Longman Preparation Series For The TOEIC Test- Part 5 Reading

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PART 5-INCOMPLETE. SENTENCES. These are the directions for Part 5 of the new [email protected] Study them now. If you understand these directions now, you ...

PART 5-INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

These are the directions for Part 5 of the new [email protected] Study them now. If you understand these directions now, you will not have to read them during the test.

READING TEST In the Reading test, you will read a variety of texts and answer several different types of reading comprehension questions. The entire Reading test will last 75 minutes. There are three parts, and directions are given for each part. You are encouraged to answer as many questions as possible within the time allowed. You must mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. Do not write your answers in the test book. PART 5 Directions: A word or phrase is missing in each of the sentences below. Four answer choices are given below each sentence. Select the best answer to complete the sentence. Then mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet.

In this section, you will learn the most common types of items found on Part 5: word families similar words prepositions conjunctions adverbs of frequency causative verbs conditional sentences verb tense two-word verbs

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READING

WORD FAMILIES Word families are words that look alike but have different endings. nation -al national

ROOT WORD: ENDINGS: WORDS:

-ize nationalize

-ly

nationally

-ity na tionali ty

These endings (-ai, -ize, -ly, -ity, -ful, -SiOIl, etc.) change the original word to either a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. For example, the word care can be made into an adjective (careful) or an adverb (carefully).

STRATEGIES

FOR WORD FAMILY ITEMS

ASK YOURSElF THESEQUESTIONS: Do you need a noun? If so, does the ending

make the word a noun?

-alIce, -ancy, -enee, -at ion, -dam, -islll, -ment, -/less, -ship, -or, -er, -io/l

Noun endings:

INCORRECT

[I was sorry to hear about

his ill.)

CORRECT

1 was sorry to hear about

his illness.

Do you need an adjective? adjective? Adjective

If so, does the ending

-able, -ible, -ai, -fiLl, -ish, -ive

endings:

INCORRECT

[This is a wonder

CORRECT

This is a wonderful

Do you need an adverb? adverb? Adverb

make the word an

report!] report!

If so, does the ending

make the word an

-ly, -ward, -wise

endings:

INCORRECT

[She entered

the data very careful.]

CORRECT

She entered

the data very carefully.

Do you need a verb? If so, does the ending Verb endings:

-en,

make the word a verb?

-ifij, -ize

INCORRECT

[We are going to wide the parking

lat.)

CORRECT

We are going to widen

lot.

the parking

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

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Practice

Mark the choice that best completes 1.

We need to it is too complex. (A) simplify (B) simple

the sentence.

the language in this report;

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(C) simply (0)

simplistic

2. In my opinion, her leaving early was a very thing to do. (A) children (C) childishly (0) child (B) childish 3. We could call the TV stations and of our new store. (C) publicize (A) publicity (0) publisher (B) public

the opening

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4. I like my work because I have the

to make my

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to handle

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6. Most meetings are not as as this one was. (A) interested (C) interest (B) interestingly (0) interesting

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7. A doctor's (A) friendship (B) friend

manner makes patients feel comfortable. (C) friendly (0) friend liness

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of the boss to buy us those nice gifts. (C) thought (0) thoughtfully

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own decisions. freed freely

(A) (B)

(C) freedom (0)

free

5. Our company believes it is the best the account. (A) organizing (C) organizational (B) organization (0) organize

8.

It was very (A) thoughtless (B) thoughtful

9. One of your duties will be some (A) light (C) lighten (B) lightened (0) lightness 10.

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She would like a (A) really (B) realist

READING

typing.

raise, not just a few dollars.

(C) real (0)

reality

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SIMILAR WORDS Similar words are often confusing if they have similar meanings but cannot be interchanged. Sometimes they have the same root, prefix, or suffix. Sometimes they have similar spelling. The grammatical structure and the meaning of the sentence will help you determine which is correct.

STRATEGIES

FOR SIMILAR WORD ITEMS

ASK YOURSELF THESEQUESTIONS:

Many words seem similar because they contain similar letters. Do the other words in the sentence help you understand the meaning of the word? INCORRECT

[The manager will except the gift.]

