unable people and indeed Africa at large. If 2010 is going to be like 2005 in process. After all, for us Ethiopians the to run free and fair Ethiopia, the country will once again be success of South Africa is like our own elections confronted with an electoral aftermath success. That is how we must feel, of death and tears. The election needs to think, act and behave in relation to the South African achievement. Hopefully, South Africans be well managed beforehand — and there is still more than would also share the same sentiment that success in elec- a year to get it right — and all efforts from all concerned tions in other parts of Africa is also their own success. They must be deployed to make sure that 2005’s outcome is never too must feel, think, behave and act to get Africa moving for- repeated. The cost of a repeat of the 2005 election in 2010 wards around knowing how to manage elections after half is just too much to bear thinking about. History must not a century of post-colonial freedom. All communities in repeat itself. It must move forwards with hope and the posSouth Africa should share success with the rest of Africa. sibility of a bright future for all. On the one hand, all efforts must be made for citizens to Democracy in South Africa is to be celebrated, but to sustain itself the rest of Africa must be democratic and collec- express their citizenship rights, and on the other, all the tricks from the ruling party to create a climate for citizen distively turn into a grand area of African democracy. If South Africa can do it so well after half a generation of engagement through spreading fear, arrests, tricks, blackmail post-apartheid colonial freedom, how is it that much of and intimidation must be opposed. If the latter situation preAfrica cannot do it after half a century of freedom from vails over the former, Ethiopian citizens will probably be colonialism? It is even more surprising to consider that unlikely to vote. They will disengage from civic expression Ethiopia — the continent’s oldest country and which has and involvement. Citizens withdrawing and finding politics been at the forefront of the liberation from colonialism in dirty and spurious are the worst thing that can happen to any

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society. A ruling party that drives its citizens to withdraw growth is above 7 per cent and that this should be used to from the public sphere is indeed doing a historic disservice justify closing the democratic space! It is also equally disinto its society, people, nation and Africa as a whole. De-cit- genuous to use the developmental state to deny free demoizen-ising society by spreading fear and threats through the cratic expression. A developmental state can also be demosecret service nd police, arresting opposition leaders on cratic. South Africa is again the example for combining a clumsy charges (such as giving an inaccurate interview to an developmental state with democracy. It is equally important to know economic growth is not Ethiopian–Swedish diaspora radio station, as happened to Birtukan Mideska) and creating unjust regulatory hurdles economic development. Economic growth made by exportis likely to create a long-term cost to Ethiopian society and ing a few commodities such as coffee, flowers, leather or indeed wider Africa. The price of such a defeat for democ- through constructing houses is not the same as changing the lives of the people. It is about solving problems in relation racy is incalculable for Ethiopia. Both regimes and opposition must desist from using the to food, jobs (especially youth employment), education, ethnic card, from using the politics of blackmail and from health, water, housing and public services that matter above treating particular communities as inferior, while privileg- all else. It is about not creating a rent-seeking political elite ing others as superior. These are tactics that are only likely with its hands in the economy. Democracy, the rule of law, the separation of powers, to sow the seeds of long-term mistrust and the prevention free press and association — and not of social-capital construction. Social-capital cannot be built with ethnic and ver- What is extraordinary treating criticism with fear but with nacular fragmentation. It is built with the about South Africa is encouragement, even if it is sometimes expression of an integral Ethiopian- the presence of a high unfair — are important to learn and embed as a culture and norm in the African citizenship and engagement in level of citizenship Ethiopian context. Here South Africa is public life. The freedom of the citizen must not be subtracted. It must be con- engagement and the a great example for Ethiopia to learn solidated by enjoying human rights, extent to which the from as well. What is extraordinary about South housing rights, jobs, education, health political process Africa is the presence of a high level of and public services. Integrated political, encourages rather citizenship engagement and the extent to social, economic and cultural citizenship than discourages which the political process encourages engagement in Ethiopia’s possibly rather than discourages citizens to enjoy emerging vibrant public life is much citizens to enjoy needed to get a society to unite together expressing their rights, expressing his rights, their choices, their voices and their votes. One has a single to undertake the difficult problems of their choices, their vote no what matter their class, race, genovercoming underdevelopment in the country. It is disingenuous for a govern- voices and their votes der or religion. This person enjoys exercising their franchise. Despite the exisment to say that the rate of economic

