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In 1975 West returned to Scotland as Director of the Macaulay Institute for Soil. Research at ... In the Queen's New Year's Honours List for 1988 he was made a ...

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Jointly published by Elsevier 'cience B. II:, Amsterdam

Scienrometrics, Vo/.33,

and Akademiai Kiad6, Budapest

SCIENTOMETRIC

PORTRAIT

No.2

(1995) 233-256

OF T. S. WEST

v. L. KALYANE,* S. s. MLi\i"NOLLI*. .Turning Point Centre 1:3,-C5- 28, Sector 5 C. B. D. Belapur, Konkan Bhavan, New Bombay -400 614 (India) ..Indian InstitUte of Geomagnetism Dr. Nanabhai Moos Marg, Colaba, Bombay -400 005 (India)

j;. \ ~i 'J

(ReceivedJanuary 16, 1995) T. s. West, the internationally well known analytical chemist has been widely recognised as a very successful scientist. His research productivity and collaboration pattern were analysed by years, papers, authorships, and authorwise productivity. The channels of communications used and distribution of articles among channels were found out. He has 410 papers to his credit. The period 1969-70 when he was 42-43 years age was most productive with 41 papers in 1969 and seven single authorship papers in 1970. Qui,nquennial collaboration coefficients ranged between 057 to 1.00, clearly indicating high collaboration team spirit in his research group. His productivity coefficient was 0.45 indicating rapid publication activity during early period of research career. His most prominent collaborators in number of papers were: R. M. Dagnall (92), G. F. Kirkbright (77), R. Belcher (56), K. C. Thompson (19), J. D. :-;orris, (13), and J. F. Alder (11). Top ranking journals, with papers, to which he had contributed were: Anal. Chim. Acta (106), Talanta (84), The Analyst (49), Anal. Chem. (23), and I. Chem. Sac. (20). Publication density was 8.54, publication concentration was 6.25, and average Bradford multiplier was 3.9. High frequency keywords in the titles of the articles were: Atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (51), Atomic absorption spectroscopy (43), and Atomic absorption spectrometry (31). The results indicate his temporal publication productivity and the nature of the research activities were such that he is eminently qualified to be taken as a 'role model' for the younger generation to emulate.

Introduction .I .1

Thomas Summers West was born at Peterhead, Scotland on 18th November 1927. He had been interested in Analytical

Chemistry during school days, and his future

scientific path was confIrmed while he was living at the YMCA in Aberdeen, where A

he met Ronald Belcher, Lecturer U niversity .When Birmingham

in Inorganic

and Analytical

Belcher moved with Prof. H. W. Melville

in 1948, West followed

Chemistry

at the

to the U niversity of

in 1949. There he actively participated

developing the nucleus of Belcher's Birmingham School of Analytical Chemistry.

j0138- 9130/95/US $ 9.50 Copyright @ 1995 Akademiai Kiad6, Budapest All rights reserved

in

v

K.-\L Y A"E.

S. S. MUNNOLLI:

SCIE~TOMErRIC

PORTRArr

At Birmingham Belcher built up an international early contribution

centre for microanalysis. West's

to that was his work on a quartz fibre torsion ultramicrobalance

and on a system of ultramicro With

OF T. S. WEsr

organic elemental and functional group methodology.

the award of Ph. D. in 1952 he started up his own group, persuing

independent

line of research into Analytical

Chelate

Chemistry .Also,

an

he did

exploratory work on solvent extraction and polarography. He was awarded a Senior DSIR

Fellowship

(1955 -1%3).

At

(1952 -1955), Imperial

and then

College

became

London

a Lecturer

he became

in

Reader

Chemistry

in Analytical

Chemistry during 1963-65. His D. Sc. was conferred in 1962. The research highlight included the specific chromogenic ternary complex reaction between fluoride, either

t .1 1,;

of the first two members of the lanthanides and 3-dicarboxymethylaminomethyl-1, 2-dihydroxyanthraquinone,

and the interpretation

of the mode of action of this only

known positive colour reaction of the fluoride ion. It has subsequently replaced all other spectrophotometric unique

conditionally

reactions for fluoride. Another important discovery was the

specific

synthesized trishydroxytriazo Together

with

three

reaction

between

calcium

and a new specially

clathrate cage dyestuff molecule.

young post-doctorates

Bernard Fleet, and Gordon Kirkbright

-he

from

Birmingham-Roy

quickly set up a thriving team, and in

1965 was promoted to'the position of Professor of Analytical was centred in Analytical

Atomic

and Molecular

Spectroscopy. He extended Atomic studies in Atomic Microwave

Excited

Spectroscopy High

Absorption

by Carbon

Intensity

Separated Flames, Chemiluminescence

Atomic

Chemistry. His work

Absorption

and Fluorescence

Spectrophotometry Rod Electrothermal Line

in Diffusion

In 1975 West returned to Scotland as Director He made contributions

to pioneering Automization,

Sources, Low

Emmissitivity

Flames, Atomic Fluorescence

Spectroscopy, and Atom Trapping Atomic Absorption Research at Aberdeen.

