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OPEN Data Descriptor

Liver transcriptome resources of four commercially exploited teleost species André M. Machado   1 ✉, Antonio Muñoz-Merida   2, Elza Fonseca1,3, Ana Veríssimo2,3, Rui Pinto1, Mónica Felício4, Rute R. da Fonseca   5, Elsa Froufe   1 & L. Filipe C. Castro1,3 ✉ The generation of omic resources is central to develop adequate management strategies for species with economic value. Here, we provide high-coverage RNA-seq datasets of liver tissue (containing between 80,2 and 88,4 million of paired-end reads) from four wildtype teleost species with high commercial value: Trachurus trachurus (TTR; Atlantic horse mackerel), Scomber scombrus (SSC; Atlantic mackerel), Trisopterus luscus (TLU; pout), and Micromesistius poutassou (MPO; blue whiting). A comprehensive assembly pipeline, using de novo single and multi-kmer assembly approaches, produced 64 single high-quality liver transcriptomes – 16 per species. The final assemblies, with N50 values ranging from 2,543–3,700 bp and BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs) completeness values between 81.8–86.5% of the Actinopterygii gene set, were subjected to open reading frame (ORF) prediction and functional annotation. Our study provides the first transcriptomic resources for these species and offers valuable tools to evaluate both neutral and selected genetic variation among populations, and to identify candidate genes for environmental adaptation assisting in the investigation of the effects of global changes in fisheries.

Background & Summary

Multi-data approaches using complementary techniques are essential to successfully define fish stocks and management strategies (e.g.1,2). The revolution of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has created an unprecedented opportunity to contribute to each component of fisheries management (e.g. reviewed in3), allowing to address population structure and adaptive divergence in commercially relevant teleost fish species (e.g. Atlantic cod4 and Atlantic herring5), to identify candidate genes for environmental adaptation3 or to explore the function of genes with aquaculture relevance6. Importantly, the expansion of genomic and transcriptomic datasets has been fundamental to detail the complex phylogenetic relationships of this taxon-rich clade7–9. Additionally, these resources have also been proven important in conservation strategies, where they have allowed the prediction of how species will respond to new environmental scenarios and the identification of the threats endangering species at risk (e.g.10). Yet, these formidable tools have to be applied to the vast majority of the world fisheries: 60% of which are at their maximum sustainable yield, 33% are exploited at biologically unsustainable levels and only 7.0% are considered underfished11. Here, we generated four liver transcriptomic datasets from important fishing resources in European waters belonging to three different taxonomic families: the Atlantic horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus 1758), the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus (Linnaeus 1758) (SSC), the pout, Trisopterus luscus (Linnaeus 1758) and the blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou (Risso 1827) (Fig. 1a). Together, these species represent an important fraction of fish captures in European waters (Fig. 1a) and are, therefore, relevant models for which the development of omic tools for research is highly desirable. Although some information regarding basic biological traits is currently available, some aspects of their biology remain poorly known, particularly population structure, nutritional requirements, reproduction, coastal recruitment processes, and studies involving NGS datasets are 1

CIIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto – University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. 2CIBIO-InBIO, Research Network in Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, 4485-661, Vairão, Portugal. 3Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, U. Porto - University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. 4Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, I.P. (IPMA), Lisbon, Portugal. 5Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. ✉e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected] Scientific Data |

(2020) 7:214 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0565-9

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Fig. 1  Schematic overview of the study. (a) Geographic coordinates of sampling, photographs of the collected specimens, taxonomy classification and fishery relevance. (b) Experimental setup used to perform RNA extraction and sequencing. (c) Bioinformatics workflow used to post-sequencing dataset analyses. also scarce or absent. For example, in Scomber scombrus two RNA-seq projects are available (PRJNA272777 (low coverage RNA-seq dataset produced from a pool of tissues (muscle, liver, gonad, brain) and 454 GS-FLX Titanium System) and PRJNA305977 (RNA-seq dataset produced from white muscle tissue and with Illumina HiSeq2000 system))1

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