marTlmadidebloba da ama soflis cdomilebani

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madliT srulyofa msoflio istoria dagvemowmeba: kacobrioba Rrmad dasneulebuli organizmia, igi raRac saSineli su- lieri seniT aris Sepyrobili da yoveli adamiani ...

arqimandriti rafaeli (karelini)

marTlmadidebloba da ama soflis cdomilebani

gamomcemloba `meridiani~ Tbilisi 2009

daibeWda baTumisa da lazeTis mitropolit dimitris (SiolaSvilis) locva-kurTxeviT

gamosacemad moamzada dekanozma zaqariam (margalitaZem) Targmani rusulidan: rusudan buaCiZe Targmanis redaqtori: ana xaranauli teqnikuri redaqtori: giorgi kvaracxelia mxatvrebi: mariam CxaiZe, roman maxaraZe garekanis mxatvroba: zurab manwkava

madlobas vuxdiT giorgi kvaracxelias wignis gamosacemad gaweuli xarjebisaTvis

© gamomcemloba `meridiani~, ISBN 978-9941-10-105-2

Tbilisi, 2009

sarCevi Tavi I. kompromisi SeuZlebelia ................................................ 5 madliT srulyofa ......................................................................... 7 saeklesio wes-Cveulebebis Sesaxeb ............................................ 14 ieso qristes saxe .......................................................................... 31 aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis religiuri azrovnebis Taviseburebani........................................................... 39 unia .................................................................................................. 46 Cveni sarwmunoeba ........................................................................... 52 sasufevels ver daimkvidrebs ..................................................... 58 eklesiis gareSe ar arsebobs cxoneba........................................ 67 liberal qristianebs!................................................................... 73 risi swams diakvan andria kuraevs? ........................................... 81 eklesiis sekularizaciis Sesaxeb .............................................. 84 ra vqnaT Cven, qristianebma?......................................................... 96 yovel adamians Tavisi jvari aqvs ............................................... 100 rogor visaubroT sarwmunoebaze (Targmna maia nikolaZem) . 107 Tavi II Tanamedrove fsevdokulturis satanuri arsi .......... 123 qristianoba da Tanamedrove kultura ..................................... 124 veneras taZari golgoTaze .......................................................... 138 kinoTeatraluri SabaSi ............................................................... 143 saxarebasTan dakavSirebuli scenuri eqsperimentebis Sesaxeb ................................................................ 155 Cveni drois hekatomba ................................................................... 177 musika da locva ............................................................................. 183 yrmaTa gaxrwnis Sesaxeb .............................................................. 188 darvinizmis Sesaxeb ....................................................................... 192 evolucia da yumranis kalendari ............................................... 201 Tavi III ama soflis cruswavlebani ........................................... 212 ezoTerizmis Sesaxeb ..................................................................... 214 marqsizmi da ideologia ............................................................... 220 induizmis Sesaxeb........................................................................... 228 Zen-budizmis Sesaxeb ...................................................................... 242 Teosofiis Sesaxeb ......................................................................... 251 anTroposofiis Sesaxeb................................................................. 277

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kompromisi SeuZlebelia 5

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madliT srulyofa

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soflio istoria dagvemowmeba: kacobrioba Rrmad dasneulebuli organizmia, igi raRac saSineli sulieri seniT aris Sepyrobili da yoveli adamiani codvis ganuwyveteli impulsebis qveS imyofeba. arc erTi arseba dedamiwaze ar aris iseTi garyvnili da mankieri, rogoric adamiani, Tuki saerTod SesaZlebelia laparaki im mxecebisa da cxovelebis Sesaxeb, romelTa qcevebic instinqtebiTaa gansazRvruli. kacobriobis istoriaSi kosmiuri tragediis eqo gaismis, romelmac mTeli samyaro SeZra _ es eqo yvela Cvenganis gulebSi JRers. adamiani Sinagani winaaRmdegobebiT ixliCeba, zeciuri naTlis gamokrTomebi, drodadro mis suls rom anaTebs, metafizikuri wyvdiadiT icvleba, romelic TiTqos misi arsebis bneli siRrmidan modis. paradoqsia: rac ufro codvilia adamiani, miT ufro naklebad aRiqvams Tavs aseTad. mravali avkaci gulwrfelad miiCnevda Tavs upatiosnes adamianad da kacobriobis keTilismyoflad. amis mizezi sindisis dakargva da Sinagani sibrmavea. rodesac kaci miwisqveSeTSi Sedis, sadac sinaTle ver aRwevs, igi ver xedavs obobebs, TavianTi budeebi kedlebze rom mouwyviaT, verc mis fexqveS moriale gvelebsa da sxva qvewarmavlebs amCnevs: oTaxSi, romlis darabebic Carazulia, mtveri da WuWyi ar Cans. da piriqiT, rodesac saxlSi mzis sxivi 7

SeaRwevs, maSin dagrovili nagvis danaxva SeiZleba, TviTon sxivSi ki _ mtvris aTasobiT nawilakisa. mxolod RmrTis madliT SegviZlia gavigoT, Tu ra zomamde daeca adamiani, mxolod fxizel sindiss SeuZlia kacis mxileba, misTvis misi mudmivi mdgomareobis _ vnebebis, tyuilis, egoizmisa da ampartavnebis danaxveba. sokratem Tqva: `Seican Tavi Seni~, magram kacis bunebiTi dazianebuloba mainc ver dainaxa; mTeli misi msjeloba aRzrdisa da swavlebis sferos ar gascilebia. man isic Tqva, unda Wamo, raTa icxovro da ara icxovro, raTa Wamoo, magram TviTon, iseve rogorc misi uniWieresi mowafe platoni, simsuqniT iyo daavadebuli. dialeqtika am SemTxvevaSi naklebad Wrida. Cvens droSi, rodesac jebirebiviT ingrevian codvis winaSe aRmarTuli zneobrivi winaRobebi, rodesac masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi, kulturis berketebs rom unda warmoadgendnen, adamianebis gaxrwniT arian dakavebulebi, codvebis xedva qreba, amitom swavleba pirvelqmnili codvis Sesaxeb neowarmarTebs raRac adamianis Rirsebis damamcirebel arqaizmad eCvenebaT. maTTvis `adamiani~ amayad JRers, xolo yovelive `bunebrivi~ _ `mSvenierebad~. esaa Zveli warmarTobis gamoZaxili. qristianobam gagvimJRavna, rom adamianma dakarga bunebrioba, rogorc pirvelqmnili siwminde; mis bunebas ise Seepara mankiereba, rogorc rkinas _ Jangi. wmindanebi mTel cxovrebas TavianTi codvebis gamo glovaSi atarebdnen. antoni didma Tqva, Cemi xangrZlivi cxovreba xangrZlivi glovaao. RmrTis madlis Suqze, madlis moxveWis kvaldakval wmindanebi TiTqos CiraRdniT xelSi eSvebodnen sakuTari sulis siRrmeebSi da iq saSinel mankierebebs xedavdnen, xedavdnen keTris wylulebis 8

msgavsad modebul codvebs, sulier gvelebsa da morielebs, gesliT rom avsebdnen grZnobebs da azrebs abnelebdnen, xedavdnen urCxulebs, rogorc gulidan sisxlis mwovel vampirebs, romelTa moSorebac RmrTis madlis gareSe SeuZlebelia; sakuTar TavSi xedavdnen RmrTis Seryvnil xats, rogorc dangreul taZars, saqonlis sadgomad qceuls, iqve xedavdnen mTeli kacobriobis dacemas, amitomac glovobdnen TavianT codvebs da ambobdnen, rom cxoneba macxovris gareSe SeuZlebelia da rom wmindanebisTvisac ki cxoneba RmrTis mowyalebis mier boZebuli niWia. ra daemarTa adamians? ra mizezma aiZula is, vinc mTeli samyaros gvirgvinad iyo Seqmnili, eRalata Tavisi SemoqmedisaTvis? ra mouvidaT adamsa da mis STamomavlebs? ra wyevla daawva kacTa modgmas? codviT dacemis istoria mTavarangeloz luciferamde midis, romelmac daiviwya Tavisi, rogorc qmnilis dasazRvruloba, moindoma usazRvros toli gamxdariyo, sakuTari Tavi RmerTs daupirispira da iqca raRac antiRmerTad. luciferi `naTlis momtans~ niSnavs, mas yvela qmnilebaze metad SeeZlo RmrTaebrivi naTlisa da RmrTaebrivi mSvenierebis datevna, magram ampartavnebam naTlis wyaros moswyvita. dakarga ra RmrTaebrivi naTeli, magram ara angelozebrivi buneba, igi Tavisi Zveli didebis erTgvar negativad iqca. masSi siyvaruli siZulvilad Seicvala, RmerTisken swrafva _ ampartavnebad, uwindeli sxivmfinari siwminde _ vnebebis grovad. igi wyvdiadisa da RmrTisagan gandgomis ufskrulSi Cavarda, gaxda borotebis gansaxiereba, imgvari borotebisa, romlis intensivoba da energia kacis gonebisTvis miuwvdomelia. 9

adamma daarRvia RmrTis winaSe dadebuli aRTqma. winaparTaTvis samoTxeSi micemul mcnebas pirdapiri mniSvnelobac aqvs da simboluric. grigol RmrTismetyveli gansakuTrebuli siRrmiTa da SorsmWvretelobiT wers codviT dacemis simboluri planis Sesaxeb. adamiani wyvets kavSirs RmerTTan, aRara aqvs RmerTTan Tanaziarebis unari, kargavs RmrTaebriv naTels da metic, demonis msgavs arsebad iqceva. demonsa da kacs Soris erTaderTi gansxvavebaa: demoni sabolood warwymda, RmrTaebrivi naTeli saukunod Caqra masSi, rogorc sanTlis ali _ qaris dabervisas; adamiani ki Camqral kocons waagavs, sadac ferflis grovis qveS jer kidev bJutavs naxSiri, misi gaRviveba jerac SesaZlebelia, da Tu gaRvivda, cecxlis alic avardeba. adamians ZaluZs ganaxleba, magram ara Tavisi ZalebiT, aramed RmrTis madlis SewevniT. codvas mravalferovani gamovlinebebi aqvs yofierebis yvela doneze. man Secvala samyaros anTropologia, angelologia, kosmologia da metafizika. kacobrioba potenciurad adamSi iyo Cadebuli, amitom codva anTropologiur planSi ise gadaecema adamis sulier-fizikuri dazianebulobis gziT, rogorc memkvidreobiTi avadmyofoba _ sneulis STamomavlebs. codvas metafizikuri arsi aqvs, man adami mis STamomavlobasTan erTad satanis nadavlad da monapovrad aqcia. adami Tavisi nebiT Seekra demons da ufali, romelic maradiuli simarTlea, Tavisi ZaliT da ZlierebiT ki ar arTmevs adamis STamomavlebs satanas, aramed siyvaruliT da jvarze mitanili msxverpliT gamoisyidis maT. gamosyidvis garda, RmerTTan TanaziarebisTvis aucilebelia kurTxevac _ suli wmidis madli, romelsac kacis suli sakuTari nebiT Rebulobs. gamosyidva kacs 10

naTlisRebis saidumloTi eTviseba, xolo kurTxeva _ rogorc naTlisRebiT, ise eklesiis sxva saidumloebiT, agreTve cxovrebis wesiT, romelic saxarebis mcnebebsa da sindisis xmas eTanaxmeba. amitom cxoneba yovelTvis sinergiul aqtad rCeba _ RmrTaebrivi nebis, rogorc siyvarulis savsebis da kacobrivi nebis, rogorc misi morCilis urTierTqmedebad (Cvilis naTlobis dros kacobriv nebas mSoblebi da mimrqmelebi warmoadgenen). RmerTma adamians zneobrivi avtonomia uboZa, uromlisodac SeuZlebelia TviT pirovnebis cnebis arseboba, amitom RmerTi, aris ra simarTle, kacsa da kacobriobaSi sikeTisa da borotebis potencialis ganviTarebas uwyobs xels. jvarze asulma qristem Tavisi TaviT Secvala yoveli adamiani, romelic eklesias naTlisRebis saidumloTi uerTdeba. qriste suli wmidis savsebis matarebelia, amitom suli wmida naTelRebulze gadmodis. ra moxdeboda, Tuki ufali zeciur samoTxeSi Seiyvanda gamousyidvel kacs, ZaldatanebiT gamoglejda mas eSmakisa da jojoxeTis batonobas? xatovnad rom vTqvaT, igive, rac dedamiwas mouvidoda, vinmes igi mzisTvis rom mieaxloebina: dedamiwa ver gauZlebda mzis mxurvalebas, galRveboda da cecxlovan okeaned iqceoda. Tuki codvils misi ganuaxlebeli bunebiT, vnebebiT, mankierebebiTa da codvebiT, aseve unaTlav yrmas aseTive dazianebuli bunebiTa da kodirebuli mankierebebiT zeciur sasufevelSi Seiyvanen, isini ver gauZleben iq davanebul RmrTis madls, rogorc Tvalmtkivani ver uZlebs damabrmavebel naTels: ise daitanjebian, rogorc eSmakeuli _ liturgiis dros. aseTebisTvis jojoxeTSi yofna sakuTar garemoSi yofnaa, romelic maT Sinagan mdgomareobas Seesabameba. gana SeiZleba vTqvaT, codoa Rrma wylebis 11

binadari Tevzi, wyvdiadSi rom cxovrobs; modi, amoviyvanoT zedapirze, raTa mzis sinaTliT datkbeso! gaaxarebs ki Tevzs aseTi `wyaloba~, Tu, sikvdilis piras misuli, farTxals daiwyebs? adami samoTxeSi iyo, magram TviTon adamSic iyo samoTxe _ suli wmidis madli. ufalma Tqva, rom im dRes, rodesac adami aRTqmas daarRvevda, mokvdeboda. adami sulierad mokvda: jer kidev samoTxeSi myofs, samoTxe aRar axarebs (isic unda iTqvas, rom es iyo edemi _ miwieri samoTxe, erTgvari winkari zeciuri samoTxisa). RmrTis pirispir yofna mis guls siyvaruliTa da netarebiT ki aRar avsebs, SiSsa hgvris: rodesac RmerTis moaxloebas grZnobs, adams surs gaeqces da daemalos mas. ufali aZevebs adams samoTxidan ara marto Tavisi marTlmsajulebis, aramed Tavisi siyvarulis gamoc: adams, romelmac dakarga samoTxe, sinanulis gziT unda mieca gulSi adgili Sinagani samoTxisaTvis _ suli wmidis madlisaTvis da maSin, mxolod maSin SeZlebda igi dakarguli samoTxis dabrunebas. mTeli misi cxovreba grZeldeboda sinanuli, sikvdilis Semdeg ki _ gamoxsnis molodini jojoxeTSi. ufalma, romelic suliT jojoxeTs STaxda, iqidan adamisa da Zveli aRTqmis marTalTa sulebi amoiyvana _ isini, vinc sindisis karnaxiT cxovrobdnen, codvebs inaniebdnen, moelodnen mesias da hpoves kidec igi qriste macxovris saxiT. pirveli mamani satanjvelSi ar iyvnen, magram gamosyidvis gareSe suli wmidis Tanaziarni ver gaxdebodnen. es adgili _ geeniis cecxlisa da RmrTis didebis miRma _ saxarebiseul igavSi lazares Sesaxeb `abraamis wiaRad~ iwodeba. 12

kacis buneba, romelic macxovris sisxliT ar gamosyidula, ar ganaxlebula da ar gansulierebula, samoTxes ver daimkvidrebs. macxovris sityvis Tanaxmad, à`ara Sevides mun (zecaTa sasufevelSi) yovelive Seginebuli~ (gamocx. 21, 27). demoni rom samoTxeSi movaTavsoT, amiT is angelozi ver gaxdeba; arc codvili iqceva wmindanad, taZarSi rom CavketoT. codvis saSineli saidumlo RmerTis siZulvilia. codvili, romelsac uyvars Tavisi vnebebi, codvili, romelic demonis mimsgavsebisagan ar gaTavisuflebula, samoTxeSi ufro met tanjvas igrZnobda, vidre jojoxeTSi. siyvarulisa da sinaTlis okeane mas sixaruls ki ar moutanda, aramed dawvavda mis suls, codvasTan SenivTebuls. SesaZlebeli rom yofiliyo codvilis cxoneba Tavad misi monawileobis gareSe, gamosyidvisa da kurTxevis gareSe, ufali Tavidanve Seiwyalebda adams da mTel mis STamomavlobas, potenciurad adamSi Cadebuls. zogierTs samoTxe miwier planSi aqvs warmodgenili _ rogorc mSvenieri adgili sacxovreblad, rogorc ayvavebuli baRi, is ki aviwydeba, rom saukuno cxoneba aris RmerTTan saukuno Tanaziareba, TandaTanobiTi miaxleba masTan, usasrulo ganaTebebi madlis axal-axali talRebiT, mudmivi mimsgavseba qristesTan. samoTxe, upirveles yovlisa, kacis sulSi RmerTis yofnaa misi madlis meSveobiT. `sasufeveli RmrTisaÁ Soris Tquensa ars~ (lk. 17, 21), Tqva qristem da am sasufevlis kari suli wmidis gardamosvlis dRes gaaRo. RmerTi siyvarulia da RmrTis sasjelSic igive siyvaruli mJRavndeba, oRond Cveni gonebisTvis miuwvdomeli. zogierTi RmrTismetyvelis TqmiT, jojoxeTi uflis ukanaskneli wyalobaa codvilis mimarT. RmerTi ise ar sjis codvilebs, rogorc am13

sofliuri marTlmsajuleba. igi maT adgils umkvidrebs maradisobaSi _ im adgils, romelic daimsaxures. liberalur cnobierebas surs codvis metafizikuri saSineleba da RmerTisgan mitovebulobis tragedia aqcios `saSobao zRaprad~ keTili dasasruliT da amiT sakuTar Seunanebel sindiss nugeSi mohgvaros.

saeklesio wes-Cveulebebis Sesaxeb

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esebi Camoyalibebuli niSanTa sistemaa, romelic sainformacio da sakomunikacio rols asrulebs. saeklesio wesebi _ esaa wm. werilis momdevno gnostikuri fena, mas wm. simbolikasTan garkveuli msgavsebac aqvs da gansxvavebac. wesi simbolosagan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom ufro konkretulia, simboloze ufro viwroa Tavisi moculobiT, istoriuli faqtorebi masze ufro met zemoqmedebas axdens da ufro mravalferovani formebic aqvs, anu ufro ganpirobebulia. simbolos analogiuri mniSvneloba aqvs: adamianis gonebas igi udablesidan umaRlesisken miapyrobs, cnobilidan _ ucnobisken, xilulidan _ uxilavisken. saeklesio wess adamiani ukve cnobil mocemulobaSi Sehyavs. magram ufro xSirad saeklesio wesi ganuyofelia 14

simbolosagan, igi simboluri niSnebis safuZvels emyareba, oRond mravalwaxnagovani simbolos erT garkveul aspeqts irCevs, TiTqos akonkretebs simbolos da miznobriv amocanas uqvemdebarebs mas. religiur wess adamiani sulieri realiebis sferoSi Sehyavs, maradiuli RmrTaebrivi energiebis velSi, aradroiTi da arasivrcobrivi ganzomilebebis samyaroSi. yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi Cven simboloebisa da wesebis sistemiT vsargeblobT, romelTa gareSec kaci sakuTar TavSi Caketil arsebad darCeboda, da radganac adamiani sazogadoebrivi arsebaa, amitom wesis darRveviT igi sazogadoebriv eTikur struqturebsac arRvevs. wesi, iseve rogorc simbolo, ar SeiZleba iyos WeSmariti an mcdari, keTili an boroti, realia an iluzia _ igi ubralod gamoxatvis saSualebaa. zneobrivi kategoriebi Sinaarsis sferos miekuTvnebian, romelmac unda gamoxatos simbolo an wesi da ara TviTon wess, rogorc gamoxatvis saSualebas, tradicias, kacobriobis mier saukuneebis manZilze gamomuSavebul gamocdilebas _ urTierTobis gamocdilebas rom emyareba. simbolikisa da wesebis gareSe azrovnebis yvelaze mkveTrad gamoxatuli mcdeloba cinikosebs hqondaT, romlebic mouwodebdnen adamianebs, sakuTari Tavi uSualod gamoevlinaT. msoflio istoriis scenaze isini yovelgvari zneobrivi da inteleqtualuri faseulobis msxvrevis mowodebiT gamovidnen, adamianis sulis gaTavisuflebis saxeliT, magram monobisgan ganmaTavisuflebelTa ki ara, istoriis jambazebis rolSi aRmoCndnen. arRvevdnen ra sazogadoebriv wes-Cveulebebs, cinikosebi sakuTar wes-Cveulebebsa da simbolur moqmedebebs qmnidnen. amis magaliTad cnobili `diogenes kasric~ 15

gamodgeba: saxeebs angrevdnen, amave dros ki Tavad Seqmnes zogadi saxe _ saxe cinikosisa. sigiJe, upirveles yovlisa, adamianis sulis or niWs azianebs: SemoqmedebiTs da TviTSemecnebiTs. fsiqikurad daavadebuli adamiani Cveulebriv an saerTod kargavs SemoqmedebiT unars, anda am unars sporaduli xasiaTi eZleva; igive exeba TviTSemecnebas, rogorc sakuTari Sinagani mdgomareobis Sefasebas: suliT avadmyofi ZiriTadad egoistia, romelic kargavs TanagrZnobas garesamyaros mimarT. Semoqmedeba da TviTSemecneba simbolikas eyrdnoba. Cven mxolod im droidan aRviqvamT sakuTar Tavs pirovnebad, rodesac Cveni fsiqika organizebuli xdeba da niSanTa sistemaSi _ adamianis metyvelebaSi erTveba. cinikosebi yovelgvar wess borotebad miiCnevdnen, magram TviTon cinizmi, rogorc filosofiuri mimdinareoba, araraoba aRmoCnda: farTo speqtris maxvilsityvaobis garda, TavSesaqcevi gamonaTqvamebidan dawyebuli bilwsityvaobiT damTavrebuli, mas araferi dautovebia. cinizmi parazits hgavda, romelic Tavisi msxverplis sisxliT ikvebeba, magram TviTon unayofoa. diogenem Tavi moikla, radgan cieb-cxelebis erT-erTi Setevis dros darwmunda, rom veraviTari dacinviT ver dasZlevda temperaturasa da Zvlebis tkivils. erTma misma mowafemac mas mibaZa, rodesac mixvda, rom drosa da siberesTan verafers gaxdeboda. diogenes `SeSlil sokrates~ eZaxdnen. cinizmi raRac marilmJavas msgavsi iyo _ sazogadoebis bzarebSi aRwevda da Slida maT. magram uaryofa da mware ironia ver iZleoda pasuxs SekiTxvaze: vin aris kaci da risTvis movida soflad; piriqiT, cinikosebi uaryofd16

nen sulier substancias da sulier Rirebulebebs, maT empiriul adamianTan hqondaT saqme. adamianis aRorZinebis idea cinikosebs uazrod da iluzorulad eCvenebodaT, aRorZineba ki ara, gaTavisufleba ewadaT, rac sabolood iqamde midioda, rom adamians mis fiziologiur funqciebTan aigivebdnen. es gaTavisufleba, pirvel rigSi, sakuTari Tavisagan gaTavisuflebas gulisxmobda, Semdeg ki _ sazogadoebisagan. wes-Cveulebebisa da simboloebis msxvreviT isini wyvetdnen kavSirs warsulTan, momavalTan da im garemosTanac, romelSic arsebobdnen; eTikur da filosofiur antisimbolizms cinikosebi ukidures individualizaciasa da izolacionizmamde mihyavdaT. Tanamedrove cinizmis erT-erTi saxesxvaobaa egzistencializmi, romelic adamians empiriul mocemulobad ganixilavs, oRond empiriaSi individis mTel fsiqologiur Sinaarss debs. egzistencializmic erTgvari dekadenturi cinizmia _ tradiciebs, wes-Cveulebebsa da simbolikas isic monobad miiCnevs. sartri XX saukunis diogenea, oRond naklebad niWieri da gabeduli, vidre `aTeneli ZaRli~ iyo. xelovneba filosofiis intimuri mxarea. cinikosebis xelovneba karikatura iyo, egzistencialistebisa _ bodva da sigiJe, rasac, Cveulebriv, abstraqcionizms uwodeben. wes-Cveulebebisa da simboloebis msxvreviT isini adamianis sulis logoss amsxvreven: maSin individualobis bneli ufskrulebidan, romlebic kosmiur da sulier ufskrulebTan arian SeerTebulni, sikvdilisa da ngrevis aCrdilebi amodian, opiofagis uformo zmanebebs rom waagvanan. wes-Cveulebebis, rogorc religiis niSanTa sistemis ngrevas or sapirispiro polusamde mivyavarT: an religiis racionalizaciamde, 17

liturgikuli siRrmeebis uxeSi sityvieri gadmocemiT Secvlamde, anda eqstazur misticizmamde _ Zvel dionisizmamde. Tanamedrove e. w. avangardul xelovnebas, romelic uaryofs harmoniis principebs (iseve, rogorc cinikosebi uaryofdnen simbolikas), demonuri mistikis elferi dahkravs, amitom brbos eqstazuri mdgomareoba rok-musikis koncertebze Zalian waagavs antikur bakqanaliebs. saeklesio wesebi raRac meqanikuri da garegnuli zemoqmedeba rodia adamianis sulze, es is arxebia, romelTa meSveobiTac adamianis suls RmrTis madli gadaecema, esaa RmrTismsaxurebis RerZi, romlis garSemo taZarSi myof adamianebs SeuZliaT sulierad daaxlovdnen erT, cocxal mistikur sxeulSi erTianobis SegrZnebamde. saeklesio wesebs ori mimarTuleba aqvs: vertikaluri da horizontaluri. vertikaluri RmerTTan Tanaziarebas, adamianis sulis materialuridan sulierisken swrafvas aRniSnavs; horizontaluri _ taZarSi mdgomi adamianebis gaerTianebas erTi sarwmunoebiT, erTi mistikuri gancdiT, erTi locviTi nakadiT. wesebis rRveva igivea, rac sulieri komunikaciis rRveva, religiis dayvana filosofiuri abstraqciebis sibrtyeze an bneli dionisuri misticizmis, qaosis, qvecnobierebisa da instinqtebis, moCvenebebisa da zmanebebis sferomde _ esaa demonuri mdgomareoba, rodesac meordeba Zveli miTi orfevsis Sesaxeb: bakqi qalebi klaven orfevss _ gaxelebuli grZnobebi klaven suls. saeklesio wesi sul sxva ganzomilebis realiaa, vidre sityva, amitom misi sityviT Secvla SeuZlebelia _ rogorc cocxali, siTbosa da cxovrebis Semcveli naTlis svetis Secvlaa SeuZlebeli TeoriiT sinaTlis Ses18

axeb. saeklesio wesis wvdoma mxolod eklesiaSi SeiZleba, uSualo gancdis gziT, amitomaa, rom liturgikaSi wesebis axsnasa da RmrTismsaxurebis komentirebas SedarebiT naklebi adgili eTmoba. religiuri realiebis gageba mxolod imdenad SeiZleba, ramdenadac maT aRiqvam; saeklesio wesebsac imdenad SeiZleba Caswvde, ramdenadac mas Rebulob, e. i. TviTon adamianis sulis Secvlisa da ganaxlebis gziT. liturgiis axsna SeuZlebelia, es saidumloa. SesaZlebelia mxolod misi mcireodeni komentireba, garkveuli ZiriTadi ideebisa da analogiebis miTiTeba, magram igi samudamod darCeba saidumlod, romelic adamianis gulma mowiwebiT unda ganicados. amitom wesi erTdroulad kidec malavs da kidec amJRavnebs: malavs eklesiis Sinagan cxovrebas ucxo, cnobismoyvare, kadnieri mzerisgan da, amave dros, morwmunis guls `wmidaTa wmidis~ kars uRebs _ uRebs TandaTanobiT, misi Sinagani mzadyofnis kvaldakval, raTa metismetad mkveTrma sinaTlem Tvali ar mosWras da ar daabrmavos. racionaluri seqtebisaTvis, romlebmac mospes RmrTismsaxurebis simbolika, religia katexizmos doneze gaiyina; eqstatikuri seqtebisaTvis igi qaosisaken mibrunebad, sakuTar qvecnobierebasa da dacemul sulebTan TamaSad iqca. stoikosebi gulgrilad uyurebdnen da arad agdebdnen qristianobas, rogorc ubiri brbos religias; ufro gamWriaxi piTagorelebi da platonikosebi mTavar inteleqtualur mowinaaRmdeges xedavdnen masSi, cinikosebs ki sZuldaT, rogorc mosisxle mteri da eklesiis devnis dros xSirad gamodiodnen provokatorebisa da mabezRrebis rolSi (ix. iustine filosofosis cxovreba), romis imperatorebi maT qristianebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi iyenebdnen. magram warmarTobis 19

sinkretuli filosofia uZluri aRmoCnda saxarebis naTlis winaSe; imperiis uzarmazarma manqanam verafriT gatexa qristianuli Temebis suli. maSin asparezze cinikosebi da msaxiobebi gamovidnen TavianTi iaraRiT: dacinviT, tyuiliT, ciliswamebiT. qristianobis safuZvelia siyvaruli da siwmindis winaSe mowiweba, cinizmisa _ ampartavneba da yovelives arad Cagdeba, sakuTari Tavis garda. seqtantebi saeklesio RmrTismsaxurebasa da saidumloebebs xSirad jadoqrobas eZaxian, saeklesio ritualebs ki _ magiur wesebs, amitom axla mistikasa da magias Soris arsebul principul gansxvavebaze visaubroT. qristianuli mistikis safuZvelia RmerTis siyvaruli, qristianuli wesebi da saidumloebebi RmerTTan Tanaziarebis saSualebebia. magiis safuZvelia ampartavneba, samyaros dapyrobis survili okulturi Zalebis meSveobiT. mistikisaTvis RmerTi aris umaRlesi faseuloba, yofierebis saboloo mizani da mTavari Sinaarsi. magiisaTvis umaRles faseulobas dacemuli adamiani warmoadgens Tavisi mouTokavi vnebebiT, romelTa dakmayofilebisaTvis igi araviTar saSualebas ar erideba. qristianoba adamianisgan RmerTTan mimsgavsebas moiTxovs. mistikoss surs iyos morCili RmrTisa, am grZnobas gamoxatavs Txovna `iyavn neba Seni~. magia aris agresia samyaros mimarT, swrafva imisken, rom garkveuli magiuri formulebiTa da moqmedebebiT msoflio daimorCilos. magiis mizani yovelTvis utilitarulia da amsofliuri cxovrebis farglebs ar scildeba, mistikis mizani ki ama soflis miRma Zevs _ esaa maradisobaSi CarTva. magi demonuri samyaros Zalebs iyenebs, magram amave dros Zrwis am samyaros winaSe, demonebis gamocxadeba SiSis zars scems 20

mas. mistikosi eswrafvis qristesTan Sexvedras Tavis gulSi RmrTis madlis SewevniT, es Tanaziareba yvelaze naTeli movlenaa mis cxovrebaSi, romelic samudamod aRibeWdeba gulSi. sulTa gamocxadeba magiur ritualebSi xedviT an smeniT formebSi xdeba. mistikosi adamianSi RmrTis xatsa da msgavsebas xedavs, Seuracxyofis miteveba misTvis sulier moTxovnilebad iqceva. magia adamians Tavis instrumentad miiCnevs, misTvis ar arsebobs pirovnebis cneba. Seuracxyofis miteveba da sibraluli magiur ritualebSi sulmokleobad iTvleba. mistikosi ambobs: `minda movkvde sakuTari TavisTvis, raTa vicxovro sxvebisTvis~, magi ki ambobs: `me msurs vicxovro mxolod sakuTari TavisaTvis~. mistika da magia mxolod SinaarsiT ki ara, niSanTa sistemebiTac upirispirdebian erTmaneTs, magram magiuri ritualebis Sesaxeb dumils varCevT. tertuliane ambobda, rom es aris liturgiis parodia, Savi mesa, jojoxeTSi rom tardeba satanisaTvis, anu siwmindis Savbneli karikatura. jadoqrul ceremoniebSi xSirad gamoiyeneba siwmindis ritualuri Seuracxyofa. amitom is, vinc saeklesio wesebisa da magiuri ritualebis msgavsebaze laparakobs, an srulebiT umecaria, anda eSmakeuli. mistika ganuyofelia adamianis pirovnebis zneobrivi ganaxlebisgan. rac ufro maRali zneobisaa kaci da rac ufro axlos aris igi saxarebis mcnebebTan, miT ufro farTovdeba misi sulieri Semecnebis sfero. sulier sibrZnes asazrdoebs ara garegnuli codna, aramed is Sinagani mdgomareoba, romelzec ufalma Tqva: `netar iyvnen wmidani guliTa, rameTu maT RmerTi ixilon~. magia adamianisgan zneobas ki ara, yuradRebis koncen21

tracias moiTxovs. magia Tavisi gamiwierebuli, utilitaristuli xasiaTis, moqmedebis saSualebebisadmi ganurCevlobis, okultur, fsiqikur da kosmiur Zalebze orientirebis gamo adamians miznad usaxavs am samyaroSi TviTdamkvidrebas, aviTarebs masSi ampartavnebasa da egocentrizms, romlebic Tavis mxriv yvela vnebisa da fsiqikuri kompleqsis substrats warmoadgenen. mistikis mTavari saSualebaa locva, RmerTisTvis madlobis Sewirva, masTan mowiwebiT saubari, codvebis aRiareba, vedreba, RmrTis dideba. magiur ritualebSi arc madliereba arsebobs, arc aRsareba, arc vedreba _ rogorc Semweobis Txovna, arc sulis mowiwebiT saubari RmerTTan; aq urTierTobis sxva formebia damkvidrebuli: brZaneba, garigeba, SeTanxmeba, moTxovna. magi sulier samyaros imperativis toniT mimarTavs. mistikosi RmrTis madls ise aRiqvams, rogorc sulis ganaxlebas, simSvides da maradiulobas. magi, romelic demonur samyarosTan urTierTobaSi Tavis bnel energias Rebulobs, ise ganicdis mas, rogorc ucxo Zalebis mozRvavebas garedan, eleqtrobasTan Sexebas rom waagavs. misi mdgomareoba sul sxvaa: guli damZimebuli aqvs, suli _ SeSfoTebuli, igi Seubralebelia TviT yvelaze axlobeli adamianebis mimarT, yovel adamianSi mters xedavs da, amave dros, farulad sikvdils natrobs. mistikoss gulis kari RmerTisTvis Ria aqvs, magis guli yvelasaTvis daxurulia. RmerTi misTvis ucxoa, es ucxooba gulgrilobasa da siZulvils Soris meryeobs; demonebze ise mbrZaneblobs, rogorc momTvinierebeli _ Seborkil mxecebze, magram gulSi yovelTvis farul SiSs daatarebs, rom isini erTxelac aiwyveten da STanTqaven mas. qristianuli mistika aris adamianis gulis RmerTi22

saken, rogorc pirovnebisaken miqceva. pirovneba da ara upirovno Zala SeiZleba iyos siyvarulis sagani. magiaSi, demonologiaSi pirovnuli urTierTobebi ar arsebobs, magiuri jado-sityvebi demonur samyaros mimarTavs, destruqciul, anu upirovno samyaros. demonebs SemorCenili aqvT individualoba uwindeli angelozebrivi ierarqiis mixedviT, romelic ZalTa da SesaZleblobaTa garkveuli doniT gamoixateba, amasTan, es ierarqia ayiravebul piramidas waagavs: vinc adre saTaveSi idga, is axla qveSaa moqceuli. magram eSmakebi moklebulni arian pirovnul Tvisebebs, zneobasa da TviTSemecnebas _ maTi TviTSemecneba materialuri samyarosa da borotebis cnobad gadagvarda. isini ganpirovnebulni arian RmerTisa da adamianisadmi siZulviliT da sruliad dakarguli aqvT Tavisufali neba, rogorc arCevani keTilsa da borots Soris: maSasadame, upirovno individebi arian. xandaxan jado-sityvebi gansaxierebuli (personificirebuli) Zalebis mimarT warmoiTqmis, aq RmerTi kosmosiT aris Secvlili. niSandoblivia, rom warmarTobis ezoTerizmSi mTavar rols qTonuri (miwis) da qvesknelis RmerTebi (pani, dionise, demetra da sxv.) TamaSoben, magia zecisken ki ara, miwisa da jojoxeTisaken aris mimarTuli. magi, hipnozioris msgavsad, bnel Zalebs Selocvis saSualebiT aiZulebs TavianTi bneli jurRmulidan gamoZvrnen da mas emsaxuron. mistikuri gancdebis centri adamianis gulia, RmrTis madlis moqmedebiT igi cviliviT rbildeba. magia instrumentad adamianis gonebas iyenebs; magiuri ritualebis dros guli TiTqos kvdeba, ikumSeba da qvasaviT magari xdeba. mistikasac Tavisi ritualebi aqvs, magram misTvis mTavaria 23

ara forma, aramed Sinaarsi _ RmerTis siyvarulis, masTan erTianobis gancda. magia formas Sinaarsze maRla ayenebs; igi cdilobs rac SeiZleba zustad gadmoiRos magiuri ritualebis garegnuli forma, maTi Sinaarsi ki saidumlo niSnebsa da saxelebamde dadis, romlebic jojoxeTuri samyaros saSvebs warmoadgenen. magiuri ritualebi jadoqrobis or saxed iyofa: 1) Samanoba, rodesac magi xelovnurad iwvevs Tavis TavSi eqstazis mdgomareobas, misi suli tovebs sxeuls da qvesknelSi Cadis; 2) sulTa gamoZaxeba qvesknelidan jado-sityvebisa da magiuri ritualebis meSveobiT. qristiani mistikosisTvis aucilebelia asketizmi (Tundac is saero cxovrebas eweodes), mcnebebis mixedviT cxovreba, eklesiis saidumloebebSi monawileoba. magias yovelive es ar sWirdeba, is erTaderT pirobas uyenebs kacs _ Tavisi suli jojoxeTs dauwindos. urTierToba damsgavsebas niSnavs. naTlis qveyanas rom daemsgavso, uzarmazari Sroma da sakuTar TavTan brZolaa saWiro, bneleTis qveyana ki, siZulviliTa da vnebebiT savse, axlosaa dacemuli adamianis mdgomareobasTan, amitom demonTan urTierTobisaTvis misi gamoZaxebac sakmarisia. xSirad kacs Selocvebi da mkiTxaoba uwyinari TamaSi hgonia: aseT dros igi im bavSvs waagavs, sakuTar saxlSi kocons rom anTebs da arc ki icis, ra mohyveba amas. yoveli Sexeba demonur samyarosTan mZime fsiqikur travmas iwvevs adamianSi; magiis yoveli saxe, Tundac xumrobiT gaTamaSebuli, aRsarebaSi unda movinanioT, rogorc mZime codva. zogierTebi amboben, magias sikeTis motanac SeuZliao: sneulis gankurneba, safrTxis acileba da sxv. magram nu dagvaviwydeba, rom sicrue sikeTesa da simarTles satyuarad iyenebs, raTa am gziT 24