Dagnall,

Spectroscopy.

of the Macaulay Institute for Soil to Piezo-electric

crystal sensor

systems for minute traces of airborne pollutants and to the study of interfacial optical absorption and emission phenomena at platinum electrode surfaces under conditions of diffusion controlled electrolysis in aqueous solutions. Work on biosignificant

and

toxic trace elements in the soil-plant ecosystem and acidification phenomena led to his participation in the u. K. Royal Society's Surface Water Acidification

Programme

team together with the Royal Academies of Science in Norway and Sweden. He accepted Honorary Research Professorship of U niversity of Aberdeen in 1983. West encouraged open thinking and experimentation

in new fields due to which

many of his students became leaders in many fields of analytical science and in

234

Sciemometrics

33 (1995)

~. ~

v. L. KALYANE, S. S. MU~"NOLLI: SCIENTOMErRIC

PORTRAU OFT. S. WFSf

domains well away from Chemistry. He played a proniinent role in negotiation which led to the amalgamation Analytical No.11)

in the U. K. of the Chemical Society, and Society of

Chemistry. A special issue of the esteemed journal was published

administrator,

in 1992 to honour

recognition Meldola

) . .j.

Interan

T. S. West. as a teacher, scholar,

and awards. Within

Medal

reputation

and received wide spread international

the Royal Society of Chemistry West received the

(1956), Perkin-Elmer

Medal for Instrumentation

Chemistry (1977), and Redwood Lectureship Medal

39,

researcher, innovator, friend, and colleague.

He established international ~

Talanta (Vol.

Medal

and Analytical

(1974). Overseas awards include the

(1977) of the Czechoslovak Chemical

Society, Johannes Marcus

for Spectroscopy (1977) of the Spectroscopic

Society of Bohemia,

and

Honorary Membership (1981) of the Japan Society of Analytical Chemistry. He became a Fellow (1979) of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and in 1989 a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In the Queen's New Year's Honours List for 1988 he was made a Commander contributions

of the Order

to chemistry and international

He was associated. with International

of the 'British

Empire

(CBE)

for his

science. of Pure and Applied

Chemistry

(IUP AC) since 1963, rising to the position of President of the Anal~ical

Chemistry

Division

Union

(1977- 81). After a period as Assistant Secretary General (1981- 83), he

was elected Secretary General (1983-91).

of the Union

and served two four-year

periods

In 1990-92 West became Chairman of the Standing Finance Committee

of ICSU and a member of the Executive Board. He has also contributed significantly to other aspects of national and international The development of Analytical

science.

Chemistry in the USA is logically described in

four time periods, namely (a) the nineteenth century, (b) 1900-1939, (c) the decade of the 1940s, and (d) from 1950 to the present day.l Analytical been, and continues to be, an important

chemistry has long

component of the undergraduate Bachelor

of Science Chemistry degree in most colleges and universities in the USA.2 Objectives of the present study were to know authorship yearwise, authorwise, and author productivity; ,. "'

communications multiplier

SCienlomeaics

used, distribution

of articles

pattern-paperwise,

and to fmd out core channels of among

channels,

and Bradford

etc.

33 (1995)

235

v. L. KAL YANE, S. S. MUNNOLLI: SCIENTOMEfRIC

PORTRArr OFT. S. WESr

Methodology Scientometric data like

analysis is usually based on the utilization

publications,

citations,

experts opinions,

of several independent

content-analysis,

etc., which

together permit to enlighten various sides of the development of a defmite science field. In this paper the publication productivity is used for the analysis. The choice of the unit of analysis and of the initial set has a strong influence on the measures and results of any bibliometric

study. Generally speaking authors are

~

used when the study focuses on the influence of individuals, articles are used to study the influence of a particular idea as embodied in the article, key terms are used to

,

follow an idea over time as it crosses disciplines and journals when the study focuses on the institutional embodiment of a discipline.3 Bibliographic details of all publications of T. S. West were documented on cards and sorting was done as per requirement

to extract various data. Normal

count

procedure4 was followed. Full credit was given to each author regardless of whether he happens to be the fIrst or the last author. It is widely recognised that scientists all over the world look at their own papers exclusively in that way. Similarly titles of the articles were analysed and one score was allotted for each journal, and keyword. The degree of ccollaborations

was defined

as the ratio

of the number

of

collaborative research papers to the total number of research papers published in a discipline during a certain period of time. Vinkle,6 defmed publication density as the ratio of the total number of papers published to the total number of journals in which the papers were published, and publication concentration as the ratio in percentage of the journals containing half of the papers published to the total number of journals in which those papers were published during the period under study. Bradford's studies focused on "Journal productivity", in the sense of establishing the small core of journals that contributed the most articles to a subject literature and the scatter of articles on the subject over the remainder. 7 The Bradford bibliograph

has a concavity near the origin for the core or nuclear zone and a

linearity afterwords till the downward deviation called "Groos droop".8 Sen and Gan9 have given the formula for productivity

coefficient (P.C.) as the (;"

ratio of 50 percentile age to the productivity age.~

236

Scientometrics

33 (1995)

v. L. KALYANE,

S. S. MU~'NOLLI:

SCIENTOMEfRIC

PORTRArr

OFT.

