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We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all those who in one way or the .... Ownership of farmlands, fishermen and non-fishermen, Kainji Lake ..... gear (e.g. beach seines) and an increase of the minimum mesh size of ..... A Lotus 1-2-3 ...... Labeo was also a fish of low preference (Figure 17), because the taste was ...

ISSN: 1119-1449

Nigerian-German Kainji Kainji Lake LakeFisheries Fisheries Promotion Promotion Project Project Technical Report Technical Report Series Series 2.

NUTRITIONAL HABITS AND FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN OF FISHING COMMUNITIES AROUND LAKE KAINJI, NIGERIA by S. Dreschl, S.O. Alamu and F. Adu

Nigerian-German (GTZ) Kainji Lake Fisheries

Promotion Project 411114

%lull/011k

INI11111 August, 1995

ISBN 978-037-001-3 © Nigerian-German (GTZ) Kainji Lake Fisheries Promotion Project, 1995

New Bussa Niger State Nigeria

ISSN: 1119-1449 Nigerian-German Kainji Lake Fisheries Promotion Project Technical Report Series 2.

1111111116.

NUTRMONAL HABITS AND FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN OF FISHING COMMUNITIES AROUND LAKE KAINJI, NIGERIA by S. Dreschl, S.O. Alamu and F. Adu

Nigerian-German (GTZ) Kainji Lake Fisheries

Promotion Project August, 1995

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are are grateful grateful to to the the Nigerian-German Nigerian-German Fisheries Promotion Project for giving us the opportunity to carry out this study. Our special thanks go to Mrs. Marina Mdaihli, the project from the project. adviser, for all the support we had froin Continuous and comprehensive support was provided by Mr. Tim du Feu in the preparation of

the survey. We thank him very much for always finding a way to make the "impossible" become possible.

For the professional and qualified advise for the preparation of the survey we would like to express our gratitude to Dr. Friederike BeIlin Bellin of the University of Giessen.

We are especially thankful to the survey team members, Adisa. Hauwa, and Rafiu, for their assistance during the data collection and for guiding us through the study sites.

Special thanks go to Mr. Jean-Pierre Thuy for his support in data processing and for his professional advice and motivation throughout the analysis. Furthermore, we thank Dr. Vakily for compilation of the survey data.

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all those who in one way or the other contributed to the success of this study.

Finally, we want to express our gratitude to our study respondents for their willingness to answer all our questions. Their hospitality made the work a pleasure. S. Dreschl S. O. Alamu F.A. Adu

ii CONTENTS

Page

Acknowledgements Contents List of Tables List of Figures Executive Summary

vii ix

INTRODUCTION

11

22

METHODOLOGY

2

2.1

Standardised questionnaire

2

2.2

Equipment and measurements

2

2.3

Sample size

33

2.4

Survey team

33

2.5

Data col collection lection

4

2.6

Data analysis

4

3.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDY POPULATION

5

3.1

Demographic profi profile Demographic le

5

3.2

Educational profile

3.3

Occupational profile and income sources

1

77

3.3.1

Heads of household

7

3.3.2

Wom en Women

8

3.3.3

Chi Id Ten Children

8

iii Pag_e Page

3.4

Weekly income and expenditures

9

3.4.1

Weekly income

3.4.2

Seasonality of income

10

3.43

Fishing as source of income

11

3.4.4

Total weekly expenditure and weekly expenditure for food

12

9

3.5

Land use system

13

3.6

Crop cultivation

13

3.7

Livestock

16

4

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND FOOD HABITS

20

4.1

General information

20

4.2

Nutrient intake; quantity and source

21 21

4.2.1

Calories

21

4.2.2

Protein

24

4.2.3

Fat

26

4.3

Factors affecting nutrient intake

29

4.4

Food consumption pattern

30

4.5

Food taboos

34

4,6

Food preferences

35

4.7

Breast feeding and weaning practices

35

4.8

Prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea

37

iv Page

5.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

40

5.1

Conclusions

40

5.2

Recommendations

41

6

REFERENCES

43

ANNEX

1. Map I. Map of of Kainji Kainji Lake Lake area

45

Questionnaires

46

Number of interviews in sampled villages, fishermen and non-fishermen households

54

Markets and market days, Kainji Lake area/ Survey time schedule

55

Main and supplementary occupation of heads of households

56

Sources of income, fishermen fishermen

57

Sources of income, wives of fishermen

58

Sources of income, wives of non-fishermen

59

List of Tables Page

Average number of permanent household members, Kainji Lake area, 1995

5

Distribution of number of wives per head of household, Kainji Lake area, 1995

5

Table 3:

Age distribution of children, Kainji lake area, 1995

5

Table 4:

Ethnic composition, Kainji Lake area, 1995

6

Table 5:

Distribution of of rnen, women and school age children according to literacy level, Kainji Lake area, 1995

7

Distribution of fishermen and non-fishermen according to weekly income categories, Kainji Lake area, 1995

9

Table 1:

Table 2:

Table 6:

Table 7:

Table 8:

Table 9:

Table 10:

Table II:

Table 12:

Table 13:

Table 14 a:

Table 14 b:

Distribution of fishermen and non-fishermen according to geographical location and weekly income categories, Kainji Lake area, 1995

10

Main catching seasons for various species of fish, Kainji Lake area, 1995

11

Expenditure per week, total total and and food food, fishermen, ishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995

12

Expenditure per week; total and food, non-fishermen, Kainji Lake area,1995 area,I995

12

Ownership of farmlands, fishermen and non-fishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995

13

Average harvest (sacks) in the year preceeding the survey, fishermen and non-fishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995

14

Distribution of fishermen and non-fishermen according to livestock ownership, Kainji Lake area, 1995

16

west and and east east sides, sides, fishermen, fisheanen, Livestock ownership on the west Kainji Lake area, 1995

16

Livestock ownership on the west and east sides, non-fishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995

16

vi Pagg

Table 15:

Table 16:

Table 17:

Table 18:

Table 19:

Table 20:

Table 21:

Table 22:

Table 23:

Table 24:

Distribution of Distribution ofcalorie calorieconsumption, consumption,fishermen, fishermen, ocassional ocassional fishermen and non-fishermen, Kainji Kainji Lake Lakearea, area, 1995

21

Average protein intake per person person per per day, day, according according to to occupational occupational status of status of households, households, Kainji Kainji Lake Lake area, area, 1995

24

Average fat intake intake per per person per day, according to occupational status Lakeatatea, status of households, Kainji Kainji Lake ea, 1995

26

Contribution of Contribution of main main nutrients nutrients to to total total calorie calorieconsumption consumption according according to occupational status status of of households, households, Kainji Kainji Lake area, 1995 1995

28

Average calorie, calorie, protein protein and and fat fat intake intake per per person person per day, according to occupational occupational status status of of households households and number meal participants, participants, Kainji Lake Kainji Lake area area 1995

29

Average number of of meal meal members members according to occupational occupational status status of households, Kainji Kainji Lake Lake area, area, 1995

30

Prefered food Prefered food items, given additional income income for for food foodpurchases, purchases, Kainji Lake Kainji Lake area. area. 1995

35

Point prevalence prevalence of of diarrhoea diarrhoea among amongchildren children aged agedO0 to to 55 yew yeats, s, Kainji Lake Kainji Lake area, area, 1995

38

Period prevalence of diarrhoea among children aged 0 to 5 years years Kainji Lake Kainji Lake area, area, 1995

38

Treatment methods methods of of diarrhoea, diarrhoea, Kainji Kainji Lake Lake area, area, 1995

39

vii List of Figures

Page Pag

Figure 1:

Figure 2:

Frequency distribution, months months of of low low income, income, Fishermen fishermen and non-fishermen Kainji Lake area, 1995 non-ftshermen

Percentage of fishermen stating various fish species as having highest unit price, Kainji Lake area, 1995

10

1

l

Figure 3:

Percentage of fishermen growing glowing various crops, Kainji Lake area, 1995

14

Figure 4:

Percentage of non-fishermen growing various crops, Kainji Lake area, 1995

14

Proportion of harvest sold/kept for home consumption, fishermen Proportion households, Kainji Lake area, 1995

15

Proportion of harvest sold/kept for home consumption, non-fishermen households, Kainji Lake area, 1995

15

Percentage of fishermen/non-fishermen fishermen/non-fishermen IvIto who owned livestock, Kainji lake area, 1995

17

Average number of of livestock livestock owned owned by by fishermen fishermen and non-fishermen Kainji Lake area, 1995