Supporters of the ruling African National Congress campaigning for President Jacob Zuma in Cape Town’s Mitchells’s Plain township

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of the world. It is not a good argument to say that South Africa is different. The difficulties South Africans overcame are even greater than those which often exist elsewhere in Africa. What is different is the capability, maturity, the hanConclusion dling and the institutions that worked together to neutralise It is hugely embarrassing to run elections in Africa and these difficulties, in the end bringing out results which repcome out with violence and death as collateral damage from resented a shining example to the rest of Africa. That is the very often rigged, unfair and unjust elections. Any les- what is different; not the scale of the problems, but the difson that can be drawn from successful elections in Africa, ference in the maturity exhibited in dealing with these probsuch as that which we saw in South Africa, must be pro- lems. The rest of Africa must try to learn closely and humbly moted. Ways must be found to use such successes to replifrom South Africa about how to manage an exemplary cate and create more successes in the rest of Africa. When opposition and rulers cannot play the democratic peaceful, orderly, disciplined, non-violent and optimistic election where voters turn out with joy game well, the latest formula on the Ordinary people in to express their citizenship engagement. block is the so-called national unity coalitions in places like Kenya and Africa should never be Finally, ordinary people in Africa should Zimbabwe. This new development is a underestimated. In never be underestimated. The African village is often poor and rural. But given stopgap measure invented when those South Africa rural the opportunity, African villagers choose who enter the electoral game are unwillvoters are decisive in intelligently and vote for the party that ing to concede defeat or accept the victhe election. It is the they know may address better their issues tory of the opposition. It is a formula that puts opposition and ruling parties, village that combines than other parties that do not. In South Africa rural voters are decisive in the who often loathe each other, together. It human possibility, election, as in other parts of Africa. It is is created because the players are not solidarity and the village that combines human possirespecting the very game they entered in the first place. community, and that bility, solidarity and community, and that has managed to survive against all obstaThey expect to win; when they lose, has managed to cles with the ubuntu spirit. The elites in they find it difficult to concede. It may survive against all Africa are mostly not a creative or demobe useful to prevent bloodshed, but it obstacles with the cratic class. They are often self-seeking, certainly will not help to govern a counnot public-service seeking, but a renttry and carry out both economic and ubuntu spirit seeking elite. This is a class that priorisocial development without the parties tises rent-extraction over democratic and becoming embroiled in endless arguments through these contrived national unity regimes. The developmental achievement. Very often, elites try to comparties must learn that losing is at times even more modify politics into private economic gain for themselves respectable than winning. This culture must be embedded and their families, local and foreign friends. This rent-seekin their values. They can prepare and always try to come ing behaviour is buttressed strongly by the international aid back, and they can return. They must not say, ‘It’s now or system. Countries like South Africa have much more indepennever!’ We know that South Africa had to overcome intricate dence than many other countries from this international barriers and incredible odds to achieve this latest third elec- aid system. There is thus a creative elite in South Africa, tion. The harder and more difficult the barriers it sur- along perhaps with some rent-seekers. In the rest of Africa, mounted in the process, the greater its success in the eyes we have a serious problem of rent-seeking behaviour overshadowing creative, venturesome, risk-taking, innovative and entrepreneurial behaviour. There is thus a need to work hard to change the rent-seeking elite into creative, democratic, innovative, venturesome and developmental elite to establish democracy and unite Africa.That work must be done by enlisting ordinary people’s power, and by harnessing the power of example provided by the success of the third South African election. The rest of Africa must learn from South Africa, and South Africa should be prepared to share the secret of its successes with the rest of Africa. (The article is courtesy Pambazuka News, http://pambazuka.org) tence of different identities along the lines of language, race and religion, there is one South African citizen identity.