ufro advilad daeuflos Tavis msxverpls. metafizikur borotebas WeSmariti sikeTis qmna ar ZaluZs. Cveni oponentebi xSirad aseT kiTxvas gvisvamen: `ra saWiroa saerTod mTeli es simbolika da wesebi, gana ara sjobs, wrfeli guliT vilocoT RmrTis winaSe?~, `RmrTismsaxureba simboluri ki ara, realuri unda iyos~, amboben isini. magram aq erTi winaaRmdegobaa dafaruli. TviTon sityva ukve pirobiTi niSania, igi ar aris realia, mas konkretul saganTan an movlenasTan igiveoba ki ar akavSirebs, aramed realiis pirobiTi, niSnobrivi, abstrahirebuli asaxvaa bgerebisa da grafikis sistemaSi. amitom, rodesac Sinaarss sityvis formaSi vaTavsebT, ukve sinamdvilis modelirebis ganyenebul sistemas mivmarTavT, rac erT-erTi ZiriTadi gansxvavebaa adamiansa da dedamiwaze mcxovreb sxva arsebebs Soris. sityvis gareSe Cveni azri ver SeZlebs miwieri, materialuri sagnobriobis doneze maRla dadges da veraviTari warmodgena ver Seeqmneba sulier samyaroze, romelic sensoruli (mgrZnobelobiTi) aRqmis miRma mdebareobs. Cven samyaros adekvaturad ki ar aRviqvamT, aramed misi energiebiT, romlebic Cvens SemecnebaSi realobis modelebad yalibdeba. mag., ferebi da bgerebi im talRebis transformaciaa, romlebic grZnobaTa organoebis meSveobiT ferebad da bgerebad iqcevian. ase rom, materiis safarqveS samyaros iseTad rodi vxedavT, rogoric igi sinamdvileSia, anu sagnebis TviT arss ki ar vwvdebiT, aramed mxolod im Tvisebebs, moqmedebebsa da energiebs aRviqvamT, rac Cveni aRqmis meqanizmis farglebSia. momaval cxovrebaSi samyaros sxva ganzomilebebSi davinaxavT. Cveni warmodgena samyaroze aseve pirobiTi da modelirebulia. Secnoba uxilavis aRmoCenas niSnavs; saukuno 25

cxovreba mudmivi Secnoba iqneba, maradiuli ganaxlebis gancxadeba. am gancxadebaTa jaWvSi winamavalis mimarTeba Semdgomisadmi iseTi iqneba, rogoric msgavsisa _ sinamdvilesTan, es sinamdvile ki RmerTTan miaxlebis axal safexurze mxolod msgavsebad gamoCndeba. amitom realobaze, rogorc adekvaturobaze laparaki simbolikis gareSe SeuZlebelia. pavle mociquli wers, rom aq Cven dabindul sarkeSi gaurkvevel gamosaxulebebs vxedavT, iq ki pirispir davinaxavT (ix. I kor. 13, 12). platoni da sxva filosofosebic Cvens mier samyaros nivTier xedvas sagnebis Crdilovani anareklebis aRqmas adarebdnen. cotaTi gadavuxvioT Temas da vTqvaT, rom iseTi mecniereba, rogoricaa maTematika, danarCen mecnierebaTa suli da guli, mTlianad pirobiTobebsa da abstraqciebs eyrdnoba; yoveli cifri, ricxvi da formula simboluri niSania. modelirebasa da sqematizacias nebismieri mecniereba mimarTavs. asoebi, notebi, astronomiuli tabulebi da geografiuli rukebic pirobiTi niSnebia, romlebic adamianis Semecnebis sazRvrebsa da SesaZleblobebs afarToeben. taZari samyaros modelia da zeciuri eklesiis simbolo. wliuri liturgikis wre, saRmrTismsaxuro wignebSi Cawerili, pirobiTad zecis rukas SeiZleba SevadaroT, magram esaa sulieri zeca, romelzec adamianis sulis gza gadis. simboloebisa da wesebis gareSe SeuZlebelia saerTo locva da saerTo RmrTismsaxureba, sadac aucilebelia ritmi da wesrigi. amitom isini, vinc saeklesio wesebs uaryofen uSualo realobis gancdaze pretenziis gamo (romelic CvenTvis mocemulobas ki ara, mizans warmoadgens), sinamdvileSi iZulebulni arian sakuTari wesebi Seqmnan, mag., puris gantexis wesi baptistebTan, sagaloblebis krebulebi da 26

sxv. yovelma Temma da seqtam Tav-Tavisi wes-Cveulebebi Seqmna, romlebic droTa manZilze tradiciad iqceva. revolucia cdilobs gaauqmos wes-Cveulebebi, raTa adamianebma sakuTari warsuli daiviwyon, magram Semdeg iZulebulia saswrafod Seqmnas axali, xelovnuri wesebi; Tumca isini ufro xSirad mkvdradSobilni aRmoCndebian xolme da TandaTan isev xdeba maTi Secvla Zvel wesCveulebaTa ganaxlebiT an imitaciiT. hipebis moZraoba, rogorc janyi sazogadoebrivi eTikis winaaRmdeg, moralis tyveobisagan gaTavisuflebis mcdeloba daiwyo qcevis normebis, rogorc saero wesebis uaryofiT da damTavrda faseulobaTa sakuTari sistemis _ antieTikis SeqmniT, romlis dasacavad aseve niSanTa sakuTari sistemaa saWiro. saeklesio wesebi tradiciuli wminda simboloa, romlis saSualebiTac adamians SeuZlia kavSiri daamyaros simbolizebulTan, miiRos misi energiebi, CaerTos sulier realiaTa samyaroSi, amitom modernizmi marTlmadideblobis mteria. modernizmi ar icnobs saeklesio simbolikis siRrmes da cdilobs saeklesio wesebi adamianis mSvinvier mdgomareobas, mis esTetikur Sexedulebebsa da inteleqtualur dones dauaxlovos, anu simbolo sulieri komunikaciis saSualebidan (rac TviTon adamianis Sinagan ganwmendasa da momzadebas moiTxovs) mSvinvier moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebad iqces. aq arsebiTad TviT eklesiis gamiwiereba xdeba. wm. simboloTa gamogonebis yoveli cda axali, reformirebuli eklesiis Seqmnas waagavs, rac marTlmadidebluri TvalsazrisiT ritualuri mwvaleblobaa. wessa da simbolikas arc sagnobriv-nivTieri xasiaTi aqvT, arc mimeturi (mibaZviTi) maTSi arsebul azrobriv gnosisTan, su27

lieri realiebis saidumlo SifrTan anda wm. istoriis movlenebTan. aq kavSiri ideebisa da energiebis planSi xorcieldeba, amitom liturgia iseTive gamocxadebaa, rogoric wm. werili. marTlmadideblobis konservatizmi saidumlos Senaxvas niSnavs. adamianis mier gamogonili wesi swrafad amowuravs xolme Tavis Tavs. igi SeiZleba efeqturic iyos, magram siRrmes moklebulia, misi efeqti mSvinvier gancdaTa siaxleSi mdgomareobs, anu imaSi, rac sapirispiroa sulieri xedvisa. modernizaciis aseTi principi wesebis mudmiv ganaxlebas moiTxovs, mobezrebuli simRerebisa Tu tansacmlis msgavsad, amitom reformatoroba ganuwyveteli gamomgoneblobisTvisaa ganwiruli. amasTan, wesebi sulieri sferodan mSvinvierSi gadadis da misTvis ucxo esTetikur da gasarTob funqciebs kisrulobs, ki ar Seeweva, xels uSlis locvas an, rac aranakleb saSiSia, aukuRmarTebs mis Sinagan bunebas _ locva sentimentaluri, maRalfardovani da xSirad familarulic ki xdeba. amitom marTlmadidebloba mxolod dogmatikis siwmindes rodi niSnavs, aramed RmrTismsaxurebis siwmindes da ritualebis tradiciulobasac. suliersa da materialur samyaros Soris arsebobs msgavsebac da gansxvavebac, rogorc erTi Semoqmedis qmnilebebs Soris, rogorc erTi mxatvris or tilos Soris: erTi msuye ferebSia daxatuli, meore _ tuSis msubuqi monasmebiT, sadac Zlivs ganirCeva sagnebis konturebi. suliersa da materialur samyaros Soris urTierToba rom mxolod msgavsebasa da TiToeulis srulyofilebis doneSi mdgomareobdes, maSin sulieri samyaros asaxva xatovan-suraTovani xasiaTisa iqneboda; am urTierTobis safuZveli rom mxolod gansxvaveba da uaryofa iyos, maSin sulieri samyaros asaxva sruliad 28

pirobiTi, nebismieri da abstraqtuli xasiaTisa iqneboda, raRac SeTanxmebis safuZvelze miRebuli niSnis msgavsi. magram radganac am or samyaros Soris urTierToba msgavsebasa da gansxvavebas efuZneba, amitom wesi da simbolo orive elements Seicavs, iseve, rogorc ieroglifi Seicavs abstrahirebul qaragmas naxatze, Tumca es ufro asociaciaa, vidre msgavseba. axla ganvixiloT taZari, rogorc wm. simbolo. taZari aris saxli, am sityvis yvelaze maRali mniSvnelobiT _ sulis navsayudeli. taZari aris gamoxatuleba sulieri eonisa, sulis mistikuri gzisa RmerTisken, maradiulobisa, sadac warsulisa da momavlis movlenebi awmyoSi gadadian; taZari fizikuri adgilia, sadac sulieri samyaro sufevs, esaa sivrce, romelic usasrulobas Seicavs, adgili, sadac miwa cas uerTdeba. yoveli taZari aris ara sivrcobrivi, aramed energetikuli centri samyarosi, saidanac radiusebiviT gamodian talRebi, magram wre, rogorc aseTi, ar arsebobs. amave dros, taZari samyaros daSifruli modelia: misi gumbaTi cis TaRis msgavsebaa, kedlebi _ horizontisa, sakurTxeveli, romelic taZris mTel darbazze maRla dgas _ adamianebiT dasaxlebuli xmeleTisa, zRvis siRrmidan rom amodis. es, ase vTqvaT, taZris, rogorc simbolos yvelaze dabali aspeqtia, umaRlesi aspeqti ki aris zeciuri eklesia, sulieri samyaro, sadac simaRlisken swrafva niSnavs sulis mudmiv msvlelobas RmerTisken. gumbaTis wre maradiulobaa, jvari taZris safuZvelSi _ siyvaruli, rogorc saukuno cxovrebis Sinaarsi. amasTan, taZari aris ara statikuri, aramed dinamikuri simbolo: igi ara marto miuTiTebs samyaros momaval feriscvalebaze msoflio eklesiad, aramed saT29

avesac udebs am feriscvalebas. taZris gumbaTis wertilamde daviwroeba niSnavs kosmosis Sezrdas sulier eonTan, xolo damrgvalebuli gumbaTi, als rom waagavs _ cecxls, romelic gardaqmnis samyaros, ganyofs sikeTes borotebisagan, wyvdiads _ naTlisagan da ganasulierebs TviT materialurobas. amrigad, simbolo WeSmaritebis gasaRebia, xolo saeklesio wesi _ arxi madlisa, romlsac ufalma `wyali cxoveli~ uwoda. simbolos gareSe adamianis azri sulieri samyaros Sesaxeb sicarieleSi gamoekideboda, anda fantaziebis, anu adamianur warmodgenaTa tyveobaSi aRmoCndeboda, am warmodgenaTa safuZveli ki dacemul sulTa metafizikuri tyuili gaxlavT.

30

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nobili ingliseli poeti kiplingi ase iwyebs Tavis erT-erT poemas: `oh, dasavleTi dasavleTia da aRmosavleTi _ aRmosavleTi, da isini manam ar SeerTdebian, vidre ca da xmeleTi ar SeerTdeba uflis saSinel samsjavroze~. aq aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTSi qveynis ori mxare rodi unda vigulisxmoT, romlebsac geografiulad uralisa da kavkasionis qedebi hyofen. aRmosavleTi is vrceli regionia, aRmosavleT romis imperias, mere ki bizantiasa da axlo aRmosavleTs rom eWira (aqve Sedis aleqsandria da eTiopiac), dasavleTi ki _ dasavleT evropis qveynebi Tav-TavianTi kulturiT. wm. mamebis xatovani TqmiT, `naTeli aRmobrwyinda aRmosavleTiT~: aq aRmosavleTi simbolurad niSnavs samoTxes, edems, maradiuli RmrTaebrivi naTlis qveyanas. kulturul-istoriuli mniSvnelobiT dasavleTi axalgazrdaa, jerac ymawvilia; aRmosavleTi _ mxcovani. dasavleTi qmediTi sawyisis gamovlinebaa, aRmosavleTi _ mWvretelobiTi cxovrebisken midrekili. dasavleTi mTlianad emociebsaa ayolili, moZraobasa da dinamikaSi arsebobs, aRmosavleTi sakuTar TavSia CaZiruli, TiTqos Tvals ver wyvets masSi daflul saunjes. dasavleTi eZiebs, utevs, SemarTuli da gatacebulia; aRmosavleTi 39

ki inaxavs. dasavleTi ocnebobs, zmanebebs eZleva; aRmosavleTi xilulis safarqveS yvelgan maradiul ideebs daeZebs. dasavleTi Tavis wmindanebs TeTr samoselSi mosavs, vardebisagan dawnul gvirgvinebs adgams Tavze; aRmosavleTi siwmindes ZonZebSic xedavs da oqroSic, wmindanis atributad igi arc glaxakis ZonZebs aqcevs, arc beris ZaZas da arc mefeTa mewamul Sesamosels _ TiTqos gverds uvlis yovelive garegnuls. dasavleTi jvarosanTa laSqrebs agzavnis uflis saflavis gamosaxsnelad, aRmosavleTi aTonsa da egviptis monastrebSi uSvebs berebs. dasavleTi xmals uRerebs sarwmunoebis mtrebs, aRmosavleTi sulier mebrZolebs zrdis uxilav mtrebTan sabrZolvelad. dasavleTi inkvizicias qmnis borotebis dasaTrgunad, aRmosavleTi _ udides filosofiur sistemebs. dasavleTis RmrTismetyvelebis mwvervalia netari avgustine _ brwyinvale poeti da moazrovne, magram igi TxemiT terfamde fsiqologiuria; aRmosavleTis RmrTismetyvelebi: grigol noseli, grigol RmrTismetyveli, basili didi mistikosebi arian. avgustinem da misma skolam SesaniSnavad gviCvenes dacemuli da monanuli adamiani, aRmosavleTis RmrTismetyvelebma ki dagvanaxes, Tu rogoria ganaxlebuli kaci. dasavleTma Tavis wmindanTa bageebiT didebuli himni aRuvlina RmerTs, aRmosavleTi mdumared Wvretda mas. dasavleTi laJvardisferi cisken miiwevda, aRmosavleTi ki sakuTar gulSi eZiebda RmerTs. dasavleli moRvaweebi cdilobdnen TviTon miebaZaT qristesaTvis, aRmosavlel moRvaweebs ki miaCndaT, rom erTaderTi gza arsebobs qristes mibaZvisa _ suli wmidis meoxebiT. adamiani, romelmac suli wmida Seimosa, 40

uxilavad qristes miemsgavsa. dasavleli moRvaweebi galobiT midiodnen golgoTisaken, aRmosavlelni ki TviT cxovrebas aqcevdnen soflisaTvis uxilav golgoTad. zogierTi dasavleli moRvawe qristes saxis vizualurad warmodgenas cdilobda da iqamde midioda, rom Tavis Tavs qristesTan aigivebda, xel-fexze iarebi uCndeboda da sisxlic ki sdioda. stigmacia kaTolikeebTan siwmindis niSani iyo. aRmosavleTis wm. mowameebi cdilobdnen erTaderTi ram hqonodaT Tvalwin: sakuTar codvaTa simravle, radgan qristesTan Tavis Sedareba saSinel ampartavnebad miaCndaT. dasavleTi xmalamowvdil yrma meomars hgavda, aRmosavleTi _ mxcovan, brZen moxucebuls. dasavleTi zeciuri sasufevlis miwaze Camotanas cdilobda, aRmosavleTi yovelTvis ixdida xarks principiT `keisars _ keisrisa~, zeciur sasufevelSi gadasvlas ki adamianis gulSi amzadebda. dasavleTisTvis borotebasTan brZolis asparezi es sofeli, ama soflis cxovreba iyo, aRmosavleTisTvis _ adamianis guli, ufro Rrma, vidre mTeli es xiluli sofeli. dasavleTi qmediTi bunebisaa, magram mTeli misi aqtiuroba Signidan gareTaa mimarTuli; aRmosavleTma sulis dinamika SigniT Caibruna. dasavleTis civilizacia TiTqos naTlis farTo nakadia, magram es nakadi gafantulia da ama soflis mravalfer prizmaSi gadamtydari. dasavleTi erT wertilSi koncentrirebuli sinaTlea, amitom am sinaTles gansakuTrebuli Tviseba aqvs _ cecxlad aqcevs da wvavs. dasavleTs miwa uyvarda da miwierSic zeciur simboloebs Wvretda, warmavalSi igi maradiuls eZiebda. 41

jer kidev romis mesame episkoposi, wm. klimenti, wm. petres memkvidre, eklesias laSqars adarebda da imisaTvis, rom es laSqari uZleveli yofiliyo, qritianebs mkacri disciplinisaken mouwodebda. aRmosavleTis mamebi ki ambobdnen: `sZlie sakuTar Tavs da es iqneba Seni udidesi gamarjveba~. wm. mamebis asketuri swavleba swored am sulieri brZolis strategiaa. jaris warmatebisaTvis aucilebelia mmarTvelobis centralizacia, Zlieri xelisufleba da usityvo morCileba; amitom dasavleTma iseTi saeklesio struqtura Seqmna, romelic monarqiul struqturas waagavs. aRmosavleTma ki bnel ZalebTan sulieri brZolisaTvis sxva Zala arCia _ simdable, romelSic sulis WeSmariti Zliereba vlindeba. dasavleTi garegnul Zlierebas eyrdnoboda. fuladi saxsrebis meSveobiT igi sxvadasxva organizaciebs qmnida, gavlenas axdenda kulturaze, yvelgan eZebda mokavSireebs _ literaturis, xelovnebis, politikis, sociologiis sferoebSi. aRmosavleTi ki ambobda: `WeSmariti sikeTis qmna mxolod RmrTis madliTaa SesaZlebeli~, amitom yovelTvis uaryofda saeWvo mokavSireebs. da Tumca garegnulad dasavleTze Raribi, ufro susti da umweo Canda, igi arasodes eZiebda ama soflis Zlierebas, aramed eZiebda qristes, romelmac sZlia sofels. dasavleTis asketika mudam aRtacebiTa da aRfrTovanebiT avsebs moRvawis suls, aRmosavleTisa ki _ sinanuliT. dasavleTi ama soflis mSvenierebaSi cdilobs RmerTis mSveniereba dainaxos. aRmosavleTisTvis RmerTi pirvel yovlisa gamouTqmeli, Seucnobeli da gamouTargmanebelia. RmerTi aRmosavleTisaTvis ara hgavs aravis da arafers Tavis qmnilTagan, igi maradiuli saidumloa. 42

dasavlel moRvawes surs gulSi Caikras RmerTi, aRmosavleli ki erTaderTs SesTxovs da evedreba _ codvaTa mitevebas. locvis dros Zlieri gancdebis Zieba mas codvad miaCnia. dasavleli moRvawe xedavs masze garedan gadmosul saRmrTo naTels (mag., francisk asizeli da sxvebi), aRmosavleli ki xedavs naTels, mis guls Signidan rom anaTebs, amasTan Zrwis, rogorc uRirsi RmrTis esodeni wyalobisa. dasavleli moRvaweebi saqveynod fendnen TavianT sinanuls, jgufebad dadiodnen qalaqebSi, maT asec uwodebdnen _ `monanulebi~. isini moednebsa da quCebSi tanisamoss ixdidnen da TokebiT scemdnen, amaTraxebdnen sakuTar Tavs ise, rom sisxli sdiodaT; uamravi xalxi gamodioda am sanaxaobis sayureblad, egzaltirebuli brbo adidebda maT, rogorc RmrTis saTno adamianebs, rogorc gmirebs. aRmosavleli mamebi ki, yvelasaTvis ucnobni, udabnos mdumarebaSi inaniebdnen sakuTar codvebs: erTxel, taZarSi mdgomma arseni didma Rrmad amoioxra, magram maleve gamoerkva da gverdiT mdgom berebs sTxova, SemindeT, Zmebo, me jer kidev ara var monazonio... _ sinanuli, iseve rogorc yvela sxva saTnoeba, dafaruli unda iyos. dasavleTisTvis mTavaria saqme _ saqme misTvis TavisTavadi Rirebulebaa. saqmesac da codvasac TavTavisi zusti fasi adevs. aRmosavleTisTvis ki mTavari sulieri mdgomareobaa, saqme mxolod mis gamoxatvad, anu Sinaganis gamovlinebad miaCnia. amitom aRmosavleTma SesaZloa mcire Rvawlic didad Seracxos, Tu igi wminda guliT aResruleba da didi Rvawli _ araraobad, Tuki igi arawminda guliT an uRirsi saSualebebiT sruldeba. 43

amitom dasavlel moRvaweTa zneoba imiT ganisazRvreboda, garegnulad vin met keTil saqmes Caidenda, aRmosavlelTa ki _ gulis siwmindiT, romelsac erTaderTi _ RmerTi xedavs. dasavleTs surda amsoflad, aqauri saSualebebiT ganexorcielebina zeciuri sasufevlis idea, magram saxelmwifos meTodebi: waxalisebebi, sanqciebi, intrigebi da sxv., eklesiaSi gadatanili, TviT am miznis profanacias axdenda. `mizani amarTlebs saSualebas~ _ iezuitebis es dauwereli kanoni gansakuTrebiT gasagebad da kategoriulad gamoxatavda maT ganwyobas, vinc marTlac mzad iyo dedamiwaze moewyo samoTxe nebismieri xerxiT da nebismier fasad. aRmosavleTis morali ki aswavlida: `wminda mizani, wminda saSualebebi, wminda sagani~ (es formulireba jer kidev dionise areopagels ekuTvnis). dasavleTi ambobs: `giyvardes da Tavi gaswire~. aRmosavleTi ki, pirvel yovlisa, vnebebTan brZolaSi moiTxovs Tavis gawirvas saRmrTo madlis mosaxveWad. dasavleli berebi sofelsa da adamianebs emsaxurebian: e.w. `hospitalerebi~ mravali wlis manZilze uvlidnen mgzavrebs, francisk asizelis ordenis wevrebi (`franciskanelebi~) bavSvebs zrdidnen, iezuitebi politikaSi monawileobdnen, axalgazrdebs aswavlidnen da sxv. aq monazvnoba ama soflis samsaxurSi dgas, mis saero da praqtikul moTxovnebs asrulebs. erTxel kaTolike berebs hkiTxes, kiTxulobT Tu ara sasuliero literaturaso. maT gaukvirdaT da upasuxes, CvenSi am wignebs mxolod profesorebi da istoriis maswavleblebi kiTxuloben, Cveni saqme ki iRumenis morCilebaao. dasavleTSi TiTqmis ar arsebobs moZRvreba iesos locvisa da sulieri xedvis Sesaxeb. kultura 44

da mecniereba ganuwyvetliv icvleba da aseve icvleba dasavluri qristianobis saxec _ iq mefobs modernizmis principi, miRebulia eklesiologiuri swavleba evoluciaze, axal-axali dogmatebi ibadeba da axal-axali gamocxadebebis molodini dgas. aRmosavleTSi erTaderTi monazvnuri wesdeba, erTi idea arsebobs: beri uaryofs sofels da xdeba mlocveli mTeli soflisaTvis. igi miwidan cad asul varskvlavs hgavs _ yvelasaTvis Soreuls da yvelasaTvis manaTobels.

45

unia

m

RvdelmTavari ioane oqropiri `saqme mociqulTa~-s ganmartebisas ambobs, eklesiisTvis yvelaze didi safrTxe devnis ararsebobaao. rodesac demonuri Zalebi Tavs atydebodnen eklesias pirdapiri Seviwroebis, devnisa da teroris gziT, yovelive es, TviT mdevnelTa nebis sawinaaRmdegod, filtriviT moqmedebda, widisagan asufTavebda madans. am cecxlovani gamocdiT eklesiis mtrebi TviTon wmendnen eklesias, aTavisuflebdnen mas nominaluri qristianebisgan da im uprincipo pragmatikosebisgan, eklesiaSi sakuTar sargeblobasa da karieras rom eZieben. rodesac devna wydeba, TiTqos jebirebi da kaSxlebi iReba da mdinaris kalapoti wyliT ivseba, magram am wyals Tan mosdevs dagrovili WuWyi. rodesac devna wydeba da sazogadoebrivi azri ara mxolod iTmens qristianobas, aramed mis waxalisebasac iwyebs, Signidan sxva damangreveli procesi iwyeba: eklesia kargavs Tavis sulier siwmindes da misi galavnis SigniT TavianTi suliskveTebiTa da cxovrebis wesiT eklesiisaTvis sruliad ucxo adamianebi xvdebian: zogi maTgani eklesias eqsperimentebis asparezad aRiqvams da, imis nacvlad, rom iswavlos eklesiisgan, TviTon iwyebs mis swavlebas; sxvebi saeklesio diplomatebi xdebian; zogi eklesiaSi vaWrobs; viRaceebi iq sakuTar pativmoyvareobas ikmayofileben da sxv. rodesac sadgurSi acxade46

aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis religiuri azrovnebis Taviseburebani

c

nobili ingliseli poeti kiplingi ase iwyebs Tavis erT-erT poemas: `oh, dasavleTi dasavleTia da aRmosavleTi _ aRmosavleTi, da isini manam ar SeerTdebian, vidre ca da xmeleTi ar SeerTdeba uflis saSinel samsjavroze~. aq aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTSi qveynis ori mxare rodi unda vigulisxmoT, romlebsac geografiulad uralisa da kavkasionis qedebi hyofen. aRmosavleTi is vrceli regionia, aRmosavleT romis imperias, mere ki bizantiasa da axlo aRmosavleTs rom eWira (aqve Sedis aleqsandria da eTiopiac), dasavleTi ki _ dasavleT evropis qveynebi Tav-TavianTi kulturiT. wm. mamebis xatovani TqmiT, `naTeli aRmobrwyinda aRmosavleTiT~: aq aRmosavleTi simbolurad niSnavs samoTxes, edems, maradiuli RmrTaebrivi naTlis qveyanas. kulturul-istoriuli mniSvnelobiT dasavleTi axalgazrdaa, jerac ymawvilia; aRmosavleTi _ mxcovani. dasavleTi qmediTi sawyisis gamovlinebaa, aRmosavleTi _ mWvretelobiTi cxovrebisken midrekili. dasavleTi mTlianad emociebsaa ayolili, moZraobasa da dinamikaSi arsebobs, aRmosavleTi sakuTar TavSia CaZiruli, TiTqos Tvals ver wyvets masSi daflul saunjes. dasavleTi eZiebs, utevs, SemarTuli da gatacebulia; aRmosavleTi 39

ki inaxavs. dasavleTi ocnebobs, zmanebebs eZleva; aRmosavleTi xilulis safarqveS yvelgan maradiul ideebs daeZebs. dasavleTi Tavis wmindanebs TeTr samoselSi mosavs, vardebisagan dawnul gvirgvinebs adgams Tavze; aRmosavleTi siwmindes ZonZebSic xedavs da oqroSic, wmindanis atributad igi arc glaxakis ZonZebs aqcevs, arc beris ZaZas da arc mefeTa mewamul Sesamosels _ TiTqos gverds uvlis yovelive garegnuls. dasavleTi jvarosanTa laSqrebs agzavnis uflis saflavis gamosaxsnelad, aRmosavleTi aTonsa da egviptis monastrebSi uSvebs berebs. dasavleTi xmals uRerebs sarwmunoebis mtrebs, aRmosavleTi sulier mebrZolebs zrdis uxilav mtrebTan sabrZolvelad. dasavleTi inkvizicias qmnis borotebis dasaTrgunad, aRmosavleTi _ udides filosofiur sistemebs. dasavleTis RmrTismetyvelebis mwvervalia netari avgustine _ brwyinvale poeti da moazrovne, magram igi TxemiT terfamde fsiqologiuria; aRmosavleTis RmrTismetyvelebi: grigol noseli, grigol RmrTismetyveli, basili didi mistikosebi arian. avgustinem da misma skolam SesaniSnavad gviCvenes dacemuli da monanuli adamiani, aRmosavleTis RmrTismetyvelebma ki dagvanaxes, Tu rogoria ganaxlebuli kaci. dasavleTma Tavis wmindanTa bageebiT didebuli himni aRuvlina RmerTs, aRmosavleTi mdumared Wvretda mas. dasavleTi laJvardisferi cisken miiwevda, aRmosavleTi ki sakuTar gulSi eZiebda RmerTs. dasavleli moRvaweebi cdilobdnen TviTon miebaZaT qristesaTvis, aRmosavlel moRvaweebs ki miaCndaT, rom erTaderTi gza arsebobs qristes mibaZvisa _ suli wmidis meoxebiT. adamiani, romelmac suli wmida Seimosa, 40

uxilavad qristes miemsgavsa. dasavleli moRvaweebi galobiT midiodnen golgoTisaken, aRmosavlelni ki TviT cxovrebas aqcevdnen soflisaTvis uxilav golgoTad. zogierTi dasavleli moRvawe qristes saxis vizualurad warmodgenas cdilobda da iqamde midioda, rom Tavis Tavs qristesTan aigivebda, xel-fexze iarebi uCndeboda da sisxlic ki sdioda. stigmacia kaTolikeebTan siwmindis niSani iyo. aRmosavleTis wm. mowameebi cdilobdnen erTaderTi ram hqonodaT Tvalwin: sakuTar codvaTa simravle, radgan qristesTan Tavis Sedareba saSinel ampartavnebad miaCndaT. dasavleTi xmalamowvdil yrma meomars hgavda, aRmosavleTi _ mxcovan, brZen moxucebuls. dasavleTi zeciuri sasufevlis miwaze Camotanas cdilobda, aRmosavleTi yovelTvis ixdida xarks principiT `keisars _ keisrisa~, zeciur sasufevelSi gadasvlas ki adamianis gulSi amzadebda. dasavleTisTvis borotebasTan brZolis asparezi es sofeli, ama soflis cxovreba iyo, aRmosavleTisTvis _ adamianis guli, ufro Rrma, vidre mTeli es xiluli sofeli. dasavleTi qmediTi bunebisaa, magram mTeli misi aqtiuroba Signidan gareTaa mimarTuli; aRmosavleTma sulis dinamika SigniT Caibruna. dasavleTis civilizacia TiTqos naTlis farTo nakadia, magram es nakadi gafantulia da ama soflis mravalfer prizmaSi gadamtydari. dasavleTi erT wertilSi koncentrirebuli sinaTlea, amitom am sinaTles gansakuTrebuli Tviseba aqvs _ cecxlad aqcevs da wvavs. dasavleTs miwa uyvarda da miwierSic zeciur simboloebs Wvretda, warmavalSi igi maradiuls eZiebda. 41

jer kidev romis mesame episkoposi, wm. klimenti, wm. petres memkvidre, eklesias laSqars adarebda da imisaTvis, rom es laSqari uZleveli yofiliyo, qritianebs mkacri disciplinisaken mouwodebda. aRmosavleTis mamebi ki ambobdnen: `sZlie sakuTar Tavs da es iqneba Seni udidesi gamarjveba~. wm. mamebis asketuri swavleba swored am sulieri brZolis strategiaa. jaris warmatebisaTvis aucilebelia mmarTvelobis centralizacia, Zlieri xelisufleba da usityvo morCileba; amitom dasavleTma iseTi saeklesio struqtura Seqmna, romelic monarqiul struqturas waagavs. aRmosavleTma ki bnel ZalebTan sulieri brZolisaTvis sxva Zala arCia _ simdable, romelSic sulis WeSmariti Zliereba vlindeba. dasavleTi garegnul Zlierebas eyrdnoboda. fuladi saxsrebis meSveobiT igi sxvadasxva organizaciebs qmnida, gavlenas axdenda kulturaze, yvelgan eZebda mokavSireebs _ literaturis, xelovnebis, politikis, sociologiis sferoebSi. aRmosavleTi ki ambobda: `WeSmariti sikeTis qmna mxolod RmrTis madliTaa SesaZlebeli~, amitom yovelTvis uaryofda saeWvo mokavSireebs. da Tumca garegnulad dasavleTze Raribi, ufro susti da umweo Canda, igi arasodes eZiebda ama soflis Zlierebas, aramed eZiebda qristes, romelmac sZlia sofels. dasavleTis asketika mudam aRtacebiTa da aRfrTovanebiT avsebs moRvawis suls, aRmosavleTisa ki _ sinanuliT. dasavleTi ama soflis mSvenierebaSi cdilobs RmerTis mSveniereba dainaxos. aRmosavleTisTvis RmerTi pirvel yovlisa gamouTqmeli, Seucnobeli da gamouTargmanebelia. RmerTi aRmosavleTisaTvis ara hgavs aravis da arafers Tavis qmnilTagan, igi maradiuli saidumloa. 42

dasavlel moRvawes surs gulSi Caikras RmerTi, aRmosavleli ki erTaderTs SesTxovs da evedreba _ codvaTa mitevebas. locvis dros Zlieri gancdebis Zieba mas codvad miaCnia. dasavleli moRvawe xedavs masze garedan gadmosul saRmrTo naTels (mag., francisk asizeli da sxvebi), aRmosavleli ki xedavs naTels, mis guls Signidan rom anaTebs, amasTan Zrwis, rogorc uRirsi RmrTis esodeni wyalobisa. dasavleli moRvaweebi saqveynod fendnen TavianT sinanuls, jgufebad dadiodnen qalaqebSi, maT asec uwodebdnen _ `monanulebi~. isini moednebsa da quCebSi tanisamoss ixdidnen da TokebiT scemdnen, amaTraxebdnen sakuTar Tavs ise, rom sisxli sdiodaT; uamravi xalxi gamodioda am sanaxaobis sayureblad, egzaltirebuli brbo adidebda maT, rogorc RmrTis saTno adamianebs, rogorc gmirebs. aRmosavleli mamebi ki, yvelasaTvis ucnobni, udabnos mdumarebaSi inaniebdnen sakuTar codvebs: erTxel, taZarSi mdgomma arseni didma Rrmad amoioxra, magram maleve gamoerkva da gverdiT mdgom berebs sTxova, SemindeT, Zmebo, me jer kidev ara var monazonio... _ sinanuli, iseve rogorc yvela sxva saTnoeba, dafaruli unda iyos. dasavleTisTvis mTavaria saqme _ saqme misTvis TavisTavadi Rirebulebaa. saqmesac da codvasac TavTavisi zusti fasi adevs. aRmosavleTisTvis ki mTavari sulieri mdgomareobaa, saqme mxolod mis gamoxatvad, anu Sinaganis gamovlinebad miaCnia. amitom aRmosavleTma SesaZloa mcire Rvawlic didad Seracxos, Tu igi wminda guliT aResruleba da didi Rvawli _ araraobad, Tuki igi arawminda guliT an uRirsi saSualebebiT sruldeba. 43

amitom dasavlel moRvaweTa zneoba imiT ganisazRvreboda, garegnulad vin met keTil saqmes Caidenda, aRmosavlelTa ki _ gulis siwmindiT, romelsac erTaderTi _ RmerTi xedavs. dasavleTs surda amsoflad, aqauri saSualebebiT ganexorcielebina zeciuri sasufevlis idea, magram saxelmwifos meTodebi: waxalisebebi, sanqciebi, intrigebi da sxv., eklesiaSi gadatanili, TviT am miznis profanacias axdenda. `mizani amarTlebs saSualebas~ _ iezuitebis es dauwereli kanoni gansakuTrebiT gasagebad da kategoriulad gamoxatavda maT ganwyobas, vinc marTlac mzad iyo dedamiwaze moewyo samoTxe nebismieri xerxiT da nebismier fasad. aRmosavleTis morali ki aswavlida: `wminda mizani, wminda saSualebebi, wminda sagani~ (es formulireba jer kidev dionise areopagels ekuTvnis). dasavleTi ambobs: `giyvardes da Tavi gaswire~. aRmosavleTi ki, pirvel yovlisa, vnebebTan brZolaSi moiTxovs Tavis gawirvas saRmrTo madlis mosaxveWad. dasavleli berebi sofelsa da adamianebs emsaxurebian: e.w. `hospitalerebi~ mravali wlis manZilze uvlidnen mgzavrebs, francisk asizelis ordenis wevrebi (`franciskanelebi~) bavSvebs zrdidnen, iezuitebi politikaSi monawileobdnen, axalgazrdebs aswavlidnen da sxv. aq monazvnoba ama soflis samsaxurSi dgas, mis saero da praqtikul moTxovnebs asrulebs. erTxel kaTolike berebs hkiTxes, kiTxulobT Tu ara sasuliero literaturaso. maT gaukvirdaT da upasuxes, CvenSi am wignebs mxolod profesorebi da istoriis maswavleblebi kiTxuloben, Cveni saqme ki iRumenis morCilebaao. dasavleTSi TiTqmis ar arsebobs moZRvreba iesos locvisa da sulieri xedvis Sesaxeb. kultura 44

da mecniereba ganuwyvetliv icvleba da aseve icvleba dasavluri qristianobis saxec _ iq mefobs modernizmis principi, miRebulia eklesiologiuri swavleba evoluciaze, axal-axali dogmatebi ibadeba da axal-axali gamocxadebebis molodini dgas. aRmosavleTSi erTaderTi monazvnuri wesdeba, erTi idea arsebobs: beri uaryofs sofels da xdeba mlocveli mTeli soflisaTvis. igi miwidan cad asul varskvlavs hgavs _ yvelasaTvis Soreuls da yvelasaTvis manaTobels.