17

Proportion of livestock sold/consumed/kept in the household, fishermen Kainji Lake arca, 1995

18

Proportion of livestock sold/consumed/kept in the household, non-fishermen Kainji Lake area, 1995

18

Months of foodshortage of main staples for fishermen households Kainji Lake area, 1995

20

Figure 12:

Sources of energy in the diet Kainji Lake area, 1995

23

Figure 13:

Sources of protein in the diet, Kainji Lake area, 1995

25

Figure 14:

Sources of fat in the diet, Kainji Lake area, 1995

27

Figure 15:

Consumption frequency of Clupeid, Kainji Lake area, 1995

30

Figure 16:

Consumption frequency of Alestes, Kainji Lake area, 1995

31

Figure 5:

Figure 6:

Figure 7:

Figure 8:

Figure 9:

Figure 10:

Figure 1/ :

viii Page

Figure 17:

Consumption frequency of Labeo, Kainji Lake area, 1995

31

Figure 18:

Consumption frequency of Catfish, Kainji Lake area, 1995

31

Figure 19:

Consumption frequency of Lates, Kainji Lake area, 1995

32

Figure 20:

Consumption frequency of Citharinus, Kainji Lake area, 1995

32

Figure 21:

Consumption frequency of Tilapia, Kainji Lake area, 1995

32

Figure 22:

Consumption frequency of Synodontis, Kainji Lake area, 1995

33

Figure 23:

Consumption frequency of beef, Kainji Lake area, 1995

33

Figure 24:

Consumption frequency of sheep, Kainji Lake area, 1995

34

Figure 25:

Consumption frequency of fruits, Kainji Lake area, 1995

34

Figure 26:

Weaning pattern, Kainji Lake area, 1995

36

Figure 27:

Weaning pattern, cumulated frequency, Kainji Lake area, 1995

37

ix O

Executive Surnrnary Summary

This report presents the findings of a nutrition survey carried out for the Nigerian-Gerrnan Kainji Lake Fisheries Promotion Project (KLFPP) in March/April Mareh/April 1995. The KLFPP, which commenced in 1993, is aimed at the preparation and, to an extend, the implementation of a management plan in order to achieve sustainable and optimum exploitation of the fish resources of Kainji Lake. Consequently, the fisheries management policies developed by the project may include the ban of certain fishing gears, an increase of the minimum mesh size of nets, as well as the introduction of new fishing methods.

To effectively consider the impact of the planned polices on the nutrition situation of the affected communities, cornmunities, this study was carried out to obtain closer information on the food habits and food consumption patterns of the fishing population, especially the quantification of fish and small sinall fish in particular, consumed consumed at at the the household household leve!. level.

A standardised questionnaire was used to collect releveant information on demographic, educational, and occupational profiles, as well as on income, expenditures, agricultural production and food habits. A 24-h-recall protocol was used to access the quantitative food intake. For comparative reason, both fishing and non-fishing household were interviewed.

The information was collected in 39 villages in the southern sector of Kainji Lake. The sample comprised of 430 households with a total population of 3089 persons.

The literacy level of the Kaii/ji Kainji Lake population, of which 56 % were Hausa, was rather low. About 85 % of men and 96 % of women woinen had liad no formal education. The households consisted

mainly of nuclear families. On average the fishermen had one child more than the nonfishermen. Nearly 40% of all the children were below the age of six years.

Nearly all heads of household had liad a supplementary occupation. Most of the fisherrnen fishermen (95 %) had farming as a supplementary income source, a few fevvalso alsotraded traded(30 (30%) %)or orsold soklfarm farmproducts products (10 %). The main occupation for wives of fishermen was fish trading, while the wives of nonfishermen traded more vvith with cooked cooked food food and and household household products. About 13 % of the wives of fisherwornen. Children started helping their parents at an early age, with boys fishermen were fisherwomen. mostly involved in farming and fishing, and girls in trading. than that of non-fishermen. About 64% of the The income of fishermen was significantly higher tl/an fishermen had an income of more than 2000 Nafta Naira a week, as opposed to only 43% of the nonfishermen. The income was averagely higher on the east side of the lake than on the west side. The months of relatively low income for most fishermen were October to Feburary, during the harmattan season, in which fish catches were also at their lowest. Most iniportant important fish in terms of total income was Clupeid, followed by Labe° and Tilapia. Clupeids however, fetched the lowest unit price, while the highest was derived from Lates.

Weekly expenditure for 88 % of fishermen was below 1,000 Nafta. Naira. A significant difference (p-0.01) between (p----0.01) between thethe expenditure expenditureofoffishermen fisherinenand andnon-fishermen non-fishermencould could be be observed, observed, with the fishermen spending more. Both groups investigated spent about 45% of their total weekly expenditure on food.

Farming was practised by almost all households, irrespective of main occupation. Sorghum was grown by more than 90% of of both both fishermen fishermen and and non-fisherrnen. non-fishermen. Rice Rice and and maize were grown in of all the the households households grew more than 65% of all households interviewed, while about 50% all groundnuts. About 57% of fishermen and 44% of non-fishermen households cultivated millet. While sorghum, maize and Mill milletetwere were cultivated cultivated almost almost exclusively exclusively for for own consumption, the opposite applied to rice and groundnuts, for which most households, both fishermen and nonfishermen, sold the greater part of their harvest. Generally, the amount of harvest, especially for rice and maize, and the price per sack sold was higher for fishermen than for non-fishermen.

About 88% of the fishermen and 81% of the non-fishermen owned livestock such as cows, sheep, goats, and chicken. With exception of goats, the average number of livestock owned by fishermen was higher than that of non-fishermen. Only about 25 to 30% of the animals owned were used for own consumption, with most animals being reared for capital and income reasons. The non-fishermen sold more of their livestock than the fishermen, especially cows and sheep.

The average calorie consumption per person of the communities around Kainji Lake was 2058 kcal, covering about 90 % of the recommended daily intake, taking into consideration the age distribution and level of physical activity. Although fishermen households generally spent more

money on food, the calorie consumption per person was lower than for non-fishermen the fishermen fishermen households due to the significantly higher number of meal members in the households.

On the average, 71% of total daily calorie consumption was derived from carbohydrates, while protein and fat supplied 15 % % and and 14 14% % of of total total daily calorie intake respectively. As such, the general recommendations as to the amount of total calories to be derived from the various food categories were met only for protein. A higher than recommended percentage was derived from carbohydrates with a consequent lower than recommended intake of fat.

The main staple food in Kainji Lake area was sorghum, with an average of 43% of the total daily energy intake coining coming from from this this source, source, while while other other staples stapleswere weremillet milletand andrice, rice,which which accounted for 13% and 12% of total daily intake respectively. Fish accounted for 30 % and 24 % of total daily protein intake for fishermen and non-fishermen households respectively. Sorghum was the second most most important important source source of of protein. ptotein. About About aa quarter quarter of of all allhouseholds households had a less than suffucient daily consumption of protein.

Citharinus, Tilapia and Synodontis were the most often consumed fish. Given additional resources, the prefered pi efered fish fish were were Lates Lates and and Catfish. Catfish. Alestes Alestes and and Labeo Labeo were were the the least least liked liked fish. fish. med. Clupeids were hardly const consumed.

Breast feeding was widely practised in Kainji Lake area. However, apart from about 20 % of wives of fishermen introducing weaning foods relatively late, the weaning food was inadequate in terrns of both quantity and quality. Food taboos were applied to certainn groups such as pregnant women and children having malaria measles and cough, thus depriving them of itnportant nutrients at critical periods. General, religious based taboos were also observed. important

The prevalence of diarrhoe in Kainji Lake area was high, mores° moreso for for children children of of fisheremen fisheremen with a point and period prevalence of 40 % and 60 % respectively.

INTRODUCTION

Kainji Lake, situated in Niger and Kebbi States in North-west Nigeria, was formed in 1968 by

damming the river Niger. Primarily built for the generation of hydroelectric power, the construction of the dam has resulted in the creation of the largest man made lake in the country which also provides the villages around it with fish and furthermore, can be used for secondary purposes, such as irrigation and transport. With a surface area of 1270 km2 and a length of 137 km, the lake is one of the most iinportant important freshwater fish sources in Nigeria and contributes

significantly to the national fish requiretnents. requitetnents. For people living around the lake, fish is a primary source of food and income.

