Lessons Learned in Geotechnical Engineering

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Oct 1, 2013 ... Director, W.C. English Geotechnical Research Laboratory ..... 25 books and book chapters, including Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering, ...

Lessons Learned in Geotechnical Engineering

Williamsburg, Virginia September 30 to October 2, 2013

PLATINUM SPONSORS

In-Situ Soil Testing, L.C. i

Lessons Learned in Geotechnical Engineering September 30 to October 2, 2013

CONTENTS Program .................................................................................... 1 Organizing Committee .............................................................. 4 Abstracts .................................................................................. 5 List of Speakers ....................................................................... 20 Williamsburg Map .......................................................................................... 21 Map Of Williamsburg Lodge .................................................. 22 Conference Area Layout ......................................................... 23 Conference Sponsors ................................................ Back Cover

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

PROGRAM Monday, September 30, 2013 11:00 AM

Golf Outing – Shotgun Start

6:00 PM to 8:00 PM

Exhibit Hall Reception Virginia Rooms EF

Tuesday, October 1, 2013 7:00 AM to 8:00 AM

Continental Breakfast (Exhibit Hall – Virginia Rooms EF)

Morning Session Location: Virginia Rooms ABCD; Exhibit Hall (Virginia Rooms EF) will be open throughout the conference 8:00 AM

Welcome Remarks Jose N. Gómez S., PE, MSCE, M.ASCE Conference Chair Vice President ECS Mid-Atlantic, LLC

8:10 AM

Recommendations For The Use And Measurement Of Fully Softened Shear Strengths Prof. Tom L. Brandon, Ph.D., P.E. Director, W.C. English Geotechnical Research Laboratory Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

8:50 AM

Lessons Learned In Tunnel Excavations: Rehabilitation Of Machu Picchu Hydroelectric Powerhouse Gabriel Fernandez-Delgado, Ph.D. Consulting Engineer (Ret. Faculty University of Illinois)

9:30 AM

Break

10:00 AM

Lessons Learned In Groundwater Evaluations Gordon Matheson, Ph.D., P.E., P.G. Chief Executive Officer Schnabel Engineering

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Tuesday, October 1, 2013 (Continued) 10:40 AM

Geo-Risk Management At The Panama Canal Gregory B. Baecher, Ph.D., P.E. University of Maryland

11:20 AM

Case Studies Linking Foundation Performance And In-Situ Testing In The Appalachian Piedmont Paul W. Mayne, Ph.D., P.E. Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology

Luncheon and Keynote Lecture Location: Colony Room 12:00 Noon

Lessons From The Lives Of Two Dams James K. Mitchell, ScD, P.E., G.E., Dist. M ASCE University Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Virginia Tech Consulting Geotechnical Engineer

Afternoon Session Location: Virginia Rooms ABCD 1:30 PM

Lessons Learned From Landslides Suzanne Lacasse, Ph.D. Technical Director, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) Oslo, Norway

2:10 PM

Slide Stabilization With A 17.0-Meter Tall Reinforced Earth Fill: Lessons Learned Jose N. Gómez S., P.E., MSCE, M.ASCE Vice President, ECS Mid-Atlantic, LLC

2:50 PM

Break

3:20 PM

Lessons Learned From Cambridge (UK) Soil Models Andrew N. Schofield, Ph.D. Emeritus Professor of Engineering, Cambridge University

4:00 PM

Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil: From The Experimental To The Familiar Robert Holtz, Ph.D., P.E., D.GE Professor Emeritus, University of Washington

5:15 PM

Adjourn for the day

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Wednesday, October 2, 2013 7:00 AM to 8:00 AM

Continental Breakfast (Exhibit Hall – Virginia Rooms EF)

Location: Virginia Rooms ABCD 8:00 AM

Lessons Learned From Geotechnical Investigations At DC Clean Rivers Tunnel Project William W. Edgerton, P.E. Principal and Immediate Past President Jacobs Associates

8:40 AM

Ground Improvement For Liquefaction Risk Mitigation – Methods, Verification, And Recent Research Dr. Allen L. Sehn, P.E. Vice President, Engineering Hayward Baker

9:20 AM

Lessons Learned in Installing Large Concrete Piles in Potomac Soils Gnana Gunaratnam, P.E. Associate, D.W. Kozera, Inc. David W. Kozera, P.E. Principal, D.W. Kozera, Inc.

10:00 AM

Break

10:40 AM

Do You Need More Geo In Your Geotechnical? Lessons Learned From Hydrogeology And Slope Stability Chester F. Watts, Ph.D., P.G., M.ASCE Professor, Radford University & Virginia Tech

11:20 AM

Learning From The Mistakes Of Others… David J. Elton, Ph.D., P.E., S.M., F.ASCE Professor of Civil Engineering Auburn University, Alabama

12:00 PM

Closing Remarks Roger Failmezger, P.E., F.ASCE Chair, Virginia Geo-Institute President, In-Situ, Inc.