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B O O K S

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A selection of new books on Africa and by African writers from www.africabookcentre.com Human Love By Andrei Makine; Translated from the Russian by Geoffrey Strachan; UK; Sceptre; 256pp; Paperback; £7.99

Dinner With Mugabe: The untold story of a freedom fighter who became a tyrant By Heidi Holland; South Africa; Penguin Books; 250pp; Paperback; £9.99 This timely portrait of Robert Mugabe is the psychobiography of a man whose once-brilliant career has ruined Zimbabwe and cast shame on the African continent. The probe begins with her having dinner with Mugabe, the freedom fighter, and ends in a searching interview with Zimbabwe’s president more than 30 years later. The author charts Mugabe’s gradual self-destruction, and uncovers the complicity of some respectable international players in the Zimbabwe tragedy. The Road to Democracy in South Africa Volume 3: International Solidarity By South African Democracy Education Trust; South Africa; Unisa Press; 1402pp; Hardback; £95 Third part in a planned five-volume series aiming to redress the lack of historical material on the events that led to democracy in South Africa over a period of four decades. This volume examines the role of anti-apartheid movements around the world and their success in both creating awareness of the liberation struggle in South Africa, and in contributing to the downfall of the apartheid government. This volume, in two parts, brings together analysis written by activist scholars with deep roots in the movements and organisations they are writing about.This first part focuses on International Solidarity with the liberation struggle. It covers the contribution of various international organisations, governments and their peoples, and solidarity organisations, to the liberation struggle in South Africa. The second part focuses on African solidarity, with an emphasis on the Organisation of African Unity and its Liberation Committee.

■ Red Terror Trials The Ethiopian Red Terror Trials: Transitional Justice Challenged By Kjetil Tronvoll, Charles Schaefer and Girmachew Alemu Aneme (Eds.); UK; James Currey Publishers; 156pp; Paperback; £14.99 An unexpected popular upsurge in February 1974 made the ancient regime of Emperor Haile Selassie buckle. The Derg, a group of army officers led by an obscure and ruthless major Mengistu Hailemariam, seized power by military coup in September 1974 and removed the Emperor. The Derg were united by the shedding of blood. Search and destroy campaigns against militants led on to the full-blown ‘red terror’ in which thousands of the regime’s opponents were brutally murdered in the streets. The main officials were found guilty of genocide by the Ethiopian Federal High Court and sentenced to life imprisonment.

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A professional revolutionary, Elias Almeida has seen humankind at its pitiless worst. Witness as a child to the death of both his parents in uprisings in Angola and the Congo, and later as a Soviet agent at the heart of African politics, he has observed murder, rape, pillage and starvation in the name of ideology, and suffered imprisonment. Yet he continues to believe in the redeeming power of love — the love of humanity, and the love between individuals. And in his own case, the love of one woman, a Russian who rescued him from thugs one snowy night in Moscow. This book is new in paperback.

African Urban Spaces in Historical Perspective By Steven J. Salm (Ed.); USA. University of Rochester Press; 440pp; Paperback; £17.99. Presents new approaches to the study of African urban history and culture. Moving between pre-colonial, colonial, and contemporary urban spaces, it covers the major regions, religions, and cultural influences of sub-Saharan Africa.

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PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT Flamboya By Viviane Sassen; Italy; Contrasto Productions; 100pp; Hardback; £26.99 First comprehensive catalogue to feature the independent work of Dutch photographer and Prix de Rome winner, Viviane Sassen. It includes over fifty recent photographs taken across Africa from Cape Town to Kenya and Zambia that disregard traditional boundaries of genre and tackle the problematic bond between photography, imperialism and the colonial imaginary. Sassen imbues her portrait of Africa with the lush chromaticity and compositional appeal that secured the impact of her ad campaigns and editorial series created for such brands as Miu Miu, Adidas and Louis Vuitton. It’s Our Turn to Eat: The Story of a Kenyan Whistle Blower By Michela Wrong; UK; Fourth Estate; 354pp; Paperback; £12.99 Tracking this story of an African whistle blower who started out as a pillar of the establishment, Michela Wrong seeks answers to questions that have puzzled outsiders and Africans alike. What is it about African societies that makes corruption so hard to eradicate? Why have so many African presidents found it so easy to reduce all political discussion to the self-serving calculation of which tribe gets to eat? When will Africans start placing the interests of their nation ahead of the narrow interests of their clan?