The Nigerian-German Kainji Lake Fisheries Promotion Project(KLFPP) commenced in 1993. The aim of the project is the preparation pi eparation and, and, to to an an extent, extent, the the implementation implementation of of aa management management plan in order to achieve sustainable and optimum exploitation of the fish resources of Kainji Lake. New fisheries management policies for the lake could include the ban of certain fishing

gear (e.g. beach seines) and an increase of the minimum mesh size of certain nets, the introduction of closed seasons and closed areas as well well as as the the introduction introduction of of alternative alternativefishing fishing methods in order to be able to exploit fish stocks in the lake without damaging others.

Some of the fisheries management options listed above could have a negative impact on the nutrition security of communities residing in the fishing villages around the lake if the small fish species caught by the small mesh nets contribute significantly to the dietary intake of these communities. Therefore, consumption patterns and needs have to be considered in introducing any management method. As such, the KLFPP needed to obtain information on the food habits atad consumption patterns of the fishing communities, especially as regards the quantities and importance of small fish consumed consutned at household level.

Systematic and recent quantitative information on the nutritional situation of communities around Kainji Lake was ahnost non-existent. The only studies found were carried out by 0.0. Men (1975) and Adekolu John (1983), who reported teported on nutrient intake of the rural population carried out out some some anthropometric anthropometric measurement measurementto toassess assessthe thenutritional nutritional of Kainji Lake area and carried status of the people. Since theta, no reliable reliable survey has been carried out. Information on then, no differences between fishing and non-fishing households around the Kainji Lake as regards nutritional habits and patterns does not exist.

Furthermore, as at the time of this survey, no reliable quantitative information existed on household income and expenditures of the fishing communities and on the proportion of money

spend on food as compared to total expenditures. Since these variables are important in obtaining a clearer picture of the nutritional and economic situation for advanced impact assessment of of new new fisheries fisheriesmanagement managementregulations regulationsin inthe the fishing fishing villages, villages, they they were integrated as part of the study. study,

2

2

METHODOLOGY

2.1

Standardised questionnaire

A standardised questionnaire was designed according to the "Manual for assessing the nutritional situation of populations" (GTZ/Gross, 1989) and "Manual for social survey on food L, 1983) 1983) and and adapted adapted to the habits and consumption in developing countries" (Hartog tt al., conditions prevailing in the Kainji Lake area. The questionnaire consisted mainly of closed questions which allowed only for a range of well defined and categorised answers. Some open questions were integrated which covered areas such as food avoiclances and food preferences. However, for purposes of data entry and analysis, answers to these questions also had to be categorised to some extent.

Since information from the heads of household and from the wife who cooked the households food the previous day was to be collected, the questionnaire was divided into three subsections. One set of questions was designed for the heads Oite heads of of household household and and one one for for the the relevant relevantwife. wife.AA third set of questions concerning the nutrition and health of children below 5 years of age, also

to be answered by the interviewed women, was developed. Incorporated in the womens subsection was a set of questions to determine food intake data for the assessment of diet adequacy through a 24-h-recall. This method estimates the food actually eaten, as recalled from memory, in the previous 24 hours. Because nutrient requirements change with physical status, the interviewed women were asked to state how many pregnant or breast feeding women and how many sick people took part in the meal.

The draft of the questionnaire questionnaire was vas discussed discussed and appropriate readjustments were made during during the survey team training and again after the pre-test, in line with the specific areas of interest, the local situation and problems encountered. Subsequently, possible answers were coded, resulting in the final questionaire (Annex 2).

Additional sources of information were informal interviews with project staff, teachers and member of the communities, as well as secondary sources such as relevant literature and results from other studies carried out for the project. 2.2

Equipment and measurements

During the interviews, the amounts of food eaten in the household were quantified and recorded according to local measures such as mudus, milk tins, spoons and other commonly used containers. For the analysis of the individual food consumption, these measurements were converted into their gram equivalent through predetermined weight equivalents of the local measures.

To assess the quantities of fish consumed, the women were asked to describe the type and size of fish and the number of pieces used for preparation. Furthermore, they were asked if they had used dry or fresh fish. To get a reasonably precise estituate estimate of the quantities of fish consumed at household level, each species of fish was given 3 subcategories of either small, medium or large size, and the average weight (in grams) of each subcategory, to be used for consumption calculations, was determined from a previous survey on mean weight of different types of fish carried out in March/April 1995.

3

2.3 23

Sample size

For sampling purposes, the Lake was divided into two sectors, northern and southern, which as determined by previous surveys, are fairly homogenous as regards demographic, economic, as well as educational patterns. For logistical reasons, the southern sector was chosen as survey area. Then, the southern sector was divided into east and west sides, and the villages on each side listed. Of the total of 120 villages, 50 were on the west side while 70 were on the east side. The results of this study are based on the information collected from 39 villages, 17 on the west and 22 on the east side of the the lake. lake. The The number number of villages included in the sample on each side corresponds to the concentration of fishing villages along each side, which is higher on the east side, with an average average of of 2.5 2.5 villages per 10 km shore line (du Feu, 1993). The villages on each side were numbered and a third on each side chosen at random with a selected begin.

In each each village, village, aa 22% random sample of the total number number of of households, households, consisting consisting of of aa proportional number of fishermen and non-fishermen, was interviewed to get the sample of 430 heads of household. In Wara, the biggest village in the sample, it was decided to take a sample of 40 households.

The list of sample villages and number of interviewed fishermen and non-fishermen households is presented in Annex 3.

All together, 430 households were weie interviewed, with 258 on the east and 172 on the west side

of the lake. The investigated population totaled 3089 people, comprising of 430 heads of household, 668 women and 1991 children.

For comparison reason, the heads of household were divided into subgroups of fishermen (rr,247) and (n-247) and non-fishermen non-fishermen (1-183) (nI83) households. households.The Thegroup groupof of non-fishermen non-fishermen also also included included occassional fishermen (i1-83), (n-83), which which were were described described seperately were appropriate.

Children under 12 years of age cotnprised comprised 72% of all children, and accounted for about half (46.4%) of the total sample population, 2.4

teant Survey teani

The survey team consisted of 2 female and 2 male experienced field researchers, all of whom could speak Hausa. Because of observance of the islarnic Islamic practise of keeping married women within the compounds, where the vvomen must not be exposed to men from outside, it was necessary to include a female interviewer in each team in order to reach the women.

Prior to the actual field work, the aims of the survey and some basic nutritional knowledge were introduced to the team members. They were trained in the methodology of the 24-hour recall, and a simulated interview was carried out in Hausa to improve on interview techniques. In addition, problems which might might occur occur during during the the interview interview and andways ways of solving these were discussed.

The survey teams were supervised by the nutritionist consultant.

4

2.5

Data collection

Prior to data collection, the target population was informed of the purpose of the survey and of the wish to visit their homes for interviews, so that co-operation was assured in advance from local leaders or representatives.

A pre-test of 16 questionnaires was carried out in two villages not included in the sample. Subsequently, the survey team team discussed discussed necessary necessary changes, changes, additional additionalquestions questionsand andpossible possible answers for the codes in the questionnaire. The survey commenced on the 20th of March.

During the field phase, each village was visited by the entire teatn team a day before the actual of village village and and village village interviews in that village were to be held, to further intimate the head of representatives vvith the objective objective of of the the survey. survey. They They were also requested to list the number of with the fishing and non-fishing households. The randomly selected households were then informed of the interview which was to be held (he following day.

In many cases, it was difficult to meet the heads of of household household at at home, because they were on the lake, on the farm, fartn, out because of celebrations or the different market days. As such, the time of interviews had liad to be adapted to the time table of the survey population. population. Usually, they were conducted between 9 a.in a.iii and 3 p.m, p.m. the time when the fishermen were mostly at home, and in the evenings after their return. On market days (see Annex 4), the interviews took place very early in the morning moniing or late in the evening.

On the day of interview, the interviewers interviewers were were accompanied accompanied by by aaguide guidewho wholed ledthem themtotothe the households. At the end of each interviewing day, the completed questionnaires were collected for discussion and con ections. ections. 2.6

Data analysis

Data compilation and analysis were carried out using several programmes. A Lotus 1-2-3 computer spreadsheet was used to enter and analyse analyse the the various varioussubsections subsections of the questionnaire. Calculation of simple descriptive statistics consisting mainly of mean values and frequency distribution were carried out with this programme. prograrnme.

The 24h- food recall data was analysed using Data Ease. The food intake data was analysed using a data bank which contained the nutrient composition of different food items, based on international food composition tables (FAO, 1969). For the analysis of the fish consumption data, -a a data database. base,based basedon onaacomposition composition table table of of 10 10 commercially commercially important important fresh and mechanically smoked fish from Kainji Lake (Eyo, et al. 1986) was created. For each type of fish, the data base was subdivided into categories, according to different sizes (small, medium, large). Fish for which no composition data was available were grouped with similar fish of known composition.