45

unia

m

RvdelmTavari ioane oqropiri `saqme mociqulTa~-s ganmartebisas ambobs, eklesiisTvis yvelaze didi safrTxe devnis ararsebobaao. rodesac demonuri Zalebi Tavs atydebodnen eklesias pirdapiri Seviwroebis, devnisa da teroris gziT, yovelive es, TviT mdevnelTa nebis sawinaaRmdegod, filtriviT moqmedebda, widisagan asufTavebda madans. am cecxlovani gamocdiT eklesiis mtrebi TviTon wmendnen eklesias, aTavisuflebdnen mas nominaluri qristianebisgan da im uprincipo pragmatikosebisgan, eklesiaSi sakuTar sargeblobasa da karieras rom eZieben. rodesac devna wydeba, TiTqos jebirebi da kaSxlebi iReba da mdinaris kalapoti wyliT ivseba, magram am wyals Tan mosdevs dagrovili WuWyi. rodesac devna wydeba da sazogadoebrivi azri ara mxolod iTmens qristianobas, aramed mis waxalisebasac iwyebs, Signidan sxva damangreveli procesi iwyeba: eklesia kargavs Tavis sulier siwmindes da misi galavnis SigniT TavianTi suliskveTebiTa da cxovrebis wesiT eklesiisaTvis sruliad ucxo adamianebi xvdebian: zogi maTgani eklesias eqsperimentebis asparezad aRiqvams da, imis nacvlad, rom iswavlos eklesiisgan, TviTon iwyebs mis swavlebas; sxvebi saeklesio diplomatebi xdebian; zogi eklesiaSi vaWrobs; viRaceebi iq sakuTar pativmoyvareobas ikmayofileben da sxv. rodesac sadgurSi acxade46

ben, rom erTi matareblidan meoreSi gadasvlaa saWiro, yvelaze swrafad isini garbian da saukeTeso adgilebsac isini ikaveben, visac carieli Cemodnebi miaqvs. cxadia, amiT sruliadac ar gvinda vTqvaT, rom aseTebi umetesobas Seadgenen eklesiaSi, piriqiT, es umciresobaa, magram iseTi umciresoba, erTob usiamovno suni rom asdis, amitom eklesias axali problemebi uCndeba _ esaa Sidasaeklesio brZola marTlmadideblobis siwmindis dasacavad. konstantine didis reformis Semdeg, romelmac eklesias Tavisufleba mianiWa, dadga axali periodi _ mwvaleblobebTan da qristianuli moZRvrebis SeryvnasTan ganuwyveteli brZolisa, aranakleb mZime da sapasuxismgeblo, vidre TviT eklesiis arsebobisaTvis brZolaa misi devnis xanaSi. dRes Cven vxedavT IV saukunis eklesiis istoriis erTgvar sarkisebur anarekls, im gansxvavebiT, rom msoflio krebebisa da patristikis epoqaSi eklesias hyavda didi moRvaweebi da Rrma RmrTismetyvelebi, Cveni dro ki aseTi moRvaweebiT ukiduresad Raribia. magram eklesias Tavis wiaRSi dauSreteli Zala aqvs, romelic Cvens uZlurebas avsebs _ esaa liturgiis madli da saeklesio tradicia. vinc am kalapotSi cxovrobs, mas SeuZlia Tavisi marTlmadidebeli guliT gaarCios WeSmariteba cTomilebisagan, sinaTle _ sibnelisagan, sarwmunoebis siwminde _ mzakvrulad SeTxzuli sicruisagan. dRes Cveni qveyana racionalisturi da mistikuri seqtebis eqspansias ganicdis, romelTa umravlesoba protestantul samyaroSia Seqmnili da misi ganuwyveteli danawevrebisa da dayofis Sedegia. danarCeni seqtebi warmarTuli warmoSobisani arian da budizmis, indu47

izmis, kriSnaizmisa da sxvaTa reformirebul swavlebas warmoadgenen. es `sulieri boSebi~ xmaurian gundebad daexetebian Cvens miwaze. Tu protestantul seqtebSi gadasvla aSkarad marTlmadideblobis uaryofasTan, tradiciisa da cxovrebis mTeli wesis SecvlasTan aris dakavSirebuli, arsebobs sxva, ufro dafaruli da SeniRbuli safrTxe kaTolike misionerebis mxridan, romlebic amtkiceben, rom SeiZleba marTlmadideblad darCe, Tu kaTolikobas miiReb uniis formiT. es ideebi popularulia eklesiis Soriaxlo mdgomi inteligenciis garkveul wreebSi _ droebiT `TanamgzavrebSi~, romlebic ar arian CarTulni eklesiis sulier cxovrebaSi, iSviaTad monawileoben sataZro RmrTismsaxurebaSi, ar asruleben eklesiis elementarul wes-gangebasac ki da, amave dros, sakuTar Tavs uflebamosilad cnoben aswavlon eklesias da misi saxeliTac ki gamovidnen. umaRles saero skolebSi arakompetenturi maswavleblebi (zogi maTgani sul axlaxan qristianobas aTeisturi poziciebidan akritikebda) axla amtkiceben, rom saqarTvelom Secdoma dauSva, rodesac Tavis droze unia ar miiRo. isini amboben, kaTolicizmis miReba saqarTvelos evropis qveynebTan daaaxloebda da amiT mis ayvavebas Seuwyobda xelso. magram, jer erTi, religiaSi adamianebi erTaderTs _ WeSmaritebas unda eZiebdnen, imis miuxedavad, gamosadegia Tu ara igi amqveyniuri TvalsazrisiT. religiis, rogorc amqveyniuri miznebis ganxorcielebis iaraRad ganxilva ukve TavisTavad aris am cnebis profanacia da materialisturi azrovnebis niSani. qristianoba da marTlmadidebloba xurda fuli rodia, romlis meSveobiTac savaWro garigebebis Catareba SeiZleba. aseTi 48

midgoma ukve aaSkaravebs am fsevdoqristianebis dabal zneobriv donesa da uprincipobas. magram modi, mainc ganvixiloT ori debuleba: 1) SeiZleba Tu ara marTlmadideblad darCe, Tu unias miiReb da 2) gaamarTla Tu ara uniam, Tundac rogorc politikurma iaraRma, anu `evropis karis gasaRebma~? sityva `unia~ kavSirs niSnavs, magram uniatur eklesiaSi sinamdvileSi araviTari kavSiri ar arsebobs. uniatebs ufleba eZlevaT TavianTi tradiciuli marTlmadidebluri wesebi SeinarCunon, magram amasTan unda miiRon yvela kaTolikuri dogmati da Sevidnen kaTolikuri eklesiis ierarqiul struqturaSi. uniatebi movaleni arian meqanikurad miiRon axali dogmatebi, romlebsac kaTolikuri eklesia gamoacxadebs. amgvarad, uniati aRmosavluri wesis kaTolikea, esaa kaTolicizmis totze amozrdili hibridi. kaTolikeTaTvis uniati igive kaTolikea, magram yvelaze dabali Tanrigisa, marTlmadidebelTaTvis ki _ mamaTa sarwmunoebisagan gandgomili. TviTon marTlmadidebluri wesebi, swydebian ra marTlmadideblur cxovrebas, dogmatebsa da liturgikas, nel-nela, magram garduvalad ganicdian deformacias, amitom Tanamedrove uniatebis RmrTismsaxureba, taZrebis morTuloba, xatwera, liturgikuli sagaloblebi sul ufro ekleqtikur xasiaTs iZenen. magram axla sxva sakiTxs mivubrundeT, romelic Cveni oponentebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania: marTalia, rom unia eris ayvavebis, erTianobisa da usafrTxoebis garantia? XII-XV saukuneebSi bizantiis imperatorebma ramdenjerme scades evropuli saxelmwifoebis daxmarebis miReba osmalTa agresiasTan brZolaSi. mTavari Zala, 49

romelic am kavSirs Sekravda, unda yofiliyo saeklesio unia romTan. magram am mcdelobebma sruliad sapirispiro Sedegi gamoiRo: dasavleTTan gaerTianeba ver moxerxda, samagierod, TviTon bizantielebs Soris moxda ganxeTqileba. maTTvis, vinc kaTolike jvarosanTa uReli gamoscada, mahmadianTa batonoba naklebad mZime Canda, vidre romis xelisufleba. marTlmadidebeli patriarqi garkveuli uflebebiT da pativiscemiTac ki sargeblobda osmalTa mxridan, romlebmac ierusalimi aiRes, xolo jvarosanTa mier palestinaSi ierusalimis samefos Seqmnis Semdeg patriarqi iZulebuli gaxda daetovebina wminda qalaqi. 1448 wlis uniam namdvili demoralizacia Seitana berZen xalxSi: uniat imperators opozicia gauCnda, romelsac saTaveSi saxelganTqmuli gmiri, admirali lukarisi Caudga. ukve alyaSemortymul konstantinepolSi uniis mowinaaRmdegeni gahyvirodnen: `sulTnis dolbandi sjobs papis tiaras!~ rac Seexeba dasavleTs, mas bizantiisaTvis araviTari qmediTi daxmareba ar gauwevia, romi gulgrilad, erTgvari faruli niSnismogebiTac ki adevnebda Tvals bizantiis agonias. aranakleb tragikuli ganyofa Seitana uniam ukrainaSi. qveyana faqtiurad or nawilad gaiyo: dasavleT, anu uniatur ukrainad da aRmosavleT, anu marTlmadideblur ukrainad, ris Sedegadac iq didxans ar wydeboda Sinaomebi. TurqeTSi mcxovreb somexTa udidesma nawilma kaTolicizmi miiRo, magram 1915 wlis genocidis dros, rodesac ori milioni somexi gaJlites, kaTolikur qveynebs arc ki ucdiaT TavianT erTmorwmuneTa dacva, miuxedavad imisa, rom TurqeTSi germaniisa da avstriis jarebi idgnen, romlebic windawin iyvnen gafrTxilebulni 50

mosalodneli danaSaulis Sesaxeb da Tavad gaxdnen sisxliani tragediis mowmeni. ra moxdeboda saqarTveloSi, mas rom unia mieRo? igive: Sida dayofa da SuRli. saqarTveloSi xalxis erTianobis mTavari sayrdeni marTlmadidebloba iyo. unia religiurad da eTnikurad gaerTianebul (erT fsiqoligiur garemoSi myof) qveyanas samTavroebad daSlida, romlebic erTmaneTTan mudmiv brZolaSi iqnebodnen Cabmulni, es ki obieqturad qveynis islamizacias Seuwyobda xels. saba orbelianma kaTolicizmi miiRo, raTa dasavleTis qveynebis mTavrobebTan kavSiri daemyarebina da saqarTvelosTvis raime daxmareba mieRo, magram evropidan valebis garda araferi Camoutania. Cven veWvobT, rom uniis momxreTa didi nawili Sors aris rogorc marTlmadideblobisgan, iseve kaTolicizmisgan. am adamianebs eklesiebis SeerTebaze metad undaT muqTa wamlebi `deda terezas debis~ ordenisagan da ufaso mgzavroba evropaSi romelime `saqvelmoqmedo~ organizaciis xarjze. maT arafris uaryofa ar sWirdebaT da arc araferi aqvT dasakargi.

51

Cveni sarwmunoeba

r

atom arsebobs dedamiwaze asobiT religia, sruliad rom ar eTanxmeba erTmaneTs da, amave dros, WeSmaritebis pretenzia aqvs? saiT mivyavarT maT? arian ki isini macxovnebelni, Tu maTi bolo metafizikuri ufskrulia? saidan gaCnda warmodgenebisa da sistemebis es simravle? Tuki kacobrioba erTi fesvidan warmodgeba, maSin ratom ara aqvs mas erTiani msoflmxedveloba? Tanamedrove adamians, romelic mieCvia filosofiur-zneobriv problematikaze humanizmis poziciebidan msjelobas, am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema gauWirdeba. da mainc, es kiTxva awuxebs mis sindiss da agnostikuri pasuxi `ar vici~ suls ver akmayofilebs. religiuri pluralizmis Canasaxi TviT codviT dacemaSia. adamis codvaSi ukve iCina Tavi orRmerTianobam: mas swams RmerTi da, amave dros, ujerebs satanas, rogorc axal, `keTil RvTaebas~. codvas ganyofa moaqvs _ Sinaganic da gareganic. ganyofa azianebs kacis agebulebas, suli da samSvinveli Zvel harmonias kargaven: suli xuWavs zecisaken mimarTul Tvals, samSvinveli ki kidev ufro Zlier ejaWveba miwas. codva kacis bunebis ierarqias aukuRmarTebs: samSvinveli sulze batonobas iwyebs. RmrTis Semecnebis Sinagani naTeli qreba, uSualo gamocdileba simbolikiT icvleba, religia garegan, sityvier gadmocemasa da ritualebs eyrdnoba da maT 52

Soris umniSvnelovaness _ msxverplSewirvas. religia RmerTis xedvidan wyvdiadSi RmerTis Ziebad iqceva. codvam erTmaneTisagan ganacalkeva sulis Zalebi: goneba, grZnoba da neba da, amasTan, sulier intuicias moswyvita isini. adamianma dakarga sinamdvilis kriteriumi _ uSualo Wvreta. garesamyaros igi mTlianobaSi ki ver xedavs, aramed mis gamovlinebebSi, fenomenebSi, rogorc mimofantul fragmentebSi, amitom warmosaxvis gziT cdilobs maT Sevsebasa da erT suraTad Sekvras. aq sulis SemoqmedebiT Zalas win eRobeba da gandevnis samSvinvelis gamomgoneblobiTi unari. codviT dacemis Semdeg sakuTari Zalebis anabara darCenili adamiani `gamomgonebel arsebad~ iqceva. adamis codva iyo demonTan kavSiris pirveli gamocdileba, misi impulsi dResac moqmedebs kacobriobaSi. adamianis grZnobebi vnebebad gadagvardebian; gamomgonebloba uxvad asazrdoebs mis mTavar vnebas _ ampartavnebas. kaci sul ufro metad ejaWveba miwas. samSvinveli, romelic isea gaJRenTili vnebiani grZnobebiTa da suraTebiT, rogorc Rrubeli _ wyliT, sulis sferos ipyrobs. demonTa Tayvaniscema, rogorc religiuri metafizikis myari saxe, pirvelad kaenis STamomavlobaSi gamoCnda. Zmis mkvlelobam gamoiwvia axali ryevebi, degradacia, sulier da mSvinvier ZalTa Secvla. samSvinvelis reaqtiuli Zalebi axal agresiul impulss Rebuloben da kidev ufro ucxoni xdebian sulisaTvis. bibliaSi gakvriT aris naxsenebi, rom kaenis STamomavali _ lameqi or cols irTavs. aq ukve Cans colqmruli kavSiris gadagvareba, romelic Svilebis gaCenis saSualebidan gulisTqmis dakmayofilebad iqceva. samSvinvelis mgrZnobelobiTi mxare, arcTu mTlad zustad 53

emociurs rom uwodeben, veRar grZnobs araTu zeciur mSvenierebas, aramed qveyniur harmoniasac. igi samSvinvelis yvelaze ufro gaxrwnil da advilad mowyvlad nawilad iqceva, romlis meSveobiTac bneli Zalebi adamianze zemoqmedebas axdenen. rogorc mteri ipyrobs sxvis teritorias da iq Tavis batonobas amyarebs, adgens axal kanonebsa da wesebs, iseve samSvinveli, sulis ierarqiis damsxvreviTa da kacze batonobis mitacebiT, religiis Tavisebur imitaciebsa da surogatebs Txzavs. rogorc brma, TvalisCins moklebuli kaci cvlis sinamdviles sakuTari warmosaxviT, iseve samSvinveli, sulier naTels moklebuli, sicarieles sakuTari ocnebebiT anacvlebs. sulis Zala _ es Semoqmedebaa, romelic zemgrZnobelobiTi fenomenebis Wvretas eyrdnoba; samSvinvelis Zala ki varaudebze dafuZnebuli gamomgoneblobaa. sulisagan gaucxoebuli goneba sityvieri abstraqciebiT awyobs Tavis fantaziebs; sulis mier micemuli impulsiT abstrahirebuli emociebi cnobierebaSi grZnobadi saxeebis meSveobiT vlindeba. gamocxadebas cvlis da gandevnis filosofia; gardamocema ki TandaTan miTologiaSi ganzavdeba da qreba. demonologiuri religiebi TavianT garegnul gamovlinebebSi filosofiuri skolisa da Teatris kavSirs warmoadgens. kaenis STamomavlobam swrafad ganvlo gza Teizmidan satanizmamde; SeuerTda ra mogvianebiT abelis STamomavlobas, religiur planSi misi asimilireba da gadabireba moaxerxa. ai magaliTi, rodesac sikeTisa da borotebis gaerTianeba kidev ufro did borotebas Sobs. warRvnamdeli istoria iyo TiTqosda `winaswarmetyveleba moqmedebaSi~ samyaros esqatologiis Sesaxeb. es istoria kacobriobis momavali istoriis mokle konspeqtia. 54

CvenTvis axali religiebis warmoqmna da maTi momravleba pirveli gardamocemis dakargvaa, gardamocemisa, romlis mcveli kacis gaRviZebuli sindisi iyo. warRvnis Semdgom periodSi nawvimarze amosuli sokoebiviT gamravlebuli religiebi Cven samSvinvelis gamomgoneblobisa da gonebis ampartavnebis Sedegad migvaCnia, sakuTari ZalebiT rom cdilobdnen imis xilvasa da miRwevas, rasac suls mxolod RmrTis madli umJRavnebs. religiuri fantazia, rogorc vnebiani da codvili samSvinvelis agresia sulis sferoSi, yovelTvis rCeba religiur iluzionizmad, yovelTvis aZlevs bnel Zalebs RmrTis madlis mier daucvel sulze zemoqmedebis saSualebas. yvela religia, marTlmadidebluris garda, garegnul Zalebze dayrdnobas cdilobs. magram suls ar sWirdeba garegani safuZveli, radgan maradiulisken aris mimarTuli. samSvinveli ki amqveyniurobiskenaa mimarTuli, amitom misi moqmedeba garegnul faqtorebzea damokidebuli. mSvinvieri religiebi fizikalur substrats an garegnul sayrdens eZieben. iudaur religiaSi es sayrdenia nacionaluri solidaroba, umisod Talmudizmi gaqreboda. mahmadianoba eqspansiis saSualebiT gavrcelda, igi iaraRis Zalas efuZneboda. kaTolicizmi organizaciasa da disciplinas emyareba, garegnul avtoritets, romelic papSi aris ganxorcielebuli. protestantizmi wm. werilis sityvasityviT gagebazea dafuZnebuli, romlis miRma suli ki ara, adamianuri inteleqti dgas, amitom TviTon biblia iqceva garegnul avtoritetad. seqtebi eyrdnobian urTierTdaxmarebis sistemas, konfesiur solidarobas, rogorc sazogadoebriv Tavdebobas. 55

marTlmadideblobaSi ar arsebobs garegani sayrdenebi, xolo im sayrdenebs, romlebic istoriulad Cndebodnen, rogorc simfonia eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris, droebiTi xasiaTi hqondaT: RmrTis gangebiT, isini ingreodnen da marTlmadidebloba yovelgvari socialuri, politikuri, inteleqtualuri da ekonomikuri mxardaWeris gareSe rCeboda. magram es moCvenebiTi umweoba da martooba am vnebebiT savse da demonizirebul samyaroSi swored imas mowmobs, rom marTlmadidebloba `ara amis soflisagania~, rom igi sulis gamocxadebaa da ara samSvinvelis gamonagoni. marTlmadidebloba ar eyrdnoba mecnierebas, rogorc amas Tanamedrove kaTolicizmi da protestantizmi moiTxovs; misTvis ucxoa filosofiuri interpretaciebi. niSandoblivia, rom XX saukunis religiuri moazrovneni, romelTac marTlmadideblobisTvis filosofiuri bazisis Seqmna surdaT, umeteswilad TviTon aRmoCndnen marTlmadideblobis miRma da TavianTi Txzulebebi dagvitoves, rogorc inteleqtualuri marcxis gamocdileba. sulierebis saerTo dacemis miuxedavad, sul ufro cxadad, sul ufro garkveviT Cans, rom Cven migvatova am sofelma, e. i. Cven ara varT misi nawili. am mitovebaSi, am danakargebSi, RmrTis gangebiT rom xdeba, am warmaval amqveyniur mwuxarebebSi, Cadebulia imis sawindari, rom Cven RmerTs ar mivutovebivarT, rom ama soflis Tavadma veraferi naxa marTlmadideblobaSi Tavisi _ ara CvenSi, aramed marTlmadideblobaSi _ da eklesiis axali devnisaTvis emzadeba. marTlmadidebluri asketizmi fantazias, rogorc demonur ZalTa asparezs, Tavis mtrad miiCnevs. igi gvaswavlis, rom codva fantaziis meSveobiT mJRavndeba, da 56

amitom pirveli asketuri kanonia gonebis gawmenda saxeebisa da gulissityvebisgan. marTlmadidebloba uaryofs, rom filosofias WeSmaritebis wvdoma ZaluZs, am dros racionalisturi konfesiebi da seqtebi inteleqtualur fantaziebSi TavianT cdomilebaTa apologias pouloben. marTlmadidebloba uaryofs yovelive imas, rasac sxva religiebi da konfesiebi agrovebdnen, rogorc saSen masalas. danarCeni religiebisa da konfesiebis istoria maTi reformaciisa da cvlilebebis istoriaa. reformas ganicdis arasrulyofili, magram amiT igi srulyofili rodi xdeba. marTlmadideblobaSi WeSmariteba Tavisi Tavis igiveobrivi rCeba. induisturi religiebi adamis cdunebas imeoreben: isini arwmuneben adamians, rom igi Tavisi bunebiT RmerTia, anu kacobrivi ampartavnebis Cirqgrovas kidev umateben sazrdos. garda amisa, reformirebuli induisturi seqtebi, iTvaliswineben ra Tanamedrove adamianis pragmatizms, gansakuTrebul okultur codnasa da Zalebs aRuTqvamen mas. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom warmarTobis Tanamedrove renesansi imiT aris ganpirobebuli, rom religiaSic ki adamiani eZiebs ara RmerTTan Tanaziarebas moRvaweobisa da Tavganwirvis gziT, aramed damatebiTi energetikisa da sakuTari mniSvnelovnebis damtkicebis saSualebas. aq ukve magia da okultizmi ise sTavazoben mas asarCevad TavianT `asortiments~, rogorc raRac saqonels. CvenTvis kiTxva: SeiZleba Tu ara cxonebis mopoveba sxva religiebSi, iseve gaugebaria, rogorc kiTxvebi: SeiZleba Tu ara sxva RmerTis gamogoneba, SeiZleba Tu ara eklesiis Seqmna, SeiZleba Tu ara RmerTTan Tanaziareba sakuTari fantaziis meSveobiT? 57

Cveni sarwmunoeba yvelaze Zvelia. bibliis wignebTan SedarebiT sxva religiebi, romlebmac TavianTi swavlebebi werilobiT Camoayalibes, gacilebiT gvian gaCndnen. marTlmadidebloba uZvelesi formaa qristianobisa, reformebsa da cvlilebebs rom gadaurCa. maSasadame, swored marTlmadideblobaSia is uwyveti Zafi, romelic Cveni winaprebidan modis Zveli aRTqmisa da axali aRTqmis eklesiebis meSveobiT _ esaa RmrTis madlis erTiani kalapoti, romelic saTaves suli wmidis mofenis dRidan iRebs.

sasufevels ver daimkvidrebs...

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soflio krebebis periodSi mwvaleblobebs umetesad trinitaruli da qristologiuri xasiaTi hqondaT. marTlmadidebel RmrTismetyvelTa sulieri da inteleqtualuri Zalebi iqiTken iyo mipyrobili, rom kacobrivi enisaTvis SesaZlebeli sizustiT CamoeyalibebinaT dogmaturi swavleba wm. samebasa da qristeze, rogorc RmerTkacze. eklesia aRiqmeboda uSualo, sulis mier empiriulad miRebul realiad, saRmrTo naTlisa da madlis velad, macocxlebel garemod, sadac ibadeba da yalibdeba adamianis pirovneba, eklesia aRiqmeboda rogorc haeri, romliTac cocxlobs adamianis suli. 58

eklesia aris qriste macxovris sxeuli. RmrTis madli, winasaukuno, marad Tanmxlebi RmrTisa (rogorc sxivebi _ naTlis wyarosi), myofobs ra gonier, RmrTis xatad Seqmnil arsebebSi, ayalibebs eklesias _ qmnilTa kavSirs SemoqmedTan, kavSirs, romlis mizania erTianoba, kavSirs, sadac sasruli mudmivad uaxlovdeba usasrulos, iZens ra mis Tvisebebsa da srulyofilebas. eklesia msoflio krebebis periodSi iseTive aSkara realia iyo morwmuneTaTvis, rogorc TviT sicocxle. amitom wm. mamebma eklesiis mxolod Zalian zogad, ontologiur Tvisebebze migviTiTes: erTianoba, memkvidreobiToba, siwminde da sayovelTaoba. eklesiis miRma, iseve rogorc logosisa da RmrTaebrivi naTlis miRma, iwyeboda wyvdiadisa da qaosis sfero, romelsac wm. mamebi ar gansjidnen da ar gansazRvravdnen, miT umetes, ar adarebdnen eklesias. es iyo sulieri sxvagvarobis, destruqciisa da rRvevis sfero. Tavisi damokidebuleba eresebis, ganxeTqilebebisa da sxvagvarad morwmuneobis mimarT mTelma patristikam wm. kvipriane karTagenelis sityvebiT gamoxata: `eklesiis gareSe ar arsebobs cxoneba~ _ es sakmarisi iyo. wm. mamebi arc eweodnen gvamis Seswavlas, raTa gaegoT, romeli organo ufro metad iyo dazianebuli da romeli _ naklebad. sulerTia, gaxrwnili da adamianis saxedakarguli gvamia Tqvens winaSe Tu jer kidev gaSeSebamde armisuli sxeuli, sicocxle arc erT maTganSi aRar aris. am SemTxvevaSi SekiTxvis dasma, Tu romeli ukeTesia, sruli uazrobaa. eklesiis gareSe ar arsebobs qriste, rogorc macxovari, qristes gareSe ki ar arsebobs saukuno cxovreba. es aqsioma iyo mTeli Zveli eklesiisaTvis. dRes, rodesac qristianebis sulieri done daeca da adamianebi eklesiur cxovrebaSi naklebad arian 59

CarTulni, eklesia aRaraa aSkara realia da igi problematikis sferoSi gadavida. eklesia sul ufro xSirad warmoudgeniaT abstraqciad da ganyenebul cnebad. eklesiis mimarT analitikur meTods iyeneben, anu klaven mas, rogorc cocxal organizms, ganixilaven, rogorc raRac Tvisebebis jamsa da istoriuli procesis Sedegs. gvamsa da cocxal adamians Soris bevri ram SeiZleba gamoinaxos saerTo, magram am dros ugulebelyofen yvelaze mTavar, yvelaze mniSvnelovan cnebebs _ sicocxlesa da sikvdils. ekumenizmi Tavis safuZvelSive eklesiis, rogorc cocxali organizmis aRqmis dakargvas da konfesiebs Soris garegnuli msgavsebis, rogorc garkveuli ritualur-dogmatikuri statikis Ziebas warmoadgens. ekumenisturi locvebi ferxuls waagavs, sadac cocxlebi mkvdrebTan erTad Cabmulan: cocxalTan Caxutebuli micvalebuli micvalebulad rCeba, mas am ucnauri, Cven vityodiT `Samanuri~ rokvis dros sicocxle ar ubrundeba, cocxali ki gvamis SxamiT iwamleba (cxadia, aq laparakia erTobliv, interkonfesionalur monawileobaze saidumloebebSi da ara adamianur urTierTobebze). meoce saukune umetesad eklesiologiuri mwvaleblobebis saukunea. am saukunem warmoSva Zveli eresiarqebis `niWieri memkvidreebi~, magram ar moucia RmrTismetyvelebi, TavianTi maRali sulieri cxovrebiT eklesiis Zvel moZRvrebs rom Seedrebodnen. amitom marTlmadideblobis damcvelni xSirad TviTonac eklesiis analitikur kvlevas mimarTaven: Slian da fragmentebad, periodebad da sazogadoebriv situaciebad anawevreben mas, anu mdare racionalizmis meTods _ mowinaaRmdegeTa enas iyeneben. dakarges ra gageba eklesiis 60

arsisa, rogorc RmrTis maradiuli madlisa, isini mis atributikaze gadadian da, radganac `ariadnes Zafi~ _ wm. gardamocema xelidan gauSves, labirinTSi daexetebian, sadac karis nacvlad kedlebs awydebian. yvelaze mtkivneuli Tanamedrove eklesiologiaSi, Cveni azriT, aris sakiTxi, romelic, marTalia, ukve karga xania gadaWrilia, magram dRes kvlav problemad iqca: eziarebian Tu ara mwvaleblebi RmrTis madls da SesaZlebelia Tu ara eklesiis gareSe cxoneba. Temas odnav gadavuxvevT da SegaxsenebT, rom yvelaze warumatebeli mcdeloba RmrTis madlisa da RmrTaebriv qmnilebaTa (kosmosis) urTierTqmedebis sakiTxis garkvevisa iyo e. w. sofiologia _ soloviovis skolidan gamosuli mofilosofoso dekadentebis doqtrina, romlis avtorebmac Tavi ganmaaxlebluri marTlmadidebluri azrovnebis matareblebad Seracxes. am mobuzRune inteleqtualur elitas, gasuli saukunis ormocian wlebSi ukve `moxucebis lagunad~ rom iqca, sakuTari Tavi marTlmadideblobis gonebriv centrad warmoedgina. ramdenadac zogierTi modernisti-ganmaaxlebeli sofiologebs imowmebs (mama sergi bulgakovsa da sxvebs), Cveni valia SevaxsenoT maT, rom TviTon sofiologia aris Tanamedrove da, Tavisi arsiT, warmarTuli humanizmis mcdeloba aafeTqon eklesiis kedlebi da waSalon misi dogmaturi furclebis. XX saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi marTlmadideblur gamomcemlobebSi daibeWda florenskisa da bulgakovis nawarmoebebi raime seriozuli kritikuli gamokvlevisa an filosofiuri komentarebis gareSe. cnobili sofiologi, yofili marqsisti, Semdeg ki dekanozi sergi bulgakovi wers: `kosmosi _ es liturgiis moqmedi organizmia~, rac niSnavs, rom kosmosi eklesiaa. magram kosmoss ekuT61

vnian warmarTebi, romlebic msxverpls swiraven moloqsa da baals; kosmoss ekuTvnian aTeistebi _ isini, vinc wvaven eklesiebs da arianelTa msgavsi mwvaleblebi, kosmosi Tavis TavSi Seicavs qvesknelis sulebs: maS saerTod, romel liturgiaze laparakoben sofiologebi? yrmaTa msxverplSewirva kerpebisaTvis, sakurTxevelTa dangreva da Sebilwva, Savi mesa jojoxeTSi _ nuTu yovelive es mxolod mozaikaa kosmiur liturgiaSi? sofiologia aris yoveli siwmindis desakralizacia, platonikur-gnostikuri panTeizmis recidivi qristianobaSi; xolo zneobrivad _ origenes mwvaleblobis, rogorc cxonebis cru imedis gameoreba. Tumca sofiologiaSi imedic ki ar aris, iqaa mtkice rwmena, rom moxdeba sayovelTao dabruneba wminda ideebis Tavdapirvel samyarosTan, rogorc TviT myofobis gardauval dasasrulTan. sofiologiaSi cxoneba warmodgenilia ara rogorc Tavisufali nebis arCevani da sarwmunoebis saqmeebi, aramed rogorc gardauvali aucilebloba. amitom Tavisufali neba _ RmrTis msgavseba _ iluziad iqceva, pirovneba ki _ fiqciad. sofiologiaSi ar aris qristes, rogorc macxovris adgili: ukeTes SemTxvevaSi igi xdeba zneobrivi ideali da magaliTi adamianebisaTvis. Tuki sofiologebi sakuTar Tavs marTlmadideblebad miiCneven, isic mxolod imitom, rom bolomde Tanmimdevrulni ar arian; Tumca ki sulieri tyuili arc SeiZleba iyos Tanmimdevruli. sofiologia warmoadgens panTeistur Teorias imis Sesaxeb, rom suli-ideebi pleromidan (yofierebis Tavdapirveli sisavse RvTaebaSi) gamodian da masve ubrundebian. esec warmarTobis reanimaciaa, oRond kargad 62

SefuTuli qristianuli terminologiiT. sofiologiis kredoa: `me var potenciuri RmerTi, radganac yofiereba RmrTaebrivia, me ki myofi var~. unda iTqvas, rom sofiologebi jer kidev XX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi aqtiurad CaerTnen ekumenistur moZraobaSi, igrZnes ra iq raRac monaTesave suliskveTeba. isic niSandoblivia, rom sofiologebi simpaTiurad arian ganwyobilni kaTolicizmis mimarT, radgan romaul marionizmSi, vin icis, iqneb arcTu mTlad samarTlianad, xedaven sofias kultis analogs qalwul mariamis saxiT. Cven saocrad mZime problemis winaSe vdgavarT _ sofiologiis Sesafaseblad sityvieri formulireba mivceT macxovnebel madlsa da mis moqmedebebs. es arc Cven ZalgviZs da arc araviTar komisias, aramed mxolod msoflio krebas, romlis gadawyvetilebebi da ganCinebebi eklesiam Seiwynara. madli aris Zala da energia, romelic TviT RmrTis arsebidan momdinareobs. yvelaferi RmrTis ZaliT aris Seqmnili, yvelaferi misiT arsebobs, yvelafers is icavs. madlis gareSe mxolod ararsebobaa darCenili, da isic _ rogorc abstraqtuli da ganyenebuli SesaZlebloba, rogorc ganusazRvreli upredikato negativi. magram Cven ver ganvixilavT yofierebas, rogorc mxolod empiriul mocemulobas an process. religiuri azrovnebis rakursSi yofierebas saboloo mizani unda hqondes, uamisod TviT yofiereba iqceva uazrobad, talRis SemTxveviT amofrqvevad qaosis bneli siRrmidan. amgvarad, madli aris RmrTis Zala, romelic qmnis da aZlevs Tavis qmnilebas mizandasaxul yofierebas. es mizani wm. werilsa da patrologiaSia gadmocemuli: ganuwyveteli miaxleba RmerTTan, sadac qmnili yofiereba axal siRrmeebSi, axal simaRleebsa da zeaRs63

vlebSi ixsneba. adamianisa da mTeli xiluli samyaros myofobis mizani _ esaa adamianis bunebis ziareba absolutTan madlis meSveobiT da RmrTaebrivi cxovreba, is, rasac wm. mamebi ganRmrTobas uwodeben. aq madli ufro konkretul gansazRvrebas iRebs: is aris ara mxolod Semoqmedi, aramed macxovnebeli Zala RmrTisa, RvTaebis mizanmimarTuli energia, romelSic da romlis meSveobiTac xorcieldeba adamianis winasaukuno daniSnuleba. cxoneba sinergiuli aqtia, romelSic kacobrivi neba RmrTaebrivs uerTdeba, anu RmrTis madlis morCili xdeba da aZlevs mas saSualebas adamianis sulSi moqmedebisa. madli aris cxovreba da WeSmariteba. sadac WeSmariteba ar aris, iq arc saukuno cxovrebaa, iq aris yofierebis degeneracia, mudmivi rRveva, romelic ukve aRar aris cxovreba, magram arc ararsebobad iqceva. codva inteleqtualuri da zneobrivi tyuilia, romlis sawyisi, saTave da gansaxiereba aris satana. adamianma sinanulis meSveobiT da RmrTis madliT unda dasZlios mis cxovrebaSi Cabudebuli tyuili, magram amisaTvis mas WeSmaritebis mtkice kriteriumi unda hqondes da ara Tavisi subieqturi warmodgenebi WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb. aseTi kriteriumia eklesia, romelic saRmrTo gamocxadebas inaxavs. amitom mxolod eklesiaSi, mis naTlis velSi SeiZleba ganxorcieldes cxoneba _ sulis ziareba RmrTis madlTan. adamiani, romelic mwvaleblur krebuls ekuTvnis, mTeli arsebiT isrutavs dogmaturi tyuilis Sxams. amitom igi madlis gareSe, suli wmidis gareSe rCeba, imis gareSe, visac qristem `suli WeSmaritebisa~ uwoda. gvekiTxebian, aris Tu ara WeSmariti im mwvalebluri eklesiebis saidumloebebi, romlebsac samociqulo war64

momavloba aqvT. kaTolikuri eklesia saidumloTa formalur mxares aqcevs yuradRebas: Tu raRac pirobebis jami daculia, saidumlo sruldeba, imis miuxedavad, axdens Tu ara igi zemoqmedebas adamianze. aq saidumlo qimiur reaqcias waagavs, romelic meordeba garkveuli pirobebis dacvisa da sawyisi masalis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi. marTlmadidebel eklesiaSi adamiani ara marto obieqtia saidumlosi, aramed misi subieqtic, Sesabamisad, saidumlo kacis pirovnebisa da nebis gareSe ar aRsruldeba, ZaldatanebiT Sesrulebul saidumloSi RmrTis madli ar moqmedebs. saidumlo rom mwvaleblur krebulSi sruldebodes, igi mwvaleblisaTvis yovel jerze madlis uaryofad, metafizikur wyevlad iqceoda. amitom TviT saRmrTo siyvarulis ideis gamoc ki Cven ver davuSvebT mwvalebelTa saidumloebebis WeSmaritebas, ase rom ara, unda dagveSva ara marto macxovnebeli madlis, aramed damsjeli da warmwymedeli madlis arsebobac. saidumlo, romelsac mwvaleblebi eziarebian, maRalgamtari Zabvis sadenTan SemTxveviT Sexebas emsgavseboda. albaT gvetyvian: maSin ratomaa misaRebi eklesiisTvis kaTolikeTa, monofizitTa da zogierTi sxva mwvalebelTa mier Sesrulebuli naTloba? magram jer erTi, es exeba ara sarwmunoebriv swavlebas, aramed praqtikas, romelic eklesiaSi sxvadasxvagvari iyo: XX saukunemde berZnul eklesiebSi mwvaleblebs umetesad naTlobis Semdeg iwynarebdnen; qarTul eklesiaSi ruisurbnisis krebis (XII s.) gadawyvetilebiT monofizitebis eklesiis wiaRSi miRebis piroba aseve naTloba iyo. am mravalferovnebaSi erTaderTi uryevi principi rCeba: eklesias aqvs ufleba Tavad gansazRvros mwvaleblis eklesiis wevrad Sewynarebis forma. maSin RmrTis mad65

li, eklesiaSi damkvidrebuli, ara marto Seavsebs axlad moqceulisTvis mwvaleblobis naklulevanebasa da simwires, aramed mianiWebs imasac, rac iq ar arsebobda. winaswarmetyvelni da marTalni suli wmidis madliT mkvdrebs aRadgendnen. eklesias, romelic flobs suli wmidas ufro metad, vidre romelime RmrTis saTno moRvawe da saswaulTmoqmedi, ZaluZs mianiWos madli _ sulieri cxovreba maT, vinc manamde sulieri sikvdilis velSi imyofeboda. mkvdrebis aRdginebis saswauli sxvadasxvagvarad xdeboda: elia winaswarmetyvelma locviT aRadgina mkvdari, elisem _ xelis SexebiT, Rirsma pimenma _ brZanebiT, magram Sedegi yvelgan erTi iyo: suli sxeuls daubrunda, mkvdari aRdga. eklesias SeuZlia isargeblos mwvaleblebis mier warmoTqmuli formuliT, Tu igi emTxveva marTlmadideblurs, iseve rogorc carieli alebastris WurWliT isargeblebda, raTa igi mironiT Seevso; magram SeuZlia aseve xelaxla Seasrulos naTloba, anu daamzados forma da aavsos igi SinaarsiT. es aris eklesiis kompetencia da ara TviTneboba. amitom naTlobis an xeldasxmis garegani formulis miReba, romelic iseT mwvaleblur krebulSia Sesrulebuli, sadac formaluriad daculia samociqulo memkvidreoba, sruliadac ar niSnavs, TiTqos eklesia aRiarebdes RmrTis madls, nawilobriv, narCenis saxiT arsebuls mwvaleblur krebulSi, aramed esaa TviTon eklesiis ufleba _ misces sicocxle warmoTqmul sityvas (saidumlos formulas miTiTebuli pirobiT) Tu kvlav warmoTqvas igi. Cveni azriT, SekiTxvis ase dasma: romel konfesiaSia meti da romelSi _ naklebi madli, uazrobaa. madli arc sasworze iwoneba da arc raime sazomiT izomeba. madli 66

aris RmrTaebrivi Zala, usasrulo da absoluturi, rogorc TviT RmrTaebrivi arseba. swavleba nawilobriv anda SefardebiT madlze TviT madlis cnebis damaxinjebaa: amgvar swavlebaSi uqmneli da maradiuli Seqmnilad, droebiTad da nakluladac ki aris gamocxadebuli. samoTxiseuli cxovreba madlis sasufevelia: Sinagani sasufeveli _ RmerTTan Tanaziareba, rogorc sulis mdgomareoba, xolo garegani sasufeveli _ erTmaneTTan siyvaruliT SeerTebul wmindanTa myofoba. wm. kvipriane karTagenelis TqmiT, `eklesiis gareSe myofi sasufevels ver daimkvidrebs, radganac sasufeveli eklesias aRuTqves~.