S. WESI

Results and discussion During

1951-92

Table l(a).

T. S. West has published 410 communications

Single authored

communications

were 52 (12.68%).

as shown in Two

authored

communications were 100 (24.39%). Three authored publications were 212 (51.70%). Four authored papers to his credit were 40 (9.76%). He has published five (1.22%) communications

having five authors each and only one (0.25%) paper having eight

authors. Highest number of communica~ions published in one year were 41 (10.00% ) in 1969 at the age of 42 as shown in Table 1(b). Highest number of single authorship ,.)

papers published in one year were seven during 1970 at the age of 43. His most productive

period was 1968 to 1973 during which he had published 190 ( 4;3.36%) b

papers at the age of 41 to 46. Overall the range in Quinquennial Coefficients

Collaboration

was 0.57 to 1.00 clearly indicating his high collaboration

Quinquennial

team spirit.

publication productivity and related parameters are depicted in Fig. 1. Table l(a) Authorshipwise

Authors

:\'0.

Cumulative

of

papers

distribution

of papers of T. S. West

%of

Cumu-

papers

lative

2!2 40 5 1

I = Single author V = Five author

papers papers,

12.68 24.39 51.70 9.76 1.22 0.25

52 152 364 404 409 410

52 100

, II = Two author VIII

= Eight

ships

%of author.

Cumulative author-

ships

ships

%

papers

II III IV V VIII

Author-

author

papers,

12. 37. 88. 98. 99 100.

III

68 07 77 53 75 00

= Three

4.81 18.50 58.84 14.80 2.31 0.74

52 200 636 160 25 8

author

papers,

N

= Four

52 252 888 1048 1073 1081

author

papers,

papers.

t>

Scientomeaics

33 (1995)

237

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v. L. KAL Y Ai'\,:E, S. S. MUNNOLLI:

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v. L. KAL YANE, S. S. MUNNOLLI: SCIENTOMETRIC PORTRAff OFT. S. WESI'

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L. KALYANE,

S. S. MUNNOLLI:

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S. WESf

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SCienlometrics

v. L. KAL YANE, s. S. MUNNOLLI: SCIENfOMETRIC PORTRAIT OFT. S. WEST

244

33

(1995)

'(

..

v.

L. KALYANE,

S. S. MUNNOLLI:

SCIENTOMEfRIC

poRTRAn

OFT.

s. WESf

1 \II 5OoL 'a; I": T SWE'St ~

300~

y

Fig. 2. Publication productivity afT. S. West and collaborators (Iog-lag scale) Table 2(b ) Author

Author(s)

.Authorship(s)

productivity Total

authors

410 92 77 56 19 13 11 10 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 1 1 1 3 3

~

13 6 12 24 24 76

168

SCie1l10metrics

Percentage hips

410 92 77 56 19 13 11 30 21 78 30 48 72 48 71

Cumulative percentage

37.92 8.51 7.12 5.18 1.76 1.20 1.02 2.78 1.94 7.22 2.78 4.44 6.66 4.44 7.03

37.92 46.43 53.55 58.73 60.49 61.69 62.71 65.49 67.43 74.65 77.43 81.87 88.53 92.97 100.00

1081

33

(1995)

245

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..,. out functioning of active research teams as centres of excellence and factors responsible for optimising, maximising and enhancing outputs may appreciate quantitative and qualitative aspects of scientometrics. It is further suggested that citation analysis of publications of T. S. West should be undertaken to know the impact of his research.

References 1. 2. 3.

4. 5,

6.

, ~

H. A. l..AmNEN,History of analytical chemistry in the USA, Talanta, 36 (1989) 1-9. R W. MURRAY,Teaching of analytical chemistry in the US, Talanta, 36 (1989) 11-17. C. L. BORGMAN,R E. RICE, The convergence of information science and communication: A bibliometric analysis,Journal of American Society of Information Science,43 (1992) 397-411. N. PRAVDIC, C. OLUIC-VUKOVIC, Dual approach to multiple authorship in the study of collaboration/scientific output relationship, Scientometrics, 10 (1986) 259- 280. K SUBRAMANYAM, Bibliometric studies of research collaboration: a review, Journal of Information Science,6 (1983) 33-38. P. VINKLER, Bibliometric analysis of publication activity of a scientific research institute, In: Informetrics 89/90, L. EGGHE, R RoussFAU (Eds), Elsevier science publishers, B. V., 1990, pp. 309- 334.

254

Scientometrics

33

(1995)

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L.

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S.

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SAROJAM,

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of

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GUAY,

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325.

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26

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scientists,

leading

of

activities

information

on

characteristics

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On

STRAKHOV,

B.

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GRANOVSKY,

V.

Yu.

MULCHENKO,

M.

Z.

26.

31.

21-

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and

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Library

of

Annals

chemistry,

concrete

and

cement

of

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