CORRECT

The manager will accept the gift.

Some words can refer to the same topic but have different meanings. Do you know the different meanings of a word? INCORRECT

[Do you have change for a ten-dollar currency?]

CORRECT

Do you have change for a ten-dollar bill?

Some words have similar spellings, but they have very different meanings or are different parts of speech. Can you tell the difference? INCORRECT

[The athlete does not want to loose the race.]

CORRECT

The athlete does not want to lose the race.

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

III

Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

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5. No one is at fault, according to the company (A) speaker (C) teller (0) spokesperson (B) man

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6. Your advice was very (A) cooperating (C) helpful (0) improving (B) contributive

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of that contract?

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The experience I received being an apprentice was (A) costly (C) expensive (B) pricey (0) invaluable

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1.

The task was divided into (A) like (C) equal (0) even (B) same

parts.

impressed with the recommendations 2. We were at the end of the report. (A) specially (C) especial (0) especially (B) special during our visit has been greatly appreciated. (A) hospice (C) hospitality (0) hospitable (B) hospital

3. Your

4.

7.

With prices compare prices. (A) ascending (B) increasing

I think the (A) duty (B) fee

8. We've decided to (A) name (B) identify

at such a rapid rate, buyers should

(C) enlarging (0)

expanding

for his services is high. (C) fine (0) tariff the company Macrodisk, Inc.

(C) nominate (0)

denominate

9. Have you checked out the (A)

rightfulness

(B) lawfulness 10.

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READING

(C) legality (0)

authority

PREPOSITIONS Small words that introduce phrases are prepositions. Prepositional phrases show time, placement, direction, cause, and location.

STRATEGIES FOR PREPOSITION ITEMS ASK YOURSElF THESEQUESTIONS:

Do you need to refer to a specific time? If so, is the preposition INCORRECT

[The morning shift starts on 9:00.]

CORRECT

The morning shift starts at 9:00.

at?

Do you need to refer to a specific day? If so, is the preposition on? INCORRECT

[The conference will be held ~ Friday.]

CORRECT

The conference will be held on Friday.

Do you need to refer to a specific date? If so, is the preposition on? INCORRECT

[The contract deadline is in February 10.]

CORRECT

The contract deadline is on February 10

Do you need to talk about a specific city? If so, is the preposition in? INCORRECT

[Our headquarters

CORRECT

Our headquarters

are at Baltimore.] are in Baltimore.

Do you know the meaning of the preposition? Is the preposition logical? INCORRECT

[The letter was written from his secretary.]

CORRECT

The letter was written ~ his secretary.

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

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Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence. 1.

the secretary's desk.

The mail carrier left the mail (C) at (A) to (0) above (8) on

Atlanta.

2. The software company offers training (A) at (C) by (0) in (8) on 3. There will be a holiday (A) on (C) at (0) in (8) from

Monday.

4. The presentation starts conference room. (A) on (C) in (0) for (8) at

9:30

in the

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5. The doctor will not give the patient the test results tomorrow. (A) on (C) from (0) at (8) until

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6. That clerk stands (A) on (8) in

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a counter all day.

(C) behind (0)

above

7. Please hand in that report (A) by (C) in at (8) (0) over

Friday afternoon.

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8. Have you read this article (A) over (C) for (8) above (0) about

our competitors?

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9. We do almost all our corresponding (A) in (C) on (8) by (0) with 10.

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A.M.

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The sale goes on (A) through (8) into

READING

the 16th.

(C) towards (0)

for

e-mail.

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CONJUNCTIONS Words, phrases, and clauses are joined by words called conjunctions. Coordinate conjunctions join two equal terms: and, or, nor, but. Subordinate

conjunctions join two clauses: although, since, because, when, before, etc.

STRATEGIES

FOR CONJUNCTION

ITEMS

ASK YOURSELF THESEQUESTIONS:

Do you need to join two nouns, two adjectives, two prepositional phrases, or any equal terms? If so, is there a coordinate conjunction joining them? INCORRECT

[The president also his assistant are coming.]