eklesiis gareSe ar arsebobs cxoneba

g

asuli saukunis meore naxevarSi avstraliis dedaqalaq sidneiSi ucnauri SemTxveva moxda: parlamentis mravalsarTulianma Senobam, teqnikis yvela wesisa da kanonis dacviT agebulma, uecrad, yovelgvari xiluli mizezis gareSe, Cawola daiwyo. Tavidan mecnierebi verafers mixvdnen: verc gruntis wylebi aRmoaCines, verc seismuri ryevebi, magram Senoba nel-nela mainc ingreoda. bolos gairkva, rom misi fundamentis qveS termitebis uzarmazari armia dabanakebuliyo da mravali wlis manZilze Zirs uTxrida nagebobas. 67

raRac amdagvari xdeba Cvens eklesiur samyaroSic. gamoCndnen uxilavi Zalebi, romlebmac miznad daisaxes (SesaZloa gaucnobierebladac ki) nel-nela da jiutad daamaxinjon da diskreditacia uyon eklesiis swavlebas _ isini SeumCnevlad cvlian da sxva formebs unacvleben marTlmadideblur mentalitets. damangreveli Zalebi mTel msoflioSi moqmedeben. isini pirdapir marTlmadideblobis dogmatebsa da kanonebs ki ar ebrZvian, aramed cdiloben sakuTari interpretacia moaxvion Tavs, sxva mniSvneloba miscen, Seqmnan adogmaturi religia _ qristianoba qristes gareSe, eklesia _ kanonebis gareSe; da TandaTanobiT daarwmunon adamianebi, rom mTeli marTlmadidebluri RmrTismetyveleba mxolod gviandeli zednaSenebia saxarebis swavlebaze, rom mTavari da ZiriTadia sikeTe da mowyaleba, sxva yvelaferi ki umniSvneloa. Cndeba realuri SiSi imisa, rom mTel msoflioSi surT Seqmnan axali, liberaluri qristianoba, romelSic TviT qriste warmodgenilia ara rogorc soflis macxovari, aramed zneobis maswavlebeli, romelmac golgoTis msxverplis gziT kacTa codvebi ki ar gamoisyida, aramed mxolod Tavganwirvis magaliTi gviCvena. maT surT Tavis istoriul fesvebs moswyviton qristianoba, mospon misi mistikuri siRrme da mTavari miznis _ RmerTTan Tanaziarebis nacvlad sxva mizani dausaxon: kacTa msaxureba, sinamdvileSi ki kacTa vnebebis msaxureba. sul ufro xmamaRla gaismis xmebi, rom ar aris saWiro saxarebis sityvasityviT gageba, rom asketizmi _ esaa kacis bunebaze Zaladoba, saukuno satanjvelisa da demonebis arsebobis rwmena avadmyofuri fantaziis Sedegia; TviT sinanulsac ki raRac gaukuRmarTebad, uazro TviTgvemad miiCneven, xangrZliv locvebs _ drois dakargvad, 68

romlis gamoyenebac moyvasis samsaxurSi SeiZleboda da a. S. gansakuTrebiT mkveTrad es tendenciebi protestantizmSi gamovlinda. misma mware gakveTilma mainc unda gamogvafxizlos da gons mogviyvanos! marTlmadidebloba sulieri WeSmaritebaa. liberalebs araviTari WeSmariteba ar sWirdebaT. isini fiqroben, rom adamians unda Seuqmnan pirobebi, romlebSic yvelaze srulad ganxorcieldeba misi survilebi, maT Soris vnebebic. saxareba is naTelia, romlis atanac uWirT garyvnilebaSi Caflul adamianebs, amitom isini cdiloben an Zaladobis gziT Caaqron es naTeli, anda qristianobis mniSvneloba gaaukuRmarTon. sanam qristes swavleba arsebobs, igi ama soflis msajuli da mamxilebeli iqneba. da Tu asea, maS, romel codvils surs sarkeSi Tavisi maxinji saxis danaxva, an imis gageba, rom amqveyniuri filosofia saRoris filosofiaa, sadac mTavari sikeTe imaSi mdgomareobs, rom yvela Rors hqondes salafavian varclTan miaxloebis saSualeba?! ioane RmrTismetyvelis epistoleSi naTqvamia, rom `yoveli sofeli borotsa zeda dgas~ (1 in. 5, 19). WeSmariti eklesia da WeSmariti sarwmunoeba mudam devnilni iqnebian. warmarTebic humanizmisa da liberalizmis poziciebidan awyobdnen qristianebis sisxlian devnas. isini ambobdnen, qristianebi kacTmoZuleebi arian _ sakuTar Tavsac da sxvebsac cxovrebis sixaruls uspobeno. qristianebis erTgulebas dogmatebisadmi warmarTebi fanatizmad Tvlidnen. zogierT warmarT keisars surda qristes gamosaxuleba panTeonSi (yvela RmerTis taZarSi) Seetana da daewesebina misi Tayvaniscema, rogorc erT-erTi RmerTisa _ es qristianobis warmarTobasTan SeerTebis mcdeloba iyo. yvelaze sas69

tiki devnis periodSi qristianebis winaaRmdeg, diokletianes dros, biTviniis mmarTvelma, feliqsma dawera wigni, sadac qristianebs arwmunebda, rom maTsa da warmarTebs Soris arc ise didi gansxvavebaa da kompromisul gadawyvetilebas sTavazobda: dae qristianebma Tayvani scen qristes, oRond masTan erTad _ sxva RmerTebsac. rodesac feliqsi darwmunda, rom am wamowyebidan araferi gamovidoda, maSin igi qristianTa erT-erT yvelaze mZvinvare mdevnelad iqca, iqamde, rom TviTon igonebda wamebis axal-axal, daxvewil saxeebs da diokletianes kidev ufro meti sisastikisken aqezebda. mowameTa sisxlze dafuZnebulma eklesiam aramcTu gauZlo devnas, gamarjvebulic gamovida. amis Semdeg eklesiis mTavari mtrebi gnostikuri mwvaleblobebi gaxdnen. zogi maTgani ukidures asketizms moiTxovda, romelic kacis sxeuls borot sawyissa da demonis qmnilebasTan aigivebda, zogi ki meore ukiduresobaSi vardeboda: ambobda, rom kacis suli RmrTaebrivia, amitom xorcieli codva adamianisTvis arsebiTi ar aris. es iyo mowodeba yvelafris nebadarTulobisken. yovelgvari seqta mociqulTa Tavdapirveli gardamocemis damaxinjebaa, esaa axali qristianobis agebis survili sakuTari warmodgenebis safuZvelze, sulieris mSvinvierSi gadasvla. racionalisturi seqtebi TavianT SezRudul gonebas wm. gardamocemaze maRla ayeneben; fsevdomistikuri seqtebi suli wmidis madls mSvinvieri, emociuri mdgomareobiT, fsiqikuri aRgznebiTa da eqstaziT anacvleben. Semdeg Cndeba axali mteri _ Teosofia, romelic ambobs, rom yvela religia erTi centrisaken mimarTuli radiusebia. TeosofiisTvis ar arsebobs erTi WeSmarite70

ba da warmarTul mravalRmerTianobas imeorebs. qriste zaratustrasa da budasTan erTad erT rakursSi ganixileba; qristianoba cxaddeba regionalur religiad da ara WeSmaritebad yvela xalxisaTvis. Tanamedrove ekumenizmi Teosofiis kerZo saxea, sadac tolobis principi jerjerobiT mxolod konfesiebze vrceldeba da ara yvela religiaze. SeiZleba gviTxran: `gnostikosebisa da Teosofosebis azrebi ar aris damaxasiaTebeli Cveni eklesiisaTvis; Cven gvwams qriste, rogorc Ze RmrTisa da soflis macxovari~. magram Cven sxva rameze gvinda mivuTiToT: eklesiis saZirkvelqveS termitebi afuTfuTdnen. eklesiuri azrovnebis korozia ukve daiwyo da qristianoba qristes gareSe SeiZleba perspeqtivad iqces _ jerjerobiT Soreul, magram mainc perspeqtivad, romelic ukidures protestantul seqtebSi ukve realizebulia. rodesac termitebi Senobas angreven, Tavi imiT ar unda davimSvidoT, rom sruli daqceva jer Sors aris, rom es mwerebi Zalian patarebi arian, eklesiis kedlebi ki _ Zlieri da uryevi. diax, TviTon eklesias termitebi ver moerevian, radganac igi qristes aRTqmebzea damyarebuli. magram ramdeni sacTuri mova maTi meSveobiT eklesiaSi? ratom surT liberalebs ase daJinebiT saeklesio tradiciis Secvla, gardamocemisgan gadaxveva, imis SeerTeba, risi SeerTebac SeuZlebelia: qristes sulisa da ama soflis sulisa? Tu kedlidan erTi qva gadmovarda, umjobesia meorec gamoiRo. amitom marTlmadidebloba ar SeiZleba Seicvalos iseT detalebSic ki, erTi SexedviT sruliad umniSvnelod rom gamoiyureba. 71

modernizmi da liberalizmi qristianobis mtrebi arian, maTTan morigeba SeuZlebelia. yovel daTmobas isini aRiqvamen, rogorc gamarjvebas da kidev ufro gaaZliereben eklesiaze zewolas. yvelaze saSiSi ki is aris, rom liberaluri ideebis qadageba anaforebiT Semosilma adamianebmac daiwyes. ukve TviT marTlmadidebel samRvdeloTa Soris iwyeba polemika imis Sesaxeb, romeli umjobesia _ marTlmadidebloba Tu kaTolicizmi, cxondebian Tu ara mahmadianebi, SeiZleba Tu ara zecaTa sasufevlis damkvidreba naTlobis gareSe da a. S. es igive Teosofiaa, oRond ufro SeniRbuli formiT. vinc `a~ ukve Tqva, iman adre Tu gvian `b~-c unda moayolos; vinc dRes gacxarebiT amtkicebs, rom cxoneba naTlisRebis gareSec SeiZleba, iman adre Tu gvian isic unda Tqvas, rom SesaZlebelia cxoneba qristes gareSe, sakuTari saTnoebebis meSveobiT. ase farisevlebsac miaCndaT, TiTqos maT ukve gaimzades cxoneba TavianTi keTili saqmeebisa da abraamisagan warmomavlobis gamo, bolos ki imiT daasrules, rom ara marto uaryves, aramed jvars acves kidec qriste.

72

liberal qristianebs!

b

olo dros im swavlebasTan erTad, rom RmrTis madli ucxo konfesiebSic arsebobs, gaCnda axali, arsebiTad, misi msgavsi swavleba _ misi logikuri dasasruli _ kerZod, rom cxoneba SesaZlebelia yovelgvari madlis gareSec. samwuxarod, es azri araerTxel gamouTqvams cnobil sasuliero mwerals, mitropolit antoni suroJels (blums). raime dogmaturi dasabuTebis nacvlad igi imas eyrdnoba, rom ierusalimSi yofnisas unaxavs mahmadianebi da iudevelebi, romlebsac saxareba arc ki hqondaT wakiTxuli, magram TavianTi cxovrebis wesiT qristes mcnebebs asrulebdnen, mowyalebis saqmeebs sCadiodnen da, erTi sityviT, gacilebiT ukeTesi qristianebi iyvnen, vidre bevri qristiani. cxadia, aseTi `liberali asketi~ ufro didi ekumenisti unda gaxdes, vidre ekumenizmis protestanti mamebi. isini imas mainc aRiarebdnen, rom sulieri erTianobisaTvis saWiroa wm. samebisa da qristes, rogorc soflis macxovris rwmena, antoni suroJels ki miaCnia, rom cxonebisaTvis sakmarisia iyo keTili, patiosani da gulisxmieri adamiani, romelic sityvis kacia da siamovnebiT exmareba sxva adamianebs. romel mahmadianebsa da iudevelebze laparakobs mitropoliti antoni, ucnobia: Tav-TavianT religiebSi CarTulebze, romlebic uaryofen qristes, rogorc macxovars da gmoben qristianobas, Tu religiis mimarT 73

saerTod indiferentul adamianebze? qristesTan sulis mistikuri ziarebis nacvlad, rac cxonebis safuZvelia, am axali swavlebiT gvTavazoben cxonebis axal saSualebas _ ojaxsa da sazogadoebaSi samagaliTod, rogorc ityvian xolme, jentlmenurad moqcevas. mitropoliti antoni ekumenizmis am apologiaSi gadakvriT gveubneba, rom marTlmadidebeli qristianebi, romlebsac swamT eklesia, rogorc cxonebis erTaderTi piroba, emsgavsebian farisevlebs, romlebsac ar surT sxvebis SeSveba samoTxeSi, raTa TviTon Tavi viwrod ar igrZnon (am Sinaarsis citata mas baptisturi simReridan mohyavs, magram raSi sWirdeba mitropolits baptisturi simReris citireba?). antoni suroJeli aq aTeisturi ideologiis meTods iyenebs: rodesac mtkicebulebani ar gagaCnia, ironiasa da dacinvas unda mimarTo. mitropoliti antoni imitom vaxseneT, rom es yvelaze RirsSesaniSavi da Taviseburad niWieri figuraa `marTlmadidebel ekumenistTa~ Soris, Tuki aseTi Sesityvebis xmareba saerTod SesaZlebelia. igi kargi magaliTia: jer eklesiis, rogorc WeSmaritebis erTaderTi mcvelis funqciaSi Seitana eWvi, Semdeg marTlmadidebluri askezis kaTolikurTan SeerTebas cdilobda (mitropolitis werilebi `locvis Sesaxeb~), amis mere ki panTeisturi xasiaTis sakuTari originaluri meditaciebi (`mdumarebis~ meditacia) moigona _ yovelive aman igi religiur kosmopolitizmamde miiyvana. Tavisi adogmaturi soteriologiis Sesarbileblad mitropoliti antoni gamoTqvams mosazrebas, rom warmarTTa da mwvalebelTa sulebi, romlebic amsoflad keTil saqmeebs sCadiodnen, imsoflad qristes Seicnoben da cxondebian qristes mier. maSasadame, SesaZlebelia erTi 74

naxtomiT, miwieri eklesiis gareSe, pirdapir zeciur eklesiaSi gadasvla. mitropoliti antoni arafrad agdebs faqts, rom qristem jojoxeTidan im adamianTa sulebi gamoiyvana, romlebsac amqveyniur cxovrebaSi swamdaT igi, rogorc mesia. nuTu eklesia gvimalavs imas, rasac uSualo kavSiri aqvs cxonebasTan: qristes xom ar gamouyvania jojoxeTidan piTagoras, platonisa da sokrates, arc budas, zaratustrasa da maT mimdevarTa sulebi; maT Sorisac xom mravlad iyvnen ara marto keTili da mowyale adamianebi, aramed moRvaweebic ki, romlebmac uaryves es sofeli. nuTu eklesia dagvimalavda, rom jojoxeTSi didma warmarTma brZenebma da gmirebma Seicnes qriste, rogorc TavianTi mesia da misi mimdevrebi gaxdnen? nuTu piTagora, konfuci, lao-Zi da buda adamianurad naklebad keTilebi da samarTlianebi iyvnen, vidre is mahmadianebi da iudevelebi, romlebsac mitropoliti antoni ierusalimis quCebsa da bazrebSi gadaeyara, rodesac igi jer kidev eqimi iyo? axla ki TviTon problemaze gadavideT: SeiZleba ki cxonebis mopoveba qristes gareSe, sxva RmerTis morwmune an aTeisti kacisaTvis? ras niSnavs cxoneba? risgan unda vcxondeT da riTi vcxondeT? qristianisaTvis cxoneba aris mistikuri aRqma qristesi, romelmac Semusra jojoxeTi, codva da sikvdili _ warwymedis sami sinonimi. saukuno cxovreba qristesTan erTad cxovrebaa; suli, romelic Tavisi bunebiT ukvdavia, qristes gareSe saukuno sikvdilis mdgomareobaSia, anu uazro, mtanjvel, destruqciul samyaroSi. qristianisaTvis samoTxe, upirveles yovlisa, sulSi RmrTis madlis arsebobaa, romelic Tavs 75

iCens, rogorc RmerTis siyvaruli; amasTan, samoTxe aris adgili da piroba zeciuri eklesiis savsebasTan erTobisa, anda ase vTqvaT: samoTxe aris TviT zeciuri eklesia da ganuwyveteli liturgia. samoTxe aris xsna codvisagan. codva ara marto Sinagani destruqcia da lpobaa, ara marto sikeTis mokleba da sulis cru orientirebi, codva mistikuri mniSvnelobiT _ es kosmiuri borotebis sferoSi CarTvaa, boroti sulebis monobaSi Cavardna. RmrTismbrZolobis codvis metafizika jvrisa da golgoTis gareSe SeiZleba kacis sulis mudmiv mdgomareobad iqces. jvarcmulma qristem Tavisi TaviT Secvala kaci da kacobrioba. jvrisa da golgoTis msxverplis gareSe Cven satanis kerZni viqnebodiT. liberal RmrTismetyvelebs ki piriqiT, miaCniaT, rom qristes gareSec SeiZleba cxoneba, Tu `kargad iSromeb~ kacobriobis sakeTildReod. rogorc humanistma uitmenma Tqva, `oflis suni Cems iRliebSi yovelgvar locvaze ufro surnelovania~... xSirad gvekiTxebian: `gana marTlmadidebloba ar gvaswavlis, rom cxonebisaTvis aucilebelia keTili saqmeebi?~ ra Tqma unda, gvaswavlis da ara marto gvaswavlis, kategoriuladac moiTxovs kidec amas. magram TviTon SekiTxva sakuTar TavSi an arakompetenturobas Seicavs, anda provokaciasa da Sulerobas: cxoneba cxonebis erT-erTi pirobiTaa Canacvlebuli, mistika ki moralSia STanTqmuli da ukvalod gamqrali. marTlmadidebloba uRrmes zneobriv principebs Seicavs, magram sruliadac ar aigivebs Tavis Tavs sazogadoebriv eTikasTan. religia upiratesad Sinagani cxovrebaa, esaa sulis RmrTis madlTan Tanaziareba; aseT SemTxvevaSi sarwmunoeba, rogorc realuri Zala, uCvenebs adami76

ans gzas da ucxadebs mas cxovrebis mTavar Sinaarss, rac garegnuladac vlindeba sikeTisa da mowyalebis saqmeebSi. TviT sikeTes sxvadasxva Rirebuleba aqvs: erTia, rodesac mas solidarobis gamo sCadian, rogorc urTierTdaxmarebas da meore _ adamianisadmi TanagrZnobis gamo; es ukve ufro maRali safexuria sikeTisa: TanagrZnobis unari. dabolos, umaRlesi sikeTe isaa, romelsac erTi adamiani meores ukeTebs, rogorc RmrTis xatsa da msgavsebas, sadac siyvaruli mowiwebasTan aris SeerTebuli (es siyvarulia ukve ara adamianis, rogorc miwieri da dros daqvemdebarebuli movlenis, aramed rogorc zeciuri da maradiuli movlenis mimarT) _ esaa adamianis mistikuri xedva mis dauSretel sulier potenciaSi; momavali feriscvalebis perspeqtivaSi. es siyvaruli ar moiTxovs sapasuxo siyvaruls, piriqiT, igi madlobelia misi, visac daxmareba sWirdeba, rom mowyalebisa da yovlismimteveblobis gziT SesaZlebloba mieca, qristesTan mistikuri Sexvedris bedniereba ganecada. am siyvarulSi iSleba zRvari axlobelsa da Sorebels, mtersa da megobars Soris. ar SeiZleba ucxod miiCnio adamiani, romelic RmrTis msgavsebas atarebs, anda umtro RmrTis xats, amitom yvela adamiani axlobeli xdeba. erTi da igive saTnoeba adamianma SeiZleba sxvadasxva ganzraxvisa da impulsis gamo Caidinos. kacni mxolod garegnuls xedaven, RmerTi ki _ guls da gangvsjis Cveni sulieri mdgomareobis mixedviT. keTil saqmeTa kriteriumi ar aris gansazRvruli, igi meryevi da aramdgradia. vin unda Seafasos es saqmeebi? gareSeebma? magram isini mxolod sxvisi cxovrebis patar-patara fragmentebs xedaven: sxva adamianis suli maTTvis saidumloa. TviTon adamianma? magram aq paradoqss vawydebiT: Cveulebriv, 77

dabali zneobis adamianebi savsebiT kmayofilni arian sakuTari TaviT, xolo RmerTTan miaxloebis kvaldakval kaci sakuTar codvaTa xedvas iwyebs. wmindanebs miaCndaT, rom maT araferi gaukeTebiaT iseTi, cxonebis Rirsni rom gamxdariyvnen. rogor SeiZleba msjeloba garegnul saqmeebze, rodesac ufali gvibrZanebs farulad vakeToT keTili saqmeebi, davumaloT isini TviT yvelaze axlobel adamianebsac ki, da ganikiTxavs farisevlebs, romlebmac sikeTe amaoebis bazrad da sakuTari simarTlis sajaro demonstraciad aqcies? axla sxva magaliTi aviRoT: adamians gulwrfelad surs sikeTis keTeba, magram amisaTvis Turme mTeli rigi garemo pirobebic unda arsebobdes, romlebic yovelTvis adamianze ar aris damokidebuli. zogierTs SeuZlia Canafiqris ganxorcieleba, zogi ki am gzaze TiTqmis gadaulaxav winaaRmdegobebs awydeba. nuTu am garegnul niSans ukavSirdeba adamianis sulierebis xarisxi? maSin cxoneba bednier SemTxvevaze iqneboda damokidebuli. zogi adamiani kargi janmrTelobiT gamoirCeva, zogierTi ki susti da avadmyofi ibadeba; zogs daxvewili inteleqti aqvs, zogierTi ki martivi guliT cxovrobs; zogs SeuZlia adamianebisaTvis iSromos, zogs ki TviTon sWirdeba movla-patronoba; zogs RmrTismetyvelebisa da filosofosobis unari aqvs micemuli, zogi locvebsac SecdomebiT kiTxulobs _ nuTu amaze, anu inteleqtualur Tu socialur elitarulobazea damokidebuli cxoneba? es RmerTisaTvis Seuferebeli iqneboda. aSkaraa, rom keTil saqmeebTan erTad raRac sxva, amaze ufro metia saWiro. magram arsebobs am sakiTxis kidev erTi, albaT yvelaze mTavari aspeqti: adamiani Rrmadaa dazianebu78

li codviT da yvela misi keTili saqme TiTqos Wiebisagan aris daxruli _ ampartavnebiT, cudmedidobiT, TavismoyvarebiT, pativmoyvarebiT, gulisTqmiT, mSvinvieri, vnebiani siyvaruliT, romelic Tavisi gemovnebiT irCevs adamianebs, visac exmareba. RmrTis madlis gareSe sufTa sikeTis arseboba SeuZlebelia. netari avgustine warmarTTa saTnoebebs `brWyviala mankierebebs~ eZaxda. rac ufro sulieria adamiani, miT ufro ukeT xedavs igi, rom Cveni keTili saqmeebi naklulni da cruni arian. Cveni kacobrivi simarTle RmrTis simarTlis winaSe, winaswarmetyvel esaias TqmiT, qalis Sebilwul Cvars hgavs. pirovnebis saidumlo misi gulis siRrmeSia damarxuli, iq xdeba mTavari _ arCevani RmerTsa da satanas Soris. xSirad mzakvari guli, irCevs ra satanas, keTili saqmeebiT iniRbeba. SeuZlebelia codvisagan ganwmenda RmrTis madlis gareSe. WeSmarit sikeTes, markoz moRvawis sityviT, mxolod RmrTis madli iqms. Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac adamianis cxoneba SesaZlebelia mxolod misi keTili saqmeebiT, baron miunhauzenis mogonil erT-erT zRapars waagavs: _ sakuTari nawnavi CabRuja, magrad aswia zemoT da ase amoaTria Waobidan Tavisi Tavica da cxenic. swavleba imis Sesaxeb, rom cxoneba SesaZlebelia RmrTis madlis gareSe, ugulebelyofs adamianis pirvelqmnil codvas, ese igi, cru anTropologias efuZneba. rodesac erTi dogmaturi rgoli vardeba, mTeli jaWvi irRveva. dogmati gamosyidvis Sesaxeb aRar aris aucilebeli, amitom qristes msxverpli, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, zneobriv magaliTad aRiqmeba. swavleba cxonebis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb mxolod adamianis bunebrivi ZalebiT, miuxedavad misi msoflmxedvelobisa, ara 79

marto ganagrZobs, aramed aRrmavebs kidec pelagiosis mwvaleblobas. Cveni `gulkeTili~ liberalebi TiTqos iviwyeben jojoxeTisa da dacemul sulTa arsebobas. zogi maTgani am, maTTvis usiamovno sakiTxebs igavuri eniT ganmartavs; sxvani ufro gulaxdilad acxadeben, rom ar swamT satanisa da misi bneli samefos arseboba, xolo umetesoba ubralod dumils arCevs. marTlmadidebeli eklesia da wm. mamebi gvaswavlian, rom Cven gvyavs mteri, romlis Zalac kacisas aRemateba, rom codva ara marto Cveni arasrulyofileba da Secdomebia, aramed demonur ZalTa realuri arseboba da zemoqmedeba. am kosmiur mterTan brZola adamians Tavisi susti ZalebiT ar ZaluZs. aq kacobrivi Zalisxmeva, misi brZola da Sroma adgils uTmoben RmrTis madls mis sulSi moqmedebisaTvis, anda, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, RmrTis madlis morCileba adamianis Tavisufali nebis saqmea. magram TviTon RmrTis madlis morCileba aseve moqmedebaa RmrTis madlisa, romlis mowodebasac adamianma Tavisi sulis saidumlo siRrmeSi TanxmobiT upasuxa. qristes jvari niSnavs, rom qristem Tavisi TaviT Secvala jojoxeTis ufskrulis piras mdgari adamiani _ im ufskrulisa, romelic arsebobs kosmosSica da kacis gulSic. mxolod keTili saqmeebiT cxonebis Teoria yovel adamians sakuTari Tavis macxovrad aqcevs. es Teoria internacionalis eqosaviT JRers: `aravin mogvcems Tavisuflebas; arc mefe, arc RmerTi da arc gmiri, Tavisuflebas mivaRwevT Cven sakuTari marjveniT~. Cveni Rrma rwmeniT, liberaluri qristianoba giganturi nabijebiT miiwevs win, `qristianuli~ aTeizmisaken.

80

risi swams diakvan andria kuraevs?

p

iradad me bevri ramisTvis madlobeli var mama andria kuraevisa, kerZod, misi niWieri polemikuri statiebisTvis, romlebSic igi maxvilgonivrulad ebrZvis eklesiis mtrebs, gansakuTrebiT neowarmarTobasa da okultizms. igi swrafad reagirebs provokaciebsa da Tavdasxmebze, eklesiis winaaRmdeg rom ewyoba, SeuZlia Tavisi codnisa da Zalebis mobilizeba maTTvis pasuxis gasacemad. mama andria TvalsaCino saeklesio Jurnalistia am sityvis kargi gagebiT, anu exmianeba mimdinare movlenebs, romlebic adamianebs aSfoTebs. magram amave dros ver viSoreb kiTxvas: ratom xdeba, rom icavs ra eklesias, ebrZvis ra mis mtrebs marTlmadidebluri poziciebidan, Tavad Tmobs am poziciebs, rodesac saqme exeba eklesiis swavlebas da mis saRmrTismetyvelo gaazrebas? aseT dros gasaocar Secdomebs vawydebiT, romlebic mkiTxvels gza-kvals ubneven. amitom gulistkiviliT vsvamT kiTxvas: risi swams diakvan andria kuraevs? Cven vlaparakobT ara Sinagan religiur grZnobaze, ara mistikur gancdebze _ es misi sulieri saidumloa, romelsac ucxo xeli ver Seexeba, amaze msjeloba mxolod mis sulier moZRvars SeuZlia, Tuki hyavs aseTi. aq laparakia qristianuli sarwmunoebis wyaroebze, romelTa mimarT mama andria uaryofasa da undoblobas 81

gamoxatavs, Tu es zepiri an weriTi metyvelebis lafsusebi ar aris. marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebis safuZvelia Zveli da axali aRTqmis wignebSi daculi wm. werili da eklesiis mier Semonaxuli wm. gardamocema, romelic liturgikaSi, kanonikasa da eklesiis simbolur wignebSi, agreTve patristikul literaturaSi cocxlobs da `mamaTa erTsulovnebis~ princips emyareba. swams ki mama andria kuraevs wm. gardamocema? ara. igi acxadebs, rom SeiZleba iyo ubralod qristiani yovelgvari tipikonis, msoflio krebebis kanonebis _ kanonikis da a. S. gareSe. ese igi, wm. gardamocemis arsebiTi da iqneb umTavresi organuli nawili _ liturgika, misive sityvebiT, raRac araarsebiTia, uromlisodac adamians SeuZlia qristiani iyos. am sityvebs igi araerTgzis imeorebs wignSi `ekumenizmis gamowveva~. etyoba, mama andrias azriT, `iyo ubralod qristiani~ niSnavs wrfeli guliT Seasrulo mcnebebi da sxva araferze ifiqro. magram amgvari ubraloeba filosofiis doqtorisaTvis filosofiuri poziciaa, kerZod ki _ agnosticizmi. ucnauri suraTia: protestantebTan polemikaSi mama andria kuraevi moixmobs eklesiis cnebas, rogorc myar tradicias, romelmac mociqulTa swavleba Semoinaxa, xolo rodesac ekumenizmis gamarTlebas cdilobs, maSin ambobs, rom SeiZleba gverdi auaro iseT wvrilmanebs, rogoricaa tipikoni da kanonika. amasTan erTad, igi SerCeviT sargeblobs citatebiT patristikidan, anu acxadebs, rom SeiZleba cxoneba eklesiis gareSe anda eklesiis deformirebuli da Sekvecili cnebiT. wm. gardamocemisadmi undobloba logikurad wm. werilisadmi undoblobamde midis. isic ar aris naklebad mniSvnelovani, rom axal aRTqmas safuZvlad Zveli aRTqma 82

udevs, misi gamovlinebaa. TviT ufalma Tqva: `gamoiZiebdiT wignTagan... da igini arian, romelni wameben CemTvis~ (in. 5, 39). mama andriam `gamoiZia~ wm. werili da Tavis statiaSi `equsTa dReTa~-s polemikuroba~ im daskvnamde mivida, rom bibliis ndoba ar SeiZleba: mose fsevdomosea, miTiuri piri; esaia da sxva bibliuri pirebic mxolod `fsevdoni~, anu cruni da ararsebulni arian. mama andrias azriT, es iseTive pirobiTi da subieqturi enaa, rogorc, magaliTad, Cven vambobT, rom `mze amovida~, mama andriam ki, Tumca bavSvobidan iyenebs am gamoTqmebs, icis, rom mze ki ar amodis, dedamiwa brunavs mis garSemo (imasac davamatebT, rom mama andrias, rogorc erudirebulsa da cnobismoyvare adamians, albaT Seswavlili aqvs Tanamedrove kosmologiuri sistemebi, Tumca ki ar eTanxmeba ainStainsa da florenskis, romlebic amtkiceben, rom geo- an heliocentruli principebi uaxloesi kosmosis sistemaSi maTematikurad dadasturebuli ar aris). mama andrias miaCnia, rom `equsTa dReTa~, anu `dabadebis~ pirveli wigni, romelic Cveulebriv qristes Sobamde XV saukuniT TariRdeba, mogvianebiT dawera viRac polemistma iudevelma babilonelTa jibrze. gamodis, rom biblia antimiTologiuri nawarmoebia, romelsac miznad aqvs iudevelTa dacva warmarTuli miTologiisgan _ rogorc Cans, babilonis tyveobis dros, amasTan naTlad migvaniSnebs, rom biblia, am SemTxvevaSi `equsTa dReTa~, RmrTivsulieri nawarmoebi ki ar aris, aramed `miTi miTebis winaaRmdeg~, romelic babilonelTa moZule iudevelma `kbili kbilisa wil~-is principiT SeTxza. amgvarad, mama andriam gaimeora antibibliuri kritikos-racionalistebis _ bauerisa da mis msgavsTa 83

azrebi, romelTac dRes dakarguli aqvT yovelgvari avtoriteti TviT urwmuno mecnierebs Sorisac. Tuki mama andrias ar swams Zveli aRTqmis RmrTivsuliereba da istoriuloba, axali aRTqma haerSi rCeba gamokidebuli _ safuZveli mas dakarguli aqvs. maS, riRasi swams diakvan andria kuraevs?

eklesiis sekularizaciis Sesaxeb

s

ekularizacia laTinuri sityvaa da mokveTas niSnavs. uwin sekulatorebs uwodebdnen jalaTebs, romlebic damnaSaveebs Tavebs kveTdnen. amJamad ki sekularizacia _ es aris eklesiis kompetenciisa da mflobelobidan misi kuTvnili materialuri da sulieri faseulobebis CamorTmeva da maTi gadacema saero xelisuflebisTvis, saero dawesebulebebisaTvis. amas garda, sekularizacia aris eklesiis gamiwierebis procesic, romelic SeiZleba iyos rogorc Sinagani, ise garegani. garegani procesebis Sesaxeb laparaki, vgoneb, zedmeticaa: cnobilia, rogor mimdinareobda isini, sakmarisia SevxedoT eklesia-monastrebis SiSvel kedlebs, dRemde ConCxebiviT rom dganan Cvens qalaqebsa da soflebSi. ukuprocesi mxolod bolo wlebSi daiwyo. 84

rac Seexeba sulier sekularizacias, esaa sulier faseulobaTa Secvla amqveyniuri, warmavali faseulobebiT: istoriuli, kulturuli da sxv., anu eklesiis cxovrebis sulieri donidan mSvinvier doneze dayvana; eklesiis gadaqceva RmerTis saxlidan, saidanac adamianebs maradiulobis karibWe exsnebodaT, erT-erT miwier dawesebulebad, romelic ama sofels emsaxureba. sekularizacia SeiZleba sxvadasxva planSi, sxvadasxva doneze moxdes, magram igi yvela SemTxvevaSi aris eklesiaSi misTvis ucxo tradiciebis, Sexedulebebis, eTikisa da faseulobebis gadatana ama soflidan, soflidan, romelic mravalmxriv warmarTulia. sekularizacia eklesiis walekvis, ama soflis zRvaSi misi ganzavebis procesia. es aris ara marto eklesiis fizikuri Sekvecisa da mospobis procesi, aramed agreTve misi daknineba, profanacia, ama soflis gavlenisadmi misi damorCileba. Tqva ufalma: `romelsa uyuardes mamaÁ anu dedaÁ ufroÁs Cemsa, ara ars igi Cemda Rirs~ (mT. 10,37). arsebiTad, qristes gareSe arc arsebobs namdvili siyvaruli; namdvili siyvaruli RmrTis madlis niWia. siyvaruli, romelic ar aris RmrTisagan, raRac sxvaSi gadadis: biologiur vnebaSi, kulturul erTobaSi an jgufuri solidarobis kidev sxva raime saxeobaSi. mxolod qristesmier siyvaruls SeuZlia misces adamians Zala WeSmaritad da uangarod uyvardes sxva adamianebi. igi gardaqmnis adamianebis siyvaruls TviT axlobelTa mimarT: es siyvaruli xdeba sufTa da Rrma, kaci axloblis naklovanebebsa da codvil Cvevebs ki ar uwyobs xels, arc misi materialuri da nivTieri keTildReoba uyvars, aramed uyvars misi ukvdavi suli da misTvis yvelaze didi bedniereba surs _ saukuno cxovreba. qristianebisTvis arsebobs faseulobaTa garkveuli ierarqia, ase vTqvaT, 85