12:10 PM

Conference Adjournment

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Jose N. Gómez S., MSCE, P.E., M.ASCE Conference Chair Vice President / Principal Engineer and Virginia Beach Branch Manager ECS Mid-Atlantic, LLC [email protected]

Jason Dauch, E.I.T. Treasurer Project Engineer Dominion Engineering Associates, Inc. [email protected] Ross Cutts, MSCE, E.I.T. Webmaster Transportation Engineer Maryland State Highway Administration [email protected]

Roger Failmezger, P.E., F.ASCE Conference Co-Chair President In-situ Soil Testing, LC [email protected]

Dana Eddy, MSCE, P.E. Golf Outing Chair Senior Vice President Professional Service Industries, Inc. [email protected]

Tariq B. Hamid, Ph.D., P.E. Secretary Principal Dulles Geotechnical and Material Testing Services, Inc. [email protected]

Michael J. Galli, MSCE, P.E., M.ASCE ASCE Virginia Section Representative Vice President/ Hampton Roads Regional Manager ECS Mid-Atlantic, LLC [email protected]

Greg Simmons MSCE, P.E. Exhibits Manager Business Development Manager Hayward Baker [email protected] Qamar A. O. Kazmi, P.E., M.ASCE Speaker Chair Principal Schnabel Engineering [email protected]

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

ABSTRACTS Recommendations For The Use And Measurement Of Fully Softened Shear Strengths Prof. Tom L. Brandon, Ph.D., P.E. Director, W.C. English Geotechnical Research Laboratory Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

ABSTRACT The importance of the reduction in shear strength over time in stiff-fissured clay has been recognized for over 75 years. Prof. A. W. Skempton devoted a significant portion of his career to the study of “fully softened” shear strength of clays, and their contribution to the failure of cut slopes in London Clay. More recently, fully softened strengths have proven to be useful in the assessment of the long term stability of compacted embankments constructed of fat clays in semi-arid climates. Suggestions are provided regarding when it is prudent to use fully softened strengths in geotechnical practice. In addition, the laboratory methods used to measure fully softened strengths are compared, and recommendations for basic test procedures are provided. Prof. Brandon received his BS in Civil Engineering from Clemson University, and his MS and PhD degrees in Civil Engineering from UC Berkeley. He has been a faculty member at Virginia Tech since 1985, where he currently is the director of the W.C. English Geotechnical Research Laboratory. Prof. Brandon has been active in geotechnical engineering practice throughout his career, with both his research and consulting efforts focusing on laboratory and field assessment of shear strength, shear strength interpretation, and slope stability and seepage analyses. In recent years, Prof. Brandon has been very active in research and consulting work for the US Army Corps of Engineers. He was a member of the IPET team to investigate the causes of failure of the flood protection system in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. He was a member of the Mississippi Valley Division QA oversight group to assess field and laboratory testing during the reconstruction efforts, and was a member of the MVD Geotechnical Criteria Application Team (GCAT) to assist in providing design methods and parameters for new construction. He currently is on a 12-month interagency personnel arrangement with the Corps of Engineers at ERDC and is involved in the rewriting effort of the levee design manual and investigating transient seepage analysis of levees.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Lessons Learned in Tunnel Excavations: Rehabilitation of Machu Picchu Hydroelectric Powerhouse Gabriel Fernandez-Delgado, Ph.D. Consulting Engineer (Retired Faculty, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) ABSTRACT Most engineering failures are caused by a combination of multidisciplinary factors, such as unanticipated natural phenomena, operational changes. The implementation of the required repairs involves a clear understanding of Engineering of engineering fundamentals, precedent, and current construction practice. The lessons learned during the rehabilitation of a Powerhouse, buried by an avalanche triggered by glacier melting vividly emphasize the validity of the above tenets. Partial melting of the Salkantay glacier in Perú, at an approximate elevation of 6,000m above sea level, triggered an avalanche that descended into the valley of the Vilcanota River, 4,400 m below. The avalanche raised the river bed about 50 m for a distance of nearly 2 km upstream and downstream of the avalanche discharge and the debris plugged the Powerhouse tailrace discharge channel. Rehabilitation of the Project involved installation of twin, adjacent tunnels to cross the river, and connect the powerhouse with a rock tunnel that discharges downstream of the debris accumulation, and utilized a 3.5-m diameter Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) A pipe jacking scheme was implemented to provide both temporary and final tunnel support immediately behind the TBM. After about 70 m of successful excavation of the first tunnel, a blockage occurred due to overloading of a set of pipes located closely behind the TBM. After 60 days of unsuccessful attempts to free the pipes, a creative engineering scheme freed the pipes and the tunnel was completed 15 days later. The lessons learned from the excavation of the first tunnel were evaluated, and a series of proactive measures were implemented to adjust critical parts of the TBM as well as pipe design and installation procedures. The excavation of the second tunnel was successfully completed in a total of 9 days with no interruptions. Gabriel Fernandez obtained a Civil Engineering degree from the University of Los Andes (Bogota) in 1970, and M.S. (1972) and PhD (1976) degrees from the University of Illinois, at Urbana. He continued at Illinois, as a faculty member in the Civil Engineering Department lecturing on foundations and dam design, rock mechanics, and soil and rock dynamics. Concurrently, he pursued research interests in the areas of underground storage caverns within salt deposits, pressure tunnel behavior and soil-structure interaction for static and dynamic loadings. His teaching and research activities were complemented with assignments as a consulting geotechnical engineer. Since his retirement from the University of Illinois in 2001, he has continued his private engineering practice by consulting on hydroelectric projects, large mines and infrastructure projects around the world. Awards received include: US National Committee for Rock Mechanics for significant original contribution, 1987, Raul Marsal Lecture, Mexico, 2000.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Some Lessons Learned From Construction Related Groundwater Experience Gordon Matheson, Ph.D., P.E., P.G. Chief Executive Officer Schnabel Engineering, Inc.