Analytical statistics were done with SPSS-PC Version for Windows.

The final report was vvritten written in in Words Words for for Windows Windows Version Version 2.0. The integrated graphic programmes of Word for Windows and Power Point were used for all al/ graphics and figures.

5

3

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDY POPULATION

3.1

Demographic profile

The households consisted mainly of the nuclear family, which includes the head of household, bis wife or wives wives and ad their theirchildren. children.The Thehouseholds households of of fishermen fishermen liad, had, on the average, average, 7.4, 7.4,

while the households of non-fishermen had 6.8 permanent household members during the month prior the interview. The average number of children was 5 and 4 for fishermen and nonfishermen respectively. Table 1: Average number of permanent household members. Kainji Lake area, 1995

members of household

fishermen

n u

n

children wives total household members

4.8

4.3

non fishermen

1.6

1.5

7.4

6.8

About 51% of fishermen were found to be monogamous as compared to 56 % of nonfishermen.

Table 2: Distribution of number of wives per head of household, Kainji Lake area, 1995

fishermen

Wives

(%)

non fishermen (%)

51.0

1

55.7 38.3 4.9

40.1 7.3 1.6 100

2 3

4

Total

1.1

100

The age distribution of children in the survey area is presented in Table 3. Nearly 40 % of ail all children were younger than 6 years. years, Table 3: Age distribution of children, Kainji Lake area, 1995

age (years) O -- 2000 Total

%

n 4

30 85 74

237 430

n 0.9 7.0

19.8 17.2 55.1 100

1

7

42 38 159

247

% 0.4 2.8 17.0 15.4 64.4 100

non - fishermen n 3

23 43 36 78 183

The preceeding preeeeding table shows that on the average, fishermen had higher weekly cash incomes than non-fishermen,with with64% 64% and and 43% 43% earning earning more than 2000 Naira respectively. respectively. than non-fisherinen, Conversely, close to 40% of the non-fishermen earned less than 1000 Naira a week, with only 20% of the fishermen falling failing into this income category. The difference between the incomes of the two occupational groups studied was found to be highly significant (p=0,000). It should be noted that income cloes does not not necessarily necessarily infer actual profit. A comparison of incomes on the east and west sides of the lake showed that the percentage of high income earners (more than 2000 Naira) was higher on the east side than on the west side, irrespective of occupation. For example, 71% of the fishermen on the east side belonged to this income category, compared to only 54% on the west side. Similar observations were made for the non-fishermen.

1.6 12.6

23.5 19.7

42.6 100

10o Table 7: Distribution of fishermen and non-fishermen according to geographical location and weekly income categories, Kainji Kainji 1,ake Lake area, 1995

east side

west side

Naira

FM (%)

0 - 109 100

1.1

NFM (%)

FM ("/0) FM (%)

NFIV1 NEM

(%)

101 -500

5.4

501 - 1000 1001 - 2000 > 2000

23.6

2.5 20.3 22.8

16.1

17.7

53.8

36.7

Total

100

100

-

1.0

1.3

6.7 24.0 21.2 47.1 100

13.0 14.9 70.8 100

Most of the women interviewed who engaged in income generating activities had an income of between 100 Naira and 500 Naira a week. Only some women were able to make more than 1000 Naira a week (Annex 7 and 8). Seasonality of income

3.4.2

Fishing and farming activities are seasonal occupations. As such, the heads of household were asked to state the months of the year with relatively low income (Fig. 1). Figure

1:

Frequency distribution, months of low income, fishermen and non-fishermen Kainji Lake area.1995

70 60 50

40 30 20

.--

10

.-- fishermen fishermen --au-non-fishermen -aunon-fishermen 1

t

i

ti

iI

I

2

3

4

5

6

I

I

7

8

1

1

9

I

I

10

11

12

months

For most of the fishermen, the low income months are the months of low fish catches during the harmattan season, from October to February. The survey period was carried out during the months of highest income (March to May). From May onwards, the fishermen also work on their farmlands, devoting increasingly more time to farming activities, particularly during the harvest season, which begins in August.

11 For most non-fishermen, non-fishemien, the month with the lowest income were between the planting and harvest seasons, from Rine until November. Same as for the fishermen, the survey period also coincided with the months coincide(' months of highest income for the majority of of non-fishermen. non-fishermen. The The percentage percentage heads of household who had low incomes in these months was the lowest, as compared to of heads other months of the year. 3.4.3

Fishi»g as as source source of of income ncome

The catch seasons for the different types of fishes are presented in Table 8. Table 8: Main catching seasons for various species of fish, Kainji Lake area,1995 area,I995

Type of fish Citharinus Citharintis

Season January - May May - July all year June - December May - August April - JuIy July higher season all year. yea!, but higher in April - July Api il to April lo Septet' September ber May - August

Lates Clupeid Alestes Tilapia Synodon is Labe° Labeo Catfish Others

In terms of monetar,/ household income, Clupeids made the most significant contribution,

followed by Labeo and Tilapia, while Lates, Lates. Bagros and Citharinus made only minor contributions. Conversely, the unit price was highest for Lates and lowest for Alestes and Clupeid (Fig. 2)

Figure 2: Percentage of fishermen stating various fish species as having highest unit price, Kainji Lake area. 1995

45 40 35

30 5

20 15

//

10

o

7 I

Citharin ts

Lates

Clupeid Clupeld

Alestes

Mania Tilapia

Synodonti

Labeo

Bagros

Others

12 3.4.4

Total weekly expenditure and weekly expenditure for food

Statistical tests (Kruskal-Wallis) suggests, that the total weekly expenditures as well as the food

expenditures of fishermen households are higher than those of non-fishing households (p= 0.0000 and p= 0.0074 respectively).

About 40 % of the fishermen spent between 500 Naira and 1000 a week as compared to only

24% of the non-fishermen. Further, 50% of fishermen, compared to nearly 70% of nonhad total weekly expenditures of up to 500 Naira (Tables 9and 10). fishermen liad

Both fishermen and non-fishermen households spent almost half of their total expenditures on food, (44 % and 48% of total expenditures respectively). Table 9: Expenditure per week, total and food, fishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995

Naira

total expenditure per week n

0 -- 100 O 100 101 - 500 501 - 1000 1001 --2000 2000

n

"A

119 97

2.0 48.2 39.3

68 149 22

15

6.1

6

11

4.5 100

247

5

>2000 total

food expenditure per week

247

2

27.5 60.3 8.9 2.4 0.8 100 100f

Table 10: Expenditure per week, total and food, non-fishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995

Naira

total expenditure per week %

n

0 - 100 101 - 500 501 - 1000

1001 -2000 >2000 Total

44

7.7 59.6 24.0

13

7.1

3

1.6 100

14

109

183

food expenditure per week % n 91

38.8 49.7

17 4

9.3 2.2

71

-

183

1100 100

13 3.5

Land use system

Almost all Almost all fishermen fishermen (98 (98 %) %)and and non-fishermen non-fishermen (100 (100 %) %) on on both both sides sides of the lake owned farmlands. More non-fishermen than fisherrnen fishermen had had inherited inherited land. An explanation for for this this could could be be that many fishermen fishermen migrated migrated to to the the area area about 25 years ago ago and and could could not inherit inherit land, land, but but were were dependent onallocation allocationofofcommunal communalland land(Alamu (Alamu & Mdailtli, Mdaihli, 1994). 1994). The The majority majority in inboth both dependent on groups few in ineach each group group had had bought bought or or leased leased land. groups farmed farmed on communal land. Only Only aa few

Lake area, area, 1995 Table 11: Ownership Ownership of of farmlands, fishermen and and non-fishermen, non-fishennen, Kainji Kainji Lake

ownership of land

non - fishermen

bought

51 51

12.1

27

11.2

24

13.3

inherited

59

14.0

22

9.1

37

20.6

leased

30

7.1

21

8.7

9

55

owned and and

1

0.2

1

0.4

-

-

_leased public land

205

48.8

111

46.1

94

52.2

75

17.8

59

24.5

16

8.9

421

100.0

241

100.0

180

100.0

free land Total

3.6

fishermen

total

Crop cultivation

Most of of the the crops crops produced by the communities around around Kainji Kainji Lake Lake were were food food crops crops which which included cereals, included cereals, tubers and legumes (Figures 3 and 4). Sorghuin Sorghum was grown grown by by more more than than 90% 90% of both fishermen fishermen and and non-fishermen. Rice and maize were grown in in more more than than 65% of of all all households interviewed, households interviewed, while about 50% of all all the the households households grew groundnuts. groundnuts. About About 57% of non-fishermen of fishermen and 44% 44% of cultivated millet. Corresponding figures non-fishermen households households cultivated Corresponding figures for cowpeas cowpeas are are 17% 17% and and20% 20%respectively. respectively.Other Othercrops, crops,including including yams, yams, were were grown grown by by relatively more relatively more non-fishermen than than by by fishermen. fishermen. The The variety variety of of crops crops cultivated cultivated follows follows almost the same same pattern pattern for for both fishermen and non-fishermen.