CORRECT

The president and his assistant are coming.

Do you need to join two sentences? If so, is there a coordinate conjunction joining them? INCORRECT CORRECT

[I can make the copies too John can collate the pages.) I can make the copies, and John can collate the pages.

Do you need to join a dependent clause with an independent clause? If so, is there a subordinate conjunction joining them? INCORRECT

[But he had a suggestion,

he didn't raise his

CORRECT

hand.] Although he had a suggestion,

he didn't raise

his hand. Do you understand the meanings of the conjunctions and of the other words in the sentence? Is the sentence logical? Does it make sense? INCORRECT

[1 know him but his wife.]

CORRECT

1know him and his wife.

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

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Practice

Mark the choice that best completes 1.

they were tired, they worked overtime. (C) Since (A) Because (D) Although (B) In spite

2. Neither Ms. Chen attend the seminar. (A) nor (B) and

Mr. Martinez was able to

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(C) neither (D) or

3.

Mr. Park worked for us, he had received training abroad. (C) While (A) Before (D) When (B) After

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4.

it rings. Please answer the phone (C) because (A) during (D) and (B) when

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5. You can look at the clothes in the shop windows, you can't go in and buy them. (C) after (A) but (B) or (0) while

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6. The soccer game won't be postponed looks like rain. (C) since (A) because (D) as (B) even though

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7.

9. The hotel will accept no guests (A) and (C) because of (B) while (D) after 10.

it

profits have improved, we're all getting bonuses. (C) Although (A) Since (B) Before (0) During

8. Ms. Adams refused the promotion (A) because (C) despite (B) but (D) neither

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the sentence.

the large raise.

it's being renovated.

Restaurant food handlers must wear latex gloves health regulations. (A) because of (C) since (B) because (0) though

READING

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY Adverbs of frequency can be divided into two groups: adverbs of definite frequency such as every day, annually, twice a week and adverbs of indefinite frequency such as always, rarely, never.

STRATEGIES

FOR ADVERB OF FREQUENCY

ITEMS

ASK YOURSElF THESEQUESTIONS:

Are you sure of the position of the adverb? Is there a definite frequency adverb? If so, remember that a definite frequency adverb usually goes at the beginning or the end of the sentence. INCORRECT

[Mr. Escobar walks every day to work.]

CORRECT

Mr. Escobar walks to work every day.

Are you sure of the position of the adverb? Is there an indefinite frequency adverb? If so, there are three possibilities to remember: the adverb goes after be (He is always busy.); the adverb goes before all other simple verbs (He always eats lunch.); the adverb goes between the first auxiliary and the main verb in a complex verb form (He has always liked you.). INCORRECT

[He always is working late.]

CORRECT

He is always working late.

Do you understand the finer meanings of the adverb? Is the sentence logical? INCORRECT

[There is ~

time before the seminar begins.]

CORRECT

There is still time before the seminar begins.

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

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Practice

Mark the choice that best completes

the sentence.

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pre-registered for the conference. (C) already (D) ever

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calls in the auditors. (C) timely (D) already

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1.

Mr. Lee is never sick and comes in on time (A) never (C) sometimes (D) every day (B) rarely

2.

The supervisor (A) always (B) usual

3. Our department (A) still (B) never 4.

tries to be fair. (C) every day (D) ever been this productive before.

has

(C) yet (D) lately

late since she was promoted. Ms. Carver (C) rarely has been (A) has been rarely (B) has rarely been (D) rarely been

5. Our boss gives all of the management (A) never (C) still (D) annually (B) always 6. We have (A) yet (B) still 7.

Mr. Kim (A) frequently (B) yet

8.

The boss treats everybody to lunch (C) rarely (A) never (D) normally (B) on occasion

9. We're (A) already (B) yet 10.

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waiting for a fax from the head office. (C) every day (D) still

The Sales Department holds a meeting (A) usually (C) weekly (D) always (B) already

READING

team bonuses

CAUSATIVE VERBS When someone makes something happen, you use a causative verb to show this. Look carefully at the form of the verb in the clause that follows the causative verb. Some causative verbs are get, make, have, order, want.