ABSTRACT Groundwater control for excavations is often a source of dispute between contractors, owners, and designers. From a design perspective, engineers and geologists often oversimplify the conceptual site geologic model and don’t understand the limitations various testes to determine hydraulic properties. In addition, the potential for water chemistry impact on groundwater control and corrosion of various elements is often not addressed. The presentation covers these topics and provides some real life examples of where difficulties have occurred.

Gordon Matheson is President and CEO of Schnabel Engineering, Inc. of Glen Allen Virginia. Dr. Matheson has a BS in geology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, an MS in Geological Engineering for University of Missouri at Rolls, and a PhD in Geological Engineering from Colorado School of Mines. Dr. Matheson has more than 35 years of experience working for a variety of industry and consultants. He has been with Schnabel for the past 25 years and has been the firm’s President and CEO since 2002. He is the author of more than 30 technical publications and has taught as adjunct faculty at Colorado School of Mines and The Catholic University of America.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Geo-Risk Management At The Panama Canal Gregory B. Baecher, Ph.D., P.E. G.L. Martin Institute Professor of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

ABSTRACT The Panama Canal is among the wonders of modern engineering and is essential infrastructure for globalization of the world's economy. We all depend on the canal, and the prospect of the Canal being out of operation for an extended period is almost unthinkable. Yet all infrastructure lives with risks. Today, the Canal Authority (ACP) is undertaking a comprehensive enterprise risk management program better to manage a portfolio of risks from financial, to engineering, to natural hazards, to physical security. Many of these risks are geotechnical or hydrotechnical in nature: One need only think of the Gaillard Cut, the Gatún and Madden Dams, or the major (and aging) lock structures to appreciate the breadth of issues. ACP has crafted a progressive approach to risk management which draws upon lessons learned in the aftermath of Katrina, from dam safety efforts around the world, and from asset management challenges in Europe, the US, and elsewhere. An overview of this large-scale effort is presented, and lessons derived for other projects.

Gregory B. Baecher is Glenn L Martin Institute Professor of Engineering at the University of Maryland. He holds a BSCE from UC Berkeley and a PhD in civil engineering from MIT. He is the author of four books on risk, safety, and the protection of civil infrastructure. He is recipient of the USACE Commander's Award for Public Service, the Panamanian National Award for Science and Technology Innovation, and is a member of the US National Academy of Engineering.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Case Studies Linking Foundation Performance and In-Situ Tests in the Appalachian Piedmont Paul W. Mayne, Ph.D., P.E. Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

ABSTRACT While conventional rotary drilling and split-spoon sampling continue to play a role in site investigation of residual silts and sands of the Piedmont geologic province, there are benefits to securing more reliable quantifications of soil parameters through the use of in-situ geotechnical and geophysical tests. Several case studies are presented where the actual foundation performance was wellpredicted using results from cone penetration tests, dilatometer tests, and/or shear wave velocity. Results include full-scale measured responses from large shallow mat foundations and deep foundation systems, including drilled shafts and driven steel pipe piles. For deep foundations, a closed-form elastic continuum solution is shown to provide a rational framework for analysis, provided that a suitable profile for the equivalent modulus of the ground is properly assessed. The approach can consider both top-down loading from anchored reaction beams and bidirectional O-cell tests. Case study performances are presented from foundations situated in the residual soils, saprolite, and partially-weathered rocks of the Piedmont in Alabama, Georgia, and Virginia. Dr. Paul W. Mayne has a total 37 years of geotechnical experience starting with 11 years of consulting, 3 years in doctoral studies at Cornell University, and 23 years as a faculty member at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His research and expertise center around geotechnical site characterization, soil properties, in-situ testing, foundation systems, and ground improvement. Paul has served 14 years as the chair of the ISSMGE technical committee on insitu testing that has organized international conferences in Atlanta (1998), Porto (2004), Taipei (2008), and Pernambuco (2012) on geocharacterization with current plans for the next ISC-5 in Brisbane (2016). Recently, Paul was elected as the ISSMGE Vice President for North America. He is an active member in ASCE, CGS, ISSMGE, USUCGER, ADSC, DFI, ASTM, and FHWA/TRB events. Dr. Mayne has delivered a number of prominent presentations including the James K Mitchell Lecture (2006), Mike O’Neill Lecture (2009), SOA-1 at ICSMGE Egypt (2009), Ardaman Lecture (2012), and produced over 270 publications.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Lessons From The Lives of Two Dams James K. Mitchell, Sc.D., P.E, Dist. M.ASCE, NAS, NAE University Distinguished Professor, Emeritus Virginia Tech