14

Figure 3: Percentage of fishermen growing various crops, Kainji Lake area, 1995

/-7 92 7

100

z

90 80 -

69.6 69,6

65.6 65,6

A

70

56,7 56.7

51.2 51,2

60 50 40 30 10

o

j

16.6 16,6

v

20

rice

g oundn.

tnaize rnaize

f,

sorghum

A

4,9

0, ,=;;', rr=0 7R

covvpeas cowpeas cassava

millet

4,9

1.3 1,3

,

yam

others

Figure 4: Percentage of non-fishermen growing various crops, Kainji Lake area, 1995

94

100

90 80 70 -

66.7 66,7

y

66.7 66,7 53,6 53.6

60

7

50 -

44, 44.

40-

/

30

20.2 20,2

20 -

4,4

10

o

y rice

groundn.

maize rnaize

sorghum

millet

1I

7. cowpeas

cassava

10.4 10,4

7.2 7,2

_ff10, r yams

others

It appears that fishermen were in some cases, more successful farmers than non-fishermen, e.g. the harvest of rice rice and and inaize maize 1A/as was significantly significantlyhigher higherfor forfishermen fishermenthan thanfor fornon-fishermen non-fishermen (p= (p= 0.0045 and 0.0002). Table 12: Average harvest (sacks) in the year preceeding the survey, fishermen and non-fishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995

gioundn. maize groundn.

sorghum millet cowpeas cassava 33.1 21.2 19.1 39.5 29.7 FM 32.0 5.0 14.2 38.9 16.8 NFM 30.9 18.7 20.2 6.0 Note: i) fin= frn= fishermen; nfin= nfm= non-fishermen. ii) Table does not compare harvest/acre, only total harvest. rice

yam 4.7

others

18.3

6.8

iii) Table reflects average harvest of only those fishermen, non-fishermen who practised Ili) farming.

11.1

15 The results suggest that the fishermen either have bigger farms or more harvest per acre than the non-fishermen. In both cases, fishermen's higher cash income cou/d could be the reason. More cash available would enable fishermen to hire labour, hence to have bigger farms. It also could mean that fishermen could buy more or better inputs such as fertilizer. It could also be that fishermen, since many of them are migrants which have been exposed to different living circumstances, are more advanced in their farming methods.

From the nutritional points of view, it was of interest to determine the proportion of total harvest sold and that used for own consumption. Figures 5 and 6 show a tendency that can be observed for both fishermen and non-fishermen. Sorghum, maize and millet vvere cultivated OW11 consumption. almost exclusively for OW11 consumption.Only Onlysome somehousehold household sold sold the the harvest. harvest. The opposite opposite applied to rice and groundnuts, for which most households, both fishermen and non-fishermen, sold the greater part of their harvest.

Figure 5: Proportion of harvest sold/kept for home consumption, fishermen households, Kainji Lake area. 1995 % kept in in household household

100

0% sold

90 80 70 60

%5o %50 40 30 20 10 o

maize

rice

sorghum

millet

cowpeas

others

Figure 6: Proportion of harvest sold/kept for home consumptioi consuroptiot, non-fishermen non-fishermen households, households, Kainji Lake area, 1995 100 100

M% kept M% kept in in household household 0% sold

90 80 70

60

%5o 40 30 20 10 o

rice

groundn.

maize

sorghum

millet

cowpeas

others

The fisherinen fishermen sold their farm products at slightly higher unit prices than non-fishermen. One explanation for this could be that the fishermen. not being as dependent on the farm income as the non-fishermen, could afford afford to to sell sell their their products products later later in in the theyear, year,when whenprices priceswere werehigher. higher. For example, at the time of our study in March/April the price of a 50 kg sack of maize was 600 Naira, whereas in July, shortly before the next harvest Was expected, the price for the same quantity of maize was 1200 Naira, Naira.

J-6

The average income from the the sale sale of of various various crops crops in in the the year year preceeding preceedingthe theinterview interviewvvas was

19,769 Naira for fishermen and 16,608 Naira for non-fishermen. The difference was statistically significant (p-0.0153)1.

3.7

Livestock

About 83 % of all households owned livestock.

Table 13: Distribution of fishermen and non-fishermen according to livestock ownership, Kainji Lake area, 1995

fishermen Livestock yes no Total

non - fishermen %

n

n H

217 30 247

87.8 12.2 100

147 36 183

80.8 19.2 100

Comparing the the ownership ownership of of livestock livestockfor forfishermen fishermenand andnon-fishermen non-fishermen011 on the east east and and west west side of the lake it appears, appears. that proportionally more fishermen than non-fishermen on the western banks own livestock (Tables 14 a and b).

Table 14 a: Livestock ownership on the west and east sides, fishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995

west side

east side

Livestock yes no Total

8

91.4 8.6

93

100

85

n

%

132 22 154

85.7 14.3 100

Table 14 b: Livestock ownership on the west and east sides, non-fishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995 _

west side

east side

Livestock

n

%

n

%

yes no Total

58 21

73.42 26.58

85.58 14.42

79

100

89 15 104

1The figures refer only to those fishermen and non-fishermen who made an income from farming and not to the total number of sampled fishermen and non-fishermen.

100

17

Figure 7 shows the percentage of fishermen and non-fishermen households who owned livestock. A comparison of the two groups showed that that a higher percentage of fishermen than anon-fishermen of non-fishermenowned ownedcows. cows, sheep sheep and and ducks. Figure 7: Percentage of fishermen/non-fishermen who owned livestock, Kainji Lake area, 1995 60

57,8 53

55'2

fis hermen SI non-fishermen Mnon-fishermen rafishermen

49,4

50

40

28,4

% 30 20 10

C C 00 W W

goat

sheep

chicken

ducks

With exception of goats the average number of of livestock livestock owned by fishermen was higher than

that of the non-fishermen. Also, Also. the range of the numbers of animal was much wider for

fishermen than that of the comparison comparison group. For example. example, there were fishermen who owned up to 60 cows and 65 sheeps and 100 chicken. The highest numbers of cows owned by the nonfishermen was 22, with corresponding corresponding figures figures for for sheep and chicken at 19 and 50. Figure

8:

Average number of livestock Kainji Lake area, 1995

owned by

fishermen and non-fishermen, 13,7

14

10 FM

12

NFM

10 8 6

4 2

o COW C W

goat

sheep

chicken

ducks

Note: Reflects average number number of of livestock livestock of only only those fishermen and non fishermen who possesed livestock (see Figure 7)

Figures 9 and 10 give detailed information about the utilisation of the livestock the year preceeding the interview of those households in both groups who kept livestock. On the whole, the non-fishermen sold more more of of their their livestock livestock than the fishermen, especially cows and sheep, although the fishermen owned a larger number of them.

Many of the non-fishermen were agro-pastoralists, whose main sources of income were from farming and keeping of livestock, whereas the main source of incoine income for fishermen were fishing activities, with the sale of farm products and livestock as an supplementary source of income As regards home consumption consumption of of livestock, livestock, neither neither fishermen fishermen nor the non-fishermen consumed

18 they owned themselves. Differences regarding the utilisation were found for sheep and ducks. VVhereas the non-fishermen used about 44% of their sheep, the fishermen used only about 14% for home consumption. More than 60% of the sheep of the fishermen were kept as capital. the

COWS

As mentioned above, the fishermen owned more ducks than the non-fishermen and they used 27% for home consumption, whereas the non-fishermen consumed none of their ducks, prefering to sell or to keep them.