`skala~: umaRlesi faseuloba CvenTvis aris qriste da mis mier aRTqmuli saukuno cxovreba. Tuki Cvens gulSi mis adgils vinme an rame ikavebs, maSin cxadia, rom sekularizaciis suli Rrmad SemoiWra Cvens religiur cxovrebaSi da Cven, arsebiTad, ukve aRara varT qristianebi. mag., mraval protestantul kavSirSi, denominaciaSi, sazogadoebaSi yofnisas Cveni morwmuneni gaocebiT SeniSnaven, rom RmerTze, saukuno cxovrebaze TiTqmis saerTod ar aris laparaki: msjeloben sxvadasxva socialur, ekonomikur, ekologiur problemebze, saqvelmoqmedo saqmeebze, oRond ara maradiulobaze. RmerTze, Sinagan cxovrebaze, sulis ganwmendaze maTgan praqtikulad verafers gaigoneb. iq aramarto ar arsebobs kargad damuSavebuli da gavrcobili swavleba, rogorc marTlmadidebel eklesiaSia (moRvaweTa ganzogadebuli gamocdileba, Sinagani brZolis gamocdileba), aramed miniSnebiTac ki araferia Tqmuli am swavlebaze, TiTqos es sakiTxi maT saerTod ar exebodeT. imasac, vinc maTi TandaswrebiT ganuwyvetel locvaze, sakuTari sulis dacvasa da Sinagani cxovrebis sxva aucilebel sakiTxebze laparakobs, egoistad Tvlian, romelic mxolod sakuTari TaviT aris dakavebuli da `msoflio problemebs sakuTar TavSi emaleba~. ai, kidev erTi magaliTi imisa, Tu rogor cvlian warmavali faseulobebi maradiuls, Tan ise, TiTqos sruliadac ar uaryofdnen qristianobas: am warmavalis miRma maradiuli qreba adamianis xedvis sferodan. sekularizaciis Sedegia aseve cxovrebiseuli orientirebis Secvla, rodesac mTeli yuradRebis gadatana xdeba ara imaze, rac samudamod adamianTan rCeba, aramed imaze, rac Cndeba da kvdeba. Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi mimdinare sekularizaci86

is erT-erTi gamovlineba adamianis gaRmerTebis ideaa. eklesia aswavlis: Tundac sul mcire sikeTis Cadena adamians mxolod RmrTis madliT, RmrTis SewevniT SeuZlia. axla ki RmerTi, rogorc CvenSi moqmedi arseba, uaryofilia, kacobrioba mxolod sakuTar Zalebs eyrdnoba, amitomac pirvel planze ukve sxva, arasulieri faqtorebi gamodian, mag., mecniereba, xelovneba da sxva amis msgavsni. eklesiis sekularizacia vlindeba amqveyniur dawesebulebebze orientaciiTac. eklesias sakuTari simboluri sulieri ena aqvs. saero kulturamac ukve gamoimuSava Tavisi simboluri enebi: Teatris ena, musikis ena, poeziis ena da sxv. Sinaarsi formasac karnaxobs: saero xelovneba, romelic Tavisi SinaarsiT gamiwierebuli da vnebiania, garkveul, mis Sesabamis formebSi Camoyalibda. Tu es eklesiisaTvis ucxo formebi eklesiaSi gadaitanes, saeklesio tradiciebis ngrevasTan erTad gaqreba da gaifanteba eklesiis TviT sulieri Sinaarsic. erT anekdotur SemTxvevas giambobT: inglisSi sxvadasxva eklesiebis Sekreba Sedga. aq iyvnen meTodistebi, anglikanelebi, eswrebodnen kaTolikeebic. msjelobdnen sakiTxze: Tanamedrove popularul JanrTagan romeli SeiZleba SeirCes imisaTvis, rom eklesiaSi meti xalxi miizidon. didi msjelobis Sedegad im daskvnamde mividnen, rom es Janria... cirki! cirki yvelaze perspeqtiuli Janria da kargi iqneboda, rom eklesiis msaxurebs iluzionizmis xerxebi SeeswavlaTo... Tu Tqven ggoniaT, rom es xumrobaa, cdebiT. protestantuli Temebis warmomadgenlebi sinamdvileSic xSirad mimarTaven ama Tu im ucnaur xerxs xalxis yuradRebis misaqcevad da Temis wevrTa gasamravleblad. erT-erTma protestantma pas87

torma Seiswavla mTeli rigi akrobatuli ileTebi da moednebze, bazrebisa da sxva xalxmravali adgilebis maxloblad uCvenebda kidec maT: am xerxiT xalxs izidavda. da roca dainaxavda, rom mis irgvliv ukve sakmarisi raodenobis xalxi Seikriba, Wokze Semdgari, religiur qadagebas iwyebda. ai, aseTi formebi SeiZleba miiRos eklesiis gamiwierebisa da dakninebis procesma. eklesia RmerTkacobrivi dawesebulebaa: aq erTadaa RmrTaebrivic da kacobrivic. magram eklesia, rogorc aseTi, aris amsoflad RmrTis sasufevlis danaxva da adamianebis Seyvana madlis samefoSi. eklesia aris am sofelSi da Tan am sofelze maRlaa. eklesia acxonebs sofels, magram ar iTqvifeba, ar unda gaiTqvifos masSi: piriqiT, eklesiam unda aiyvanos es sofeli Tavis simaRlemde, eklesiuri unda gaxados igi. magram sekularizaciis procesSi piriqiT xdeba: eklesia eSveba ama soflis donemde, viTomda im mizniT, rom gasagebi, misawvdomi gaxdes misTvis. eklesia eklesiurs ki ar xdis sofels, aramed TviTon xdeba gamiwierebuli, kargavs Tavis sulierebasac da, Tu amqveyniur planSi ganvixilavT, kargavs samwysosac. Tuki eklesia ama sofels hgavs, adamianebi veRar pouloben masSi raime principulad axals. sekularizaciis procesi swored imitomac mimdinareobs, rom adamianebs eklesiaSi Sesvlisas ar surT TviTon Seicvalon, eklesia ki kacisgan sakuTari Tavis ganuwyvetel cvlas moiTxovs. eklesia adamians RmerTTan kavSiris procesSi rTavs; RmerTTan kavSiri misgan codvasTan daZabul brZolas moiTxovs: am brZolis gareSe RmerTTan kavSiri SeuZlebelia, SeuZlebelia eklesiaSi cxovreba; is, vinc am brZolas gaurbis, eklesiis mkvdari 88

wevria. Tanamedrove adamians ki naklebad exaliseba codvasTan brZola: is metismetad gafaqizebulia, metismetad SeCveulia garTobasa da siamovnebas, yoveldRiuri Sromis did nawils mis nacvlad xSirad avtomatebi da manqanebi asruleben; amitom igi naklebad aris midrekili mudmivi, daZabuli Sinagani moRvaweobisaken. ai, aq Cndeba cduneba, rom es moRvaweoba, romelsac eklesia moiTxovs, raRac yavlgasulad da moZvelebulad gamocxaddes da daiwyos misi reformireba _ TviTon adamiani ki ar Seicvalos, rogorc amas eklesia moiTxovs, aramed eklesia Seicvalos adamianis vnebebis kvaldakval. da es marTlac erT-erTi seriozuli mizezia Tanamedrove sekularizmisa _ sakuTari Tavis gamosworebis survilis arqona, mudmiv Sinagan brZolaze uaris Tqma, ufro ioli, adamianisTvis misaRebi pirobebis Zieba eklesiaSi. da radganac am pirobebs ver pouloben, Cndeba TviT eklesiis reformirebis survili. es reformireba xdeba sxvadasxva, garegnulad misaRebi mizezebiT: mag., saRmrTismsaxuro teqstebis Tanamedrove enebze Targmna, kalendaruli reforma, RmrTismsaxurebis modernizacia da sxv. magram es yvelaferi arc ise uwyinaria, rogoric erTi SexedviT Cans. Zveli enebisaTvis azrovnebis sxva tipia damaxasiaTebeli: maTSi metia dinamika, metia unari locvisa da Rrma Wvretisa. Tanamedrove enebs ufro aRweriTi, informaciuli xasiaTi aqvT, Zvelebs ki ufro _ sakomunikacio. da ai, rodesac Zvel saRmrTismsaxuro teqstebs am sekularizebul enebze Targmnian, TviTon locva kargavs siRrmesa da dinamiurobas: axla igi ufro gonebaze axdens zemoqmedebas, vidre gulze, axla ukve ucxo xdeba adamianis sulisaTvis. 89

wm. mamebi amboben, rom yovel adamians aqvs Sinagani logosi, Sinagani sityva, raRac Sinagani ena, ara garegani sityvis, aramed uSualo xedvis, uSualo Wvretis ena. es ena erTnairia yvela adamianisaTvis, amitomac esmiT adamianebs erTmaneTisa, amitomac gvesmis Cven sxvadasxva epoqebsa da sxvadasxva qveynebSi mcxovrebi adamianebis fsiqologia, magaliTad, rodesac vkiTxulobT Zvel berZnul literaturas: `iliadas~, `odiseas~ anda afrikis folklors, an Tundac rodesac sakuTar klasikosebs vkidebT xels. mTeli kacobriobisaTvis arsebobs erTi Sinagani logosi, TviT adamians wm. mamaTa nawerebSi `sityvieri arseba~ ewodeba. garkveuli istoriuli pirobebis, movlenebisa da ryevebis Sedegad gaCnda garegani, e. w. proforistuli enebi _ esaa Sinagani sityvis interpretacia, romelic CvenTan refleqsiis doneze xdeba. es enebi Sinagan logosTan siaxlovis sxvadasxva doneze dganan, Zvel enebSi amgvari siaxlovis xarisxi metia, vidre Tanamedrove enebSi. amitom sulieri da religiuri cxovrebis realiebi ukeTesad gadmoicema Zveli enebis, maTi struqturebis saSualebiT. ara marto sintaqsi da gramatika, aramed Zveli enebis etimologiac bevrad ufro Rrma da mravalferovania. ase rom, maTi saSualebiT adamianebi ufro advilad uaxlovdebian saRmrTismsaxuro teqstebs, ufro metad iTviseben maT, RmerTTan erTobis Tanaziarni xdebian. axal enaze Targmnili sityvis SeTviseba ki ufro garegnulad, zedapirulad, ufro gonebismierad xdeba, vidre emociurad. sekularizaciis procesi Cvens kalendarsac ki emuqreba. mimdinareobs dava iuliusis kalendris grigorianuliT Secvlis Taobaze. iuliusis kalendari romis 90

imperiaSi Seiqmna qristes Sobamde naxevari saukuniT adre; grigorianuli kalendari ki, `axali drois pirmSo~, kaTolikur garemoSi iSva. mis Camoyalibebas xelmZRvanelobda papi grigol XIII, romelic TviTon iyo astronomi. iuliusis kalendari cikluria, grigorianuli _ sworxazobrivi. iuliusis kalendari eklesiam miiRo ara drois utilitaruli TvalsazrisiT gasazomad, aramed eklesiis Sinagani ritmebis asaxvis mizniT _ misi sulieri, religiuri cxovrebisa da wm. istoriis qronologiuri movlenebis gadmosacemad. am mxriv iuliusis kalendars yvelanairi upiratesoba aqvs grigorianulis winaSe. sekularizacia garegnulze orientaciaa, amitomac kalendarul sakiTxSi misi orientirebi xdeba sezonebi _ klimaturi periodebi, garegnuli sizuste mzis weliwadis mimarT. amgvarive damokidebuleba iCens Tavs xatisa da suraTis Sedarebisas: mag., xatSi ar arsebobs perspeqtiva, moculobaTa asaxva, darRveulia anatomiuri proporciebi. amitom xSirad fiqroben, rom Zveli xati arasrulyofilia, misi gansakuTrebuli simboluri ena ki gamosaxvis mxatvruli xerxebis ucodinrobad miaCniaT. da mxolod mogvianebiT xvdebian: swored xatSia Cadebuli uzarmazari informacia da Zala, romlebsac suraTi ver gadmoscems, Tumca igi garegnulad ufro zustia. ai, am or kalendarul stilsac SeiZleba ise SevxedoT, rogorc xatsa da suraTs. iuliusis kalendars _ rogorc xats, grigorianuls ki _ rogorc drois suraTs (Tumca amas pirobiTad vambob _ mxolod zogierT msgavsebas vgulisxmob. dro ganusazRvreli substanciaa da, raRa Tqma unda, SeuZlebelia arsebobdes misi raime suraTi). garegnulze orientaciis gamo vkargavT 91

CvenTvis yvelaze arsebiTsa da mTavars. Tumca savsebiT vacnobierebT, rom mecnierebas Tavisi saSualebebi aqvs, Tavisi miznebi, Tavisi materialuri obieqtebi Sesaswavlad _ Cven amas vaRiarebT da ar viWrebiT mecnierebis sferoSi, magram, amave dros, religias Tavisi faseulobebi aqvs, Tavisi sulieri samyaro, gamosaxvis Tavisi saSualebebi. amitomac CvenTvis iuliusis kalendari ara drois ubralo aRnusxvis saSualebaa, aramed garkveuli simboluri enac. sekularizaciis procesi Cvens xatwerasac Seexo. igi cdilobs xatwera ferwerad, suraTebis xatvad aqcios. xati maradisobidan gvimzers, amitomac ar aris masSi pirdapiri perspeqtiva (xatSi Sebrunebuli perspeqtivaa); iq sivrcisa da drois sxva aRqmaa. iq sivrceca da droc samganzomilebiani ki ara, sferulia. xati aris masze gamosaxuli wmindanis sulieri Sinaarsis gadmocemis forma, xolo suraTi _ garkveuli materialuri realiebis portretuli asaxva. suraTi, iseve rogorc xati, xSirad iqmneba tipurobis normebis mixedviT, magram yovelTvis viRacis fsiqologias, xasiaTs, ganwyobas gviCvenebs; suraTi grZnobad mdgomareobas gamoxatavs, xati ki _ Sinagan realobas, Sinagan samyaros. xati RvTaebasTan aris SeerTebuli, misi meSveobiT vlindeba suli, suraTi ki am sofelTan aris dakavSirebuli. amitom renesansis epoqis didi mxatvrebi arafers warmoadgendnen, rogorc xatmwerni: isini xelovnebis Sedevrebs qmnidnen, magram es Sedevrebi miwas ekuTvnian, isini ar uxsnian kacs gzas zecisaken, aramed toveben mas dedamiwis mizidulobis areSi, vnebebis simZimis qveS, TavianTi epoqis emociebis nakadSi. sekularizaciis procesi yvelaze ufro dafaruls, qristianis Sinagan cxovrebas exeba: ara mxolod mcird92

eba Cveni locvebis xangrZlivoba, raRac ufro uaresi xdeba _ Cveni cnobiereba sxvadasxva qaosuri, ukontrolo informaciiT itvirTeba, romelsac uamravi vneba da winaaRmdegobrioba axlavs Tan. adamiani iRebs uzarmazar, `vnebebiT datvirTul informacias~ Teatraluri warmodgenebisgan, kinofilmebisa da telegadacemebisagan. wm. mamebs uaryofiTi damokidebuleba hqondaT Teatris mimarT. nu ifiqrebT, rom aseTi damokidebuleba imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom im dros Teatri gansakuTrebiT uxamsi da garyvnili iyo _ ara, cnobilia, rom bevri ZvelberZnuli tragedia `amqveyniur ganzomilebebSi~ sakmaod zneobrivic gaxldaT. magram saqme is aris, rom principuli TvalsazrisiT ar arsebobs gansxvaveba klasikur Teatrsa da balagans Soris: Teatri TavisTavad aris vnebebiT savse, igi aRagznebs warmosaxvas, fantazias, ocnebas, iwvevs vnebian TanagrZnobas msaxiobTa TamaSis mimarT _ uwmindur, miwier, xSirad ki aSkarad codvil grZnobebs. amitom marTlmadidebeli eklesia arasodes uyurebda Teatrs, rogorc qristianuli faseulobebis qadagebis saSualebas. dasavleTis Teatrs ki dRes sxva meTodebi aqvs: idgmeba ara marto piesebi, aramed baletebic religiur Temebze, sadac mkrexelurad aris aRwerili uflis, ieso qristes amqveyniuri cxovreba; saxarebas farsad gadaqcevas upireben, soflis macxovars ki _ mocekvaved. ekranebze gamodis macxovrisa da misi mowafeebis amqveyniuri cxovrebis amsaxveli mTeli seriebi. eklesiuri TvalsazrisiT es sruliad dauSvebelia! msaxiobis TamaSi _ es aris gardasaxvis unari: rogor unda SeeZlos adamians (ara aqvs mniSvneloba, maRali zneobisaa igi Tu uzneo, mainc xom amqveyniuri, vnebebiT savse kacia) sakuTari Tavis warmodgena TviT ieso qristes rolSi, 93

rogor SeuZlia mas qristed `gardaisaxos~! CvenTvis es Tavidan bolomde mkrexelobaa. wm. mamebi yovelTvis gvaswavlidnen, rom rac ufro maRla dgas sulierad adamiani, miT ufro codvilad grZnobs Tavs, radganac xedavs uzarmazar ufskruls Tavis Tavsa da RmerTs Soris. am ufskruls, rogorc or napirs _ xidi, aerTianebs uflis wminda jvari. filmebSi adamiani adarebs da aigivebs sakuTar Tavs RmerTTan, Cven ki gvaxsovs, rom pirveli, vinc Tavisi Tavi RmerTs gautola, satana iyo. amgvari filmebis Semqmnelni ase imarTleben Tavs: `es aris qristianobis qadagebis erT-erTi saxe, saxarebis popularizacia~; amboben, rom am gziT adamianebs eklesiisken mouwodeben, aRviveben masSi interess religiisadmi da a. S. magram imas ki aRar amboben, rom sicrues avrceleben qristesa da mociqulebis Sesaxeb! vin SeiZleba miizidos tyuilma da saiT? diax, tyuils SeuZlia miizidos kaci, magram ara RmerTisken, aramed tyuilis mamisken _ satanisken. RmerTisken mizidva SeuZlia mxolod RmrTis madls, romelic adamianis gulze zemoqmedebs. magram am yvelaferSi yvelaze saSineli is aris, rom qristes gayalbebuli saxe, romelsac msaxiobi TamaSobs, SeiZleba samudamod darCes sadRac, adamianis qvecnobier fenaSi da igi uneblieT yovelTvis gaaigivebs qristes im saxesTan, romelic odesRac ixila Teatris scenaze anda televizoris ekranze. amgvarad, aq ukve CvenTvis yvelaze wminda saxis _ ieso qristes sekularizacia xdeba. sekularizacia moicavs qristianTa pirad cxovrebas, rodesac isini ar icaven marxvas _ zedmetad, yavlgasulad miaCniaT igi. rakiRa arc marxvebs icaven da arc eklesiis ganwesebebs, aseTi adamianebi saeklesio 94

cxovrebis Sinagani ritmidan vardebian, maT aRarc ufal ieso qristes vnebebis TanagrZnobis unari aqvT, aRarc dResaswaulebis zeciuri sixarulis aRqmisa, aRarc is ZaluZT, guliT miiRon wm. ziareba, rogorc naTeli da cxovreba. sekularizacia aseve Cveni kiTxvis sferodan religiuri marTlmadidebluri literaturis gamoZevebasa da misi saero, vnebebiT savse literaturiT SecvlaSic gamoixateba. ai, ras warmoadgens dRevandeli sekularizacia! da yvelaze didi saSineleba isaa, rom es procesi ufro da ufro matulobs _ mTidan mowyvetili Tovlis zvaviviT.

95

ra vqnaT Cven, qristianebma?

r

evoluciis erT-erTi umTavresi amocana iyo eklesiis ganadgureba da axali adamianis Seqmna, romelic Tavis zeciur samSoblos daiviwyebda da mxolod miwis kuTvnileba iqneboda. axali fsiqologiuri tipis Camoyalibeba politikosebis, sociologebis, saxelmwifo aparatis, samxedro Zalis ideologebisa da `dambezReblebis~ erToblivi mecadineobiT xorcieldeboda. masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa koncentracia da maTi sruli daqvemdebareba saxelmwifo ideologiisadmi, aRzrdisa da swavlebis sistema, romelic religiaze tabus dadebas da aTeizmis mudmiv ineqciebs iTvaliswinebda, adamianebis gonebis fxizeli kontroli specsamsaxurebis mxridan, sazogadoebrivi azris dateroreba, yoveli adamianisTvis sagrZnobi rom iyo _ yovelive aman qveyana samxedro banaks daamsgavsa, romelic win unda aRdgomoda eklesias, qristes meufebas adamianTa gulebSi. magram es totaluri mobilizacia ideebis poziciidan xdeboda, ideebi ki garkveul, Tundac ukiduresad deformirebul da gaukuRmarTebul morals moiTxovda. iseTi cdebisa da eqscesebis Semdeg, rogoric iyo sazogadoeba `Sors Cvengan sircxvili!~ da ojaxis gauqmeba, sxva periodi dadga, rodesac garkveuli zneobrivi principebis SemuSaveba da maTi religiuri fesvebidan mowyveta aucilebeli gaxda _ sxvagvarad mSeneblobis paTosi da omis dros simamace SeuZlebeli 96

iqneboda. amitomac imdroindelma sazogadoebam paradoqsi warmoSva: terori da Tan erTgvari asketizmi utopiuri ideis saxeliT. magram am gaukuRmarTebul zneobriobaSic, Tumca qvecnobierad da uxilavad, jer kidev moqmedebda qristianobis inercia, amitom xalxis mniSvnelovani nawili, Zaladobisa da TviTnebobis zewolis miuxedavad, inarCunebda patiosnebis, adamianuri Rirsebis, movaleobis cnebebs da icavda sulis im Sinagan xmas, romelsac Cven sindiss vuwodebT. am deformirebul sazogadoebasac ki esmoda, ra aris sikeTe da boroteba da Taviseburad rcxvenoda codvis Cadenisa. axla sul sxva epoqa daiwyo, sxva sirTuleebiTa da siZneleebiT. rodesac zorobabelma ierusalimis damwvari taZari aRadgina, sixarulis SeZaxilebic da godebac erTdroulad gaismoda. xalxi sixarulisagan yviroda, rom damTavrda tyveobis xana, aRdgenilia wminda adgili, romlis ezoebSic Zveleburad SeiZleba msxverplis Sewirva... magram moxucebi, cotaniRa rom iyvnen darCenilebi da bavSvobaSi solomonis taZari enaxaT, tirodnen, mis mSvenierebas axlisas rom adarebdnen, zogi ki winaswar Wvretda momaval ubedurebebsa da taZris axal, kidev ufro sazarel daqcevas. saukuno cxoneba sarwmunoebiTa da zneobiT aris ganpirobebuli. arwivs mxolod orive frTiT SeuZlia maRla afrena. axlo warsulSi am arwivs cali frTa hqonda dazianebuli da jer kidev SeeZlo frena, Tumca ki gaWirvebiT. dRes misi meore frTac motexilia. arwivi adamianis sulis msgavsebaa. mis rwmenas tanjavdnen da aviwroebdnen, magram gareSe Zalebma am rwmenis sabolood gatexva da aRmofxvra ver SeZles: sikvdilis muqaris qveSac ki qristians SeuZlia misi SenarCuneba. 97

meore frTa zneobaa, romelic aseT sistematur devnas aqamde ar ganicdida. Zlieri nebisyofis adamians SeeZlo zneobis SenarCuneba da am grZnobis dakmayofileba ojaxSi an megobrebis wreSi. dRes ukve axali paradoqsis winaSe aRmovCndiT: sarwmunoeba nebadarTulia, zneoba ki qreba. cixis karebi gaiRo, magram patimrebi sameZao saxlSi aRmoCndnen: TviT cixeSic ki, mTeli misi saSinelebisa da uuflebobis miuxedavad, Tavisi zneoba arsebobda, axla ki sityva `zneoba~ raRac gadmonaSTad, Tavisuflebis antipodad JRers, romelic unda moispos. Tuki adre lamis sabavSvo baRidan bavSvebs aTeizmis acrebs ukeTebdnen, axla am bavSvebis Tvalebi yvelaze uxams garyvnilebas eCvevian, am dros, xom viciT, rogori mgrZnobiareni arian maTi sulebi: isini yvelafers isrutaven, rasac xedaven Tu ismenen, maTi fsiqika erTob ganpirobebulia mibaZviT _ bavSvebi cdiloben didebs mibaZon. amitomac am gaxrwnilebaSi yvela damnaSavea, maT Soris mSoblebic. garyvnileba Tavisi ganxorcielebisTvis adamianisagan zneobis daTrgunvas da ideis uaryofas moiTxovs. rCeba erTaderTi idea, ufro sworad, erTaderTi mizani _ yvelanairi siame broweulis wveniviT gamoswuro cxovrebas, danarCeni ki gadayaro, rogorc usargeblo CenCo. SeiZleba ki gadarCes adamianis suli, Tuki igi siyrmidanve am `kudianebis qvabSi~ ixarSeba? gana garyvnileba Tavisuflebaa da ara adamianis ZaldatanebiT gadaqceva Rorad? maSin narkomania da loTobac Tavisufleba yofila! axla taZrebi Sendeba, magram iqneba ki sarwmunoeba Tavisufali? ara. sarwmunoeba Tavis TavSi zneobriv sawyiss anu codvis dagmobas gulisxmobs. saxarebaSi memruSe sofeli ise ganikiTxeba, rogorc sodomi da gomora, magram ufali iTmens mas ama soflisTvis ucnob marTalTa gamo. 98

riT iyo gamowveuli qristianobis sisxliani devna pirvel saukuneebSi? pasuxi saxarebaSia mocemuli: sibneles sZuls naTeli. swored qristes naTelma gamoaCina da daanaxa sofels codvis simaxinje, sisaZagle da ganwiruloba. memruSe guls sZuls siwminde, rogorc mis winaSe aRmarTuli dabrkoleba, amitomac sZuls qriste. qristianoba adamianebs borkilebad eCvenebaT, romelic Tavidan unda moiSoro, amitomac gadaeSvnen isini ase advilad revoluciis qar-cecxlSi. amJamad manZili qristes swavlebasa da ama soflis zneobriv mdgomareobas Soris sul ufro izrdeba, e. i. izrdeba eklesiisadmi ama soflis siZulvilis potencialic. Tavidan es gamovlindeba sporadul devnaSi im qristianebis winaaRmdeg, romlebic yvelaze mtkiced dadgebian TavianTi sarwmunoebisa da tradiciebis dasacavad: maT dauwyeben Seviwroebas, uwodeben fanatikosebs, kacTmoZuleebsa da umecrebs. axlo warsulSi aTeizmma ukve gviCvena Tavisi demonuri saxe _ es iyo RmerTis siZulvilis afeTqeba. ra dacinva da tanjva-wameba ar gadautania eklesias! magram gana es Zalebi ukvalod gaqrnen? isini mxolod dros elian, raTa siZulvilis axali ZaliT, mtyuari gonebiTa da daundobeli nebiT daatydnen Tavs eklesias, romelic Tavisi dumiliTac ki amxilebs sofels. dRes seqsologia paTologiad gadagvarebas iwyebs. SesaZloa male is dro dadges, rodesac safos weliwads gamoacxadeben da warmomadgenlobiTi delegaciebi lesboss ewvevian `mosalocad~, anda dedebi Svilebs dabadebis dReze Casaxvis sawinaaRmdego abebiT daasaCuqreben... ra vqnaT Cven, qristianebma? apokalifsSi erTi aseTi saxea: qali, romelsac gulSi bavSvi hyavs Cakruli, udabnoSi gaurbis gveleSaps... am sofelSi, rogorc udabnoSi, 99

ise unda vicxovroT, gverdi unda avuaroT mis Sxamian sacTurebs; sakuTar gulebSi unda gaveqceT sofels. rodesac ufalma Tavis vnebamde cota xniT adre mTis wveridan ierusalimi da mzis sxivebSi moelvare taZari dainaxa, Tvalebi cremliT aevso. ras dastiroda macxovari?

yovel adamians Tavisi jvari aqvs

y

ovel adamianis micemuli aqvs jvari, romelic man im dRidanve unda ataros, rodesac Tavisi patara fexebiT pirvelad Seexeba miwas da im wuTamde, rodesac mis mkvdar sxeuls axalSobiliviT ganbanen, usulo gvams Semosaven _ rogorc Cvils axveven xolme CvrebSi da, rogorc yrmas awvenen akvanSi _ kuboSi Caasveneben. qristianis cxovreba jvris tarebaa. qristiani jvrismtvirTvelia, zeciuri meufis mxedari. jvari Sroma da mwuxarebebia. Sinagani jvari _ esaa sakuTari nebis jvarcma saxarebis mcnebebis Sesasruleblad; esaa brZola sakuTar xorcTan, am sofelTan da demonebTan. ufali jvars ecva, suliT jojoxeTs STaxda da mkvdreTiT aRsdga. jvari Tavganwiruli siyvarulis simboloa. ufali ufro met mwuxarebebsa da gansacdelebs swored imaT uvlens, vinc uyvars. gansakuTrebiT mZime gansacdelebs, 100

garegnul gasaWirsa da Sinagan tanjvas iTmendnen wmindanebi: TiTqos mTeli jojoxeTi maT winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad daiZrao. ufalma Tqva: `sofelsa amas Wiri gaqus, aramed nu geSinin, rameTu me miZlevies sofelsa~ (in. 16, 33); es Zleva ki qristes aRdgomaa. ufali nugeSs scems Tavis rCeulT mwuxarebebis Jams da aZlevs sulier sixaruls _ jer kidev sikvdilamde igrZnon sulis aRdgoma. amitomac aris qristianoba yvelaze mwuxare da Tan _ yvelaze sixarulevani gza. yoveli adamiani bednierebas eswrafvis, magram cotani Tu aRweven mas, radganac bednierebas iq eZieben, sadac dro, xrwnileba da sikvdili mefobs. bednierebis es aCrdili mzis sxivs waagavs: cdilob muWSi moimwyvdio, magram rogorc ki xels gaSli, sicariele SegrCeba. demoni hpirdeba adamians bednierebas misi vnebebisa da gulisTqmebis dakmayofilebis gziT, magram es yvelaferi mwuxarebiT da sulis sicarieliT mTavrdeba. vneba Rvinos hgavs: igi aTrobs adamians, gonebas ubnelebs, mere ki mas loTiviT eRviZeba _ sadRac mivardnil adgilas, sakuTar narwyevSi Cafluls, Tavisive Tanameinaxeebis mier gaZarculs. amqveynad yvelaferi ezizReba, sakuTari sxeulic ki myral leSad warmoudgeba... magram loTi nabaxusevze isev Rvinisken iwevs, kacs ki kvlav vneba uxmobs boroti mbrZanebeliviT. adamiani bednierebas megobrobaSic eZiebs, magram vin icis, ramdeni safrTxe da moulodneloba elodeba mas am gzaze! pirvelqmnilma codvam Rrmad daaziana kacis buneba da am bneli Zalis gavlenis qveS Cveni megobrebic arian. wmindanebic ki eSmakTan brZolidan xSirad daWrilebi da damarcxebulebi gamodian; Sinagani Tu garegnuli dace101

mebis Semdeg maT gulebSi sisxlmdinare iarebi Cndeba da isini, rogorc ukanaskneli codvilni, simdabliT SesTxoven RmerTs Secdomebisa da codvebis mitevebas. maS raRa iTqmis RmerTisgan Sors mdgom adamianebze? isini ver xedaven sakuTar suls, iseve ar SeuZliaT gageba, Tu ra xdeba masSi, rogorc Savi ormos fskeris danaxva; demoni ufro xSirad ise aTamaSebs maT, rogorc bavSvi _ burTs: xan haerSi aisvris, xanac xels Caavlebs da iWers. mefsalmunem Tqva: `yoveli kaci cru ars~(fs. 115, 2), anu yoveli kaci cvalebadiao. Cveni goneba gems waagavs, grZnobebi ki _ zRvis talRebs. talRebi ebrZvian gems, ewevian xan erT, xan meore mxares, aRma-daRma isvrian, amitom Cveni guli _ is, rac RmerTs ekuTvnis _ adamians ar unda vaCuqoT, Torem imedgacrueba da mwuxareba mogvelis. adamianebi bednierebas mSvinvier da xorciel siyvarulSic eZeben, magram es kidev ufro saSiSia _ am gzaze mglis xafangebia dagebuli. rodesac kacs vnebianad da mSvinvierad uyvars vinme, mas realuri adamiani ki ar uyvars, aramed Tavisi warmosaxvis nayofi, igi TiTqos sayvareli adamianis portrets xatavs da cdilobs aafaros mas es suraTi, mere ki aRmoCndeba, rom mis winaSe sul sxva pirovnebaa. kaci, romelic ase nebayoflobiT ityuebs Tavs, xSirad fiqrobs, rom sxvam moatyua, sinamdvileSi ki igi Tavisive vnebis mier aris motyuebuli. amitomaa, rom yvela poema da romani siyvaruls mxolod qorwilamde aRwers, amis Semdeg ki aRaraferia saTqmeli. arc colqmruli cxovreba iZleva srul bednierebas, aq suli TiTqos ambobs: ara, es is ar aris, rasac me velodi. colqmruli bedniereba, umetes SemTxvevaSi, met-naklebad asatani cxovrebaa, raRac saerTo saqmea, magram ara 102

saerTo bedniereba. poetebma zust sityvas miagnes mSvinvieri da xorcieli siyvarulis dasaxasiaTeblad _ `moxibvla~, rac niSnavs motyuebas, mojadoebas, datyvevebas. gadis wlebi da adamiani RimiliT igonebs Tavis Zvel gatacebebs, TviTonac ar esmis, ra xdeboda mis Tavs, sad iyo misi goneba, sad hqonda Tvalebi... arc am romantiul, sufTa siyvarulSia bedniereba. adamianebi simdidres eswrafvian, magram Cveulebriv, simdidre kacis guls qvasaviT magarsa da sastiks xdis. igi veRar amCnevs sxvis tkivilsa da gaWirvebas, Tavis suls TiTqos akldamaSi amwyvdevs, sadac mzis Suqi ver swvdeba. mdidris locva iSviaTad aris Rrma da gulwrfeli, radgan gulis siRrmeSi sasoeba RmerTze ki ara, sakuTar simdidreze aqvs damyarebuli. yvelaze gulwrfelad igi imisTvis loculobs, rom RmerTma misi qoneba qurdebisa da mZarcvelebisagan daicvas, saukuno cxovrebisaTvis locva ki aviwydeba. simdidre adamians miwas ajaWvavs, arTmevs mas sikvdilis xsovnas. samoTxe da jojoxeTi aseT adamians mxolod qaRaldze daxatuli suraTebi hgonia. simdidre iZleva ara sixaruls, aramed sazrunavs: is adamianis mcveli da Semwe ki ara, misi batonia. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom simdidre gvelia, romelic kacis gulidan sisxls wovs da aSrobs mas. wm. ioane oqropiri ambobs: `mirCevnia aTas eSmakeulTan mqondes saqme, vidre erT vercxlismoyvaresTan, radgan arc erT bedkrul eSmakeuls ar ukadria iudas msgavsi saqcieli~. RmerTisgan Sors myofi adamianebi bednierebas maRal CinebSi xedaven, isini Zalauflebasa da didebas eswrafvian da, Tuki amas aRweven, simSvidesa da mosvenebas ki ar grZnoben, aramed garSemo gamefebul Sursa da SuRls, TiTqos maT fexqveS badeebia dagebuli. rac ufro maRali 103

mdgomareoba uWiravs adamians sazogadoebaSi, miT meti Zala da am Zalebis daZabva sWirdeba _ rogorc akrobats, romelic ficris kideze dgas da, wonasworobis SesanarCuneblad, aqeT-iqiT irweva. rac ufro maRla dgas adamiani, miT ufro meti tyuili da farisevlobaa mis garSemo, miT ufro met adamians sZuls igi sruliad umizezod _ mxolod imitom, rom maTze mets miaRwia. aseT kacs ZilSiac ki ar asvenebs zrunva da SfoTi. gana SeiZleba bednieri da damSvidebuli iyos adamiani, romelic danaRmul velze daabijebs? zogierTi bednierebas okultizmsa da magiaSi eZiebs, isini ara marto demonis daxmarebas elian TavianT saqmeebSi, aramed imis imedic aqvT, rom demonuri ritualebi anu, ufro ubralod rom vTqvaT, eSmakTa orgiebi raRac araCveulebriv gancdebs mohgvrian, codvis momxiblav saidumloebebs gaumxelen. eseni is adamianebi arian, cocxlad rom gamxdaran jojoxeTis kerZni. dacema maT afrena hgoniaT, sulis warwymeda ki _ Tavisufleba: drodadro raRac bnel, Smag sixaruls ganicdian, romelsac jojoxeTuri mwuxareba da sasowarkveTileba cvlis. es adamianebi TavianTi sulis sikvdils xorciel sikvdilamde xedaven. magia da okultizmi, TviT iseT farul formebSic ki, rogoric astrologia da eqstrasensorikaa, bneleTisa da sasowarkveTilebis sferos warmoadgens. magiasTan axlos dgas narkomania da loToba. bevri fiqrobs, rom alkoholisa da narkotikebis saSualebiT adamianis fantazia muxruWebisagan Tavisufldeba da rom narkomanis mier daxatuli suraTebi misi mexsierebis masalaa, romelic qvecnobier fenaSi devs. sinamdvileSi narkomania aris erT-erTi saSualeba demonur 104

samyaroSi gasvlisa, roca adamiani gansakuTrebuli mediumuri mdgomareobidan aRiqvams am samyaros suraTebs. sasikvdilo agoniaSi myofi narkomanebi Zalian xSirad xedaven bneleTis sulebs, maT wasayvanad mosulebs. zogierT okultur seqtaSi haSiSisa da sxva, cnobierebis dabnelebisaTvis xelSemwyobi nivTierebebis moweva imisaTvis gamoiyeneba, rom adamiani ufro swrafad Cavardes demonur transSi. demons mxolod imis micema SeuZlia kacisaTvis, rac TviTona aqvs _ siZulvilisa da sasowarkveTilebis sulisa; amitom demonTan kavSiri, uSualo iqneba is, anu okultizmisa da magiis gziT, Tu iribi _ Cveni vnebebisa da codvebis gziT, adamianis suls wyvdiadiTa da sevdiT avsebs. sulTan demonis miaxloeba sikvdilis sunTqvaa. adamiani eZiebs sixaruls xumrobasa da sicilSi, magram es im klounis sixarulia, mudam manWva-grexaSi rom uxdeba yofna; xangrZlivi sicilis Semdeg adamiani grZnobs, rom misi suli carieldeba, xumroba ki Sinagan kdemamosilebas stacebs da kars uRebs vnebebs. jer kidev mefe solomonma Tqva, rom adamianis guli maSin aris ukeTesi, rodesac glovobs da ara sicilis droso. Tu sakuTar gulSi CavixedavT, rodesac viciniT, iq sikeTes ki ara, kadnierebasa da sisastikes davinaxavT. amas iolad SevamowmebT, Tu xumrobisa da laRobis Semdeg locvas daviwyebT: guli iseT winaaRmdegobas gauwevs locvas, TiTqos eSmakeuli iyos, romelsac ZaliT miaTreven taZrisken. Cveni suli zecis nawilia, amitomac ver poulobs igi bednierebas amqveynad, amitomac aris aq yvelaferi ucxo misi bunebisaTvis, amitomac aravin aris bednieri, imaT garda, vinc uaryo es sofeli. bedniereba rom mxolod 105

garemo pirobebze iyos damokidebuli, maSin oqrosa da almass cremli ar daecemoda, arc xelisufalTa da TavadTa Subls daRaravda sevdis naoWebi _ saidumlo fiqrTa anabeWdi. am sofelSi erTaderTi bedniereba arsebobs, WeSmariti bedniereba, romelic arasodes Caqreba, rogorc CiraRdani _ qaris dabervisas, ar gatydeba, rogorc brolis Wiqa, ucabedi xeliskvriT magididan gadavardnili, ar gaqreba sizmariviT, gaRviZebisTanave rom uCinardeba Ramis wyvdiadSi. es erTaderTi bednierebaa jvari, romelic yovel adamians aqvs micemuli, jvari, romelzec kaci gaakravs Tavis vnebebs, Tavis nebas, Tavis meobas da qristes gahyveba mis mier miTiTebul gzaze: es gza aris saxareba. bednierebis sazomi adamianis mier moxveWili RmrTis madlis zomaa; am sixaruls mas veravin da veraferi waarTmevs _ verc sneuleba, verc samSoblodan gaZeveba, verc kacTa boroteba, verc demonTa Zaladoba da verc TviT sikvdili. RmrTis madli uxilavi mdinarea, am sofels rom rwyavs, adamianebi ki, romlebsac ar surT amis codna, mdinaris piras itanjebian da wyurviliT ixocebian. sakuTar Tavzec SegviZlia gamovcadoT: Tu siZunwes davTrgunavT _ gaWirvebuls davexmarebiT, guliT mivutevebT Seuracxmyofelebs jer kidev manam, sanam patiebas gvTxovdnen, Tu vZlevT cdunebas, codvisaken rom gveweva, maSin ufali Cvens guls jildod mSvidobas da raRac gansakuTrebul sixaruls mianiWebs _ sul sxvas, vidre ama soflis sixarulia _ TiTqos kacis guls uxilavad Seexo angelozis xelio. RmrTis madli is naTelia, maradisobidan miwaze rom moedineba. vinc Tavis jvars siyvaruliT atarebs, is sakuTar sulSi am naTlis anareklsac xedavs, amitomac swyu106

rodaT wmindanebs tanjva, rogorc RmrTaebrivi jildo. Tu kaci RmrTis gulisaTvis mwuxarebebs moiTmens, es mwuxarebebi misTvis iqcevian zeciur sagaloblebad, mis gulSi rom iJRereben da suls mSvidobiTa da nugeSiscemiT aRavseben. vinc am sofelSi udrtvinvelad atarebs Tavis jvars, zecaTa sasufevelSi qristes mowameTa gverdiT dadgeba. amqveyniuri mwuxarebebi saukuno sixarulad gardaiqmneba, amqveyniuri, warmavali sixaruli ki ukve aq, am sofelSi Seicvleba mwuxarebad, ferflad iqceva, rogorc mowyvetili yvavili.