ABSTRACT San Pablo Dam, located near Oakland in Northern California and completed in 1921, is a hydraulic fill structure founded on alluvial deposits. Mormon Island Auxiliary Dam, a part of the Folsom Project located near Sacramento and completed in 1956, is a compacted fill embankment founded on hydraulically-deposited dredger tailings from gold mining operations. Each dam was subsequently deemed unsafe under anticipated seismic loading conditions. Several modifications have been made to each dam to improve resistance to anticipated earthquake loadings, extending over the period 1967 to 2010 at San Pablo Dam and from the late 1980's to 2012 at Mormon Island. These modifications are described and illustrated, and some conclusions and lessons learned about the development of geotechnical earthquake engineering for dams, seismic remediation strategies, the importance of proper site and material characterization, and the advantages and limitations of some ground improvement methods are offered. Jim Mitchell joined the faculty at Virginia Tech in 1994 and now is University Distinguished Professor Emeritus and Consulting Geotechnical Engineer. From 1958 to 1994 he was on the Civil & Environmental Engineering faculty at the University of California, Berkeley. His teaching, research and consulting activities have focused on soil behavior, soil stabilization, ground improvement, environmental geotechnics, and mitigation of seismic risk. He was the 2006 recipient of the ASCE Outstanding Projects and Leaders Award (OPAL) in Education. He is a member of the United States National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Lessons Learned From Landslides Suzanne Lacasse, Ph.D. Technical Director Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway

ABSTRACT Protecting society from landslides and reducing exposure and risk to population and property are areas where the geotechnical profession can practice both the art and the science of engineering legated by Karl Terzaghi. The paper presents several case studies of slope failure and examples of landslide risk management. For each case study, lessons learned are drawn. Since factor of safety remains the main indicator to ensure slope safety, the significance of factor of safety is discussed. The geotechnical engineer’s role is not only to act as technologist providing judgment on factors of safety, but also providing input in the evaluation of hazard, vulnerability and risk associated with landslides. The geotechnical profession should be increasingly perceived as reducing risk and protecting people. Dr. Lacasse was born in the small mining town of Noranda in northern Québec, Canada. She completed first her Bachelor of Arts, and in 1971, her studies in Civil Engineering at Ecole Polytechnique of Montréal. Graduate studies followed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA and Ecole Polytechnique. She obtained her Ph.D. in 1976. She was Lecturer at Ecole Polytechnique (1973-1975), and on the faculty of the Civil Engineering Department at MIT (1975-1983), where she also was Head of the Geotechnical Laboratory. Dr. Lacasse went to the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) as a post-doctoral fellow in 1978. She became permanent employee in late 1980, and worked on research and consulting assignments, both in Norway and abroad. She became NGI's Managing Director in 1991, a position she held until December 2011. Since 2012, she acts as Technical Director at NGI. She served as President of the Canadian Geotechnical Society in 2003-2004. Dr. Lacasse received many awards, including doctorates Honoris Causa from the University of Dundee (Scotland) and the Norwegian University of Trondheim, the Robert Legget Award of the Canadian Geotechnical Society, the K.Y. Lo Medal of the Engineering Institute of Canada for excellence in engineering, and the Effective Teaching Award in Civil Engineering at MIT. She is member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineers, the Canadian Academy of Engineers, the French Academy of Sciences - Section Technologies, the Norwegian Academy of Engineering and Sciences, the Norwegian Engineering Academy, the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters, and the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Technology. Dr. Lacasse is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, a fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada, a fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), and an honorary member of the Norwegian Geotechnical Society. She gave the37th ASCE Terzaghi Lecture in 2001 and the 8th ISSMGE Terzaghi Oration in 2013.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Slide Stabilization with a 17-meter Tall Reinforced Earth Fill: Lessons Learned Jose N. Gomez S., P.E., MSCE, M.ASCE Vice President Principal Engineer, ECS Mid-Atlantic, LLC