In summary, only about 25 to 30% of the animals owned were consumed by households, with most animals being reared for capital or income reasons. Apparently, only sheep seem to be a major source of protein for the non-fishermen. Nearly 45% are reared for ovvn own consumption. consumption. Detailed Detailed information information as as to to the the meat meat consumption consumption of of fishing fishing and and non-fishinglghouseholds non-fishu. householdsisis presented presented in Chapter 4. Figure

9. 9:

Proportion of livestock Kainji Lake area, 1995

in the sold/consumed/kept in

household,

fishermen,

100

90

0% kept in hs 0%%consumed O consumed

80

% sold

70

60

%5o % 50 40 30 20 10

oO COW

goat

sheep

chicken

ducks

Figure 10: Proportion of livestock sold/consumed/kept in the household, household, non-fishemen, non-fishermen, Kainji Lake area, 1995 100

90

0% kept El% kept in hs ha

80

0% consumed

70

111% sold

60 50

40 30

20 10

oO COW

goat

sheep

chicken

ducks

Comparing the incomes received from the sale of livestock, the fishermen fetched a higher price theircows cows for 13,126 Naira , for each animal. For example, fishermen , on average, sold sold their

19

while non-fishermen got only 9, 120 Naira. Similarly, a chicken fetched fishermen 97 Naira whereas a non-fisherman only got 73 Naira. Reasons for this could be the higher and more regular incomes that fisherinen fishermen made from their main income source, making them less dependent on income from the sale of livestock, and also their higher mobility, 'nobility, giving them more opportunities opportunities to to sell sell their their livestock. livestock.

The total average income the year previous the interview was, for those fishermen who sold livestock (n=61) 9 380 Naira, and for non-fishermen (n=37) 8 660 Naira.

20 4.

FOOD CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION AND AND FOOD FOOD HABITS HABITS

4.1

General information General information

To determine periods periods of of scarcity, scarcity,the theheads heads of of household household were were asked asked to to state state a yearly calendar

in which which food foodscarcity scarcityoccurs. occurs.More Morethan thanhalf halfofofthe thepopulation populationexperienced experiencedseasonal seasonal food food shortages during shortages during the year (69% fishermen and 57% non-fishermen non-fishermen households). households). The between the the groups groupsare arestatistically. statistically. significant(p significant(p 0.018). The main period of food differences between shortage was shortage was between between May May and and October. October, corresponding corresponding to the period between planting and harvest seasons, seasons,and andthe thefood fooditems itemsconcerned concernedwere weresorghum, sorghum,millet Millet and maize, the main staple showsthe themonths monthsof of foodshortage foodshortagefor for fishermen fishermen households. households. The The pattern pattern is is foods. Figure Figure 11 II shows similar for similar for non-fishermen non-fishermen households. households. Figure 11: Months of for fishermen fishermen households, households,Kainji Kainji Lake Lake area, of food food shortage shortage of main staples staples for 1995 100

4-- so rg h u m 00 90

fa millet millet

80

maize

70 70

60 n

50 40 3

20 10

1

2

3

5

6

7

8

10

11

12

m oonths m n th s

Providing money for food was the the responsibility responsibility of of the the heads headsofofhousehold householdinin9292% %of ofall all households. Some households. Some wives wives assist assisttheir theirhusband husbandininstaple staplefood foodprovision provision with with their own money. Only few Only few households households depended depended on on money money provided provided by by older children or other other persons. persons. The average average number meas consumed number o1 of meals consumed per perday dayin in all all houscholde householde was was three, three, with with snacks such such as mangoes and oranges eaten eaten between between meals. The traditional morning morning food food was was pap pap made made out out of of sorghum sorghum or or millet. millet. For lunch and dinner soft millet (tuwo) with a soup boiled rice, rice, maize, maize, sorghum and millet (tuwo)was wasprepared, prepared, eaten eaten with soup with with fish fish or or meat. meat. In In general, general, household householdwork work is is shared sharedby byall allwives wives and andchildren childrenliving living in one compound and cooking was done on rotational basis by the wives. Most Most women women cooked cooked outside outside the the house on a three stone oven.

21 4.2

Nutrient Intake; quantity and source

(energy), protein protein and fat ie (energy), This section gives gives an an overview overview of of the theaverage averagedaily dailycaloi calorie Lake and compares these to the living around around Kainji living consumption of communities recommended daily requirements. Further, the relative contribution of various types of food items to the overall energy, protein and fat intake is examined in order to obtain a clear picture adequacy of of the the diet. diet. of the composition and adequacy

In describing the food habits and consumption pattern of the population, it was considered necessary to split the non-fisliing non-fishing group (as regards main occupation), into the subcategories of absolute non-fishing households and occasional fishing households, househo/ds, as it could be expected that households who had fishing as their supplementary occupation have other food consumption patterns than households who do not engage in fishing at all.

4.2.1

Calories

The average calorie consumption per person of the communities around Kainji Lake, calculated by using the average energy values of foods consumed, consumed. was 2058 kcal, which falls short of the recommended daily per caput intake of 2228 kcal for a predominantly young population with a high level of physical activity (Schofield, 1990, p.86f). All three groups cover, on the average, about 90% of their daily energy needs.

The average daily calorie intake per person stands at 2081 kcal for fishing, 1932 kcal for occassional and 2107 for non-fishing non-fishing households. households. The The significance significancelevel levelbetween betweent.ccasional occasional fishing and non-fishing households is p= 0.085. A breakdown of the three occupational groups according to calorie consumption categories, as presented in Table 15, reveals considerable differences, particularly between non-fishing and occasional fishing households, as regards the spread across the various consumption categories. Table

Distribution of calorie consumption. consumption, fishermen, ocassional fishermen and non-fishermen, Kainji Lake area. 1995

15:

Household

Status

< 1000

fishing %

non-fish. %

2300

3.2

16.6

27.1

28.7

23.9

8

41

67

71

59

7.2

21.7

28.9

19.3

22.9

6

18

24

16

19

4.0

17.0

20.0

33.0

26.0

4

17

20

33

26

4.2

17,7

occas. fish. %

Calories (in kcal) 1500 to < 2000 2000 to < 2500

1000 to < 1500

18

76

25.8 111

27.9 120

24.2 104

Nearly half of the total population investigated consumed below their recommended daily

needs. In althogether 47 °A % of of fishing fishing households, households, the the average average daily per caput calorie consumption was below 2000 kcal. Corresponding figures for occasional fishing and non-

22

fishing households households were were58 58°/0 % and 41 °A % respectively. respectively.

The main staple food in Kainji Lake area was sorghum, with an average of 43% of the total daily energy intake coming from from this this source, source, 1,vhile while other otherstaples stapleswere weremillet milletand andrice, rice,which which accounted for 13% and 12% of total daily intake respectively. Fishermen households derived

41%, 13% and 7%, occasional fishing households 53%, 9% and 2% and non-fishing households 35%, 16% and 7% from these foods respectively, infering the least variation of staples for occasional-fishing households.

Less than 15% of the energy intake was derived from palmoil, groundnut oil and sheabutteroil. The percentage of energy coming from oil was higherfor forthe thenon-fishing non-fishinggroup group(10%) (10%)than thanfor for vas higher the other two groups. Food items like vegetables, beans ,yam ,yant ,cassava, meat, milk and sugar contributed less than 5% each to the energy intake in all groups.

23

Figure 12: Sources of energy in the diet, Kainji Lake area, 1995

Fishermen Fishermen

Yam 2,9%

Maize 7,0%

Others 23,2%

Oil 7,7%

Millet 12,6%

Sorghum 41,0%

Fish 5,6%

Occasional Fishermen

Maize 2,4%

yam Yam 1,3%

Oil 7,4%

Others 19,2%

Millet 8,6%

Fish 7,7%

Sorghum 53,4%

Non Fishermen Others 26,6% 26,6% Oil Oil

Yam 9,5% 2,7% Maize 6,6%

Millet 15,8%

Fish 4,3%

Sorghum 34,6% 34,5%

24

4.2.2

Protein

The average protein consumption of persons living around Kainji Lake was 70g/person/day, which adequately covers the recommended intake of between 50 and 70g/day. There was no statistical difference in the protein intake of the different groups. Both fish and sorghum, the main staple food, are rich in protein and as such contribute significantly to the protein intake.

However, it should be noted that about a quarter of all households had a daily per caput consumption of less than 50g of protein (Table 16). This is most likley to be so for households with low average calorie consumption.