■ Stream of bestsellers The Anatomist: The Autobiography of Anthony Sampson By Anthony Sampson; UK; Politico’s; 284pp; Hardback; £19.99 In 1951, Anthony Sampson went to work in South Africa on Drum magazine, beginning a life-long commitment to a country divided by race. Four years later, he was working for the Observer under the legendary David Astor, and there wrote the unique Anatomy of Britain, which changed the mould of political writing. A stream of bestsellers followed on major world topics: big business; the oil trade; the international arms trade; world banking; corporate life; and, important updates to the original Anatomy, culminating in Who Runs this Place? in 2004. Sampson, however, never missed an opportunity to return to South Africa, which was in many ways his spiritual home. He witnessed the major events that finally led to the end of apartheid and the triumph of Nelson Mandela.

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Stealing Water: A Secret Life in an African City By Tim Ecott; UK; Sceptre; 320pp; Paperback; £7.99 New in paperback. Memoir of an extraordinary family — unexpectedly poor and forced to live on their wits amidst 1970s South African affluence, Tim Ecott’s story is at times poignant, funny, affecting and moving. Sacred Waters: Arts for Mami Wata and Other Divinities in Africa and the Diaspora By Henry John Drewal; USA; Indiana University Press; 681pp; Hardback; £58.00 Focuses on the arts, rituals, and religions associated with Mami Wata deities in Africa and the African diaspora. Mami Wata, pidgin English for Mother Water, is a beautiful, seductive water spirit who brings wealth and good fortune to those she favours. Practices associated with winning her favour, widespread in West Africa and the Black Atlantic diaspora, are explored in 46 rich and perceptive essays by an international group of scholars and practitioners. This book addresses the diversity of belief and practice, audiences, gender, reception, hybridity, commodification, globalisation, dispersal, and religious mutation of Mami Wata rituals. It includes more than 129 images and a supplemental DVD featuring nearly 500 images, a photographic essay, and video clips of Mami Wata rituals.

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Zuma: A Biography By Jeremy Gordin; South Africa; Jonathan Ball; 324pp; Paperback; £16.99 “Why should anyone write about me? I’m not an important person. I’m not a rich businessman. I’m not from a politically famous or royal family.” (Jacob Zuma to Jeremy Gordin). Of course, Zuma has been at the epicentre of South African politics, and his life has been on display almost daily on the pages of international newspapers. Often embattled, always controversial, Zuma rose to take control of the ANC in Polokwane, unseating President Thabo Mbeki. In this unauthorised biography, veteran journalist Jeremy Gordin attempts to capture something of the character of man: his ambitions; the political roller-coaster he has been on; his travails in his quest to be the next president of South Africa. He also covers Zuma’s early life as a herdboy, his adult life as a member of the ANC, his incarceration on Robben Island, his time in exile, and the transitional years of the early 1990s. But the main focus remains on the last seven or eight years of Zuma’s alleged corruption in the Arms Deal, his trial for rape, and his rise to prominence. True Murder By Yaba Badoe; UK; Jonathan Cape; 272pp; Hardback; £12.99 Eleven-year-old Ajuba has been abandoned at a Devon boarding school by her Ghanaian father. Haunted by the circumstances of her mother’s breakdown and the ghosts of the life she left behind in Ghana, she falls under the spell of new girl Polly Venus and her chaotic, glamorous family. But all is not what it might seem in the Venus household and Ajuba struggles to make sense of things as they tear each other apart in front of her. One day, the girls find what they think are dead kittens wrapped up in an old coat in the attic of the Venus’ manor house. The bones turn out to be those of a dead baby. Obsessed with detectives of the US magazine serial True Murder, the girls set out to find out what happened to the baby. As summer draws to a close, three tragedies conflate, with catastrophic results. Beyond The Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts By Gray Baines and Peter Vale (Eds.); South Africa; Unisa Press; 342pp; Paperback; £27.99 For 15 years, little attention has been paid to South Africa’s late Cold War conflicts and the memories of soldiers who fought in them. Combatants with the liberation movements have all but been forgotten or otherwise marginalised in the new political dispensation. This volume offers new perspectives on the Border War through the paradigms of diplomatic and military history, cultural and literary studies, as well as victimology.