ABSTRACT A 19-story concrete frame building was constructed during 1993-1996 in Bogotá D.C., Colombia S.A. The Project footprint was about 10,400 m2 (111,800 ft2), and was located within the financial and international hub of the city, a very traffic congested intersection. The building was also to have five (5) basement levels and the gross construction area was approximately 100,000 m2 (1,075,000 ft2). The bottom elevation of the basement excavation extended to 17.0 m (55.8 ft). The project started in October of 1993 with the required basements excavation and the construction of a 35 cm (13.75 in) - thick anchor supported shotcrete wall. The wall was constructed on excavation stages, total length was 37.0 m (121.4 ft) and maximum height was 17.0 m (55.8 ft). The retaining structure failed in May of 1994 resulting in the loss of one person life. A reinforced earth fill (REF) within a very limited available space was built to rehabilitate the sector traffic intersection and to continue with the project construction. The REF comprised a vertical face and approximately 6,000 m3 (2,400 yd3) of Clayey Granular Fill (GC); the REF was built in a short period of time of 28 days. This presentation will provide the back analysis of the wall failure indicating the causes that originated it. Design and construction considerations of the 17.0-meter REF remedial solution will also be presented including the internal and external stability analyses that were carried out. It is important to mention that minor geotechnical details that are not addressed on time, or oversight on site for lack of knowledge, can cause major geotechnical failures. Jose Gomez is a Vice President and the Branch Manager of the Virginia Beach office of ECS Mid-Atlantic LLC. He has more than 32 years of varied experience in a wide range of geotechnical and civil engineering consulting for studies, designs, project layouts and construction supervisions for more than 190 projects since 1980. He has provided geotechnical recommendations for site preparation, earthwork, excavations, retaining structures, embankments, dams and levees, slope stability and foundation design for several industrial, commercial and infrastructure projects. Mr. Gomez has been adjunct professor for several undergraduate and graduate geotechnical courses and speaker during the last 25 years of his professional career. Currently, he is an Adjunct Professor at Old Dominion University, teaching courses in Soils and Foundations. He is a registered Professional Engineer in the Commonwealth of Virginia and North Carolina. Mr. Gomez has published more than 40 technical papers in a variety of seminars and technical session and proceedings related to geotechnical and civil engineering projects.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Lessons Learned From Cambridge (UK) Soil Models Andrew N. Schofield, Ph.D. Emeritus Professor of Engineering, Cambridge University

ABSTRACT To avoid liquefaction of a soil embankment dam in an earthquake, Casagrande advised compaction to below a Critical porosity (on the dry side). Taylor found that the peak strength of such compact soil is the sum of internal friction plus a component due to work as compact soil expands; interlocking dilation creates a “false” cohesion intercept. Cam-clay, our soil model, has no adhesion between soil grains but on the wet side it consolidates, yields and deforms as a stable plastic body; on the “dry side” it fails with slip planes and with cracks. All this is taught to Cambridge civil engineering undergraduates. The presentation will describe centrifuge model tests of ground movement due to excavation. Both trench and tunnel model tests had results that had value in practice. Andrew Schofield studied engineering and graduated from Christ's College Cambridge in 1951. He then worked in the Nyasaland Protectorate, Africa (now Malawi) office of Scott and Wilson Ltd. where he performed research on lateritic soils and low cost road construction. He returned to Cambridge University to work with Professor Kenneth H. Roscoe on his PhD, which he completed in 1961. He became an Assistant Lecturer in 1961 and was elected Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge in 1963. With Ken Roscoe and Peter Wroth in 1958 he published "On the Yielding of Soils", which showed how plasticity theory and critical state soil mechanics could be used to describe the coupled volumetric and shear behavior of soils (Roscoe, Schofield & Wroth 1958) which led to the development of a constitutive model known as 'Cam Clay' that was formalized in the classic text by Schofield & Wroth in 1968. Schofield was influenced by work on geotechnical centrifuge modeling by G.I. Pokrovsky in the USSR to study geotechnical engineering and soil mechanics problems. He developed a prototype geotechnical centrifuge in Cambridge and later adapted a centrifuge in the English Electric Company in Luton, UK to be used for geotechnical modeling in 1966. He accepted a Chair at the Institute of Science and Technology in Manchester (UMIST) in 1968 and developed a 1.5 m radius geotechnical centrifuge there. Following Roscoe's untimely death in 1970, he returned to Cambridge in 1974 and was appointed as a Professor in the Cambridge University Engineering Department to lead the Soil Mechanics group. Working with a mechanical design engineer, Phillip Turner, he developed a 5 m radius geotechnical centrifuge at Cambridge University that continues to be heavily used in 2010. Professor Schofield retired from the University in 1997, but his continued work is evidenced by the publication of a book in 2005. 13

