ing and publishing, among his publications, al-Awamil al-Ma'ah, by al-Jurjani (
Leiden,. 1615), The Proverbs of Lugman of the Arabs, and selections of the book
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Islamic Treasures in Holland A Window on the Historical Relationship between Holland and Islam Dr Muhammad Said al-Touraihi
.(Góædƒg) ∂jh ∫h óé°ùe Mosque of Waalwijk Holland.
The roots of the Dutch relationship with the Islamic world goes back to the time of the Medieval Crusades when the former participated, for the first time, in the attack on Dumyat which ended in a miserable defeat. That brief encounter did not, however, lead to any serious understanding of Islam by the Dutch, so that their knowledge of Islamic religion and civilization remained based on blind hatred and prejudice. This biased opposition to Islam can be seen from the poem of Van Marlant, dated 1292, which laments the fall of Acre. The situation was made worse by the Pope who warned the Christian world that any contact with Muslims was heresy. But the situation changed following the war of independence (The Eighty Years War, 1568 – 1648) of the Dutch Islamic Tourism - Issue 05 - Winter 2003
against Spanish occupation. This war resulted in the liberation of the northern part of the lowland ("Holland") after s series of bloody battles. The city of Leiden fought particularly hard in the face of the Spanish siege, as it had done previously, notably during the city’s earlier uprising against the Catholic Church. In that incident, Franciscus Valdez was sent by Don Frederique Alvarez di Toledo to lay hold of the city on behalf of Spain. But Leiden managed to break free of the siege with great courage on the 3rd of October 1574, a day which thereafter became a national holiday in The Netherlands. It is perhaps also worth mentioning that the Dutch rebels held banners with the emblem of a silver crescent, on top of which read, The Turk, not the Pope. 26
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.Ω1525 ΩÉY É«côJ Qó°üŸG ,º°S18 * 25,5 ∞jô°ûdG ∞ë°üŸG øe Iô≤a Paragraph from the Holy Qur’an 18 x 25.5 cm, origin Turkey 1525 A.D.
The University of Leiden It is due to this heroic stand of the people of Leiden that Prince William of Orange said he would reward the city either by waiving taxation in perpetuity or the establishment of a university. Since the Reformation was the main reason for the revolt, the main representative(s) of the city decided on the latter option which would also allow for the training of Protestant priests. On the 8th of February, 1575, Leiden University was founded and welcomed students in the same year. Since the aim of the University was essentially religious, the Protestant theologians took it over with a strong emphasis on rivalling the catholic Leuwan University, situated still in the south, now part of Belgium. The Protestants of Leiden concentrated on the study of the Torah in its original languages, Hebrew and Aramaic, and this formed the Islamic Tourism - Issue 05 - Winter 2003
incentive for studying Arabic and Oriental culture at a later time.
The first Arabic Chair in Holland Hardly a few years had passed in the founding of the university when the decision was taken to establish the first Chair of Arabic, in 1599. Prior to this, Raphelengius (15391597) taught Arabic in Leiden from 1587 (he was the son-in-law of the famous printing house owner, Blantine of Antwerp, who moved to Leiden and founded his printing house there in 1585 after the Spanish Occupation). Blantine was publishing the Holy Qur’an in many languages, including its original Arabic, and Raphelengius published his first Arabic book in 1595. This was a booklet which contained some Arabic calligraphy which he used to carry on his work
with enthusiasm, and also wrote an Arabic dictionary, which was published by his son posthumously some ten years later in 1613 (the dictionary was reprinted several times). Raphelengius died in 1597. The lecturers who came after him were of lesser stature and knowledge of Arabic, but a few years later, Erpenius (1584-1624) gained a reputation as the founder of the renaissance of Dutch Orientalism, mastering several oriental languages and beginning to show an interest in Arabic via his own teacher, J J Scaliger (1540-1609), who had mastered Arabic in a relatively short time and who, four years into his studying of it, had written a book on Arabic grammar (1613) which became an essential reference for students of Arabic throughout Europe for decades. When he heard about the founding of an Arabic press in Rome he hurried up to found a press in his own house which was known later as the famous Brill publishing house. He became active in both writing and publishing, among his publications, al-Awamil al-Ma’ah, by al-Jurjani (Leiden, 1615), The Proverbs of Lugman of the Arabs, and selections of the book of Hamasah of Abu Tamam (Leiden, 1615-1636). Professor Jan Witgam, curator of the oriental collection and a professor of manuscripts at Leiden, states that the Islamic MSS and books are mostly kept in Leiden University Library, although other Universities have some Islamic materials as well. Islamic artefacts are kept in the museums, the most important of which are the National Museum of Ethnography, Leiden, the World Museum, Rotterdam, and the Royal Institute of the Tropics in Amsterdam. The State Archives contain thousands of documents illustrating the historical relationship between the Netherlands and many Islamic countries. 28
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á«aƒ°üdG É¡jóJôj ¿Éc »àdG áØjô°ûdG ábôÿG øe êPƒ‰CG ∞°üàæe á«fBGô≤dG äÉjB’Gh IÓ°üdGh IOÉ¡°ûdG áª∏µH øjq õe .É«côJ - ô°ûY ™HÉ°ùdG ¿ô≤dG Sample of the holy Gilet worn by the Sofies, decorated with martyr words, prayers and Qur’an Holy Verces, mid 17th century - Turkey.