STRATEGIES

FOR CAUSATIVE

VERB ITEMS

ASK YOURSELF THESEQUESTIONS:

Does the subject of the noun clause that follows the causative verb perform the action? If so, is the verb after that noun clause the simple form, the infinitive form, or the present participle form of the verb? INCORRECT

[I had my coworker helped me.]

CORRECT

1had my coworker help me.

INCORRECT

[I got my coworker help me.]

CORRECT

1got my coworker to help me.

INCORRECT

[The supervisor had him stocked shelves all day.] The supervisor had him stocking shelves all day.

CORRECT

Does the subject of the noun clause that follows the causative verb receive the action? If so, is the verb after that noun clause the past participle (-ed/-ell) form of the verb? INCORRECT

[Mr. Watson wants the report rewrote soon.]

CORRECT

Mr. Watson wants the report rewritten soon.

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

119

Practice

Mark the choice that best completes

the sentence. at the gate.

1.

The guard made the visitors (A) waiting (C) to wait (B) waited (0) wait

2.

My assistant wasn't able to get his check the bank was closed. (A) cash (C) cashing (0) cashes (B) cashed

because

3. Our company wants its customers (C) satisfied (A) sa tisfies (0) satisfy (B) satisfying

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4.

I'll have my secretary for the package. (A) will sign (C) sign (B) signs (0) to sign

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5.

Before the prime minister arrived, the police ordered the area (A) clear (C) clearing (B) cleared (0) be clear

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6. We forced our competitors their prices. (A) to lower (C) lowered (B) lower (0) lowering

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7. With some effort, Ms. Manson got her schedule (A) to change (C) change (B) changed (0) changing

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8. The boss had me (A) to check (B) checked

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all of last month's sales figures. (C) checking (0) checks

9. The airport guard made us our pockets at the security gate. (A) to empty (C) emptying (B) empty (0) emptied 10.

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The architects want all the hallways (A) widen (C) widening (B) widened (0) to widen

READING

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES There are two parts to a conditional sentence: the condition (if) and the result. There are also two types of conditional sentences: real and unreal (contrary-to-fact). REAL CONDITION

RESULT

If you come before the meeting, we'll have time to talk. UNREAL CONDITION

RESULT

If my windows were larger, I would get more light.

STRATEGIES

FOR CONDITIONAL

SENTENCE

ITEMS

ASK YOURSELFTHESEQUESTIONS: Is it a real condition? If so, is the verb in the if clause in the simple present or present progressive form? Is the verb in the result in the present, future, or imperative form? INCORRECT CORRECT

[If Gianni will be there, we'll give him the message.] If Gianni ~ there, we'll give him the message.

Is it an unreal condition

in the present

using the verb be? If so, is was or

were the form of be that is used? INCORRECT

[If she ~ the boss, she would

CORRECT

If she was/were

hire him.]

the boss, she would

hire him.

Is it an unreal condition in the present or future tense? If so, is the verb in the condition in the present subjunctive form? Does the verb in the result contain would or could + the simple (base) form? INCORRECT

[If humans

CORRECT

decisions easil y.] If humans had two heads, decisions

have two heads,

they couldn't they couldn't

make make

easily.

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

121

Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence. 1.

2.

If the student be more confident. (A) prepares (8) prepared If Mr. Kennedy put it in the report. (A) has (8) would have

for tomorrow's

exam, she'll

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(C) prepare (0)

would prepare the information,

he would

(C) will have (0)

had

3.

how to use the word processor, ask any If you one of us. (A) won't understand (C) understood (0) not understand (8) don't understand

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4.

If you aren't able to finish the letter now, it later. (A) you could have done (C) you can do (0) you will can do (8) you have done

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5.

If I you, I would take the job and then ask for more money. (A) had been (C) were (8) am (0) will be

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6. If you to cancel your reservation, forty-eight hours before that date. (A) needed (C) need (0) had needed (8) will need

please do so

7. Their marriage wouldn't be so good if they so well with each other. (A) communicated (C) don't communicate (8) didn't communicate (0) communicate 8.