Table 16: Average protein intake per person per day, according to occupational status of households, Kainji Lake area. 1995 Status of

House-

Protein

hoids < 20

20 to < 35 35

35 to Lo < 50

(in

gram)

50 to < 65

65 to < 80

>= 80

fishing %

1.2

N

3

6.5 16

18.2

18.6 46

16.6 41

32.4

45

80

occas.fish. %

1.2 1.2

7,2

16.9

20.5

13.3 13.3

N

1

6

14

17

11

37.3 37.3 31 31

non- fishing % 1.0

8.0

20.0

32.0

8

15.0 15

17.0

N

17

20

32

17.2

18.6

16.7

74 74

80

72

1

1.2

N

5

7.0 30

33.3 143

The two main sources of protein in the Kainji Lake area were fish and sorghum, which contributed 30 % and 36 % of the overall protein consumption of the Kainji Lake communities. The breakdown according to occupational status of households is shown in Figure 13.

The contribution of meat (beef, poultry, sheep) to overall protein consumption was rather low, indicating that most of the poultry and livestock was not used for own consumption. Protein supply from beans and eggs was below 5% 50/0 of total protein for all investigated groups.

25

Figure 13: Sources of protein in the diet, Kainji Lake area, 1995

Fishermen Meat 2,5%

Yam 2,2%

Maize 5,7%

Others 17,3% 17,3%

Millet 7,3% 7,3%

Sorghum 35,0% 30,0%

Occasional Fishermen Maize 2,1% Millet 4,4%

Yam 2,2%

Meat 1,5%

Others 13,8%

Fish Fish 35,1%

Sorghum 41,0%

Non Fishermen Meat 9,3% Yam 2,7%

Others 18,4%

Maize 5,7% 5,7%

Millet Millet 9,0%

Sorghum 30,4% Fish 24,5%

26

4.2.3

Fat

Ideally, about 20-35% of the total total calories calories consumed consumed should should be be provided providedby byfat fat(King (Kingete al, 1992). As such, going by the the recommended recommended total total daily daily per per caput cape calorie calorie intake of 2228 kcal for the Kainji Lake communities, 445 to 780 kcal should be derived from fat. This is equivalent to a daily fat consumption of between 50 and 87g. Fat, apart from providing energy and essential

fatty acids, makes meals less bulky and is neccessary for the absorption of fat soluable vitamins, such as vitamin A and E. (King et al, p. 15, 1992)

Only 16 % of the households had liad an average fat hit consumption lying within the recommended range. The average fat consumption of persons living around Kainji Lake was 35g/person/day. The fishing households had liad a significantly lower fat intake than the non-fishing households (p=

0.04). The fat intake of occasional fishing households was below that of non-fishing households

0.03).

Table 17: Average fat intake per person per day, according to occupational status of households, Kainji Lake area. 1995 Status of

HouseHouSe-

Fat

holds

(in gram) 40 to

30

30 to < 40

17.8

29.1

17.8

12.1

44

72

44

3C

1.2 1,2

20.5

27.7

25.3

1

17

23

21

10 to < 20 20

20 to

1.6 4

< 10


2000 Naira

12.

2= groundnuts 5= millet 8- yam 8= yam

Sources: 1= sale of fisli fish 2= sale of farm produce 3= sale of livestock

4= sale of cooked foods 5= sale of handicrafts 6= sale of groundnut cakes 7= sale of kerosene 8= trading 77-- others 77:=

A in o un t Amount

Amount: 1= - 100 - 100 1 Naira 3= 501 -- 1000 3=501 1000 Naira 5- > 2000 Nafta

2= 101 - 500

Nafta

4= 1001 -- 2000 4=1001 2000 Naira 6= none

99= no response

48

If fish is source of income, what is the commonest fish caught now? 1= Citharinus 5= Tilapia

2=Lates 2Lates

6=Synodontis

4=Alestes 8=Bagros

3=Clupeid 7=Labeo

0

0

77=others, specify

What type of fish fetches most income and what is the season of availability Season

Type of fish

1= Citharinus 5= Tilapia

2=Lates 6=Synodontis

Do you have seasonal food shortages? if yes, when and what type of food?

15.

Codes: Crop:

1= Rice

4= sorghum/guineacorn 7= 7-- cassava cassava

2= groundnuts 5= millet 8= yam

Do you have seasonal fish shortages? if yes, when and what type of fish

16.

January

specify 77others, 77others,specify

I= yes 1=-yes

2 no 0 0

3= maize 6= cowpeas 77= others

I= yes 1=

2--=no 2-no 0

0

Type of fish

Time of flshshortage fislishortage

17.

4=Alestes 4Alestes 8=Bagros

Type of food

Time of foodshortage

Code:

3=Clupeid 7=Labeo

In what months do you have low income? February

March April May June July

August

Nov. Dec. Dec. September October Nov.

1=Yes 2=No

What is the amount of the weekly expenditure of your household? Naira

What is the amount of your weekly expenditure of food for your household? 0 Naira D Naira

49

Woman questionnaire (woman who has cooked for the compound yesterday) Household

Village: U Interviewer team: I= AlainuMajara/Stisanne 1= AlainuThajara/Susanne

number:El El ID

Interview date:

D El

Rafiu/Hatiwa/Falayi 2-- Rafiti/Hatiwa/Falayi

Time begin interview: Time ended interview: 1.

Name of woman: Relation to heat' head of household: 2-2nd wife Codes: 1= 1st wife Marital status I1Single Single

Age:

o'clock o'clock

0ID

Dyears nyears

0D 4=single sister

3=3rd wife 3-3rd

5=mother D

3=Married polygamous/ one man has more wives

2Married monogamous 4Seperated 5-Widowed

0 0 UD 1110 UD

How Many many children have you given birth to? HOW How many are still alive 4..

How many persons provide money money for for the the food food prepared prepared for for the thecompound? compound? D0

5,

Who provides the money for the food prepared for the household? 2= herself 3= co-wives 1= husband 4married children 4=married children

0

D

Li

0

5 normally the husband, when it is not enough wives give supplementary

0 _Li _0

Do you like preparing fish for consumption for your household?

0D

ID D

2=no

1=yes

0

3=sometimes

VVhatare areyour yourfive fivefavored favoredtypes typesof offishes fishes you you would would like like preparing for consumption What consumption for your household? 1=

2= 3=

4= 4=5= 8,

What are the three favored types of dishes you would like to prepare for consumption for your household? Dishes 1=

2= 3=

Ingredients Ingredients

50

State sources of your weekly household income and amount from each source Sources

Codes : Sources: 1= sale of fish

2= sale of farm produce 3= sale of livestock 4= sale of cooked foods 5= sale of handicrafts 6 sale saleofofgroundnut groundnut cakes cakes 7= sale of kerosene 8= tradin 77= others

Amount

Arnow t: Amount: 1= 0 - 100 1= Naira 3= 501 - 1000 Naira 5=>2000 5> 2000 Naira

2= I101 0 I -500 Naira 4= 1001 1001 -- 2000 2000 Naira 6= none 99= no response

If you had more money for cooking, what kind of food would you prepare more often for your household?

4=

Food Frequencies Which of the following f000ds are eaten?

II.

Food

Frequency of Consumption

Animal proteins Fish

- Clupeid (Warongi) - Alestes (Shemani) - Tilapia (Gargaza) - Citharinus (Falia) (Falla) - Synodontis Synodontis (Kul (Kurungu) ungu) - Lates (Givvan (Givvan ruvva) ruwa) - Bagrus.(Doza) - Labeo (Farin DWI] DUIll i)

Beef Goat Coat Sheep Chicken Egg Starches Rice Millet Cassava Guineacorn/ Sorghum Maize

Vegetables and fruit

-

Spinach Occra Fruits

Codes: 0Never Codes: 0=Never 1=Strongly seldom I =Strongly depent on the season, therefore seldom once 3=monthly more than once 4=Weekly 4Weekly once 2=Monthly 2Monthly

5=Weekly 5Weekly

more than once 6=Daily once 7=Daily more than once 8=Celebration/rare times

55 1

Food Intake Please tell me the amount of food you prepared to be eaten by the household members yesterday and \Oat whatisisthe thesource sourceof ofthe thefood foodprepared prepared(including (includingthe thesnack)? snack)? Ingrediens Local measureSource Dish Rest Meal ments (food items) (amount)

Breakfast

Number of Age (years) Mem bes Membes taken part at the meal -4 5 - 15 > 15 15

Lunch

-4 5 - 15 515 > 15 15

Dinner

-4

5 - 15 > 15 15

Snacks

-4 5 - 15 15 > 15

Codes for food source: 1=bought

2ownttrown 2---o%vrig.rown

3=Ltift 3 =it ift

4= barter

Physical status of the members taking part at the meals: How many many women womenare arepreElnant? pretwant? How many women breastfeed their child? How many people are doinu doinu hard hard work'? work? How many people are sick?