Modern archives with some relevance to the Islamic World are kept in the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam. Leiden University was founded in 1575, and its library in I587. There are numerous sources about its history in the Oriental Reading Room. In total there are some 30,000 Oriental MSS, of which about two thirds are related to Islam, and many come from South-East Asia. The oldest dated manuscript is Gharib alHadith by Abu ‘Ubayd al-Qasim bin Sallam, which was copied in 252AH/866CE. The most important MS is probably, according to Wittgatten, the Ring of the Dove by Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi. A CD-Rom with the entire inventory of the Leiden collections is in the making and will be available within a few years. The Library also contains a large maps and prints collection. This is not part of the Oriental section but of the Western department in the Library. Many manuscripts and ancient maps of are preserved here. Consultations regarding these collections is possible in the Western Reading Room of the Library. There is no Islamic Tourism - Issue 05 - Winter 2003
printed catalogue available, but in the reading room is a card catalogue. Professor Wittgatten expressed his admiration for Islamic Tourism magazine: I am very favourably impressed by the journal, Islamic Tourism", he said. "The Library will certainly take a subscription. As a modern journal it gives the reader a vivid picture of objects of Islamic tourism all over the world. The articles are interesting and good intellectual level. If the Journal succeeds in continuing, it will become, in course of time, an important historical source as well". Professor Una Koningsveld of Leiden University gave us a brief insight at the Dutch contribution to the renewal of Arabic and Islamic heritage: "The origin of Arabic and Islamic Studies in the Netherlands lies in the late 16th Century", she said. "This was the time of Holland’s War of Independence against the Spanish rulers of our country. In that war, Holland was a look-in for allies, for instance in Morocco and Turkey (Ottoman dynasty) against the Spanish. Catholic Spain was not only persecuting Muslims (in Spain, the Moriscos), but also Protestants, especially in Holland. Thus, for diplomatic-political and also for commercial reasons Holland was in need of a better knowledge of Arabic as well as of the culture and society of the Muslim world. When Holland expanded its commercial and political relations even to South East Asia, this need became even greater. However, apart from these worldly interests, there was also the purely scientific curiosity and the conviction of great scholars in Leiden, like Scaliger, that the study of Arabic was of great importance to discover historical sources and to understand in what ways the Arabic writing nations had dealt with the products of ancient, especially Greek, civilization. If you visit the Senate Hall of Leiden University, you will still see a painted portrait of Scaliger, who holds in front of him a manuscript copy of the Qur’an. After the foundation of the University, he was the first to introduce the study of Oriental Languages to Holland. Leiden possessed an Arabic printing house from the beginning of the 171h century, which stilt exists today (Brill). There is also a flourishing commerce in Leiden in old Islamic printed books and manuscripts". The professor continued, "When we are
OhóM ≠∏Hh á«bô°ûdG ¬àYƒª› ΩÉeCG ó∏«Ø°ù¨æfƒc Qƒ°ùahÈdG .`g 435 áæ°S âÑàc á«°ùdófCG áWƒ£ﬂ √ó«Hh »HôY •ƒ£ﬂ 30 Professor Una Koningsveld in front of the Oriental collection, which consists of about 30 manuscript, holding in his hand an Andalusian manuscript written in 435 h.