If we don't entertain our out-of-town buyers, they such big orders. (A) will place (C) would place (8) might not place (0) wouldn't place

9. Come to our next picnic if you (A) have (C) had will have (8) (0) don't have 10.

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the chance.

If I didn't think the gym was helping me feel better, I my membership. (A) would be renewing (C) will be renewing (8) wouldn't be renewing (0) can't renew

READING

VERB TENSE Look for time expressions

in the sentence

to help you decide on the verb tense: every

day, last week, tomorrow, etc. Another clue is to look at the tense of other verbs in the sentence.

Remember

that some verbs can only be used in certain tenses.

STRATEGIES

FOR VERB TENSE ITEMS

ASK YOURSELF THESE QUESTIONS:

Is there a time expression in the sentence? If so, does the verb tense agree with the meaning of the time expression? INCORRECT

[I work in this department sinc~ 1994.]

CORRECT

I've worked in this department since 1994.

Does the sentence have two clauses (an independent clause and a dependent clause)? If so, is the tense of the verb in the dependent clause correct? INCORRECT

[Ms. Martin tested the copying machine before she buys it.]

CORRECT

Ms. Martin tested the copying machine before she bought it.

Is the verb being used as a stative verb? That is, does it describe a state rather than an action? If so, check to make sure the verb is not a progressive form (-ing). Note: Seem, know, and other verbs are always stative. Become, be, and other verbs can describe a state or an action. INCORRECT

[I am understanding

what he's saying.]

CORRECT

I understand what he's saying.

Practice

Mark the choice that best completes

the sentence.

l.

, will you please give him When the messenger this package? (A) will arrive (C) arriving (D) would arrive (B) arrives

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2.

more responsible The assistant to Ms. Brigham in the last year. (C) has become (A) is becoming (D) becomes (B) has been becoming

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3.

five years ago today. The Paris branch of our bank (A) opens (C) opened (D) was opening (B) has opened

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INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

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([)

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([)

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([)

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something very strange, like burning wires. am smelling (C) smelling (0) had smelled (8) smell

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([)

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You can take those files to the records room unless Kim it first. (A) does (C) is doing (8) will do (0) had done

CD

([)

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We

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4.

the results of his recommendations The consultant by the end of the month. (C) has known (A) knows (0) will know (8) does know

5.

My supervisor promises that I (A) would get (C) will get (0) get (8) should get

6.

After you you to do. (A) have had (8) will have

7.

8.

The boss (A) is waiting (8) waits

a raise next year.

enough practice, it will be easy for

(C) had (0)

are having

for those reports all morning. (C) has been waiting (0) will waiting

I

(A)

9.

10.

at that restaurant in a few months. don't eat (C) haven't eaten (8) won't eat (0) didn't eat (A)

TWO- WORD VERBS Two-word verbs such as look at, get by, take in are usually common verbs (look, get, take, etc.) combined with other words that are often prepositions (at, by, in,from, Ollt, etc.).

STRATEGIES FOR TWO-WORD

VERB ITEMS

ASK YOURSELF THESE QUESTIONS:

Are you unsure about the meaning? If so, check your dictionary. There are no rules about two-word verbs that will help you predict their meaning.

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Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

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sending the letter

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the copy machine?

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6. Please this article for any typos or other errors. (A) check into (C) look over (D) check up (B) look for

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8. I can't find the Simpson will anywhere. I (A) give up (C) give over (D) give back (B) give out

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9. You don't need to give me your decision right now. (A) Check it over. (C) Think it over. (B) Look it over. (D) Turn it over.

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When you get to Hong Kong, are you going to Mr. Cao? (A) call on (C) call off (D) pick off (B) look through

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The new lawyer has gone to (A) look away (C) look into (B) look for (D) look out

2.

Who will the advertising manager's while she is on vacation? (A) take away (C) take over (D) take off (B) take up

the file.

projects

3. The personnel officer believes that we can our present staff. (A) get off (C) get up (B) getby (D) get on 4. The chairwoman until Monday. (A) take on (B) keep up

decided to

(C) put off (D) pick up

5. Could you show me how to (A) take hold (C) find out (B) turn on (D) leave off

7.