rogor visaubroT sarwmunoebaze raze unda gaamaxvilos yuradReba marTlmadidebelma urwmunosTan saubarSi? pirvel rigSi, imaze, rom aTeizmi ar warmoadgens mecnierul kvlevaTa Sedegs Semdegi mizezebis gamo: 1. Cven saqme gvaqvs ara erT, universalur mecnierebasTan, aramed mecnierebis sxvadasxva dargebTan, romelnic midrekilni arian Semdgomi danawevrebisa da garTulebisaken. am dargTagan arc erTs ar SeuZlia ilaparakos mTeli mecnierebis saxeliT. 2. mecnierebis yvela dargSi arsebobs sxvadasxva hipoTeza da Teoria, romlebiTac cdiloben faqtiuri masalis sistematizirebasa da axsnas. es Teoriebi wi107

naaRmdegobrivni arian da, xSirad erTi Teoria sruliad sapirispiroa meorisa, abaTilebs mas. am urTierTgamomricxavi Teoriebidan romelia WeSmariti da romeli mcdari – amas adamiani sakuTari warmodgenebis safuZvelze gansazRvravs. msoflios yvela mecniers erTad erTiani univerasaluri mecnieruli Teoria rom Seeqmna, isic ki ver iqneboda myari, radganac hipoTezebi da Teoriebi arsebul faqtiur masalas eyrdnoba, romelic ganuwyvetliv ivseba. amitomac aris, rom mecnierebis istoria aris istoria ideebis da warmodgenebis dabadebisa da kvdomisa. SeuZlebelia eqsperimenti sabolood dasruldes, xolo mecnierebis bolo sityva iyos misi ukanaskneli sityva. 3. mecnierebas saqme aqvs procesTan, xolo msoflmxedvelobas – mizezTa da mizanTa sferosTan, romelnic eqsperimentis sazRvrebs miRma arian da mecnierebisaTvis mudam saidumlod rCebian. mecniereba aaSkaravebs da afiqsirebs mizez-Sedegobriv kanonzomierebebs movlenaTa Soris, magram Tavad cneba kanonzomierebisa misTvis miuwvdomelia, mas ar SeuZlia axsnas qaosis gardaqmna kanonzomierebad da mizanSewonilobad. mecnierebas saqme aqvs materialur samyarosTan, amitom mas ar SeuZlia arc daadasturos da arc uaryos sxva, sulieri samyaros arseboba. mecniereba swavlobs sagans misi gamovlinebebiT (fenomenebiT); TiToeul sagans gaaCnia uamravi Tviseba da atributi, amitomac yoveli sagani mecnierebisaTvis rCeba Secnobad, magram ara Secnobil obieqtad. msoflmxedveloba ar gamomdinareobs mecnieruli informaciidan, aramed damokidebulia adamianis sulier mdgomareobaze, nebasa da zneobaze. udidesi mecnierebi, romelTac erTnairi mecniereuli Tvalsawieri gaaCn108

daT, sxvadasxva religiur da filosofiur msoflmxedvelobas iziarebdnen. msoflmxedveloba ar SeiZleba efuZnebodes filosofias; filosofiuri sistemebi Tavad arian dafuZnebulni dausabuTebel postulatebze. logikas, rogorc filosofiis meTods, ar gaaCnia erTiani sistema, masSic, rogorc mecnierebis sxva dargebSic, arsebobs sxvadasxva skolebi da Sexedulebebi. Tuki filosofia Tavs mecnieruls uwodebs, maSin man unda ganazogados Tavisi drois mecnieruli Teoriebi, da ramdenadac mecnieruli warmodgenebi gamudmebiT icvleba, maTgan gamomdinare daskvnebic ar SeiZleba iyos ucvleli. meores mxriv, Tuki filosofias ara aqvs kavSiri mecnierebasTan, maSin igi sxva araferia, Tu ara subieqturi warmodgenebi adamianisa, romelic SezRudulia droSi, sivrceSi, gamocdilebasa da SemoqmedebiTi Zalebis potencialSi. sufTa azrovneba bunebaSi ar arsebobs. adamianis goneba imyofeba warmodgenebis, survilebis da vnebebis Zlieri impulsebis qveS. cnobierebis mimarTeba qvecnobierebasTan SeiZleba warmovidginoT aisbergis saxiT, romlis mxolod wveri moCans wylis zedapirze, xolo ZiriTadi masa ki wylis qveSaa da uxilavi rCeba. subieqtivizmis wili filosofiaSi kidev ufro metia, vidre mecnierebaSi: yvela cnobili filosofosi iswrafvis Seqmnas Tavisi sakuTari skola. raze unda gaamaxvilos yuradReba marTlmadidebelma agnostikosTan da skeptikosTan saubarSi? agnosticizmi da skepticizmi aris gaqceva problemisgan. adamianis sulieri Zalebi, misi Tandayolili unarebi Semecnebisa ar SeiZleba daiyvano cariel malogizirebel gonebamde. CvenTvis cnobilia gnosisis (Semecnebis) 109

iseTi saxeebi, rogoricaa instinqti da intuicia; CvenTvis cnobilia emociuri gnosisi, romelic warmoadgens xelovnebis safuZvels. Tuki martooden gonebis ZalisxmeviT SeuZlebelia WeSmaritebis Secnoba da misi es mcdeloba marcxiT mTavrdeba, sulis sxva SesaZleblobebi unda gamoviyenoT. Tuki skeptikosisa da agnostikosisaTvis erTnairad arasarwmunoa RmerTis arseboba da ararseboba, maSin SeiZleba vurCioT mas mimarTos locvis pirobiT formas, Tundac amdagvars: „ufalo, me ar vici, arsebob Tu ara Sen, magram me minda vicode WeSmariteba. Tu Sen arsebob, maSin ganmicxade“. Tuki adamiani gulwrfeli iqneba amgvari locvisas da icxovrebs saxrebiseuli mcnebebis Sesabamisad (romelTa simaRlesac aRiarebs agnostikosTa umravlesoba), maSin mas miecema pasuxi, rogorc Tqva macxovarma: `iTxovdiT da mogeces Tquen~ (mT. 7,7). skeptikossa da agnostikoss vurCevT Caixedos sakuTar gulSi, daiwyos sakuTar TavSi mistikuri grZnobis ganviTareba, romelic mimqralia, magram mainc cocxlobs mis sulSi. es procesi hgavs adamianis reanimacias, roca avadmyofi TiTqmis ukve aRar sunTqavs. meryeoba SeiZleba iyos etapi daumTavrebeli Ziebisa, magram meryeoba SeiZleba iqnas dogmatizirebulic Tavisebur msoflmxedvelobaSi; aseT SemTxvevaSi igi iqceva WeSmaritebidan gaqcevad: adamiani, romelsac jer kidev ar daumTavrebia brZola sakuTari sulisTvis, Cqarobs kapitulaciis TeTri almis afrialebas. sityvas „ar vici“ SeiZleba hqondes ori gagrZeleba: „ar vici, magram minda vicode“ da _ „ar vici da arc minda vicode“. 110

raze unda gaamaxvilos yuradReba marTlmadidebelma induistTan saubarSi? 1. yofierebis umaRlesi forma – es aris pirovnuli myofoba. brahmanizmSi RmerTi, rogorc cocxali pirovneba, romelTanac SeiZleba urTierTobaSi Sexvide, ar aris. himalaebis panTeoni – es aris personifikacia da gansaxiereba kosmiuri Zalebisa. induisturi absoluti – brahmani – usaxo da uTviseboa. induisturi trimurTi yofierebis sam ritms warmoadgens: Seqmna, SenarCuneba da ganadgureba. adamianis pirovneba aq ar arsebobs, reinkarnaciis Teoria anawevrebs pirovnebas dharmebad – fsiqikur elementebad, romelnic xelaxali SeerTebisas axal individuumebs warmoqmnian. saerTo jamSi, myofobis yoveli individualuri forma ganzavdeba kosmiur yofierebaSi, xolo kosmiuri yofiereba qreba brahmanis cnobierebaSi. maradisoba moiazreba rogorc ori erTmaneTis monacvle mdgomareoba absolutisa: absoluti Tavis TavSi da absoluti kosmosSi. Seqmna mTavrdeba ngreviT, rac arafers matebs absolutis yofierebas. amgvarad, msoflio warmodgenilia rogorc umizno mimoqceva. yovelgvari mravlobiTi yofiereba iluziaa. arsebobs mxolod brahmani, romelic ganuwyvetliv qmnis da angrevs msoflioebs. adamianis suli – atmani – Tanaarsia absoluturi sulisa – brahmanisa: garegnuli warmosaxva yofierebis mravlobiTobaze aris mxolod nayofi iluziisa, miraJisa da umecrebisa. „me var Sen, Sen xar is (brahmani)“; e. i. arsebobs mxolod erTi absoluti, xolo msoflios istoria kosmiuri tragikomediaa, romlis avtoradac, msaxiobadac da mayurebladac TviTon brahmani gamodis uricxvi niRbebiTa da saxeebiT. es msoflmxedveloba aryevs moralis safuZvlebs: eTi111

ka vlindeba adamianTa urTierTdamokidebulebaSi, xolo induizmSi cneba mravlobiTobisa, imisa, rom realurad arsebobs „me“ da „Sen“, gansxavavebulni erTmaneTisgan, iluzorulad iTvleba. gana SeiZleba gviyvardes Cveni iluzia? gveqneba ki siZulvili Cvens winaSe warmomdgari miraJisadmi? amitom brZens uyvars mxolod Tavisi sakuTari atmani, msoflio misTvis saerTod ar arsebobs. es aris Teoria ukiduresi egocentrizmisa, da mxolod Tavad induistTa araTanmimdevruloba aZlevs maT SesaZleblobas isaubron iseT sazogadoebriv kategoriaze, rogoric aris samarTlianoba da iseT zneobriv kategoriaze, rogoric aris siyvaruli. ra samarTlianoba da siyvaruli SeiZleba hqondeT sizmarSi warmoSobil aCrdilebs, romlebic gaRviZebasTan erTad ukvalod gaqrebian? induizmi „RvTaebas“ uqvemdebarebs raRac zeRvTaebrivi ritmebis kanonzomierebas, romelic aiZulebs absoluts obobasaviT xan gamouSvas Tavisi Tavidan msoflioebis ablabuda, xan _ kvlav Seisrutos igi Tavis wiaRSi. induizmma adamiani fiqciad aqcia. adamians hgonia, rom arsebobs, magram sinamdvileSi igi ar arsebobs – arsebobs mxolod brahmani. induisti moklebulia umaRles sixaruls – pirovnul siyvaruls pirovnuli RmerTisadmi, Tavisi macxovrisadmi, moklebulia RmerTTan urTierTobas, romelic aq, miwaze iwyeba da maradisobaSi grZeldeba. raze unda gaamaxvilos yuradReba marTlmadidebelma budistTan saubarSi? budizmi warmoadgens ara religias, aramed ufro zneobriv-gamoyenebiT filosofias. religia – es aris 112

adamianis sulis kavSiri uzenaes sulier arsebasTan. budizmi ignorirebas ukeTebs religiis yvela kardinalur sakiTxsa da princips: RmerTis arsebobas, sulis ukvdavebas, sulis urTierTobis saSualebebs sulier samyarosTan da a. S. religia – warmoadgens kavSirs adamiansa da RvTaebas Soris. budizmSi RvTaeba ar arsebobs, xolo adamianis individualoba nirvanaSi ganadgurebas eqvemdebareba. Tuki qristianisaTvis es samyaro Tavis arsebobaSi warmoadgens sikeTisa da borotebis sabrZolo arenas, budistisaTvis Tavad arseboba warmoadgens borotebas, erTgvar maxes, saidanac gamosavali ar aris, garda TviTganadgurebisa da nirvanaSi CaZirvisa, sadac qrebian grZnobebi, azrebi, survilebi, sadac goneba, ganerideba ra garegnulsa da Sinagans, uZiro sicarieleSi efloba, rogorc micvalebulis gvami – samareSi. budas swavlebam mogvca miwieri yofierebis winaaRmdegobriobis da tragizmis ulmobeli da Rrma analizi. magram gamosavali ver naxa, radgan mieqca ara RmerTs, aramed winaaRmdegobaTa labirinTSi gzaabneul adamians. budizmi borotebis absolutizirebaSi ufskrulis zRvramde mivida, romlis gadalaxvac man ver SeZlo; TiTqosda anatomireba gaukeTa adamianis fsiqikur cxovrebas, Tavis winaSe gvami dainaxa da zizRiT ibruna piri. tanjvaTagan gadarCenis erTaderT gzad budizms TviTganadgureba esaxeba. magram es fizikuri TviTmkvleloba ar aris: budizmma brahmanizmidan memkvidreobiT miiRo metemfsiqozi – Teoria reinkarnaciis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmadac sulis elementebi axal suls warmoqmnian da igi miwaze modis axal sxeulSi. budizms surs gaanadguros sicocxle Tavad sicocxlis survilis mospobiT, sakuTari TavisTvis yvelanairi fsiqikuri 113

gancdis warTmeviT, nirvaniseuli ararsebobis gziT. amitom budizmi sikvdilis filosofiis Tanmimdevruli da daundobeli gamoxatulebaa. qristianuli cxovrebis mizani RmerTTan Tanaziarebaa, budizmis mizani ki – sikvdilismieri myudroeba. budists ver gaugia, risTvis movida am qveynad, vin moisrola igi am borotebisa da tanjvis okeaneSi, ra aris es – dacinva Tu tragikuli Secdoma? amitom budisti amayi zizRiT ukve sikvdilamde tovebs cxovrebas. ras unda miaqcios yuradReba qristianma mahmadianTan saubarSi? islami qadagebs fatalizms, ris gamoc pirovnebis Tavisufali TviTgamorkveva fiqcia xdeba. yvelaferi ganpirobebuli da winaswar gadawyvetilia. RvTaeba STanTqavs adamians da adgils ar utovebs mis Tavisufal nebas. islamSi RvTis gangeba dauZlevel bediswerad iqceva, xolo adamianis cxovrebiseuli srbola – adreve dasaxuli gegmis ganxorcielebad: rac ar unda SeemTxvas adamians, aRiqmeba rogorc garduvaloba. amgvari Sexeduleba Tavisi logikuri dasasruliT unda midiodes azramde, rom zneobrivi arCevanis SesaZlebloba adamians ar gaaCnia. magram islami ar midis aqamde. mahmadianma Teologebma SeimuSaves paralelizmis koncefcia, romelic uSvebs zneobriv Tavisuflebas, magram ara _ zneobriv avtonomias. es Sexeduleba miagavs netari avgustines koncefcias, romelic eklesiam uaryo, da aseve _ kalvinistebis swavlebas. winaaRmdegobrioba zneobriv pasuxismgeblobasa da SezRudul Tavisufal nebas Soris mahmadiani Teologebi cdiloben gaabaTilon moZRvrebiT yvela mahmadianis cxonebis Sesaxeb. maTi samarTliano114

bis kanonis mixedviT, codvil mahmadianebs daekisrebaT garkveuli sasjeli saiqio cxovrebaSi, magram muhamedis, imamebisa da mTeli mahmadianuri samyaros locviT sabolood yvelaze codvili mahmadianebic ki Sendobas miiReben. unda gavamaxviloT yuradReba imaze, rom islamur religiaSi ar arsebobs Suamavali RmerTsa da adamians Soris, xolo muhamedi mxolod wargzavnilia, ase rom transcendentur RvTaebasa da msoflios Soris Rrma ufskruli Zevs. qristianuli saxareba monoliTuria; xolo yuranis surebi – gansakuTrebiT ki meqasa (adreuli) da medinas (gviandeli) periodis surebi – winaaRmdegobrivni arian. mahmadianebi amas imiT xsnian, rom muhameds ufleba hqonda Seecvala an gaeuqmebina Tavisi dadgenilebebi, an sxviT Seenacvlebina isini. saerTod, mahmadianisaTvis WeSmaritebis erT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa misi Sinagani winaaRmdegobrioba. aseve yuradReba unda gavamaxviloT mahmadianuri religiis Tavisebur „orpirobaze“: islami Tavis mimdevrebs sxvadasxva wesebsa da movaleobebs uwesebs mahmadianTan da aramahmadianTan mimarTebaSi. gansakuTrebiT unda gamovyoT islamis mier sxva religiis mimdevarTa winaaRmdeg religiuri omebisaken mowodeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mahmadianebi permanentul omSi arian aramahmadian xalxebTan – omSi, romelSic SeiZleba iyos droebiTi zavi, magram ara mSvidoba. unda aRvniSnoT isic, rom yurani moiTxovs iZulebiTi zomebis gamoyenebas damarcxebuli xalxebis islamze mosaqcevad. Cven vTvliT, rom nebismieri Zaladoba religiis saxeliT Seuracxyofaa upirvelesad TviT religiisaTvis. Cven ver daveTanxmebiT islamis mier daSvebul mraval115

colianobas, radgan vTvliT, rom qorwineba _ es aris siyvarulis kavSiri da erToba or pirovnebas Soris. mahmadianuri mistika yvelaze mkafiod gamoxatulia sufizmSi, romelmac Rrma zegavlena iqonia Sua aziisa da axlo aRmosavleTis literaturasa da xelovnebaze. am swavlebam induisturi mistikuri skolebisa da seqtebis mravali warmodgena da idea SeiTvisa da, amitomac meryeobs monoTeizmsa da panTeizms Soris. sufiuri poezia farTod iyenebs alegoriebsa da erotiul saxeebs mistikuri gancdebis gamosaxatad. islamur mistikas miekuTvneba mravalricxovani derviSuli ordeni; isini dafuZnebulni arian mcnebebze, romelnic garkveulwilad mogvagoneben monozvnur aRTqmebs, magram didad gansxvavebulni arian misgan Sinaganad. derviSuli ordenidan gasvla nebadarTulia da ar iTvleba gasakicx saqmed. derviSuli ordenebis ganawesTa umravlesoba Seicavs miTiTebebs iseT asketur meTodebze, rogoricaa marxva, RamisTeva, morCileba moZRvris – imamisadmi da a.S. magram, Cveulebriv, aq umaRles sulier mdgomareobad miCneulia eqstazi, romelic miiRweva ritmuli moZraobebiT, rokviT, xolo zogierT SemTxvevaSi ki – narkotikebis miRebiT. SiitebTan religiur dResaswaulebs Tan axlavs Teatralizebuli warmodgenebi da quCis procesiebi. TumcaRa, unda iTqvas, rom miuxedavad principuli gansxvavebisa marTlmadideblobis mistikur RvTaebriv naTelsa da mahmadian derviSTa xelovnur egzaltacias Soris, mTlianobaSi islamma ufro metad SeinarCuna asketizmis elementebi, vidre Tanamedrove kaTolicizmma da, miT ufro, protestantizmma. 116

ras unda miaqcios yuradReba marTlmadidebelma kaTolikesTan saubarSi? samociqulo eklesia Tavisi struqturiTa da TviTgamoxatviT aris krebiTi eklesia. kreba, rogorc eklesiis yvela wevris uzenaesi warmomadgenloba, axorcielebs eklesiis erTianobis princips. jer kidev mociqulebis dros azrTa sxvadasxvaoba zogierT sakiTxSi, magaliTad, warmarTTa Soris misionerobasTan dakavSirebiT, gadawyda ara petre mociqulis erTpirovnuli xmiT, romelsac kaTolikeebi „mociqulTa mTavrad“ miiCneven, aramed krebis mier. niSandoblivia, rom ierusalimSi Semdgar pirvel samociqulo krebaze Tavmjdomareobda ara petre mociquli, aramed adgilobrivi episkoposi iakobi, romelmac daskvniT sityvaSi Seajama krebis Sedegebi. TviTon faqti da xasiaTi samociqulo krebisa mowmobs imas, rom Zveli drois eklesiaSi krebis mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba nebismieri mociqulis avtoritetze ufro maRla idga. Zveli drois eklesiaSi kidec rom yofiliyo principi eklesiologiuri monarqizmisa, primati sarwmunoebis sakiTxebSi ucodveli beladisa, maSin krebis idea, rogorc aseTi, arasaWiro da yovelgvar azrs moklebuli iqneboda: sakmarisi iqneboda dogmaturi Tu zneobrivi xasiaTis nebismieri kiTxviT miemarTaT romis papisaTvis – „episkoposTa episkoposisaTvis, qristes moadgilisaTvis dedamiwaze.“ miaweren ra romis paps ucodvelobis zeadamianur Tvisebebs, sarwmunoebisa da zneobis sakiTxebSi, kaTolikeebi ver xsnian winaaRmdegobebs papebis bulebSi da aseve iseT movlenebs, rogoricaa qristesgan gandgoma erT-erTi papisa (SemdgomSi man Seinana da martvili gaxda) da papi honoriusis mier monoTelitobis miReba (risTvisac igi, rogorc 117

mwvalebeli, dagmobil iqna VI msoflio krebis mier). eklesia ar icnobs `inteleqtualur ucodvelobas~, romelic damokidebuli iqneboda saeklesio xarisxsa da geografiul mdebareobaze. suli wmida daviT winaswarmetyvelis piriT mowmobs, rom `yoveli kaci cru ars~ (fs. 115, 2). WeSmariteba Tavisi sisavsiT eboZa msoflio eklesias mis krebiT mTlianobaSi. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, sarwmunoebis siwminde siyvarulis erTobaSia. filiokve (suli wmidis orsawyisianoba) dogmatikis TvalsazrisiT mwvaleblobaa, eklesiologiuri TvalTaxedviT – krebiTi erTobis darRveva, zneobis kuTxiT ki – ampartavnebis sulis gamovlineba. sarwmunoebis simbolo damtkicebul iqna I da II msoflio krebebze, rogorc uryevi safuZveli qristianuli moZRvrebisa. msoflio krebebma akrZales sarwmunoebis simboloSi cvlilebebis Setana, raimes gamokleba an damateba misTvis. romis eklesiam scoda msoflio erTobis winaaRmdeg, roca man Secvala sarwmunoebis simbolo da amiT Tavi krebiT eklesias daupirispira. provincializmi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom nawili ayenebs Tavs mTelze maRla, magaliTad: provincia gamodis mTeli saxelmwifos saxeliT. romis patriarqatma calmxrivi dogmaturi diqtatis aqtiT sakuTari gadawyvetilebebi msoflio krebebze maRla daayena da siyvarulis principidan beladizmis principze gadavida. Tavisi arsebobis manZilze kaTolicizmi axdens Tavad kaTolikuri eklesiis ganuwyvetel modernizacias, mis Sexamebas cvalebad msofliosTan, mis kulturasa da ideologiasTan, mis warmodgenebsa da gemovnebasTan. amitomac aris, rom kaTolikuri eklesia sul ufro da ufro iRebs utilitaruli organizaciis saxes. aq mis118

tika esTetizmad gadagvarda, xolo asketizmi qvelmoqmedebiTa da sociologiiT aris Secvlili. raze unda gaamaxvilos yuradReba marTlmadidebelma iudevelTan saubarSi? saubris mTavari sakiTxi unda iyos sakiTxi mesiis Sesaxeb. aq saerTo wyaroa Zveli aRTqmis wignebi, rogorc RvTivgancxadebuli WeSmariteba. bibliuri teqstebis safuZvelze unda mivuTiToT, rom winaswarmetyvelebebi mesiis Sesaxeb aRsrulda ieso nazarevelis saxiT. aseve unda aRiniSnos, rom winaswarmetyvelebebSi mesia aris mTeli kacobriobis macxovari – rogorc iudevelebis, aseve warmarTTa; mesiis saxe mxolod mogvianebiT, TandaTanobiT iRebs sinagogialur azrovnebaSi nacionaluri beladisa da dedamiwaze hiliasturi samefos fuZemdeblis saxes. unda aRiniSnos, rom ieso nazarevelis Semdgom israelSi sxvebic gamoCndnen, vinc Tavs mesiad acxadebda da romelTac veraferi moutanes sakuTar xalxs tanjvisa da imedgacruebis meti (mag.: bar-koxba, romelic erTerTma yvelaze avtoritetulma rabinma akibam israelis mxsnelad cno). unda gavaqarwyloT iudevelTa Soris damkvidrebuli mcdari da tendenciuri azri imis Taobaze, rom antisemitizmi qristianul samyaroSi aRmocenda da mxolod qristian xalxebs axasiaTebs. sinamdvileSi antisemitizmi arsebobda jer kidev Zvel msoflioSi, rasac mowmoben antikuri drois istorikosebi da poetebi. antisemitizmi arsebobs mahmadianTa da sxva religiis mimdevarTa Sorisac; aTeizmis mravali ideologi antisemiti iyo. faSisturma partiam, romelic Tavisi ideologiiT upirispirdeba qristianobas, antisemitizmi sakuTar 119

politikur programad dasaxa. Cven Tavs vikavebT am movlenis analizisgan da mivuTiTebT mxolod faqtebze. yuradReba unda mivaqcioT imas, rom dedamiwaze hiliasturi samefos mowyobis idea, romelsac saTaveSi Caudgeba beladi – mesia da, romlis dedaqalaqic iqneba ierusalimi, mizezi gaxda iudeveli xalxis sulis materializaciisa. adre Zveli israeli, ierusalimis taZris garSemo Semtkicebuli, Tavis misiad warmarTul msoflioSi monoTeizmis SenarCunebas miiCnevda, xolo mesiis sasufevels, misi warmodgeniT, daimkvidrebda yvela is xalxi, romelic aRiarebda WeSmarit RmerTs. axla ki mdgomareoba Seicvala: ebraelma xalxma, miiRo ra Teokratiuli saxelmwifos gamiwierebuli idea, mTeli SemarTebiT daiwyo moRvaweoba am ideis gansaxorcileblad. Tuki Zvel israels ar miucia msofliosaTvis didi filosofosebi da swavlulebi da, praqtikulad, ar dautovebia aranairi kvali saero literaturaze, Tanamedrove israelma mecnierebis, xelovnebis da literaturis yvela dargSi gamoavlina Tavisi Tavi. magram aris ki es sulieri aRorZineba? iqneb es mxolod transformaciaa winandeli sulieri potencialisa ufro dabal, mSvinvier doneze? Cven ufro im azrisa varT, rom iudevelma xalxma, cnebebisa da mesiis Sesaxeb warmodgenebis SecvliT, bibliis mTavari RerZi gamoacala sakuTar Tavs da materializirebulad, miwieri kategoriebiT daiwyo azrovneba. antisemitizmi, rogorc istoriuli movlena, ucnobi iyo israelis mefeebisa da babilonis tyveobis dros. 120

iudevelebs ekavaT mniSvnelovani Tanamdebobebi asureTbabilonis imperiaSi da ptolemeosTa egviptis samefoSi. magram rabinizmis droidan antisemitizmi izrdeba. ra aris es – damTxveva Tu fsiqologiuri faqtori? unda mivuTiToT Talmudis moralis orpirobaze, romelic sxva normebs karnaxobs iudevelebs iudevelebTan urTierTobaSi da sxvas – danarCen xalxebTan mimarTebaSi. unda SevadaroT igi saxarebas, romelic Cvengan aramarto samarTlianobasa da gulmowyalebas moiTxovs adamianebis mimarT, ganurCevlad maTi erovnebisa da aRmsareblobisa, aramed gvamcnebs gviyvardes sakuTari mtrebic ki. saxareba gvaZlevs zogadzneobriv safuZvels Cveni cxovrebisaTvis da, amasTan erTad, cdilobs gaaRviZos adamianis Sinagani zneobrivi grZnoba – xma misi sindisisa. iudaizmi axdens adamianis cxovrebis reglamentirebas miTiTebaTa mTeli sistemiT, amitomac eTikasa da zneobas Sinagani grZnobidan – gulis moTxovnilebidan gardaqmnis sqolastikur sistemad, romelic kazualur princips efuZneba (pasuxebi yvela SesaZlo SemTxvevisaTvis). TumcaRa, rabinizmis yvelaze didi da tragikuli Secdomaa Talmudur-kabalisturi warmodgena, rom RmerTma iudevelebi Seqmna, xolo 72-ma umdablesma sulma – msoflios danarCeni xalxebi. am gviandeli periodis gadmocemas, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba bibliis sulsa da sityvas, nacionalizmis dogmatizirebamde mivyavarT. adamiani, romelic miiRebs aRmatebulobisa da rCeulobis ideas, kargavs Tavisi sicocxlis yvelaze did faseulobas – unars uyvardes yvela adamiani, rogorc Svilebi erTi mamisa da xedavdes yovel adami121

anSi RvTis xats. siyvaruli, romelic Semofarglulia sakuTari ojaxiT, sakuTari naciiT, egocentrul xasiaTs iZens da mistikur siRrmes kargavs.