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Tears of the Desert: One Woman’s True Story of Surviving the Horrors of Darfur By Halima Bashir; UK; Hodder Headline; 384pp; Paperback; £6.99 Halima Bashir was born into the remote western deserts of Sudan. She grew up in a wonderfully rich environment and later went on to study medicine. At the age of twenty-four she returned to her people and began practising as their first ever qualified doctor. But Janjaweed Arab militias began savagely assaulting her people. Halima tried not to get involved. But in January 2004, they attacked people in her village. She decided to speak out in a Sudanese newspaper and to the UN charities. Then, the secret police came for her, and she was subjected to torture. She escaped but the nightmare seemed to follow her. After Genocide: Transitional Justice, PostConflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond By Philip Clark and Zachary D. Kaufman (Eds.); UK; Hurst; 399pp; Paperback; £20 Includes chapters from leading scholars in the field, and an unprecedented debate between Rwandan President Paul Kagame and René Lemarchand on post-genocide memory and governance in Rwanda.

A F R I C A The Law of Human Rights: Second Edition By Richard Clayton and Hugh Tomlinson; UK; Oxford University Press; 3000pp; Hardback; £295 Since it was first published in 2000, The Law of Human Rights has become the leading practitioner text in this rapidly developing area of law. Written by two leading silks, and a team of expert contributors, it provides comprehensive and systematic treatment of human rights law and practice in the UK, including an examination of the wider impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 upon the civil and criminal law. The second edition has been fully updated to provide detailed coverage of developments as the human rights legislation continues to be tested out in the courts, such as the principles of proportionality, the nature of public authorities, and the developing right of privacy. The authors have tracked the growing body of case law and the book includes comprehensive case references for the UK and other jurisdictions, including new sections on human rights law in South Africa and Scotland. Accompanied by a comprehensive materials volume including full text of the Act, the European Convention on Human Rights, and appendices considering human rights jurisprudence in relation to each Convention right dealing with the position in Scotland, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.

■ Accomplishments Bikila: Ethiopia’s Barefoot Olympian By Tim Judah; UK; Reportage Press; 220pp; Paperback; £12.99 On September 10, 1960 Abebe Bikila, an Ethiopian, won the Rome Olympic marathon running barefoot. He was the first black African to win gold at the Olympics. Overnight he became a sporting hero, an African hero and, for many, the first black African they had ever heard of. Bikila was a man of his times — a symbol of hope in the new Africa. This is his extraordinary tale.

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Culture, Performance and Identity: Paths of Communication in Kenya By Kimani Njogu (Ed.); Kenya; Twaweza Communications; 180pp; Paperback; £18.95 The book brings together essays on a wide variety of local, national and global identities: Gender, Disability, Media, Sports, Literature, Religion, Land, Youth and Music.

Cup Man and Other Stories By Tikum Mbah Azonga; Cameroon; LANGAA RPCIG; 160pp; Paperback; £15.95 Eight short stories on themes as diverse as the intrigues of the civil service, drunkenness, theft, matrimonial relations and living as an African immigrant in the West.

Black Inventors: Crafting Over 200 Years of Success By Keith C. Holmes; USA; Global Black Inventors Research Projects; 180pp; Paperback; £12.99 Highlights the work of innovators from Africa and from the African diaspora from earliest times to the present. Cites inventions and patents in more than 70 countries.