10.

Did I tell you? I (A) ran over (B) ran into

with

Ms. Flynn at the conference. (C) found out (D) brought up

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

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STRATEGY REVIEW Review these strategies for Part 5 of the new TOEIe test. For word family items, ask yourself: Do you need a noun, adjective, adverb, or verb? For similar word items, ask yourself: Do answer options contain similar letters or spellings? Do options refer to the same topic, but with different meanings? For preposition items, ask yourself: Do you need to refer to a specific time, day, date, or city? Are the preposition choices logical? For conjunction items, ask yourself: What do you need to join and what conjunction is needed? Are the conjunction choices logical? For adverb of frequency items, ask yourself: Is the position of the adverb correct? Are the adverb choices logical? For causative verb items, ask yourself: What is the form of the verb in the noun clause? Who performs the action? For conditional sentence items, ask yourself: Is the condition real or unreal? Is the condition in the present, past, or future? For verb tense items, ask yourself: What time expressions are in the sentence? If there are two clauses in the sentence, are the verb tenses appropriate? Is there a stative verb? For two-word verb items, ask yourself: Is the meaning of the two-word verb logical?

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READING

STRATEGY PRACTICE DIRECTIONS:

completes

Read the following statements and choose the word or phrase the sentence. Use the strategies you have learned.

that best

1.

The office manager prefers her coffee with cream sugar. (A) but (C) and (B) nor (0) plus

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2.

Office hours will be from 8:30 (A) at (C) by (B) to (0) toward

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3.

If the secretary where the missing files are, we can stop looking for them. (A) knew (C) had known (B) would know (0) knows

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to open the safe.

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; he has been

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CD CD

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CD

@

you finish typing that report, make five copies of it and give it to all of the officers. (A) While (C) But (B) When (0) Although

CD

CD

CD

@

Let's have this letter by express mail. (A) sends (C) sent (B) send (0) being sent

CD

CD

CD

@

4. The cashier has to turn the key (A) clocked (B) clock

5:00.

(C) clockwise (0)

clocking

5. The chairman of the board is not married for two years. (A) singular (C) only (B) single (0) sole

6. When the president arrived, everyone (A) has left already (C) already left (B) had already left (0) left already 7.

Mr. the (A) (B)

Hao was able to get the envelopes before mail carrier arrived. addressed (C) were addressing were addressed (0) being addressed

8. Since many of our clients insist on French food, we make reservations for lunch at the restaurant Lion d'Or. (A) often have (C) have often to (B) have to often (0) often have to 9.

10.

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

127

128

11.

Since we need to know who belongs to this organization, could you have the computer do a printout of the ? entire (C) members. (A) membership (0) memories (B) remembrances

CD CD

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12.

with the answers the job Ms. Parker was very applicant gave during the interview. (C) impression (A) impress (0) impressed (B) impressionable

CD CD

@

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13.

by 5:00. I'll stay late tonight if we (C) had not finished (A) did not finish (0) wili not finish (8) do not finish

CD CD

@

@

14.

The final draft will be completed (C) on (A) to (B) at (0) from

Wednesday.

CD CD

@

@

15.

The benefits program (A) had changed (B) were changed

in the next few months. (C) changed (0) will be changed

CD CD

@

@

16.

Mr. Honda is a terrific worker. He promotions this year. (A) has been giving (C) was given (8) gave (0) giving

CD CD

@

@

17.

If we keep the deadline. (A) working (B) worked

CD CD

@

@

CD CD

CD

@

CD CD

CD

@

CD CD

CD

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two

like this, we should be done before

(C) to work (0) work

18.

I don't need those statistics right now, but please have five o'clock. them ready (C) in (A) on (B) by (0) since

19.

I'll be home for dinner unless the boss work overtime. (A) will ask (C) asks (B) is asking (0) asked

20.

Make sure you get these contracts meet with the lawyer. (A) signed (C) signing (B) to sign (0) sign

READING

me to

before you