speaking of the contribution of Dutch Orientalists to Arabic and Islamic civilization, we have to turn to the 19th and 20th Centuries, when they started to publish a long series of Arabic texts, historical, geographical, and so on., connected to famous names like Dozy and De Goeje. Then we have to think of the international project of the Encyclopaedia of Islam which was coordinated from Leiden. Its first edition (in English, French and German) appeared before the World War II. The second edition (in English and French) is still being published. Plans for a third edition are already in preparation. Of the many other important projects is the Concordance of Islamic Hadith Literature, initiated by Wensinck (which in Arabic is called al-Mu’jam al-Mufahras li-Altaz alHadith al-Nabawi). In the present time, 30
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Hundreds of Dutch Orientalists relied on Arabic books on Islamic heritage, and many of them are proud of their knowledge of Arabic and its contribution to the discovery of rare manuscripts.
ó«©°S ¿É£∏°ùdG âæH áŸÉ°S á«fÉª©o dG á«Hô©dG IÒeC’G ó«ØM çhQ ó«©°S ÒeC’G áÑàµe á¡LGh E.VAn Donzel Qƒ°ùahÈdG - IQƒ°üdG ‘ »ëjô£dG ÖfÉéH ∞≤jh QÉÑ‚R ÒeCG …ó«©°SƒÑdG
IÒeC’G √òg øY (πjôH QGO) øY IOqó©àe äÉ°SGQO ¬d äQó°Uh áŸÉ°S IÒeC’G ïjQÉàH ¢ü°q üîàŸG .»Hô©dG è«∏ÿG øY á°UÉN IQOÉf Öàch ≥FÉKh áÑàµŸG …ƒà– .á«Hô©dG Professor Van Donzel specializes in the history of Princess Salimah. He is standing with Dr. Al-Touraihi in front of the library of Price Said Roth, the grandson of the Princess.
ÊÉ£∏°ùdG …ó¡°ûŸG »∏Y Òe •É£î∏d ≥«∏©àdG §îH …ô©°T •ƒ£ﬂ øe ábQh .Ω16 ¿ô≤dG ¿Éà°ùfÉ¨aCG .IGôg A manuscript of a collection of poetry, afganstan, 16th Century.
Dutch Orientalists are also focusing on Living Islam in the Western World, and have organized many international conferences in Leiden on this subject, where colleagues from many different countries present their contributions.
Translation of Qur’an The first Dutch translation of the Holy Qur’an appeared in 1641, and was translated from the German edition. De Arabische Alkoran- -Uyt de Arabische Sparaeke, nu nieuwelijks in Hooghduytsch gertanslateert-door Salamon Swigger-Ende wederom uyt Hooghduytsch in Nederland-sche Spraeke ghestelt. Gedruckt voor Barent Adriae n s I. Berentsma, Boek-ver Kooper to Hamburgh. 1641, L. pagg.162.
Islamic Tourism - Issue 05 - Winter 2003
After that, there is a translation by J K Kramers (1891-1951) who was translator at the Dutch Embassy in Istanbul between 1915 and 1922 and a professor of Turkish and Persian at Leiden University. He succeeded Wensinck in the Chair of Arabic in 1929. His translation of the Qur’an, DE KORAN (Uit het arabish vertaald) was published in Brussels and Amsterdam in 1956. A few years ago, a translation by Dr William Haas, the present professor at Groningen University in northern Holland, was published. Shortly afterwards, Dr Johassen of Leiden University issued another translation of the Koran in collaboration with Asad Jaber.
Arabic Photographs at the Dutch Foreign Office Hundreds of Dutch Orientalists relied on
Arabic books on Islamic heritage, and many of them are proud of their knowledge of Arabic and its contribution to the discovery of rare manuscripts. During a visit to see Professor Marcel Kurpershoek, Head of the Middle East Department at the Dutch Foreign Office, we found his room adorned with photographs and pictures inspired by Araby, reflecting his nostalgia for the time he spent studying the Arabic language. Amongst his distinguished studies are his books on oral poetry and stories of Central Arabia, published in English by Brill in many volumes.