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ORCHHA: A medieval legacy in stone The palaces and temples built by Bundela rulers in the 16th and 17th centuries retain much of their pristine perfection, says Nandini Banerjee

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rchha is literally grandeur captured in stone and frozen in time. On this medieval city, the hand of time rests lightly and the palaces and temples built by its Bundela rulers in the 16th and 17th centuries retain much of their pristine perfection to this day. Orchha, in Madhya Pradesh in central India, was founded in the 16th century by the Bundela Rajput chieftain, Rudra Pratap, who chose this stretch of land along the Betwa river to build his capital. Of the succeeding rulers, the most notable was Raja Bir Singh Judeo who built the exquisite Jehangir Mahal, a tiered palace crowned by graceful chhatris (domes). Complementing the noble proportions of their exteriors are interiors, which represent the finest flowering of the

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Bundela school of painting. In the Laxminarayan Temple and Raj Mahal in the palace complex, vibrant murals encompassing a variety of religious and secular themes, bring the walls and ceilings to life. The origins of the Bundela dynasty in the 11th century can be traced to a Rajput prince who offered himself as a sacrifice to the mountain goddess Vrindavasini; she stopped him and named him ‘Bundela’ (one who offered blood). Garhkurar, once capital of the Bundelas, fell to the Tughluqs just as the dynasty was weakening. However, into the vacuum that the Tughluqs left subsequently, the Bundelas again expanded, moving their base to Orchha (“hidden”). Raja Rudra Pratap threw a wall around the existing settlement and began work on the palace building (circa1525-

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exterior ornamentation. Laxminarayan Temple: A flagstone path links this temple with the Ram Raja Temple. The style is an interesting synthesis of fort and temple moulds. The interiors conSome breathtaking sites tain the most exquisite of Orchha’s wall paintings. Jehangir Mahal: Built by In the Laxminarayan Covering the walls and ceiling of three Raja Bir Singh Judeo in the 17th cenhalls, these murals are vibrant compositury to commemorate the visit of Temple and Raj Emperor Jehangir to Orchha. Its strong Mahal, vibrant murals tions and cover a variety of spiritual and secular subjects. lines are counterbalanced by delicate encompassing a They are in an excellent state of preserchhatris and trellis work, the whole variety of religious vation, with the colours retaining their structure conveying an effect of extraordinary richness. and secular themes vivid quality. Phool Bagh: Laid out as a formal garRaj Mahal: Situated to the right of the bring the walls and den, this complex testifies to the refined quadrangle, this palace was built in the ceilings to rich life aesthetic qualities of the Bundelas. A 17th century by Madhukar Shah, the central row of fountains culminates in deeply religious predecessor of Bir an eight pillared palace-pavilion. Singh Judeo. A subterranean structure below was the cool summer Chaturbhuj Temple: Built upon a massive stone platform and reached by a steep flight of steps, the temple was retreat of the Orchha kings. An ingenious system of water specially constructed to enshrine the image of Rama that ventilation connects the underground palace with Chandan remained in the Ram Raja Temple. Lotus emblems and Katora, a bowl-like structure from whose fountains droplets other symbols of religious significance provide the delicate of water filtered through to the roof, simulating rainfall. „ 31) and an arched bridge to it. This was completed by his successor Bharti Chand (1531-54), who was installed in the Raj Mahal with great ceremony.

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■ Contributors ■ SANJUKTA BANERJI BHATTACHARYA is Professor at the Department of International Relations, Jadavpur University, Kolkata ■ NIRANJAN DESAI was a member of the Indian Foreign Service and has served, among other countries, in Kenya

and Somalia and as High Commissioner to Uganda (1987-1991), with concurrent accreditation as ambassador to Rwanda and Burundi. At the Ministry of External Affairs he was desk officer for East Africa and later Joint Secretary (Africa). In 1972, he was deputed to Uganda to arrange the evacuation of Indian citizens expelled by the Idi Amin government when he was declared persona non grata by the Idi Amin regime. He retired in 2002 as Ambassador to Switzerland and the Vatican. ■ DR. RASHMI KAPOOR is a lecturer in Swahili in the Department of African Studies, University of Delhi. Her field of specialisation is African Sociology in general and Swahili language in particular. She has recently visited Mauritius for her fieldwork. She has extensively written on the Indian Diaspora in Africa. She is a member of Sudan Study Unit in the Department of African Studies in the University of Delhi. ■ MANISH CHAND is Editor of Africa Quarterly. He writes on foreign policy, politics, culture and books. His articles have been published in leading national and international publications and research journals. He has presented papers at global seminars, helped organise symposia and reported on international issues from different parts of the world. ■ NEERA KAPUR is the author of From Jhelum to Tana, a memoir of four generations of her family from India to Kenya during 1898-2001. She is also a classical dancer with a background in Kathak and Bharatanatyam. ■ RENU MODI is Director, Centre for African Studies, University of Mumbai. ■ MAMMO MUCHIE is the chairperson of the Network of Ethiopian Scholars (NES) and a professor at Aalborg