122

Tavi II

fsevdokulturis demonizmi

123

qristianoba da Tanamedrove kultura

a

lbaT arc erTi cneba ar yofila iseTi gayalbebis, damaxinjebis, daxvewili sityvieri ekvilibristikisa da aTasgvari spekulaciis sagani, rogorc kulturis cneba. dRes SeimCneva tendencia, rom kulturis nawilad TviT religia ganixilebodes. amitom aucileblad migvaCnia raRac sinaTle SevitanoT am sakiTxSi, movxazoT mainc im universaluri movlenis saerTo konturebi, romelsac kultura ewodeba. jer erTi, kulturaSi vgulisxmobT adamianis codnis garkveul dones: mecnierebas, filosofias, literaturas da maT Soris _ gasul saukuneTa materialur Zeglebs, Tanamedrove cxovrebis teqnikur-sazogadoebriv dones da sxv. meore, kultura aris ama Tu im xalxis SemoqmedebiTi unari, misi tradiciebi da gansakuTrebuli Tvisebebi, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, eTnosis miwieri saxe. mesame _ kultura aris adamianTa urTierTobebis sfero, eTikuri normebi _ adamianebis qcevis wesebi, anu adamianebs Soris urTierTobis sakmaod rTuli, istoriulad gaformebuli niSanTa sistema. religia (Cven qristianebi varT, amitom religiaze saubrisas, cxadia, qristianul sarwmunoebas vgulisx124

mobT) da kultura sruliadac ar aris adekvaturi cnebebi da arc erTia meoris nawili. religiis safuZvelSi devs saRmrTo gamocxadeba, kultura ki adamianebis saqmianobisa da istoriis rTuli produqtia. religiis obieqti, misi saboloo mizani da mTavari Sinaarsi aris TviT RvTaeba, ufro sworad, mistikuri siyvaruli kacsa da RmerTs Soris, romlis meSveobiTac adamiani erTveba saukuno cxovrebaSi da RmrTaebrivi srulyofilebis Tanaziari xdeba. kulturis obieqti ki adamianis amqveyniuri cxovrebaa; kulturis mizani da Sinaarsi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom adamianma sakuTari Tavis realizacia moaxdinos inteleqtualuri saqmianobis, zneobrivi principebisa da qcevis normebis meSveobiT. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, religia aris sulis miqceva RmerTisken da maradiulobis realiebisken, xolo kultura _ sulis miqceva miwisken da droSi arsebobisken. aqvs Tu ara raime saerTo religias kulturasTan? aqvs, mgram ara pirdapiri, aramed iribi. qristianobam adamiani warmarTobisaTvis miuwvdomel simaRleze daayena, gaaTavisufla pirovneba koleqtivis zewolisagan; misca mas zneobrivi Tavisuflebis SesaZlebloba da Zala am Tavisuflebis ganxorcielebisaTvis. qristianoba gaxda kriteriumi Zveli moraluri faseulobebis gadafasebisaTvis; qristianobam urTierTobebis safuZvlad ara Zaladoba, ara garegnuli wvrilmani wesebis reglamenti, aramed siyvaruli dado da amiT monobisagan ixsna kaci. am mxriv qristianobam kulturas axali impulsi misca, magram mTlianad qristianuli arasodes arc erTi sazogadoeba ar yofila, am sazogadoebis saukeTeso warmomadgenlebic ki mxolod midiodnen saxarebis idealebis gziT, radgan TviT saxareba yovelTvis kacsa da 125

kacobriobaze win idga. wmindanTaTvisac ki cxoneba uflis wyaloba iyo da maTi adamianuri uZlurebebisa da naklovanebebis RmrTis madliT Sevseba. amitom kultura, rogorc araerTgvarovani da zneobrivi TvalsazrisiT SeuTavsebeli sidideebis sinTezi, arasodes yofila da SeuZlebelicaa iyos qristianuli. istoriis garkveul monakveTebSi qristianebi mravali regionis udides nawils warmoadgendnen, magram arc erTi saxelmwifo ar iyo qristianuli am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT. qristianuli saxelmwifo aris zecaTa sasufeveli, saukuno cxovreba. amgvari Sexeduleba SeiZleba erTgvarad rigoristuladac CagviTvalon, magram Tuki Cven, qristianebi, SevecdebiT Tvali mivadevnoT Cvens sakuTar Sinagan cxovrebas da mis garegnul gamovlinebas, davinaxavT, Tu ra Sors aris igi qristianobisagan; davinaxavT, rom am `azrobrivi produqciis~ mTavari Sinaarsia vnebebi, ampartavneba, warmatebisa da xelisuflebisaken miswrafeba, yofiTi zrunva, amao ocnebebi da siZulvilisa da borotebis mTeli niaRvrebi. wm. ioane kronStadteli werda, rom sul mcire, 40 procenti misi azrebisa eSmaks ekuTvnis. Tu amas ambobda sulieri xedvis niWiT mimadlebuli wm. mama, maS, Cveni sulieri potencialis ra nawiliRa unda ekuTvnodes bnel Zalebs? raRa iTqmis adamianebze, indiferentulad rom arian ganwyobilni sarwmunoebis mimarT; urwmunoebsa da im aTeistebze, siZulviliT rom laparakoben qristeze? gana isini izolirebulni arian imis Senebisagan, rasac Cven kulturas vuwodebT? gana swored es adamianebi, ase vTqvaT, xelfexgaxsnilni da TavianT sityvebsa da saqmeebze pasuxismgeblobas aridebulni, gansakuTrebiT boboqar moRvaweobas ar iwyeben amqveyniur saqmeebSi 126

TviTgamoxatvisTvis _ xelovnebaSi, literaturaSi, filosofiasa da a.S.? netari avgustine qristianobis garegnuli ayvavebis xanaSi (Vs.) xedavda eklesias, rogorc RmrTis qalaqs warmarTobis uzarmazar saxelmwifoSi, rogorc mwirs, warmarTuli samyaros gzebze moxetiales. tertuliane da avgustine, romlebmac bolomde gamoscales antikuri samyaros sibrZnis Tasi, Cveni azriT, umaRlesi kulturis matareblebi iyvnen. es ori TavisTavadi moazrovne gansakuTrebuli daJinebiT debda sazRvars Zvel aTensa da axal ierusalims Soris _ samSvinvelisa da sulis sferoebs Soris. adamianis RmerTisken swrafva kultSi gamoixata; RmerTisagan ganvrdomam da miwisken miqcevam warmoqmna kultura da masSi iqna gamoxatuli. Cven sruliadac ar gvsurs, kultura marto uaryofiTi niSniT davaxasiaToT. mxolod SegaxsenebT, rom es aradiferencirebuli cneba gaxda sxvadasxva spekulaciis asparezi da masSi surT ganazavon, asimilireba uyon da mTlianad gaaqron is umaRlesi, rac adamians gaaCnia _ saRmrTo gamocxadeba. maT, vinc kritikulad uyurebs Tanamedrove sazogadoebis sulier cxovrebas, vinc kulturis istoriaSi progress ki ara, mzard entropias xedavs, rogorc wesi, iseTi sityvebiT aSantaJeben, rogoricaa `seqtanti~, `uvici~, `veluri~, anda `obskurantisa~ da `fanatikosis~ iarliys akraven. amgvarad, religiis `kulturizmis~ momxreni metad ukulturo xerxebs iyeneben TavianT oponentTa winaaRmdeg, kerZod ki _ fsiqologiuri teroris meTods da mouwodeben sazogadoebas, ganagdon isini `kulturulebis~ garemodan, rogorc gariyulni da goebi. 127

gveubnebian, adamiani ganaTlebuli unda iyoso. Cven sruliad Tanaxmani varT, magram ar unda daviviwyoT, rom am sityvas safuZvlad `naTeli~ udevs. sityva `ganaTlebis~ antipodia sibnele, arsebiTis gabundovaneba, orientiris dakargva. Cven vamtkicebT, rom cru ganaTleba ar aris ganaTleba, piriqiT, igi ufro ganSorebaa WeSmaritebisagan, vidre ubralo umecreba; esaa erTgvari sidide `minus~ niSniT, Tuki mas umecrebas an nuls SevadarebT. cru codna ufro meti safrTxea, vidre umecreba; esaa dabrkoleba, sulsa da codnas Soris mdgomi, dabrkoleba, romelic unda gadavlaxoT, raTa WeSmaritebis xedvis unari mogveces; es ar aris biliki, ugzoobidan rom gagviyvans, aramed labirinTia, romelSic adamiania moxvedrili. amitom cru informaciis Semcveli kultura, cru codna, rogorc inteleqtualur, ise zneobriv aspeqtebSi, Cven ufro antikulturad migvaCnia, Tavis saxes sxvisi niRbis qveS rom malavs. rogorc vTqviT, qristianobis adekvaturi kultura ar arsebobs, magram TviT principi kulturisa, Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT am sityvis etimologias, unda yofiliyo (magram sinamdvileSi ar aris) bunebrivi zneobrioba, romelic adamianis sulSia Cadebuli. sityva `kultura~ niSnavs `pativiscemis, Tayvaniscemis unars~. adamianis WeSmariti pativiscema SesaZlebelia mxolod rogorc RmrTis xatisa da msgavsebisa, rogorc ukvdavi sulisa, rogorc maradiuli gamocxadebisa. am mniSvnelobiT (adamianisadmi pativiscemis mniSvnelobiT) Cven SegviZlia vuwodoT kulturas religiuri. magram radganac kultura sazogadoebrivi movlenaa, amitom arareligiuri an mravalkonfesiuri sazogadoebisaTvis misi kriteriumi SeiZleba gaxdes 128

adamianisadmi pativiscema, dafuZnebuli solidarobis grZnobasa da samarTlis principze. magram modi, vnaxoT, ramdenad pasuxobs Tanamedrove kultura am principsa da amocanas; vnaxoT, ra damokidebuleba unda hqondes XX saukunis kulturis mimarT marTlmadidebel qristians, romelsac ar surs Tavisi religiuri sindisis motyueba, ar surs kompromisze wasvla. Tavidan gadavxedoT kulturas im TvalsazrisiT, Tu ra donea dRes codnisa, rogor aris ganviTarebuli mecniereba, filosofia, literatura da xelovneba. mecnieruli codna ufro civilizaciis sferos ekuTvnis, vidre kulturas. TavisTavad igi neitraluria zneobrivi TvalsazrisiT, anu SeuZlia emsaxuros rogorc sikeTes, ise borotebas. kulturas ganekuTvneba ara teqnikuri geniis nawarmi, aramed TviTon adamianis damokidebuleba teqnikisadmi, mecnierebis sxva ganStoebebisadmi. aq SegviZlia isic aRvniSnoT, rom adamians, romelic rTuli eleqtronikisa da avtomatikis samyaroSi cxovrobs, usulgulo-utilitaruli damokidebuleba uCndeba rogorc pirovnebis, ise bunebis mimarT. ubrZanebs ra manqanebs, romlebic usityvod emorCilebian mis miTiTebebs, mas instrumentalizmis principi TandaTan garSemo myof adamianebzec gadaaqvs. adamiani adamianisTvis instrumentad iqceva: misiT sargebloben TavianTi miznebis misaRwevad, amis gareSe es instrumenti aRaraa saWiro. es emociuri gagrileba da Caketili ampartavneba Cveni Tanamedroveobis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa. rogor SevafasoT es movlena kulturologiuri TvalsazrisiT? rogorc zrda da progresi Tu rogorc danakargi da degradacia? 129

adamianma manqanas gadaabara im Sromis udidesi nawili, romelsac uwin TviTon asrulebda. igi aprogramebs _ manqana amocanas xsnis; adamiani amayobs am miRweviT, magram sinamdvileSi mis sulier Zalebs igive emarTebaT, rac Cveul datvirTvas moklebul sxeuls: es Zalebi TandaTanobiT sustdebian da degradirebas ganicdian. manqanebTan muSaoba mkacr specializacias moiTxovs, es kacis gonebriv Tvalsawiers aviwroebs, calmxrivad anviTarebs mas. aris ki amgvari teqnikuri specializacia progresi adamianis kulturis TvalsazrisiT? axla Tanamedrove xelovnebasa da literaturasac gadavxedoT: bevri avtori cdilobs isini qristianul nawarmoebebad warmoadginos. magram romeli didi Sedevri Sva Cvenma drom? gana SeiZleba maTi Sedareba Tundac gasuli saukunis qmnilebebTan? qristianul ideebs rom atarebdes, amisaTvis TviTon inteligencia unda iyos qristianuli, magram gana misi bevri warmomadgeneli cxovrobs eklesiurad? TiTqmis aravin, anda erTeulebi. maS, rogor unda gadmodindes carieli doqidan wyali, romelic iq aravis Causxams? eris kultura misTvis damaxasiaTebeli istoriuli tradiciebia. Semonaxulia Tu ara dReisaTvis es tradiciebi _ ara rogorc butaforia, aramed rogorc sasicocxlo Zala? aSkaraa, rom es tradiciebi ingreva. riTia savse dRes wignis maRaziebis Taroebi da vitrinebi, ras warmoadgens satelevizio programebi da videofilmebi _ is, rac Tanamedrove kulturis rols TamaSobs? Cvens winaSe erTmaneTs cvlian mkvlelobebis, Zaladobis, seqsis suraTebi. klasikuri literaturac ki, romelic TavisTavad arc religiuria da arc qristianuli, TiTqmis ar gamoicema. mas bukinisturi maRaz130

iebic iSviaTad Rebuloben da amas imiT xsnian, rom amgvari literatura cudad iyideba, masze moTxovnileba ar arsebobs. da marTlac: saero literatura, romelsac sabolood ar hqonda kavSiri gawyvetili zneobriobasTan, uintereso gaxda; igi gandevnes deteqtivebma, seqsisa da erotikis aTasgvarma saxelmZRvanelom. sisxlisa da sibinZuris es niaRvari, romelmac pirovnuli da adamianuri Tvisebebi daukarga Cveni saukunis adamianebs, Zirs uTxris xalxur da erovnul tradiciebs, amaxinjebs adamianebis grZnobebs, spobs warmodgenas qristianuli zneobis Sesaxeb. ra aris es: axali kultura Tu kulturis dakargva? quCebSi mowyobil stendebsa da kioskebSi iseTi suraTebi da fotoebia gamofenili, adre rom mxolod Cumad, garyvnilebis bnel bunagebSi uCvenebdnen myidvels. axla ki isini Cveni qalaqebis mokazmulobad iqcnen da Tu kaci pirs ibrunebs maTgan, mas, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, don kixotad CaTvlian, uaresSi ki _ fanatikosad, kacTmoZuled da seqtantadac ki. qristiani win unda aRudges sityva `kulturiT~ imgvar spekulacias, romelic TviTon adamianis Rirsebas akninebs da Telavs. Tanamedrove abstraqcionizmi gamouvali mdgomareobis, Cixis, dasaRupad ganwirulobis gancdas iwvevs. TviTon adamiani aseT xelovnebaSi umeteswilad ngrevadi konstruqciis saxiT Cndeba. Tanamedrove musika Tavisi ritmebiT masobriv fsiqozsa da isterias iwvevs. ra aris es _ kultura Tu antikultura? Cven, qristianebi, rac ar unda obskurantizmi dagvwamon, amgvari kulturis winaaRmdegebi varT. kultura gulisxmobs adamianTa urTierTobas da mis garkveul formebs _ am urTierTobis simbolur enas, 131

adamianis pirovnebisadmi pativiscemaze dafuZnebuls. axla ki es urTierToba sxva fundaments emyareba: fuli, sargebeli, angariSi aviwroeben ara marto megobrobas, aramed naTesaur kavSirebsac. cxovrebis etaloni simdidre xdeba. ra aris es? kulturis progresi, rogorc adamianis pativiscemis unari, Tu misi entropia? Cveulebriv, msoflio kulturis sakiTxebze msjelobisas mis mkvlevarT, maT Soris qristianebsac, aviwydebaT adamianis fsiqologiisa da anTropologiis gasaocari da Tan universaluri faqti, kerZod, rom kacis e.w. `bunebrivi~ mdgomareoba sruliadac ar aris bunebrivi, aramed mZime sneulebiT _ codviTaa Sobili. socialuri da zneobrivi utopiebi, adamianis `bunebrivi sikeTis~ postulats rom ayenebdnen da mTel borotebas garegnul pirobebsa da aRzrdas miawerdnen, usicocxloni da marcxisaTvis ganwirulni aRmoCndnen. saukeTeso garegnuli pirobebi, romlebic bavSvs gars akravda, aRzrdis yvelaze amaRlebuli meTodebi ver axerxebda kacis sulSi ampartavnebis, egoizmisa da yvelaze qvena vnebebis aRmofxvras. codva erTnairi ZaliT moqmedebda RatakTa qoxebSic da didebulTa sasaxleebSic, demokratiul aTenSic da imperiul romSic. TviTgamoxatva adamianisa, romelic ar iyo qristes naTliT ganaTlebuli, xelovnebaSic da literaturaSic, mecnierebaSic da inteleqtualuri xelovnebis sxva dargebSic yovelTvis rCeboda ampartavnebis kultad, adamianis Rirsebaze laparakiT rom iniRbeboda da vnebebis kultad, romelsac xSirad daxvewil esTetizmad asaRebdnen. xelovneba aris TanagrZnoba, emociuri gnosisi. kaci, romelic kiTxulobs ama Tu im literaturul nawar132

moebs anda uyurebs suraTs, TanaugrZnobs personaJTa grZnobebsa da vnebebs. es vnebebi ganmsWvalaven mis gulsa da gonebas, rac imas niSnavs, rom is Tanamonawilecaa am vnebebisa. qristianobis naTelma gviCvena warmarTuli mSvenierebis simaxinje. mogviwodeben, rom aRtacebulni viyoT veneras qandakebiT _ momxiblavi vnebis gansaxierebiT, anda himalais panTeonis kerpebiT _ demonizmis gansaxierebiT. aq oridan erTi SesaZleblobaa: an adamianis religiuri grZnoba unda daClungdes, anda man zizRiT unda aqcios zurgi am fantasmagorias. saintereso istoriuli detalia: qarTul kulturas misi gaqristianebidan moyolebuli XI saukunemde praqtikulad ar gaaCnia saero xasiaTis Txzulebebi. nuTu adamianebi naklebad kulturulebi iyvnen, raki yvelaze amaRlebul da wminda ideebsa da saxeebs bibliidan da wm. mamebis nawerebidan Rebulobdnen? magram Semdeg sulieri donis dacemam, interesebis sxva mxares gadaxram da dawyebulma zneobrivi orientaciis Secvlam sxva moTxovnebi warmoSves, romlebmac hpoves kidec asaxva saero literaturaSi. rogori damokidebuleba aqvs qristianobas saero kulturis mimarT? qristianuli cxovreba _ esaa adamianis Sinagani brZola sityvasa Tu saqmeSi gamoxatuli azrebisa da survilebis siwmindisaTvis, esaa brZola codvasTan, kacis gulis siRrmeSi rom imaleba da bnel demonur samyarosTan, romelic cdilobs daimorCilos adamiani misi ampartavnebisa da vnebebis meSveobiT. ras emsaxureba is veli, adamianuri kultura rom ewodeba? Seeweva Tu ara igi sulSi naTeli Zalebis gamarjvebas, Tu mis cnobierebas vnebiani saxeebiT da ampartavnuli ocnebebiT avsebs? aTavisuflebs Tu ara igi 133

kacis suls afeqturi emociebis wnexisgan da azrebis ganuwyveteli xetialisgan, aCrdilTa rokvas rom waagavs? mimarTavs Tu ara igi gonebas droebiTisa da warmavalisagan maradiulisken, Tu guls imas miajaWvavs, rac mis garSemo xdeba? aZlevs Tu ara saero kultura kacis suls mTlianobas, aqcevs Tu ara mas pirovnebad am sityvis zneobrivi da qristianuli gagebiT, Tu nawilebad fleTs mas, aTasgvar grZnobas ganacdevinebs: vnebian siyvaruls, siZulvils, SurisZiebis wyurvils da a.S.? ras uwyobs xels es kultura: imas, rom RmerTi iyos saboloo mizani da mTavari Sinaarsi adamianis cxovrebisa, Tu imas, rom es sofeli Tavisi vnebebiT, saxeebiT, ampartavnebiTa da sakuTari Tavis gaRmerTebiT SeiWras kacis sulSi da aavsos igi, raTa amqveyniuri cxovreba gaxdes kacis mTavari Sinaarsi da mizani? kultura yovelTvis iyo da iqneba kulti suli wmidis madliT gaunaTlebeli adamianuri grZnobebisaTvis; magram misi zneobis an uzneobis done, bunebrivi moralis TvalsazrisiT, farTo amplitudis farglebSi iryeva. saero kulturis saukeTeso nawarmoebebma SeiZleba aRtaceba mohgvaros adamians, magram ar ZaluZs aaRorZinos misi suli, daamSvidos misi mSfoTvare guli. Cven ara varT kulturis winaaRmdegni, magram dabejiTebiT moviTxovT misdami diferencirebul midgomas. saero kultura miwier ganzomilebebSi _ esaa universaluri, yovlismomcveli faqtori; misi arafrad Cagdeba niSnavs gacnobierebulad Caketo Tavi sakuTari iluziebis tyveobaSi, airCio voluntarizmis gza. cotani arian, visac SeuZlia Tavi mTlianad RmerTs Seswiros, amitom adamianis sulSi rCeba vakuumi, romlis Sevsebasac is cdilobs. arareligiuri xalxisTvis es Cveu134

lebrivi mdgomareobaa. da ai, aq kulturis saukeTeso nimuSebi SeiZleba aRmoCndes is saSualeba, romelic ixsnis maT sruli zneobrivi degradaciisagan. rac Seexeba adamianebs, romlebmac Tavi mTlianad RmerTs da eklesiur cxovrebas uZRvnes, swored am eklesiur cxovrebaSi SeuZliaT dainaxon yvelaferi saukeTeso, aqa-iq rom aris mimofantuli saero kulturaSi. magram mTavari isaa, rom religia aZlevs maT imas, rac ama soflisTvis sruliad ucxoa da miuwvdomeli. mRvdelmTavari basili didi, Tavisi droisaTvis araCveulebrivad ganaTlebuli adamiani, romelmac axalgazrdobaSi kargad Seiswavla warmarTuli filosofia, werda, rom rodesac igi wm. werilis Seswavlas Seudga, mixvda: saero mecnierebebi da warmarTuli sibrZne ubralod bavSvuri TamaSia da sxva araferi. gveubnebian, rom dRevandeli adamiani ar unda daSordes Tanamedrove kulturas, rom aseTi TviTSezRudva mas naklulevans gaxdis, Tundac rogorc qristians. magram ras warmoadgens es kultura _ misi yvelaze popularuli da misTvis yvelaze damaxasiaTebeli nawarmoebebiT? ras kiTxulobs da ras uyurebs Tanamedrove `kulturuli~ adamiani? aq zedmetia raimes mtkiceba, sakmarisia gadavxedoT Tundac erTi dRis satelevizio gadacemaTa programas anda wignis nebismier maRaziaSi SevideT. ras vnaxavT da movismenT, ra gvelis iq? Cven davinaxavT ara kulturas, rogorc elementarul pativiscemas adamianisadmi, gasul saukuneebSi jer kidev rom arsebobda, aramed wignebs seqsisa da okultizmis Sesaxeb, deteqtivebs, saxelmZRvaneloebs sxvadasxva orTabrZolebisa da kaciskvlisaTvis, wignebis ydebze _ gamofatrul muclebs, gaSiSvlebul sxeulebsa da demonTa aCrdilebs. 135

maT Soris ki, rogorc dacinvas, rogorc talaxSi Cagdebul siwmindes, SevamCnevT wm. werilis wignebs, rac kidev ufro meti ukulturobaa, vidre mxolod pornografiis gayidva. ratom aravin aimaRlebs xmas siwmindis aseTi profanaciis winaaRmdeg? da kidev surT dagvarwmunon, rom qristiani am mowamluli sazrdeliT unda ikvebebodes, raTa mas kulturis mteri ar uwodon, raTa tusaRis nomeriviT ar miakeron fanatikosis an seqtantis saxeli! Cveni, qristianebis winaSe seriozulad dgeba kiTxva: SeiZleba, rom qristians saero kultura moswondes? es imazea damokidebuli, sulieri ganviTarebis ra xarisxsaa miRweuli qristiani. magram Tu me mkiTxaven, vupasuxeb, rom yvela im poeturi wignidan, rac Cemi cxovrebis manZilze maqvs wakiTxuli, saukeTesoa `fsalmunni~. ar arsebobs iseTi Rrma, gulSiCamwvdomi, sulisSemZvreli leqsebi, rogoric fsalmunebia. marTlmadidebeli eklesiis mTeli liturgika, mTeli RmrTismsaxureba wminda poeziaa, SeiZleba iTqvas, Sedevrebia poeziisa. piradad me mimaCnia, rom eklesias SeuZlia daakmayofilos adamianis yvelaze daxvewili esTetikuri gemovneba. magaliTad, taZrebis arqiteqtura Sedevria, Tundac mas sxva, saero poziciidan SevxedoT. ratomaa, rom rodesac surT uCvenon (mag., ucxoel stumrebs) saukeTeso, rac ki xalxs Seuqmnia, uCveneben ara klubebs an Teatrebs, aramed taZrebsa da monastrebs da maT nangrevebsac ki? imitom, rom araviTar xelovnebas ar miuRwevia srulyofilebis aseTi donisaTvis. am mxriv saeklesio xelovnebas araferi aqvs saerosagan sasesxebeli, garegnuli formiT, Sesrulebis teqnikis mxrivac ki igi xelovnebis mwvervalia. 136

magram saWiroa Tu ara mxatvruli literaturis kiTxva? unda vusminoT Tu ara saero musikas? es dae TiToeulma adamianma TviTon gadawyvitos: es sulier cxovrebaSi misi monawileobisa da CarTulobis xarisxzea damokidebuli. sulieri cxovrebis garkveul etaps miRweuli adamianis Sinagan mdgomareobas vnebiani da mgrZnobiare saero xelovneba aRar Seesabameba da misTvis, ubralod, uintereso xdeba. xelovneba moiTxovs Tanamonawileobas da nawarmoebSi CarTvas, sulier adamians ki ukve aRar ZaluZs saero nawarmoebebis personaJTa vnebebisa da efeqtebisadmi TanagrZnoba. magram ar SeiZleba sxvadasxva adamians erTi sazomiT miudge, amitom Cven sruliadac ar moviTxovT saero xelovnebis kategoriul uaryofas. es ar SeiZleba naadrevad moxdes. religia axali cxovrebaa da suli eZiebs masSi imas, rasac es sofeli ver aZlevs.

137

veneras taZari golgoTaze

q

ristes jvarcmis Semdeg golgoTa axali aRTqmis eklesiis mTavari siwminde gaxda. gadmocemiT, iq xSirad midioda salocavad deda RmrTisa. golgoTis mosalocad dadiodnen palestinaSi da mis sazRvrebs iqiT mcxovrebi qristianebi. es male SeamCnies qristes mtrebma da gadawyvites es adgili nagavsayrelad gamoeyenebinaT. magram golgoTa siwminded rCeboda. qristianTaTvis es Seuracxyofa TiTqos qristes wamebis gagrZeleba iyo. Seginebuli golgoTa axsenebda maT, rom Ze RmrTisa yvelaze samarcxvino da damamcirebel sasjels mieca, magram es damcireba macxovris saukuno didebis dasawyisad iqca. II saukuneSi romis imperatorma adrianem sZlia iudevelTa Tavganwirul winaaRmdegobas bar-koxbas meTaurobiT da aiRo ierusalimi. ierusalims _ `mSvidoba RmrTisa~-s _ adrianem saxeli gadaarqva da uwoda elia _ mzis qalaqi. bolo rom moeRo qristianTa momlocvelobisaTvis golgoTaze, man borcvi nagvisagan gawminda da iq veneras taZari dadga. aravin icis, icoda Tu ara adrianem, ras iqmoda. romis imperatori Tavisi mdgomareobiT iyo imperiis mTavari qurumi _ pontifeqsi, amitom demonur ZalTa velSi iyo CarTuli _ misTvis cnobil Tu ucnob demonur gegmaTa mediums warmoadgenda. Tuki man gacnobierebulad aago golgoTis adgilas venera-afrodites taZari, satanuri SorsmWvretelobisa da demonuri 138

genialobis mqoned unda CavTvaloT. veneras kulti _ grZnobad siameTa koncentrati _ grZnobadi aliT aqrobs saRmrTo cecxls adamianis gulSi, Ramis bneli aCrdilebiT ganagdebs igi sulidan saRmrTo naTels. vnebisa da mruSobis kulti kacis nebisyofis paralizebas axdens, suls aRar esmis maradisobis Zaxili da materiisa da nivTieris monad iqceva. rogorc iuda 30 vercxlisaTvis, memruSec erTi muWa sibinZurisTvis yidis qristes, iseve rogorc esavi _ SeWamandisaTvis, uars ambobs Tavis adamianur Rirsebasa da saRmrTo kurTxevaze. demonma icis, rom adamianis RmerTisgan CamosaSoreblad sakmarisia zneobrivad gaxrwnas igi. arsebobs qristianobasTan brZolis sami xerxi: pirveli _ misi fizikuri ganadgureba cecxliTa da maxviliT. aseT brZolaSi ibadebian gmirebi da mxdalebi, qristesaTvis mowameni da misgan gandgomilebi. meore _ tyuilisa da ciliswamebis saSualebiT brZola, am brZolaSi siyalbis, cinikuri dacinvisa da daxvewili ironiis gamoyeneba, rodesac adamianebis cnobierebaSi nel-nela inergeba yalbi, karikaturuli warmodgenebi qristianobaze. sakmarisia SevadaroT aTeizmis ideologTa qrestomaTiuli gamonaTqvamebi gapartaxebuli taZrebis kedlebze amokawrul quCur lanZRva-ginebas, rom maTi genetikuri da kulturuli erTianoba davinaxoT. mesame _ brZola, romelic qristianobis profanaciis saSualebiT xdeba. taZrebs ar angreven, magram maT gverdiT sokoebiviT mravldebian veneras bomonebi _ `erotikuli Teatrebi~, videodarbazebi da sxv. gasayidad erT Taroze devs saxareba da saxelmZRvaneloebi aRmosavluri seqsis, astrologiisa da qiromantiis 139

Sesaswavlad; xatebis gverdiT Tavs iwoneben Tanamedrove `afroditeebisa~ da `venerebis~ yvelaze vnebiani gamosaxulebani. garyvnil suls ar ZaluZs Seiyvaros saTnoebis mkacri mSveniereba, ar ZaluZs miiRos RmrTis madli 1. rTul epoqaSi vcxovrobT. mefe solomonma Tqva: `Jami ars dadebad qvaÁ da Jami ars Sekrebad qvisa~ (ekl. 3, 5). kulturisa da istoriis, tradiciisa da moralis, monastrebisa da taZrebis qvebi daundobeli sisastikiTa da TanmimdevrulobiT iqna ganbneuli. dadga qvebis Sekrebis dro, kvlav monastrebisa da taZrebis agebis Jami. xalxma daiwyo imis gacnobiereba, rom misi xsna sulierebasa da religiaSia, xolo religiisa da eklesiis gareT centridanuli Zalebis velia. xalxi TandaTan xvdeba, rom warsuli iseve unda davicvaT, rogorc awmyo, rom tradiciebs iseve unda gavufrTxildeT, rogorc winaparTa saflavebs, bavSvebis sicocxles. golgoTidan daiwyes aTeisturi inkviziciis dros daxvavebuli WuWyisa da nagvis mocileba. magram iqve gaCnda axali safrTxe _ golgoTis maxloblad veneras taZari Sendeba. axla religia Tavisufalia, adamianebs eZlevaT saSualeba gaigon da irwmunon, magram balaami kvlav raRacas CasCurCulebs yurSi balaks. xolo solomonis sityviT, memruSe guli RmrTis sibrZnes (RmrTis sibrZne _ qriste-logosi) ver miiRebs. 1 arsebobs qristianobasTan brZolis sxva xerxebic, magaliTad, Teosofiuri skola, romelSic erTiandebian Zveli gnostikosebica da Tanamedrove okultistebic: misi mimdevrebi qristianobas maradiuli da universaluri WeSmaritebis nacvlad raRac religiur-istoriul fenomenad warmogvidgenen, romelic mudmiv ganaxlebasa da Sevsebas saWiroebs sxva religiebisgan. aseve _ reformatoroba da modernizmi, romlebic qristianobas TandaTan sociologiad aqceven, eklesias ki – kulturulsazogadoebriv institutad, sadac ideebi RmerTsa da maradiulobaze meorexarisxovan, ase vTqvaT, damxmare mniSvnelobas iZenen. es procesi gansakuTrebiT mkveTrad aris gamoxatuli zogierT protestantul Temsa da konfesiaSi (avt.).

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qristianoba moiTxovs gulis, gulissityvebisa da survilebis ganwmendas.Þ`yoveli sacoÁ daimarxe gulsa Sensa~ (ig. 4, 23). suli wmidis madli adamianis guls RmrTis taZrad aqcevs, garyvnili cxovreba _ Rorebis sadgomad. Tavisufleba adamianis erT-erTi umTavresi faseulobaa, magram am sityvis mniSvneloba bevrisTvis gaurkvevelia. Tavisufleba zogierTs ise esmis, rogorc mis gzaze arsebuli yvela dabrkolebis gaqroba, SesaZlebloba, rom is akeTos, rac unda; qristem ki Tavisufleba gansazRvra, rogorc WeSmaritebis Secnoba. WeSmariteba aTavisuflebs adamians: `da scnaT WeSmariti da WeSmaritebaman ganganTavisuflnes Tquen~ (in. 8,32). codvasa da binZur vnebebTan brZola adamians aZlevs sulieri Tavisuflebis potencials. Tavisufleba aris adamianSi RmrTis xatisa da msgavsebis aqtualizacia, Tavisufleba _ esaa cxovreba umaRlesi daniSnulebis Tanaxmad. garegnuli Tavisufleba qristianisTvis aris piroba sikeTis realizaciisaTvis. viRacisTvis ki Tavisufleba fulis maqsimaluri raodenobis dagroveba, misi saSualebiT maqsimaluri siamovnebis miRebaa. amgvari Tavisufleba seqssa da pornografiasac gulisxmobs, magram es sinamdvileSi Tavisufleba ki ara, sacodavi monobaa sakuTari grZnobebisa. Tavisufleba aris pirovnebis Camoyalibeba; seqsisa da vnebebis kults ki pirovnebisaTvis mxolod garyvnileba da gaxleCa moaqvs. Tavisufleba erTdroulad orivesTvis _ religiisa da pornografiisTvis _ igivea, rac erTad davrgoT yvavilebi da ekliani sarevela, Tanac vicodeT, rom ekliani sarevela bolos da bolos moaxrCobs da moaSTobs yvavilebs. es antireligiuri brZolis eSmakuri, SeniRbuli saxea. sibinZuris nakadebi moedineba Jurnal-gazeTebis furclebidan, televizorebisa da kinoTeatrebis ekranebidan. isini avseben qalaqebsa da saxlebs, adamianTa sulsa da gonebas. 141

codva mSvenierebis cnebis paraziti xdeba, iseve rogorc boroteba _ sikeTis cnebis paraziti. codva da boroteba Tavisi WeSmariti saxiT metismetad amazrzeni da maxinjia. sityvebis à_ `adamianis sxeuli mSvenieria~ _ ukan aSkara pornografia imaleba, TiTqos pornografiis moyvarulni gulgrili esTetebi iyvnen, romlebic ise tkbebian amgvari suraTebiT, rogorc poeti – varskvlaviani ciT. qristianebs yovelTvis gansakuTrebiT axasiaTebdaT umankoebis grZnoba, umankoeba TiTqmis siwmindis sinonimi gaxda. qristiani mowameni, romlebic satanjvelad mihyavdaT, sicocxlis SenarCunebas ki ar evedrebodnen vinmes, aramed iTxovdnen, ar gaeSiSvlebinaT isini. garyvnili adamianisTvis ki TviT qorwineba xdeba epizodi, xolo ojaxi _ mZime uReli. Tu pornografia da xorcieli garyvnileba _ veneras kulti sajarod ar daigmoba, Tu erisa da xalxis mtrad ar gamocxaddeba, ar aikrZaleba da ar moispoba, maSin igi, rogorc sulieri Sidsi, daangrevs sazogadoebas. am mterTan yovelgvari zavi da molaparakeba SeuZlebelia.

142

kinoTeatraluri SabaSi

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armarTobis atributikis organuli nawilebia Teatri da skulptura: Zveli berZnuli tragediis monawileni olimpos RmerTebi arian; induistur taZrebSi tardeba Teatraluri warmodgenebi maskaradisa da baletis elementebiT. qristianobaSi xelovnebas (sarkisebur asaxvas) simbolo cvlis, qandakebas ki _ xati. unda aRiniSnos, rom Zveli aRTqmis taZarSi liTonisagan gamokveTili qerubimebis gverdiT qsovilze amoqarguli gamosaxulebebic iyo _ kretsabmelze, romelic Zveli aRTqmis sakurTxevels, wmidaTa wmidas, taZris danarCeni sivrcisgan hyofda. aq ukve Cans samganzomilebiani gamosaxulebidan ufro sulierze, organzomilebianze gadasvla. qandakeba sxeulovani da materialuri samyaros gamomxatvelia, mZime, xiluli, xelSesaxebi materiisa, romelic mayureblis cnobierebaze zewolas axdenda Tavisi masiT, miwierebiT, mkvrivi formebiT. es mkvrivi formebis samyaro ar utovebda adgils aramaterialur, iracionalur sulier samyaros. apologetebisa da Zvel qristian wmindanTa azriT, kerpebis qandakebebi demonTa samyofeli iyo. demonebi miwisqveSa arsebebi arian, TiTqos miwis masiT gasresilni. miwisqveSeTi ara marto maTi samyofeli adgilia, aramed maTi mudmivi Sinagani mdgomareobac _ sibnelis, daTrgunulobis, tan143

jvis, simZimilis. amitom aris, rom qandakebebi yvelaze metad warmarTuli RmerTebis asaxvisaTvis gamodgebian. `qandakebaTa fabrikaciis~ winaaRmdeg gansakuTrebiT ilaSqrebda tertuliane _ misTvis qandakebisa da kerpis cnebebi erTmaneTs erwymis. isic unda gavixsenoT, rom antikuri qandakebebi mxatvrebis mier iyo moxatuli. isini imdenad hgavdnen TavianT naturebs, rom ioane oqropiris TqmiT, adamianebSi vnebebs aRZravdnen. marTlmadidebelma eklesiam Tavis gnosisad, sulieri samyaros xedvad, dafarulis ganWvretad kanonikuri xati mogvca. amasTan, meSvide msoflio krebis mamebi afrTxilebdnen qristianebs, rom ar daeyenebinaT xati RmerTis adgilas. Teatraluri xelovneba agebulia ara sulier principze _ simbolos simbolizebulamde amaRlebaze, aramed imitaciis principze _ msaxiobis gardasaxvaze personaJad, Sinagan identifikaciaze. amitomac wmindanis scenuri asaxva yovelTvis rCeba misi Rirsebisa da saxelis kadnier mitacebad, provokaciad da profanaciad. miT umetes, RmerTis gansaxiereba msaxiobisaTvis demonuri moqmedeba, mkrexeloba iqneba, mayureblisaTvis ki _ gaucnobierebeli kerpTayvanismcemloba. religiuri adamiani albaT arc arasodes daTanxmdeba qristes rolis TamaSs. magram modi, sxva SemTxvevebic ganvixiloT. vTqvaT, msaxiobi indiferentulia religiis mimarT an sulac urwmuno. sxvadasxva msaxiobi sxvadasxvagvarad warmoadgens da afasebs qristes saxes. erTisTvis is meocnebe utopistia, meorisTvis _ zneobis maswavlebeli, sxvisTvis iseTive religiuri reformatoria, rogorebic buda da muhamedi iyvnen; zogisTvis is revolucioneria, raRac `palestineli spartakis~ msgavsi da a. S. yoveli maTgani Tavis specifikur saxes 144

qmnis, Sedegad ki ekranze sul sxvadasxva qristeebi gamoCndebian, romlebsac erTmaneTTan bevri araferi eqnebaT saerTo. yoveli msaxiobi, rogorc adamiani, subieqturad aRiqvams qristes. viRacisTvis saxarebiseuli qriste emociurad arafrismTqmelia, zogSi is simpaTias iwvevs, zogSi ki _ mtrul siZulvils. xolo Tuki msaxiobi sakuTar Tavs religiur adamianad miiCnevs, igi aucileblad unda ekuTvnodes raime konfesias, garkveul sakulto garemos, amitom qristes saxis gadmocemisas sxvadasxva midgoma eqnebaT kaTolikes, protestants, iudevels, mormons, kriSnaits, budists, spiritists, satanists da sxv. Tavis sityvas ityvis politikuri simpaTia-antipaTiebic: socialisti, komunisti, monarqisti Tu faSisti qristes sul sxvadasxvagvarad warmogvidgenen. kinopluralizmi qristes saxis nivelirebisa da gaqrobis erT-erTi saSualeba gaxdeba: macxovris saxes igi garegnulad mravalferovan, Sinaganad ki cariel abstraqciad gadaaqcevs. raRa unda iTqvas TviTon msaxiobze, rogorc adamianur individze, mis fsiqologiur wyobaze, mis SezRudulobasa da codvilobaze, mis pirad simpaTiebze, Cvevebsa da gatacebebze, anda imaze, Tu rogor atarebs igi Tavisufal dros gadaRebebs Soris? SesaZloa Cvenive sityvebiT gvipasuxon, rom msaxiobis talanti gardasaxvis unarSi mdgomareobs. magram scenuri gardasaxva ar gulisxmobs pirovnebis fsiqikuri wyobis, indivindualuri Tvisebebisa da mTeli zneobriv-inteleqtualuri potencialis gaqrobas. amgvari gardasaxva mxolod droebiT uSvebs pirovnuls qvecnobier SreSi, magram es pirovnuli sruliadac ar rCeba inertuli, aramed Tavis elfers aZlevs msaxiobis yvela moqmedebas, mTel 145

saxes, romelsac igi qmnis. aq msaxiobis gaigiveba xdeba ara realur pirovnebasTan, aramed faqtebisa da scenuri warmosaxvis safuZvelze aRmocenebul garkveul personaJTan _ esaa TviTon msaxiobis pirmSo an, ufro sworad, misi aCrdili. ekranebsa da scenebze xSirad Cndeba moqmedi piri, msaxiobi, romelic qalwul mariamis rols TamaSobs. RmrTismSoblis xati, qristianTaTvis yovlad wminda, surT efeqtur scenur saxed aqcion. qriste erTaderTia da aseve erTaderTia qalwuli mariamic. igi aris maradis qalwuli; vnebebsa da afeqtur grZnobebze bevrad maRla mdgari, Cven ki mudmivad vnebebis garemoSi vcxovrobT. rogor SeuZlia msaxiobs RmrTismSoblis sulis zeciur ganaTebaTa sferoSi SeRweva? rogor unda ganimsWvalos misi grZnobebiT? erT-erTi mRvdelmTavari ambobs: wmindanTa da angelozTa mTeli siyvaruli rom SevaerToT da SevadaroT im siyvaruls, romliTac qalwul mariams Tavisi RmerTi da Ze uyvars, igive iqneba, rac mdinarisa da zRvis Sedarebao. rogor unda gadmosces msaxiobma es siyvaruli? mTeli misi mcdeloba, yvela xerxi, yovelgvari scenuri meTodi da meditacia ubralo siyalbed darCeba. gadmocemis Tanaxmad, TviT demonsac ki ar ZaluZs RmrTismSoblis saxis miReba _ mas RmerTma aukrZala yovladwminda qalwulis ciliswameba. da nuTu is, rasac satanac ki ver bedavs, nebadarTulia msaxiobisTvis? netar ieronimes TqmiT, RmerTs, romelic yovlisSemZlea, ar ZaluZs qalis qalwulad gardaqmna. aq ki guSindel julietebsa da ledi makbetebs scenaze surT iTamaSon RmrTismSobeli (e. i. pirobiTad maradis qalwulebad iqcnen). msaxiobi yvelaze ucodveli romc iyos Tanamedrove qalwulTa Soris, masa da RmrTismSobels 146