September 30 to October 2, 2013

Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil: From The Experimental To The Familiar Robert. D. Holtz, Ph.D., P.E. D.GE Professor Emeritus University of Washington Seattle, Washington USA

ABSTRACT The lecture begins with a historical review of reinforced soil technology, from the ancients, the developments by H. Vidal and K. Lee on Terre Armée and Reinforced Earth, the early uses of geosynthetics for soil reinforcement in France (Bidim), Sweden (Wager and Broms), and the USA (USFS, FHWA, J. R. Bell, T. A. Haliburton, B. R. Christopher and others). The advantages and basic behavior of geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) are presented along with an overview of current design procedures, and with reference to UW analytical research results. Practical suggestions are given for dealing with creep, pullout, and backfill drainage. Although GRS is quite a mature development, a few technical and professional issues remain; primarily, too many failures of these structures occur. Reasons for these failures and some suggestions as to what the profession can do about them are presented. The lecture ends with several examples of successful applications of GRS and reinforced soil technology. Bob Holtz, PhD, PE, D.GE, Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at the University of Washington in Seattle, has also taught at Purdue and Cal State-Sacramento. He has degrees from Minnesota and Northwestern, and he attended the Special Program in Soil Mechanics at Harvard under Prof. A. Casagrande. He has worked for the California Dept. of Water Resources, Swedish Geotechnical Institute, NRC-Canada, and as a consulting engineer in Chicago, Paris, and Milano. His research, sponsored by several federal and state agencies as well as private companies, has mostly been on geosynthetics, foundations, soil improvement, and soil properties. Bob is author, co-author, or editor of 25 books and book chapters, including Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering, 2nd Edition (with W. D. Kovacs and T.C. Sheahan, 2011). He is also author or co-author of more than 280 technical papers, discussions, reviews, and major reports. Bob is a Fellow, Life, and Distinguished Member of ASCE. He was on the first Board of Governors of the Geo-Institute, was President in 2000-01, and currently is the G-I International Secretary. He has also been active with the ISSMGE, TRB, ASTM, and NAGS-IGS, and has had an active consulting practice throughout his academic career. Bob has taught many short courses and given numerous lectures, both in the US and abroad, including the 46th Karl Terzaghi Lecture in 2010.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Lessons Learned From Geotechnical Investigations at DC Clean Rivers Tunnel Project William W. Edgerton, P.E. Principal and Immediate Past President Jacobs Associates, Engineers/Consultants San Francisco, CA

ABSTRACT An extensive geotechnical investigation program is currently being performed in the Washington DC area as part of the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority’s (DC Water) Long Term Control Plan (LTCP), which is being implemented through the DC Clean Rivers (DCCR) Projects. The DCCR Projects consists of an approximately 20.4-km-long (12.7 mile) tunnel system, including 18 large-diameter deep shafts and supporting structures, all in soft ground. The majority of the soil and field testing for the project is being performed in the Potomac Group sediments. Results and lessons learned for both the field and laboratory testing from the project is presented as well as the soil properties developed for the project. William W. Edgerton P.E., is a Principal with the firm of Jacobs Associates, headquartered in San Francisco, California. For the last ten years he has served as the President, directing strategic planning, business development and administration, while acting as the Principal-in-Charge and working in a technical capacity on various underground projects. Since 2013 he has served as the Chair of the Executive Committee for the Underground Construction Association, a division of SME. He continues to serve as an ASCE program evaluator for civil engineering programs on behalf of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). He is a member of the Moles, and is the recipient of the Beavers’ 2012 Engineering Award. He received his B.S. in Civil Engineering at Tufts University, Medford, MA, and his M.B.A. in Procurement and Contracting at George Washington University, Washington, DC, and holds PE licenses in nine states. In the 25 years he has worked for Jacobs Associates, he has represented both owners and contractors on a number of heavy civil and tunnel projects; as a construction manager on wastewater treatment plants, transit and water tunnels; and as a designer of water, wastewater, and transit tunnels. He has worked on Design-Build and Design-Bid-Build projects, for both contractors and for owner agencies. Projects with which he has had significant involvement include the Cove Point LNG Terminal, the WMATA subway system, Crystal River power plant Units 3 & 4, Dallas North Tollway, Los Angeles Metrorail system, Gallipolis Lock and Dam, Hong Kong SSDS, Narragansett CSO, Hollywood Water Quality Improvement, Los Angeles NEIS, San Francisco Islais Creek, the MWD Inland Feeder System, Puerto Rico’s Tren Urbano, San Diego’s San Vicente Pipeline, King County’s Brightwater Conveyance system, WSDOT’s Alaskan Way Viaduct projects, and the SFPUC’s Bay Tunnel. He currently serves as the Manager of Tunneling for DC Water’s Clean Rivers Project in Washington, DC.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Ground Improvement for Liquefaction Risk Mitigation – Methods, Verification, and Recent Research Dr. Allen L. Sehn, P.E. Vice President, Engineering, Hayward Baker

ABSTRACT Current practice for liquefaction risk assessment will be briefly reviewed. Ground improvement approaches to mitigate the liquefaction risk will be presented along with a discussion of verification methods. A summary of recent research on the effectiveness of shear reinforcement for liquefaction risk mitigation will also be presented.