University. ■ SANUSHA NAIDU is Research Director in Fahamu’s China in Africa programme in Cape Town. ■ HAYLEY HERMAN is Research Manager in the Centre for Chinese Studies based at the University of Stelllenbosch. ■ BONNIE AYODELE teaches at Department of Political Science, University of Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.

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Note to Contributors Africa Quarterly, published since 1961, is devoted to the study and objective analyses of African affairs and issues related to India-Africa relations. Contributions are invited from outstanding writers, experts and specialists in India, Africa and other countries on various political, economic, social-cultural, literary, philosophical and other themes pertaining to African affairs and India-Africa relations. Preference will be given to those articles which deal succinctly with issues that are both important and clearly defined. Articles which are purely narrative and descriptive and lacking in analytical content are not likely to be accepted. Contributions should be in a clear, concise, readable style and written in English. Articles submitted to Africa Quarterly should be original contributions and should not be under consideration by any other publication at the same time. The Editor is responsible for the selection and acceptance of articles, but responsibility for errors of facts and opinions expressed in them rests with authors. Manuscripts submitted should be accompanied with a statement that the same has not been submitted/accepted for publication elsewhere. Copyright of articles published in the Africa Quarterly will be retained by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR). Manuscripts submitted to Africa Quarterly should be typed double space on one side of the paper and two copies should be sent. A diskette (3 ½” ) MS-Dos compatible, and e-mail as an attachment should be sent along with the two hard copies. Authors should clearly indicate their full name, address, e-mail, academic status and current institutional affiliation. A brief biographical note (one paragraph) about the writer may also be sent. The length of the article should not normally exceed 7,000 to 8,000 words, or 20 to 25 ( A-4 size) typed pages in manuscript. Titles should be kept as brief as possible. Footnote numbering should be clearly marked and consecutively numbered in the text and notes placed at the end of the article and not at the bottom of the relevant page. Tables (including graphs, maps, figures) must be submitted in a form suitable for reproduction on a separate sheet of paper and not within the text. Each table should have a clear descriptive title and mention where it is to be placed in the article. Place all footnotes in a table at the end of the article. Reference numbers within the text should be placed after the punctuation mark. Footnote style: In the case of books, the author, title of the book, place of publication, publisher, date of publication and page numbers should be given in that order, e.g. Basil Davidson, ‘The Blackman’s Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation State’, London, James Curry, 1992, pp. 15-22. In the case of articles, the author, title of article, name of the journal, volume and issue number in brackets, the year and the page numbers should be given in that order. In addition to major articles and research papers, Africa Quarterly also publishes short articles in the section titled News & Events. They may not exceed 2,000 words in length. Contributions of short stories and poems are also welcome. Contributors to Africa Quarterly are entitled to two copies of the issue in which their article appears in addition to a modest honorarium. Contributors of major articles accepted for publication will receive up to a maximum of Rs. 4,000. Contributions may be sent by post to: The Editor Africa Quarterly Indian Council for Cultural Relations Azad Bhavan Indraprastha Estate New Delhi-110 002 Contributions may be e-mailed to: [email protected]

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India-East Africa Ties: Mapping New Frontiers

Shared destinies and future trajectories O Dialogue through dance O

Indian Council for Cultural Relations Azad Bhavan Indraprastha Estate New Delhi — 110 002 E-mail: [email protected] Registered with the Registrar of Newspapers of India Regd No. 14380/61

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