John F. Pruski

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albiflora in Louisiana by Gandhi and Thomas (1989) shows it in eight parishes ... Both Gandhi and Thomas (1989) and Thomas and Allen (1996) report it in St.


John F. Pruski Missouri Botanical Garden P.O. Box 299 St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A. abstract Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora is newly reported to Mississippi. This South American native is vouchered in the United States only from Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas.

resumen Se reporta Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora nueva para Mississippi. La especie es nativa de America del Sur y en los Estados Unidos se conoce solamente de Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi y Texas.

A few springs ago while botanizing for Plucheas near Bay St. Louis in Gulf Coastal Mississippi, I collected the South American native Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora (Kuntze) Cabrera (Compositae: Cichorieae). This taxon is typical of Hypochaeris by its plumose pappus bristles and paleate receptacles but is noteworthy among Cichorieae by having florets with white corollas. Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora was not reported for Mississippi in the statewide treatments by Lowe (1921) and Temple and Pullen (1968). The treatments by Cronquist (1980) and Bogler (2006) do not list H. microcephala var. albiflora for Mississippi. Neither the McCook and Kartesz (2010) nor the USDA-NRCS (2010) websites list H. microcephala var. albiflora for Mississippi, and it is not listed in recent floras in the southern part of the state (e.g., Alford 2001). Thus, it appears that H. microcephala var. albiflora is a new report for the vascular flora of Mississippi. The purpose of this note is to voucher H. microcephala var. albiflora in Mississippi, to give a quick overview of this taxon, and to track the range expansion of this invasive weed in North America. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip.) Cabrera var. microcephala, a different taxon, is a yellow-flowered South American endemic. Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora (sub the orthographic variant “Hypochoeris”) was reported by Shinners (1966) as new to North America from material collected within five miles of the Sabine River in Orange County, Texas. Shortly thereafter, Thieret (1969) reported H. microcephala var. albiflora as new to Louisiana. The range in the United States of H. microcephala var. albiflora was given by Cronquist (1980) as Louisiana and Texas. Correll and Johnston (1970) treated H. microcephala var. albiflora as only in Orange County and as the only member of the genus in Texas, but soon thereafter Tomb (1974) provided an illustration of H. microcephala var. albiflora, cited it in four Texan counties, and reported an additional two species of Hypochaeris for Texas. Because the report by Tomb (1974) so quickly followed Correll and Johnston (1970), this suggests that species of Hypochaeris are overlooked and/or expanding their ranges. The dot-map of H. microcephala var. albiflora (sub the binomial H. microcephala) in Texas by Turner et al. (2003) shows it to occur in 13 counties, all in southeastern Texas. The dot-map of H. microcephala var. albiflora in Louisiana by Gandhi and Thomas (1989) shows it in eight parishes and seven years later Thomas and Allen (1996) plot it in 13 parishes. Study at the Tulane University herbarium in May 2010 showed that H. microcephala var. albiflora is known in Louisiana also from East Baton Rouge and Tangipahoa Parishes. Both Gandhi and Thomas (1989) and Thomas and Allen (1996) report it in St. Tammany Parish, so the report herein of this taxon in adjacent Hancock County on the Mississippi Gulf Coast is not fully unexpected. Carter et al. (2009) report a noteworthy eastward leap of H. microcephala var. albiflora into coastal Georgia,

J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 5(1): 345 – 348. 2011


Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5(1)

not too far north of Jacksonville, Florida. Although H. microcephala var. albiflora is reported in Georgia and Mississippi from collections made in 2008, it seems possible that it was present in Georgia and Mississippi earlier than 2008, considering that it has become increasingly more frequent in Texas and Louisiana. That said, I suspect this invasive weed has been or will soon be collected along the Gulf Coast in intermediate Alabama and in Florida as well. Tyrl et al. (2009) and the Oklahoma Vascular Plants Database (2010) do not list H. microcephala var. albiflora in Oklahoma, thus the report of it in Oklahoma by Bogler (2006) cannot be verified and seems erroneous. In summary, H. microcephala var. albiflora is known to me in the United States from only Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, is expected in Alabama and Florida, and in the past five decades has spread mostly eastward to the Atlantic Coast of Georgia from Orange County, Texas in the Sabine River basin, where it was reported as new to North America by Shinners (1966). Although Azevêdo-Gonçalves & Matzenbenbacher (2005) believe that H. microcephala is a hybrid and validate the binomial H. albiflora (Kuntze) Azevêdo-Gonç. & Matzenb., for stability sake and because in general I do not have full confidence in name applications in Hypochaeris, I prefer to apply the familiar trinomial H. microcephala var. albiflora to our taxon as in Cronquist (1980), Tomb (1974), etc. As suggested by Azevêdo-Gonçalves & Matzenbenbacher (2005), this taxon may deserve recognition at the species rank, but I think it is unwise at present to introduce a new name for it into North American literature. Additionally, I am somewhat concerned that a pre-2005 binomial may be available for this Hypochaeris, perhaps masquerading elsewhere in synonymy. Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora, at least as it occurs and is circumscribed in the United States (e.g., Cronquist 1980), is similar to H. chillensis (Kunth) Britton by stems leafy proximally and uniseriate pappus, but differs by pinnatifid (vs. merely dentate) basal leaves, white (vs. yellow) corollas, never hispid (vs. sparsely hispid) outer phyllaries, and usually by smaller capitula. Synonyms of H. chillensis in Cabrera (1978) include H. brasiliensis (Less.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Griseb. and H. tweediei (Hook. & Arn.) Cabrera, names used, respectively, by Cronquist (1980) and Shinners (1966). The nomenclature, typology, and representative specimen citations of our white-flowered Hypochaeris are cited below. Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora (Kuntze) Cabrera, Notas Mus. La Plata, Bot. 2:201. 1937. (Fig. 1). Hypochaeris brasiliensis var. albiflora Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3):159. 1898. Hypochaeris albiflora (Kuntze) Azevêdo-Gonç. & Matzenb., Compositae Newslett. 42:3. 2005. Syntypes: ARGENTINA. Santa Fe: Ceras, Oct 1892, Kuntze s.n. (NY); Paraguay: Concepcion, Sep 1892, Kuntze s.n. (NY).