Dr. Sehn is Vice President, Engineering for geotechnical specialist contractor Hayward Baker Inc. He provides engineering support and design assistance to all of Hayward Baker’s offices and assists consultants and owners in identifying ground improvement and foundation solutions appropriate for their projects. His responsibilities also include evaluation and development of new and revised methods for ground improvement, evaluation of grout mixes and properties for various applications, and technical risk assessment. Prior to joining Hayward Baker, he spent 13 years conducting research and teaching graduate and undergraduate courses in Civil Engineering. Dr. Sehn earned his Ph.D. in geotechnical engineering at Virginia Tech and is a registered professional engineer. He is a member of ASCE, ISSMFE, and ASTM, and serves on ASCE’s Soil Improvement Committee.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Lessons Learned in Installing Large Concrete Piles in Potomac Soils Gnana Gunaratnam, P.E. Associate, D.W. Kozera, Inc.

David W. Kozera, P.E. Principal, D.W. Kozera, Inc.

ABSTRACT The $5 Billion Panama Canal expansion project would allow the Post- Panamax ships and larger container ships from Asia and the Pacific to use the Ports along the U.S. East Coast. In preparation of the Post-Panamax ships, several ports along the East Coast are deepening the navigation channels and upgrading the berths. The deeper water and heavier crane loads require the use of larger and longer concrete piles to support the foundation loads. The concrete piles perform better than steel piles in corrosive marine environment and they are economically attractive. However, installing these larger piles to the required tip elevation and capacity without damaging the pile is a challenge. This presentation attempts to present the lessons learned in installing 30-inch and 24-inch square concrete piles at the Port of Baltimore. The subsurface conditions consisting of stiff clay and dense sand required the use of steel stingers at the bottom of the concrete piles. Embedded Data Collectors (EDC) for dynamic measurements were utilized for the first time at the Port of Baltimore to evaluate the integrity of the pile-stinger connection. These embedded sensors provided unprecedented insight into the integrity of the stinger-concrete pile connection. Modifications were made to the pile design, pile driving system, and the pile installation procedures based on the dynamic test measurements. The difficulties encountered in mobilizing the required ultimate capacities during dynamic testing and the lessons learned in measuring the ultimate pile capacities are also discussed. Static and Statnamic data collected are compared to the dynamic test data and the results are discussed. Gnana Gunaratnam, P.E., an associate with D.W. Kozera, Inc., is proficient with several deep foundation tests and geotechnical instrumentation. He assisted in developing a lateral Statnamic test to back-calculate dynamic soil properties as a research assistant at Johns Hopkins University, where he received his Master’s degree in Civil Engineering. Mr. Gunaratnam is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of Maryland, and holds a master level certification in dynamic pile testing. David W. Kozera, P.E., is the president of D.W. Kozera, Inc. He is a well-known geotechnical engineer with over 35 years of geotechnical experience in the Mid-Atlantic region. He is an expert in geotechnical explorations, ground improvement techniques, deep foundation design and testing, and support of excavation design. He has worked on over 300 design and construction projects, and authored several technical papers. Mr. Kozera received his Master’s degree in Civil Engineering at Syracuse University under the supervision of Professor Fred Kulhaway.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Do You Need More Geo in Your Geotechnical? Lessons Learned From Hydrogeology and Slope Stability Chester F. Watts, Ph.D., P.G., M. ASCE Radford University & Virginia Tech