The State Archives The general archives of the Dutch state of The Hague represent a huge warehouse of Arabic documents which contain many correspondences pertaining to Dutch diplomats and
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.ÈæŸG ≈∏Y øe áÑ£N »≤∏j ΩÉeE’G The Imam gives a Friday Sermon.
commercial centres abroad. Places along the Mediterranean were of great value for the East India Company during the 17th & 18th Centuries due to its trade with the East along the routes of the Gulf and Indian oceans. This archive includes large quantities of letters, contracts, treatises and agreements in Arabic. Only a small part of it has been revealed apart from some writings here and there. Dr Ben Slott has used this huge archive in his research on Kuwait and the Gulf Arabs, for example. At his office in the archive he kindly showed us some of the important documents which we were allowed to copy especially for this report. He told us that amongst the Arab researchers that had used the archive was the ruler of AsShariqah, Dr Sultan bin Muhammad al-Qasimi.
The Islamic Community in Holland There are over two million people out of a
Islamic Tourism - Issue 05 - Winter 2003
total of sixteen million (according to the Census of 2001) of foreign descent in Holland. They represent the four largest minorities (Turkish, Surinamese, Moroccan and Antillian) which together make up over a million people. The Turks number approximately 319,000, followed by Moroccans (257,272) according to the Central Planning Office. The Dutch media repeatedly state that Muslims in Holland number close to a million. As to the rest of the population, Christianity has decreased and now represents a small percentage, and four out of ten are secular. The Protestants decreased from 55% to 14%, the Roman Catholic decreased from 38% to 36%, generally Muslims represent today no less than 5% of the population. The first clause of the Dutch Constitution states that freedom of religion and the prevention of any discrimination between the residents of Holland on the basis of religion,
colour, race or nationality. The seventh clause guarantees freedom of religious expression in all its types the freedom of worship as long as it does not break the general order and health regulations. The twenty-third clause establishes the right to establish religious schools for all religions with state support for all citizens. The Islamic community in Holland started with the arrival of the Indonesian Dutch and royalists after the Second World War. Their numbers increased during the 1960s, which is considered a time of rebuilding for Holland after the war. The government imported a labour force from Mediterranean countries to work in Dutch companies. These are known as visiting workers, most of them from Turkey and Morocco. At the end of the 1970s, economic growth declined and unemployment increased so there was less demand on foreign labour. It became clear afterwards that most of these workers did not wish to go back to their countries of origin. After a period of some years, they brought their families over and settled permanently in Holland. Besides these, there were a number of Surinamese Muslims who came to Holland and settled here before their own country gained its independence (from the Dutch) in 1975. The 1980s and 1990s witnessed a huge wave of immigration, which comprised Arab Muslims and Africans, and caused the number of Muslims to increase substantially in the country. They have, over the years, established their own institutions and organizations. The number of mosques increased to about five thousand (1999), most of which are rooms or small houses. There are a very small number of large mosques. A few primary and middle schools have also been established. These offer students from the Muslim community lessons in Arabic and religion, and include among them the Ibn Khaldun School in the south of Rotterdam.
Religious Education in Holland There are two types of education in Holland: government schools and private schools. Universities that were established by the government, such as Leiden, Amsterdam, Gorningen, and Utrecht, do not have religious centres but are secular universities where religion is studied from a socio-historic perspective. Often, the studies pay huge attention to the separation of state and religion. This system of teaching is known as Duplex-Ordo and goes back to 1876. The entire syllabus is decided by the government and after four years of general studies the student can undertake religious studies for two years, generally under the supervision 34
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„ City Tourism
The city itself also has varieties of restaurants, attractions, public and private parks, and orchards on the edges of the city. The streets are decorated with statues and huge marble columns.
of the churches. As for private education, this is practiced in the private religious universities such as the Catholic religious universities of Utrecht, Kampen and the Free University of Amsterdam, as well as the Humanities University in Utrecht. This type of religious education is called Simplex-Ordo. Revelation takes central stage in this type of education and there is no separation between religion and science. Religious creed has an important place in this education system and the essence of religious teaching of some of the Catholic and Protestant universities rotates around the content of the Bible.
The Islamic University of Rotterdam
äÉjB’Gh ¢Tƒ≤ædÉH ±ôNõe ¢SÉëædG øe …Qòf øë°U Ék «∏ﬁ ±ô©j ,òjhÉ©Jh áØ∏àﬂ á«YOCGh á«fBGô≤dG .Ω1599 ¿GôjG (¢UÓÿG á°SÉ£H) A 'holy' copper bowel decorated with Quranic verses, Iran, 1599.