Distribution.—Native to southern South America (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Unknown in Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. Naturalized in eastern Australia (Auld & Medd 1987; Richardson et al. 2003). Naturalized in the United States (Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas; reported in Oklahoma, perhaps erroneously so, and its occurrence there not verified by me; and expected in Alabama and Florida) where this knee-high scurfy invasive weed flowers from February to June with a peak in April and May. Representative specimens (1 collection per state): GEORGIA. Camden Co.: US Hwy. 17, N of Kingsland, just N of jct. US Hwy. 17 and Daisy Ave, just S of jct. US Hwy. 17 and Kinlaw Road, 30.85883°N 81.70219°W, 30 Apr 2008, Carter & Baker 18369 (MO, VSC [photo MO]). LOUISIANA: St. Tammany Parish: abundant lawn weed at Harold Marcho’s house at 1315 Kings Roe in Pine Hurst subdivision, immediately NE of I-10 jct. with LA Hwy. 433 in Slidell, 30°15'09"N, 89°45'23"W, elev. 7 ft, 13 May 2010, Pruski & Marcho 4586 (LSU, MO, NO). MISSISSIPPI. Hancock Co.: open sandy pine woods roadside on Chazel Lane on N bank of Jordan River, 0.7 mi NW of where MS Hwy. 43-603 crosses the Jordan River, 1.5 mi SW of Kiln, 9 mi N of Gulf of Mexico, 30°23'30"N, 89°27'03"W, elev. 13 ft, 14 May 2008, Pruski 4326 (BRIT, MO, USMS). TEXAS. Orange Co.: 6 mi N of Orange on state Hwy. 87 from north-side jct. with I-10, 17 May 1966, Shinners 31370 (MO).


I would like to thank Rosa Ortiz (MO) for translating into Spanish the abstract; and Anne Bradburn (NO) and Steven Darwin (NO) for help during my studies in the Tulane University herbarium. I thank Charles Bryson, Richard Carter, and an anonymous reviewer for helpful suggestions and improvements.

Pruski, Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora, new for Mississippi


Fig. 1. Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora (Kuntze) Cabrera. A. Capitulum showing the white corollas. B. Plant base showing pinnatifid basal and proximal cauline leaves. (Both from Pruski & Marcho 4586).


Alford, M.H. 2001. The vascular flora of Amite County, Mississippi. Sida 19:645–699. Auld, B.A. and R.W. Medd. 1987. Weeds: an illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne. Azevêdo-Gonçalves, C.F. and N.I. Matzenbenbacher. 2005. Taxonomic notes in Hypochaeris L. (Asteraceae). Compositae Newslett. 42:1–4. Bogler, D.J. 2006. Hypochaeris. In: Flora North America Editorial Committee, eds. Fl. N. Amer. 19:297–299. Cabrera, A.L. 1978. Flora de la provincia de Jujuy. INTA, Buenos Aires. 10:1–726. Carter, R., W.W. Baker, and M.W. Morris. 2009. Contributions to the flora of Georgia, U.S.A. Vulpia 8:1–54. Correll, D.S. and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner. Cronquist, A. 1980. Asteraceae. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. Gandhi, K.N. and R.D. Thomas. 1989. Asteraceae of Louisiana. Sida Bot. Misc. 4:1–202. Lowe, E.N. 1921. Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns. Mississippi State Geol. Surv. Bull. 17:1–292. McCook, L.M. and J. Kartesz. 2010. A preliminary checklist of the plants of Mississippi. (http://www.herbarium., accessed 20 Oct 2010). Oklahoma Vascular Plants Database. 2010. Oklahoma Vascular Plants Database. (http://www.coordinatesolutions. com/ovpd/ovpd.aspx, accessed 20 Oct 2010). Richardson, F.J., R.G. Richardson, and R.C.H. Shepherd. 2003. Weeds of the south-east: an identification guide for Australia. Richardson & Richardson, Meredith. Shinners, L.H. 1966. Hypochoeris microcephala var. albiflora (Compositae) in southeastern Texas: new to North America. Sida 2:393–394. Temple, L.C. and T.M. Pullen. 1968. Preliminary check list of the Compositae of Mississippi. Castanea 33:106–115. Thieret, J.W. 1969. Twenty-five species of vascular plants new to Louisiana. Proc. Louisiana Acad. Sci. 32:78–82. Thomas, R.D. and C.M. Allen. 1996. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana, vol. 2, Dicotyledons: AcanthaceaeEuphorbiaceae. Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries, Baton Rouge. Tomb, A.S. 1974. Hypochoeris in Texas. Sida 5:287–289.


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Turner, B.L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, and O. Doron. 2003. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, vol. 1. Sida Bot. Misc. 24:1–648. Tyrl, R.J., S.C. Barber, P. Buck, W.J. Elisens, J.R. Estes, P. Folley, L.K. Magrath, C.L. Murray, B.A. Smith, C.E.S. Taylor, R.A. Thompson, J.B. Walker, and L.E. Watson. 2009. Keys and descriptions for the vascular plants of Oklahoma. Flora Oklahoma Inc., Noble. USDA-NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. (, accessed 20 October 2010).