ABSTRACT Communication between geologists and geotechnical engineers is not always as effective as it could be sometimes to the detriment of engineering projects. The two disciplines frequently seem to speak different languages, where words like consolidation, sorting, and grading can have different nuances depending on who is speaking or writing and who is listening or reading. More complex concepts like dip vectors versus poles plotted on stereonets for rock slope engineering analyses based on structural geology can be even more challenging. While many professionals do succeed in bridging the gaps, those trained narrowly in one discipline or the other, for whatever reason, tend to have a hard time understanding what members of the other may have to offer. Simply put, not enough geologists are taught how to work with engineers and not enough engineers seem willing to hear what geologists might have to share with them of value. And sadly, the differences sometimes devolve into bitter turf battles when one feels their territory threatened by the other due to overlapping subject matter. It does not need to be like that! There are no easy answers but there are lessons to be learned. If your geotechnical practice is limited mostly to soils, then your answer to the title question is likely to be “usually not, I have access to all the geology I’ll ever need,” yet you might be surprised by what you do not know. If your practice includes aspects of rock mechanics or hydrogeology involving bedrock, then your answer might already be “I wish I knew how to bring more geo into my geotechnical.” University programs that bring geotechs and geologists together to study and learn as interdisciplinary teams can help bridge the communication gap. Dr. Watts specializes in engineering geology and is a Certified Professional Geologist in the state of Virginia. Dr. Watts held the position of Dalton Distinguished Professor of Geology at Radford University, where he began teaching in 1984. He also teaches “Geology Applied to Engineering” at Virginia Tech and is the author of ROCKPACKTM computer software, used internationally for analyzing the safety and stability of mountain slopes, mines, quarries, highways, buildings, and bridge foundations. Dr. Watts served for 18 months as the 2001 GSA/USGS Congressional Science Fellow, working on U.S. Senator Joe Lieberman’s personal staff, and then as the 2003 AEG/GSA Jahns Distinguished Lecturer across the United States. In addition to teaching courses in environmental and engineering geology, he serves as a rock slope stability consultant to numerous highway departments, federal agencies, and engineering firms throughout North America. His projects have included rock fall fatality investigations in British Columbia, evaluations of a dam spillway stability adjacent to the San Andreas Fault, an MSHA Review Board following a massive open pit mine rockslide, and serving on the Consultants Review Board for construction of the Folsom Dam Auxiliary Spillway in California.Prof. Watts is the recipient of several regional and national teaching awards, including the 1998 Virginia Outstanding Professor Award from the State Council for Higher Education. He appeared in a television documentary called SLIDE!, which aired as part of The Weather Channel’s “Storm Stories” series, as well as on NPR (National Public Radio) while rock climbing during a rockslide investigation in Yosemite National Park.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

Learning From the Mistakes of Others… David J. Elton, Ph.D., P.E., S.M., F. ASCE

ABSTRACT Engineers learn more from failures than from successes. Indeed, one can say failures advance our profession. Several geotechnical failures are presented and examined, in an effort to keep future engineers from replicating each failure. Some notable failures, complemented by minor ones (none of which are the speaker’s!) are presented for the audience’s consideration. All the failures could have been avoided with the then-current technology.

Dr. David J. Elton is an ASCE Fellow who has worked Auburn University for over 25 years as a geotechnical educator and researcher. He earned degrees from College of Technology, Utah State University, and Purdue University. Dr. Elton has been active in geosynthetics, and served as President of the North American Geosynthetics Society. The holder of two US patents, and numerous national teaching, research and service awards, he is a member of several Honor Societies, is a Registered Professional Engineer, and Soils Magician.

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

LIST OF SPEAKERS Gregory B. Baecher, Ph.D., P.E. G.L. Martin Institute Professor of Engineering, University of Maryland

T. L. Brandon, Ph.D., P.E. Director, W.C. English Geotechnical Research Laboratory, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA William W. Edgerton, P.E. Principal and Immediate Past President, Jacobs Associates, San Francisco David J. Elton, Ph.D., P.E., S.M., F.ASCE Professor of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, AL 36849 Gabriel Fernandez-Delgado, Ph.D. Consulting Engineer, (Ret. Faculty University of Illinois) Jose N. Gómez S., PE, MSCE, M. ASCE Vice President, ECS Mid-Atlantic, LLC Gnana Gunaratnam, P.E. Associate, D.W. Kozera, Inc. Robert D. Holtz, Ph.D., P.E., D.GE Professor Emeritus, University of Washington David W. Kozera, P.E. Principal D.W. Kozera, Inc. Suzanne Lacasse, Ph.D. Technical Director, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway Gordon Matheson, Ph.D., P.E., P.G. Chief Executive Officer, Schnabel Engineering, Inc. Paul W. Mayne, Ph.D., P.E. Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, James K. Mitchell, Sc.D., P.E., G.E., Dist. M.ASCE – Keynote Speaker University Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Virginia Tech Andrew N. Schofield, Ph.D. Emeritus Professor of Engineering, Cambridge University Allen L. Sehn, P.E. Vice President, Engineering, Hayward Baker Chester F. Watts, Ph.D., P.G., M.ASCE 20

September 30 to October 2, 2013 Radford University & Virginia Tech

MAP OF WILLIAMSBURG

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

MAP OF WILLIAMSBURG LODGE

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

CONFERENCE AREA LAYOUT

EXHIBIT AREA

VIRGINIA ROOM

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September 30 to October 2, 2013

GOLD SPONSORS

GPE, Inc.

September 30 to October 2, 2013

PLATINUM SPONSORS

In-Situ Soil Testing, L.C

GOLD SPONSORS

GPE, Inc.

KEYNOTE LUNCHEON SPONSOR