Islamic Tourism - Issue 05 - Winter 2003
This was formed in 1997 in Rotterdam and follows the Simplex-Ordo system focusing on Qur’an and Sunna for its syllabus and thought, and despite its short age and not having official recognition until now, has moved with fast steps towards an ecumenical existence based on peace and mutual respect with the Dutch population. Of course, it also has a reputation for good and serious research. Dr Ahmad Kunduz is the head of the university and we asked him to give us a brief introduction to the centre and its development during the last five years. He told us that the university was made up of four colleges, including the Shari’a College which has three purposes - the graduating of imams for mosques; to train guides and preachers to support the spiritual needs of Dutch Muslims in different areas, such as prisons, detention centres, old peoples’ homes, the army and other sectors; to produce specialists in Islam with academic and scientific credentials. The Islamic sciences are taught in Arabic and the social sciences are taught in Dutch. The Islamic Institute was formed in 1999 to supply the students who are interested in studying at Rotterdam Islamic university with the foundation course in Qur’an and Arabic. The Research Institute, aims to do postgraduate research at MA and PhD level eventually. Finally, the College of Languages and Civilizations is a new college to bridge the gap between the different cultures.
Dutch Museums There are more than four hundred museums in Holland. They contain many rare paintings by Dutch Masters of the European Renaissance and after, especially in the 17th and 18th Centuries, such as Rembrandt, Vermeer, and Van Gogh. There are also old Greek and Roman museums, and museums for primitave tools, marine and aquatic life, antique fabrics, railways and technology. Museums that are concerned with the life of nations contain Islamic treasures and artifacts that are old and rare.
Addresses of some organizations Dealing with Islamic Heritage and Muslim Affairs Riksarchef in Zuid – Holland 3814381 Prwalevandar hot 20 University Leiden Legatum Warnerianum Oriental Collections University Library Witte Singel 27 P.O. Box 9501 2300 RA Leiden The Netherlands Telephone +31 (0)715272865 I Fax +31 (0)715272836 I E-mail [email protected]
Website http://www.etcl.nl/bc/olg/default.htm Musseum voor Volknkunde Wilem Slaxade 25 3016 DM Rotterdam Tel 010 – 4111055 ROTTERDAM HDV / ISN MEVLANA- MOSKEE - MOSQUE Mevlanaplein 1 3022 EZ Rotterdam Tel: 010- 47641 07 El Hizjra, Centrum voor Arabische Kunst en Cultuur Singe1300 A, 1016 AD Amsterdam Tel: (020) 4200568/4201517 Fax: (020) 6251468 K.v.K.41207125 www.elhizjra.nl e-mail [email protected]
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ISIM Rapenburg 71, Leiden Postal Address I S I M PO Box 11089 2301 EB Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 71 5277905 Fax: + 31 (0) 71 5277906 Homepage www.isim.nl IUR Islamitische Universitet Rotterdam Aelbrechtskade 100 3023 JC Rotterdam Postbus 61120 3002 HC Rotterdam Tel: 0031.(0)10.485 47 21 Fax: 0031.(0)10.484 31 47 e-mail : [email protected]
URL : http:// www.islamicuniversity.nl NMR Nederlandse Islamitische Kruisbessestraat 13 2564 VB Den Haag Tel: 070-323 36 98 Fax: 070-323 3698 NIR Nederlandse Islamitische Raad
¬«fhôNôg ¥ô°ûà°ùŸG C. S. Hurgronje.
¿ó«d - ¬«fhôNôg ∑ƒæ°S ¥ô°ûà°ùŸG ∫õæe The house of C. S. Hurgronje-Leiden
Aelbrechtskade 100 Postbus 61120 3002 HC Rotterdam Tel: 010-4854721 Fax: 010-4843147 Both councils (NIR and MNR) represent all Muslims in Holland and they have many projects together. They both include a variety of Islamic organizations
NMO-Nederlandse moslim Omroep Heuvellaan 35 postbus 418 1200 AK Hilversum Tel: 035-6252921 fax: 035-628 1240 Postbus 1113 3260 AC Oud-Beijerland Holland Fax: +31 186616306 E-mail : [email protected]