El

D

D D

52

Food avoidances or Taboos Which foods and drinks may not be consumed by the following categories and wily? why? Infant during weaning

Girls

Boys

Women during pregnancy

Women in general

Men in general

Sick persons specify illness 1=malaria

2=measels 3=caugh

Kinds of food and drink

Reason

53

Children Questionnaire

000

Householdnumber: Flouseholdnumber: 1. Name of the mother: Natne I. Relationship to head of household: Codes:

2.

1= 1st wife i1

1=2nd \\v¡VC 1"2nd ife

Age:O Age:D

Oyears Dyears D LI 5=daughter in law

LI D

3--3rd wife

4=single sister

Name of the child What age is your child?

LI D

LI

months

Iboy

Is the child boy or girl?

LI D

2=g,irl 2=girl

LI D

(If the mother has a child under 5 years) Did your child have more than three D LI I -yes -yes 2=no loose stools in the last 24 hours 2no Has the child suffered from diarrhoea diarrhoea in in the the last last 77 days?O days?0

D

How did you treat it ?? 1=herbs

4give boiled water 7=take to hospital 77=other(specit\ 77other (specit\ ):

2=ORS 2ORS 5=give not boiled water

3=buy drug.s 3buy drus 6=tea 6tea

8give nothing.

2no

1=yes

0 0

LI

LI D 0D

0-0 DD

If you treat with ORS, how do you prepare it? (Ingredients and amount)

Is your child currentl) current') breastfed? !=yes,exclusive]. 1yes, exclusive')

2yes. and 2=yes, andadditional additional food

3no

(If child is not currently breastfed) How long did you breastfeed the child? D

Omonths Dmonths

In case the child receives additional food:at what age did you start giving drinks or foods other than than breastm breastmilk ilk to the child? U D Omonths Dmonths What was the first supplemantary supplemantar) food given to the child? 22--papimaize =papimaize 3papiguineacorn I =herbs 1=herbs 4pap/millet

D LI 0D

5=infant milk

LI D

How often did you vou feed leed your child yesterday?

D

D LI D 0 LI D

D LI 0

Which of the food food g,iven given to the child are prepared/bought prepared/bought specially speciallyfor forthe thechild?O child?Il I porridge 1porridge 2boiled Fish 2=boiled fish 0-=nothing 0= nothing 3=potatos 4rice 7=pap/millet 5=pap/maize 6papiguineacorn 6=papiguineacorn 77=others (specifi 77=others (specifiv): \ ):

What kind of meals did (lid you you give giveyour yourchild childapart apartfrom frombreast breastmilk milkyesterday yesterdayD0 0= nothing I cow =cowmilk milk 2-adult food 3tea 4=herbs LI 0 7pap/millet 7=pap/m il let 8rize 9=beans 8=Tize 5=pap/maize 6paprguineacorn 6=pap/guineacorn LI 9beans D 0 D 5=pap/rnaize ): 77=others (specif\ (specify):

O D

54 54

Annex 3: Number of interviews in the sample villages for fishermen, non-fishermen households Villages Amboshidi Anfani Angulu Bagaruwa Bai Allah Bakin Dam Dan Bature Dan Garje Danbaba Danladi Biri Gungun Kaiwa Gyama Kango Kwanga Loko Malofo Lopawa Maijaka Bakwai Miasaje Manu Loko Uba Raishe Salkawa Sabon Gari Sabon Yuma Sani Awaye Shagunu Tada Teteku Thalidu Tugan Giwa Tugan Gwanda Tugan Kada I Tugan Kada Tugan Kada11 II Tugan Kuka Uku Tugan Liman Tugan Maje Tugan Sule Wara Wawu and Wawa jaji Yuna

TOTAL

Fishermen

Non Fishermen

Total interviews

9

9

8

21

7

2

32 9

1

11

2

2

5

5

1

11

6

6

8

8

8

8

10 3

10 3

11

11

18

20

38

5

1I

6

5

5

2

3

2

2

1

1

1I

I5 15

1

17

16 17

9

9

8

11

9

II 11

35

46

1I

3

2 1I

6

3

3

7 33

3

6

2

2

3

3

3

3

4

4

8

12 12

8

44 25

40

20 44 32 29 430

26 247

7 3

183

5555

Annex 4:

Markets and market days, Kainji Lake area/Survey time schedule

Wara: Shagunu: Malale: Kokali: Garafani: Ngaski:

every 4 days every Thursday every Friday every Thursday every Tuesday every Friday

Annex 4.2:

Survey time schedule

1 -- 5.3 5.3

Permission/Sample selection literature,design of questionnaires Review of' literature,design Training of enumerators Questionnaire Pre-Test Final design of questionnaire Field survey Field survey Field survey Data entry and cross check Analysis and draft report writing Seminar with presentation of results

1

6-14.3 15.3. 15.3. 17.3. 18.3.

20 - 31 3.: 3 - 13.4. 313.4. 19.4-4.5. 19.4-27.5 28.5-24.8.: 25.8

The duration of the interview was on average 20-30 minutes for the interview with the heads of household, and about 40 to 50 minutes for the interview with wives.

56

Annex 5: Main and supplementary occupations of head of households

Supplunentary occupation Supplcmentary occupation Main occ.

none

fisher

farmer

traders

others

fisher

3

0

7

2

1,2

0,0

235 95.2

2,8

0,8

Total 247 57,4

5

80 62.5

2

26 20.3

15

128

11.7

29.8

farmer

3.9

trader

others

Total

2 9.1

1.6 19

22

4.5

86.4

5.1

2

2

1

6.1

3.0

33 7.7

35

18

430

i

3.0

6.1

27 81.8

11

83

283

1 1

57 Annex 6: Sources of income, fishermen

source of income

n1

%

amount (Naira)

sale of fish

245

99.2

00-

sale of farm produce

24

9.7

1

% ooff FM out of n 1 0.4

17 39 43 145 10

6.9 15.9 17.6 59.2 41.7

500 501 - 1000 1001 - 2000

77 4 2

>2000

11

29.2 16.7 8.3 4.2 50.0

n

100

101 - 500 501 - 1000 1001 - 2000 >2000 > 2000 0 - 100

101101 -

sale of livestock

10

4.1

100

5

101 - 500 501 - 1000 1001 - 2000

3

0-

>2000 sale of handicrafts sale of GN cakes

trading

1

3

1.2

0-

100

2

0.4

101 101 101-

500 500

11

1

75

30.4

0101 -

100

15 32 17 8 3 2 2

500 501 - 1000 1001 - 2000 > 2000

others

1

5

2.0

0 - 100 101 - 500 > 2000 >2000

11

11

30.0 10.0 10.0 66.7

33.3 100.0 20.0 42.7 22.7 10.7 4.0 40.0 40.0 20.0

58

Annex 7: Sources of income, wives of fishermen n

%n1

11.1

00100 101 - 500 501501 - 1000 1000 1001 - 2000 > 2000 00100

32 48 19 2 3 12

30.8 46.2 18.3 1.9 2.9 48.0

9 4

36.0

28.0

101 - 500 501 - 1000 0- 100

38

500

22

501- 1000

2

100

8

101 - 500 501 - 1000 101 - 500

10 2

00101 0-

100 500

45 18

100

101-

500

6 4

source of

n1

%

income inconte sale of fish

104

46.2

25

sale of farm produce

cooked food

63

amount (Naira)

101 -

sale of groundn.c akes

20

8.9

sale of kerosene

3

1.3

trading

63

28.0

others

10

4.4

0-

3

16.0 61.3

35.5 3.3 40.0

50.0 10.0 100.0

71.4 28.6 60.0 40.0

59

Annex 8: Sources of income, wives of non-fishermen

source of

u n1

%

income sale of fish

15

8.9

sale of farm produce

sale of cooked

32

64

amount (Naira)

0-

n

% nn 11 o

66.6 26.7 6.7 25.0

10 4

18.9

100 101 - 500 501 - 1000 0 - 100

15

37.9

101 - 500 501 - 1000 1001 - 2000 0100

28

6.2 59.3

101 - 500 501 - 1000

24

37.5

1

1.6 1.6

1

8

7

2

46.9 21.9

food

>2000 sale of groundn.c akes

sale of kerosene

39

23.0

3

1.8

trading

38

22.5

others

13

7.7

1

100

15

38.5

101 - 500 501 - 1000

23

58.9 2.6 66.7

0-

0-

11

100

2

101 - 500 0 - 100 101 - 500 501 - 1000

15 19 3

>2000 0101 -

1

1

100

500

9 4

33.3 39.5 50.0 7.9 2.6 69.2 30.8