Soris mainc iseTive manZili iqneba, rogoric yvelaze umanko da yvelaze codvil adamians Soris dedamiwaze. amitom RmTismSoblis rolis TamaSi iseTsave Zrwolas iwvevs qristianis gulSi, rogorsac xatis SebRalva. SeiZleba Tu ara bibliis gamoyeneba kinosiuJetad? biblia Tavis sulier garemoSi cxovrobs _ es garemoa eklesia. eklesiis gareT wm. werili zneobriv azrs moklebuli, damaxinjebuli da deformirebuli xdeba. sxvadasxva qristianul konfesiebsa da TemebSi eklesiis cocxal organizms mowyvetilma wm. werilma dakarga Tavisi Zala, fasi da siRrme. bibliis sityvebis swori axsna-ganmarteba eklesiis gonebis gareSe SeuZlebelia. amas amtkiceben erTi da igive saxarebiseuli teqstis safuZvelze gamotanili sul sxvadasxva, xSirad urTierTsapirispiro zneobrivi da dogmaturi daskvnebi. eklesiis gareSe zogierTi sazogadoeba an calkeuli piri bibliidan moyvanili sityvebiT cdilobda borotebis, Zaladobisa da codvis gamarTlebasac ki. wm. werili kacobrivi sityvis formiT gvaqvs mocemuli, kacobrivi sityva ki pirobiTia da gavrcobas eqvemdebareba. igi mraval azrsa da mniSvnelobas Seicavs. amitom, Tuki ar arsebobs mtkice orientiri, rogoradac eklesia gvevlineba, adamianis winaSe SeiZleba bundovanebis, eWvebisa da gaugebrobis mTeli zRva gadaiSalos. eklesiam gamoacalkeva oTxi WeSmariti saxareba mravali yalbi da apokrifuli saxarebisgan; eklesiam Semogvinaxa es oTxi kanonikuri saxareba ara marto teqstualurad, aramed rac mTavaria, sulier, simbolur da zneobriv planSi, maT organul erTianobaSi. eklesiaSi saxareba cocxlobs da acocxlebs. gana SeiZleba, rom saxareba daumaxinjeblad JRerdes scenaze? igi yalbad JRers TviT religiur 147

TemebSic, romlebic gamoeyvnen eklesias. saxareba ara marto sityvaa, igi aris is, rac sityvaze maRla dgas _ RmrTis madli, romelic adamianTa gulebze zemoqmedebs. gana SeiZleba, rom saxareba iyos scenaris siuJeti anda teqsti deklamaciisaTvis? iqnebian ki iq angelozebi? gadmova ki suli wmida mayurebelze? moiwonebs ki zeciuri eklesia iluzionistur saswaulebs, romlebsac TeatrSi TamaSoben? wmindanebi da angelozebi mowiwebiT Tayvans scemen RmrTismSoblis xats. nuTu SesaZlebelia, rom maT RmrTismSoblis rolis Semsrulebel msaxiobs scen Tayvani? Tanamedrove adamiani sulierad gaxleCil pirovnebas warmoadgens. teqnikurma progresma, romelic kacisgan uzarmazar Zalisxmevas moiTxovs, cxovrebisa da muSaobis sul ufro daCqarebulma tempma igi mSobliur miwas moswyvita, xelovnur sacxovreblebSi _ caTambjenebSi (raRaciT babilonis godols rom waagvanan) gamoketa, gauucxova ojaxs, emociurad civi gaxada yvelaze axlobeli adamianebis mimarTac ki. am progresma mZime tvirTi ahkida adamianis inteleqts: rogorc uwin afrikisa da qanaanis mrisxane RmerTebi moiTxovdnen maTgan Svilebis Sewirvas, dRevandeloba ukve sul sxva msxverpls _ mis suls moiTxovs. adamianma dakarga suliereba. misi inteleqti gaxleCilia mSral gonebismier, logizirebisa da sinTezis, analizisa da sistematizaciis mawarmoebel azrovnebad. sityvebi sulieri simboloebidan adamianis refleqsiis niSanTa sistemad iqca, romelic sul ufro uaxlovdeba civ maTematikur sistemas. sulier gancdas esTetika da fantazia cvlis. adamiani, romelmac dakarga locva, cdilobs aRmoaCinos RmerTi ukve ara Tavis dacarielebul gulSi, aramed sakuTari silogizmebis 148

rkinis xafangSi, da rakiRa xedavs, rom igi carielia, ambobs: `Tuki me ar SemiZlia gonebis sabuTebiT davamtkico RmerTis arseboba, maSasadame, igi ar arsebobs~. meocnebeobasa da fantazias, warmosaxvis TamaSs adamiani uxilavi naTlisgan, sulieri realiebisgan aCrdilTa samyaroSi gadahyavs, araarsidan misive fantaziiT gamoxmobilSi. civi gonebisTvis, robotis eleqtronul tvins rom waagavs, religia aris zusti azrovnebis unaris arqona anda, yovel SemTxvevaSi, raRac ganyenebuli hipoTeza, romlis damtkiceba SeuZlebelia da uromlisodac Cveni teqnikuri saukunis adamians mSvenivrad SeuZlia cxovreba. meore mxriv, poeturi warmosaxvis samyaro aranakleb axSobs sulier alRosa da intuicias. igi aRviZebs gafaqizebul gemoTmoyvarebas, qmnis ama soflis mSvenierebis grZnobad kults. amasTan, hedonizmi (anu tkbobis kulti) mSvenierebiT iniRbeba, magram RmerTisagan mowyvetili, sulierebas moklebuli mSvenierebiT. suli ver hpovebs RmerTs verc ganyenebul abstraqciebSi, verc mkveTr grZnobad saxeebSi. suli unda amaRldes saidumlo sinas mTaze, sadac madlis Rrublebi dafaraven misgan miwas _ grZnobadsa da fantastikurs; unda Seabijos wyvdiadSi, dainaxos Tavisi inteleqtis SezRuduloba da iq, sulis gamoRviZebis Jams, ixilos usxeulo RmerTis Crdilebi. `wm. samebis Crdilebic ki aRtacebas iwveven CemSi~, werda wm. grigol RmrTismetyveli. Cven ki gvTavazoben veZeboT RmerTi Teatrebsa da laboratoriebSi, an eqsperimentiT aRmovaCinoT, anda davamtkicoT misi arseboba, rogorc skolis moswavleebi amtkiceben xolme algebris Teoremebs. ra sabralo iqneboda is RmerTi, romlis danaxvac mikroskopiT an teleskopiT iqneboda SesaZlebeli! aseTi 149

RmerTi xom adamianze dabla idgeboda. taZris mistikur mdumarebaSi adamianis guli SeiZleba taZrad gardaiqmnas, Teatralur fantasmagoriebsa da feeriebSi ki es guli TviTonac Teatrad iqceva. imisaTvis, rom guliT RmerTi ixilo, RmerTis Rirsi cxovrebaa saWiro da ara Wreli sanaxaoba. zeciuri sxivi rom mogwvdes, sakuTari dacemis siRrme unda dainaxo. Teatri mcdari gzaa, romelic aRviZebs STabeWdilebebisa da tkbobis wyurvils da Srets suls. sulieri samyaros materialur formebSi xilvis survili, xelovnebis sferodan religiis sferoSi gadasvla adamians xSirad yalbi mistikuri swavlebebisken izidavs, romlebic mas sulieri samyaros fizikur ganzomilebebSi Cvenebas hpirdeba. aseTebi arian, magaliTad, spiritizmi, svedenborgis swavleba, ioga, TeTri da Savi magiis sxvadasxva formebi. materializebuli sulieri samyaros vizualuri xedvis survili saTaveSive amaxinjebs da amrudebs adamianis sulier cxovrebas. wm. grigol sinelisa da sxva qristiani asketebis swavlebiT, sulTa samyaros grZnobadi aRqmisaken miswrafebas adamianebi demonebTan urTierTobamde mihyavs, amitom wm. mamaTa erT-erTi mTavari asketuri kanonia gonebisa da mexsierebis ganwmenda grZnobadi suraTebis, ocnebebisa da fantaziebisgan _ WeSmariti sulierebis damabrkolebelTagan. Teatri Tavisi meTodiT arwmunebs adamians (ara refleqsiis doneze, aramed qvecnobierad), rom sulieri samyaro SeiZleba dainaxo da moismino, rom igi misawvdomia ara intuiciuri, aramed sensoruli (xorciel-grZnobadi) xedvisaTvis, da maSin adamiani kargavs RmerTTan erTobis, rogorc RmerTsa da suls Soris harmoniis gagebas. igi RmerTTan Sexvedras vizualur doneze eswrafvis 150

(Tanac Sexvedras, romelic TviTonve daniSna), is ki ar esmis, rom cariel moCvenebasTan, aCrdilTan aqvs urTierToba. Cven yvelani codvilebi varT. codva Rrmad aris gamjdari Cvens bunebaSi. makari didis TqmiT, TviT wmindanebSic ki aris raRac bneli laqebi. codva ara mxolod kacis guls azianebs, aramed mTel mis fsiqo-fizikur organizms. wmindanebi gansakuTrebul naTels gamoscemdnen, romelic xatebzea aRbeWdili. codvilisagan bneli sxivebi gamodis, is TiTqos raRac wyvdiadiT aris garemoculi. adamianis guli xandaxan grZnobs am bnel vels, rogorc usiamovno, sazizRar Sexebas _ wm. grigol sineli laparakobda raRac mRvrie sisxlisfer, WuWyiani feris demonur naTebaze. ras gamoscems Cveni gulebi, ra dafaruli vnebebiT vcxovrobT? da im fonze, romlis damalva, grimiT dafarva an gaqroba SeuZlebelia, msaxiobs surs qristes yovladwminda saxe gviCvenos. amitom aris, rom morwmunis guli zizRiT ibrunebs pirs am siyalbisagan. qristianis Sinagani cxovreba sruliad sawinaaRmdegoa msaxiobis xerxebisa da TamaSisa. qristianma Tavisi Tavi imad unda dainaxos, rac sinamdvileSia, msaxiobma ki _ imad, rac sinamdvileSi ar aris. qristianis gzaa sakuTari gulis ufskrulis danaxva sinanulis Suqze, msaxiobisa ki _ sxva pirovnebad warmoidginos sakuTari Tavi meditaciisa da fantaziis saSualebiT. magram uceb rom saswauli moxdes da RmerTma msaxiobs suli wmidis madli mianiWos, maSin raRa moxdeba? isev SeZlebs igi wmindanis TamaSs? msaxiobi, romelic sinanulis gziT suli wmidis madls miiRebs, ukve aRar Secvlis sakuTar saxes sxva saxeebad. RmrTis madli daanaxebs mas Tavis codvebs da aswavlis simdables. wmindans 151

is ukve veRar iTamaSebs, radgan dainaxavs Tavis uRirsebas, arc RmrTis madls gamoaCens vitrinaSi gamosafeni saqoneliviT. vnebian da mgrZnobiare gmirTa TamaSs is aRar moisurvebs, maTi Tvisebebi rom ar SeiZinos, sxvaTa vnebebis TanagrZnobiT sakuTari guli rom ar Sebilwos. sulis RmerTTan amaRlebis gza aris locva. bevrma sakuTari gamocdilebiT icis, kvdeba Tu ibadeba TeatrSi locva. scadeT da speqtaklis Semdeg locva daiwyeT. gana advili iqneba gabneuli azrebis Semokreba da maTi RmerTisken mimarTva? ras igrZnobT warmodgenis Semdeg: sulis mSvidobas Tu sicarieles? ra suraTebi gagielvebT Tvalwin locvis dros, ra scenebs SeTxzavs Tqvens mier nanaxi speqtaklidan Zili? vis yofnas igrZnobT Tqvens sasTumalTan _ angelozisas Tu demonisas? macxovris amqveyniuri cxovrebis ukanaskneli dReebis movlenebi, TiTqos qristes RmrTaebriv naTelTan kontrastis warmosaCenad, kacTa borotebisa da gautanlobis sazarel fantasmagorias gviCveneben. Cvens winaSe Caivlian istoriis msaxiobTa demonuri niRbebi, romlebmac qriste sasikvdilod misces. pilate marTlmsajulebis msaxiobia, igi Rirseul romael msajuls TamaSobs da myisve sasikvdilo ganaCeni gamoaqvs TviT WeSmaritebisaTvis. iuda msaxiobia, romelic qristes mowafis rols TamaSobs, yofili mociquli mociqulis niRbad iqca. kaiafa religiis artistia _ esaa msaxiobobis yvelaze saZageli saxe: igi xalxis keTilismyofels TamaSobs, erovnuli interesebis mTavar warmomadgenels, RmrTis didebis upirveles damcvels _ amasobaSi ki sazizRar mkvlelobas gegmavs da Tavad daeZebs crumowmeebs, damwyeb da jer kidev gamoucdel msaxiobebs. gamZvinvarebul brboSi, romelsac qristes sikvdili swyuria, sadukev152

elni taZris artistebi arian, maT arc sulis ukvdaveba swamT, arc saukuno cxovreba, magram religiaSi sakuTari keTildReobis wyaros xedaven. brboSi farisevelTa saxeebic Cans. eseni ukve profesionali msaxiobebi arian, romlebsac RmrTismoSiSebis TamaSiT surT xalxi RmrTismoSiSi da religiuri gaxadon. maT surT WeSmaritebas tyuiliT emsaxuron da, am tyuilSi CaflulT, sZulT qriste _ soflad mosuli WeSmariteba. qristem Tavis Tavze miiRo mTeli msoflios tyuilis, mTeli msoflios codvis dartyma da imadve darCa, rac iyo _ WeSmaritebad da siyvarulad. mociqulTa dros iyvnen mwvaleblebi _ doketebi, isini amtkicebdnen, rom qriste movida ara fizikuri, aramed eTeruli sxeuliT, amitom misi cxovreba da wameba iluzorulia. eklesiam es mwvalebloba damRupvel da saZagel ciliswamebad Seracxa. qristes mosvla rom moCvenebiTi yofiliyo, misi msxverpli, golgoTaze aRsrulebuli, aseve moCvenebiTi iqneboda, RmerTisTvis Seuferebeli Teatraluri warmodgena da TamaSi. amitomac ambobs `siyvarulis mociquli~ ioane RmrTismetyveli: `romelni ara aRiareben ieso qristesa xorcielad mosrulsa, ese ars macTuri da antiqriste~ (2 in. 1, 7), ambobs, radgan antiqristesa da satanis suls surs qriste WeSmarit macxovrad ki ar warmoadginos, aramed cxonebis artistad, golgoTaze gaTamaSebuli misteriis msaxiobad. siyvarulis mociquli gvibrZanebs, ar mivesalmoT aseT adamianebs da ar SemovuSvaT isini Cvens saxlebSi. Tuki protestantuli samyarosTvis kinoTeatraluri SabaSi raRac Cveulebriv movlenad iqca, marTlmadidebel qveynebSi fsevdoreligiuri, mkrexeluri filmebi protests, zogjer mkveTri formis protestsac iwveven. 153

magaliTad, filmma `ukanaskneli sacTuri~ saberZneTSi didi aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia. `es albaneTi ki ar aris!~ _ yvirodnen berZnebi. 1987 wlis 6 noembers TesalonikSi berZeni samRvdeloeba da aToneli berebi Seikribnen: 11 episkoposi, 200 monazoni da ramdenime aTasi morwmune. maT protesti gamoucxades saberZneTis mTavrobas ekranebze iseTi filmebis gamosvlisaTvis, romlebic ieso qristes RmrTaebriv bunebasa da swavlebas aknineben. saberZneTis mTavrobam protesti miiRo da daakmayofila. sasuliero pirTa monawileobis gamo am gamosvlam TesalonikSi mSvidobianad Caiara, magram aTenSi xalxis aRSfoTebas fsevdoreligiuri filmebiT im kinoTeatrebis darbeva mohyva, romlebic aseT filmebs uCvenebdnen. vfiqrobT, maimuni ufro SeZlebs scenaze kacis rolis TamaSs, vidre msaxiobi _ qristes saxis warmodgenas.

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saxarebasTan dakavSirebuli scenuri eqsperimentebis Sesaxeb

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eiZleba Tu ara RmerTis gansaxiereba scenaze, SeiZleba Tu ara iTamaSo qriste, iTamaSo WeSmariteba? es kiTxva, sul cota xnis win rom absurdulad moeCvenebodaT, dRes mTeli simwvaviT dgas Cvens winaSe. rodesac sinas mTaze moses RmerTi gamoecxada, uTxra: `warixaden xamlni ferxTa SenTagan, rameTu adgili ege... queyana wmida ars~ (gamoslv. 3, 5). axla ki surT, wminda da idumali sinas mTa TeatriT Secvalon. qristem msaxiobis saxiT saswaulebi unda aRasrulos, keTrovnebi gankurnos, brmebs Tvali auxilos, igavebi warmoTqvas, mTaze iqadagos, mokvdes da aRdges. yovelive, ramac kacobriobas cxoneba mianiWa, ramac mTeli istoria or nawilad gayo, Teatris scenaze unda gamoitanon: mobrZandiT, ixileT da SegiZliaT xeliTac ki SeexoT. Cvens winaSe dgas kiTxva _ udidesi mniSvnelobis mqone kiTxva, uSualod Cvens cxonebas rom exeba: SeiZleba Tu ara eklesiis TeatrTan SeerTeba, Teatrisa da kinodarbazis gadaqceva Tavisebur katexizmos saswavleblad, ase vTqvaT, taZris winkarad? xom ar gaxdeba bibliur Temaze dadgmuli speqtaklebi da filmebi siwmindis profanacia da, reJisorebisa da msaxiobebis nebisagan damoukideblad, antireligiuri propagandis yvelaze uaresi for155

ma? miva ki adamiani qristesTan Teatris meSveobiT Tu piriqiT, TeatrSi dakargavs mas _ saTaveSive gaamrudebs Tavis sulier gzas, anu RmrTis madls, romliTac morwmune guls qriste ecxadeba, Secvlis TamaSis, iluziebisa da moCvenebiTobis sferoTi _ Teatris samyaroTi? qvecnobierad xom ar uaryofs adamiani qristes, miiRebs ra cru qristes _ msaxiobis niRabs? Zveli istorikosebis, filosofosebisa da qristiani mwerlebis azriT, Teatri warmarTuli ritualebisa da misteriebisgan warmoiSva. aristotele antikuri Teatris sawyisad dionises _ meRvineobis RmerTisadmi miZRvnil dResaswauls miiCnevs, romelic berZnuli miTologiidan aRebuli scenebisa da bakqanalia-maskaradebis TanxlebiT imarTeboda. tertuliane miuTiTebda, rom `lidielebma religiuri sanaxaobebi daaweses~ da Teatrs `srul kerpTayvanismcemlobas~ uwodebs (`sanaxaobaTaTvis~). imis Sesaxeb, rom antikuri Teatri warmarTuli religiebisgan warmoiSva da maTTanvea kavSirSi, werdnen agreTve romaeli istorikosebi varoni da svetoniusi, apuleusi _ `metamorfozebis~ avtori, qristiani avtorebi: laktanciusi, minuciusi, klimenti aleqsandrieli, kvipriane karTageneli da sxvebi. Zveli qristiani apologetebisaTvis Teatri iyo ara marto organuli nawili warmarTobisa, aramed misi dvrita, misi koncentrireba. antikur qalaqSi Teatris Senoba xSirad taZarTan iyo mikruli. pompeusis mier agebuli romis saxelganTqmuli Teatri veneras taZarTan iyo SeerTebuli, ise rom, rodesac TeatrSi warmodgena idgmeboda, taZris kibeebi imavdroulad mayurebelTa skamebadac gamoiyeneboda. antikur TeatrebSi TamaSdeboda scenebi, sadac RmerTebis gamoCena samarTlianobis gamarjvebas niSnavda. RmerTebi TandaTan tragediebidan komediebSic 156

gadadiodnen. magram unda gvaxsovdes, rom antikurobis warmarTisaTvis RmerTi monoTeisturi religiis absoluturi suli rodi iyo, aramed kosmiur ZalTa personifikacia da gmirTa apoTeozi. elinsa da romaels SeeZloT Tayvani ecaT TavianTi RmerTebisaTvis da Tan, amave dros, ironiuladac SeexedaT maTTvis. kidev ufro mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda Teatri indoeTis, CineTisa da iaponiis religiebSi. induistebisa da budistebisaTvis samyaro iluziaa, istoria _ speqtakli, warmodgena, maskaradi; pirovneba _ ubralo fiqcia. qveyniereba brahmas mier Sobili landebia, xiluli samyaro _ miraJi, warmosaxvis TamaSi. amitom induistisaTvis ar arsebobs principuli gansxvaveba WeSmaritebasa da TamaSs, cxovrebasa da Teatrs Soris; realoba mxolod erTiani absolutia, yovelgvari simravle ki _ moCvenebaTa samefo, niRbebis paradi. sanam dRea, brahma sakuTar warmosaxvas eTamaSeba Tojinebis Teatrs, aCrdilTa samyaros, magram mova Siva, daangrevs iluzorul samyaros, brahma RameSi CaiZireba da Zili parabrahmaSi gadava, Sewydeba yovelgvari yofiereba, gaqreba xiluli samyaros Crdilebi, sinaTle Caqreba da scena dacarieldeba, darCeba erTaderTi _ brahma, Tavisi bneli, gaucnobierebeli ltolviT prakritas (materiis) _ momavali saTamaSo samyaroebis potenciisadmi. amitom induistisaTvis Teatri mSobliuri stiqiaa. induisturi panTeonis RmerTebs xSirad gamosaxaven musikosebisa da mocekvaveebis saxiT, gansakuTrebiT es exeba Sivas, swored mis pativsacemad aris agebuli indoeTSi taZrebisa da samlocveloebis umetesoba. Sivas meuRlis _ sikvdilis qalRmerTis, kalis taZrebTan profesionali mocekvave-baiaderebi cxovroben. 157

afrikis, okeaniisa da cimbiris animalistur Samanur religiebSi mravali ritualuri wes-Cveuleba scenuri warmodgenebis xasiaTs atarebs, magaliTad, nadirobis imitacia, aseve eqstatikuri cekvebi. amasTan, Samanebi xSirad ikeTeben rqiani da kbilebdakreWili urCxulebis niRbebs. am niRbebisa da demonTa gamosaxulebebis msgavseba pirdapir gasaocaria. qristianebisTvis antikuri Teatri romis kolizeums enaTesaveba, sadac qristianebs mxecebs uyridnen SesaWmelad da gladiatorebs aJletinebdnen, masxarebi da mimebi ki warmarTuli sazogadoebis saxeliT sasacilod igdebdnen sasikvdilod mimaval qristian mowameebs. warmarToba qristianobas marto cecxliTa da maxviliT rodi ebrZoda, aramed tyuiliTa da ciliswamebiTac, brbos xarxariT da poetebisa Tu mimebis dacinviT. romisa da imperiis sxva qalaqebis quCebSi komediantebi mkrexelurad ganasaxierebdnen qristes jvarcmas da eklesiis saidumloebebs. Teatri warmarTul samyaros ekuTvnoda da am dasaRupad ganwirul samyaros Seupovari simtkiciTa da uzarmazari energiiT icavda. eklesiisa da Teatris urTierTobas Cven kidev davubrundebiT, axla ki erTi konkretuli sakiTxis gadawyvetas SevecdebiT: aqvs Tu ara Teatrs imis unari da SesaZlebloba, rom scenaze uCvenos da mibaZos im sulier samyaros, romelSic kacis suli mxolod religiuri intuiciis, locvisa da sakuTari Tavis ganwmendis gziT aRwevs? SeiZleba ki am samyaros vizualuri Cveneba scenidan? Zvel droSi msaxiobs niRbebis ostats uwodebdnen. artistuli niWi aris zogierTi adamianis unari TiTqos sxva adamianad gardaiqmnas, Seesisxlxorcos mas, Secva158

los igi sakuTari TaviT, sakuTari Tavi ki _ misiT. esaa plastikuri unari mibaZvisa, romelsac garkveuli xerxebiTa da varjiSebiT aviTareben, imis unari, rom sakuTari Tavidan, rogorc Tixidan, piesebis personaJebi da scenis gmirebi gamoZerwon. Teatraluri TamaSi or stadias gulisxmobs: 1. msaxiobi emzadeba rolisTvis, Tavisi gmiris saxes irgebs, mondomebiT iRebs misgan asls, amasTan, kritikulad afasebs sakuTar Tavs, TiTqos garedan uyurebs mas. reJisoris daxmarebiT igi TamaSis teqnikas amuSavebs, repeticiebze garkveul miznebs isaxavs da maT damajerebel, efeqtur ganxorcielebas cdilobs. am etapze msaxiobi Tavis TavSi TiTqos or saxes aTavsebs: igi im pirad aRiqvams Tavs, visac TamaSobs da, amave dros, aanalizebs sakuTar TamaSs, cdilobs moiSoros teqnikuri saxis Secdomebi da Seusabamobebi, anu mTliani saxe Seqmnas. 2. samuSaos daskvniTi etapi. am dros msaxiobma ukve Sinaganad unda moirgos scenuri saxe, TiTqos Seerwyas mas da gaqres, rogorc calke pirovneba. man damajereblobis STabeWdileba unda Seqmnas, WeSmaritebis imitacia unda moaxdinos, Tavisi TamaSiT mayurebels scenaze mimdinare movlenebis realurobis gancda unda mohgvaros. aq raRac Sinagani ZravasaviT irTveba saxeobrivi azrovnebis Zala da SesaZlebloba, mocemuli sqemis Temaze fantaziis agebis unari, raTa msaxiobma sakuTari warmosaxvisa da meditaciis meSveobiT SeZlos TamaSi mkafio suraTebad aqcios, romlebmac, pirvel yovlisa, mas unda Seucvalon realoba. man is fsiqologiuri da emociuri foni unda Seqmnas, mayureblebs rom gadaecema; unda aiZulos isini, cocxal realobad, metic, TviT cxovrebis kvintesenciad aRiqvan yvelaferi, rac scenaze xdeba. 159

Teatralurma xelovnebam warmosaxvis gansaviTareblad SeimuSava mTeli rigi sistemebisa. saboloo jamSi msaxiobs unda SeeZlos Seimosos rogorc sakuTari gmiris samosi, ise misi grZnobebi, survilebi da miswrafebebi, misi fsiqologiuri struqtura da Sinaarsi; unda Seecados Sinaganad gaaigivos Tavi masTan, misi gonebiT iazrovnos, misi siyvaruliT uyvardes, misi siZulviliT sZuldes, anu sxva adamianSi icxovros: msaxiobma unda daaviwyos mayurebels, rom mis winaSea mxolod imitacia da TamaSi. cnobilia, rom saxeobrovi azrovnebis sfero mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli STagonebisa da TviTSTagonebis sferosTan. amas mowmobs okulturi sistemebi, magaliTad, raja- da xaTxa-iogebi, sadac meditaciasa da saxeobriv azrovnebas gansakuTrebuli adgili eTmoba. Tu scenuri treningis yvelaze popularul sistemebs gadavxedavT da iogas SevadarebT, maT Soris bevr saerTos aRmovaCenT. es erT-erTi mizezia imisa, Tu ratom uaryofdnen Teatrs Zveli qristianebi. Teatralur sanaxaobebSi isini magiuri ritualebisa da misteriebis suliskveTebas grZnobdnen. esaa, ase vTqvaT, religiur-mistikuri xasiaTis mizezi. meore mizezi zneobrivi xasiaTisaa. saxeobrivi azrovneba mWidro kavSirSia Cveni grZnobebisa da vnebebis sferosTan. vnebebi Cvens cnobierebaSi grZnobadi suraTebis saxiT Cndebian. samSvinveli ver aRiqvams vnebas, rogorc ideas. vnebebis ena ocnebebis, zmanebebisa da fantaziebis sferoa. WeSmaritad sulieri gancdebis mimikurad gamosaxva SeuZlebelia: es sufTa da nazi ferebia, mimozasaviT rom ifaraven TavianT furclebs yovelgvari gareSe Sexebisagan _ aq uZluria TviT yvelaze niWieri TamaSi. samagierod, saxeobrivi azrovneba 160

Cvens mSvinvier-vnebian da afeqtur grZnobebs aRviZebs, amitom qristianobis pirvel saukuneTa wm. mamebi Teatrs vnebebis skolas uwodebdnen: am dros maT mxedvelobaSi hqondaT ara marto piesebis Sinaarsi, aramed gamosaxvis meTodic, TviT atmosfero Teatrisa. SeuZlia Tu ara msaxiobs qristes saxis Seqmna da misi Cveneba mayureblisTvis? Seqna imisa, rasac erTi reJisori `cocxal xatebs~ uwodebda? SeiZleba Tu ara repeticiebze ieso qristes xmis, manerebis, mimoxris SemuSaveba? SeiZleba Tu ara grimis, parikis, miwebebuli wver-ulvaSis saSualebiT sakuTari saxis qristes saxed gadaqceva? magram yvelaze saSineli sxva ramea. qriste rom iTamaSos, msaxiobma Sinaganad unda gaaigivos Tavi qristesTan, daijeros, rom mas SeuZlia uyvardes, rogorc qristes uyvarda, fiqrobdes, rogorc qriste fiqrobda, itanjebodes, rogorc qriste itanjeboda, es ki imas niSnavs, rom msaxiobma unda irwmunos, rom igi RmerTia. satanamac Tqva odesRac: `viyo msgavs maRlisa~ (es. 14, 14) da jojoxeTis ufskrulma STanTqa: `vxedevd eSmaksa, viTarca elvasa, zeciT gardamovrdomilsa~ (lk. 10, 18). am erTaderTma ampartavnulma azrma igi naTlis angelozidan bneleTisa da jojoxeTis sulad, saukunod warwymedil, ubedur, RmerTisgan uaryofil arsebad aqcia. `iyvneT, viTarca RmerTni~ (dab. 3, 5) _ uTxra demonma Cvens winaprebs. kacTa Sorisac TiTqos satanis dacema ganmeorda, miwa maTi devnulebis qveyana gaxda, sikvdili _ maTi xvedri. axla ki msaxiobma, romelic qristes TamaSobs, unda Tqvas gulSi: `me SemiZlia qristed gardaqmna, SemiZlia zeciuri saydridan Teatris scenaze misi Camoyvana, SemiZlia Cemi saxiT RmerTkaci vaCveno~. 161

antikur xanaSi warmarTuli RmerTebi xSirad xdebodnen tragediis personaJebi. gamoTqmac ki arsebobs: `RmerTi manqanidan~. magram, jer erTi, saberZneTisa da romis RmerTebi anTropomorfuli panTeizmis RmerTebi arian da ara qristianuli monoTeizmis absoluturi, maradiuli, usasrulo, yovlad Zlieri, yovlismcnobeli, yovladwminda, saxieri suli, soflis dambadebeli, Semoqmedi da ganmgebeli. warmarTuli RmerTebi stiqiebis gansaxierebas warmoadgenen. TviTon antikuri miTologiis Tanaxmad, RmerTebi miwisagan Cndebian. meorec, tragediebi, romlebSic RmerTebi gamodiodnen, TviTon warmarTobis gaxrwnisa da dacemis periodSi gamoCnda scenaze. platoni gmobda poetebs (homerossa da sxvebs), romlebic RmerTebs vnebebs miawerdnen da Tavisi utopiuri saxelmwifos moqalaqeebad ar Rebulobda maT. istoriidan viciT, rom imperator ivliane gandgomilis dros da ufro adrec quCis moxetiale mimebi warmarTul brbos arTobdnen da acinebdnen imiT, rom saxarebas komediis saxiT warmoadgendnen. amgvarsave, Tumca kidev ufro daxvewil farsebsa da klounadebs iyenebdnen XX saukunis 20-ian wlebSi, rogorc antireligiuri propagandis qmediT xerxs: eseni iyvnen maRali Tanamdebobis masxarebi da eklesiebisaTvis cecxlis wamkideblebi, iaroslavski-gubelmani da misi razmi `mebrZol aTeistTa sabWodan~. Cvens winaSe dgas umniSvnelovanesi kiTxva: xom ar gaxdeba eklesiis Tanamedrove `megobrebis~ mcdeloba, ganasaxieron qriste scenaze, ufro daxvewili da saSiSi provokacia qristianobis winaaRmdeg, vidre es aTeisturi maskaradebi da klounadebi iyo? qristes saxe msaxiobis sulSi ise tydeba, rogorc 162

mRvrie wyalSi da mis TamaSSi ise airekleba, rogorc mrude sarkeSi (dae nu ewyinebaT msaxiobebs: codva individualuri ki ara, universaluri movlenaa). es deformirebuli da damaxinjebuli saxe kacis gulSi sicruis laqad rCeba da iqneb mTeli cxovrebis manZilze verc ki moxerxdes misi kvalis waSla. wm. mamebi amtkiceben, rom qristes xilva mxolod suli wmidis mier aris SesaZlebeli, TeatrSi ki gvarwmuneben, TiTqos qristes xilva msaxiobis grimwasmul niRabSic SeiZleba. saxarebaSi ufali gvafrTxilebs, ar davijeroT, Tuki gvetyvian, rom qriste aq, dedamiwazea _ sulerTia, udabnoze migviTiTeben Tu ganmartoebul oTaxze, Teatralur scenaze Tu televizoris ekranze. yovelgvari nayalbevi, ufals mimsgavsebuli, es iqneba cru winaswarmetyveleba Tu samaskarado tanisamosis gadacma, qristem uaryo, rogorc damRupveli sulieri tyuili. qriste erTaderTia, unikaluri, umagaliTo, igi gamouTqmelia kacobrivi da angelozebrivi ZalebisTvis. qristes TamaSi, misi saxelis mitaceba, misi saswaulebis miTviseba TviT ufalma uaryo ara marto rogorc uRirsi yalbismqneloba, aramed rogorc cruwinaswarmetyvelTa da momavali antiqristes niSani da programa. Tu qristes TamaSi dasaSvebia, e. i. dasaSvebia liturgiis, jvarcmis, aRdgomis TamaSic. ra avismomaswavebeli sityvebia _ `liturgiis TamaSi~! tertuliane werda, rom jojoxeTSi demonebi mkrexelurad baZaven liturgias da Savi magia _ es aris Savi mesis nawyvetebi. cxadia, scenaze `liturgiis TamaSi~ pirquS farsad iqceva. rogori sulieri Sxami Segrovdeboda scenaze da ra sawamlavi moiyrida Tavs im TasSi, saidanac msaxiobi `aziarebda~ `mociqulTa~ rolebis Semsrulebel Tavis amxanagebs, roca 163

saxarebiseuli sityvebiT mimarTavda: `ese ars xorci Cemi...…ese ars sisxli Cemi...~ Semdegi nomeri SeiZleba gaxdes darbazSi msxdomi mayureblebis ziareba. iseTi adamianebic SeiZleba gamoCeniliyvnen, vinc ityoda: `ra saWiroa eklesiaSi siaruli, Tu yovelive es TeatrSic SeiZleba Sesruldes?~ da imasac daumatebda, TeatrSi ufro xatovnad, Rrmad da emociurad SeiZleba ganicados kacma saidumlo serobac da ziarebaco. SemTxveviTi rodia, rom Tanamedrove literaturul Jargonze Teatrs ukve xelovnebis taZars uwodeben. taZarSi eriskacs ekrZaleba sakurTxevelSi Sesvla da, miT umetes, trapezTan mikareba. trapezi simbolurad RmerTis taxts aRniSnavs. magram Tu msaxiobi qristes TamaSobs, mas SeuZlia trapezze, rogorc Tavis taxtze dajdoma, mas SeuZlia gakadnierdes da wm. samebis scenuri gamosaxvac ki moisurvos. xolo sofiologTa _ axal gnostikosTa _ Tanamedrove elitarul koncefcias Tu mivyvebiT, romelic sofias ganixilavs, rogorc saRmrTo ideebis samyaros da qalur sawyiss RmerTSi, ufro mkrexeluri interpretaciebic SeiZleba gaCndes (mag., trapezze msaxiobi qali dajdes). safrangeTis revoluciis dros amis precedenti ukve iyo. religiis dasabami mowiwebis grZnobaa, is, rasac bibliaSi `SiSi RmrTisa~ ewoda, sakuTari uRirsebisa da RmrTis didebulebis gacnobiereba, wminda Zrwola siwmindis winaSe. nuTu TviTon is azri, rom akrobatikisa da meqanizmebis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia scenaze qristes aRdgomis, amaRlebis, feriscvalebis ganxorcieleba, ar iwvevs qristianebSi tkivilisa da zizRis gancdas? Teatraluri kostiumebic ki, bibliuri da saeklesio Sesamoselis 164

mibaZviT Sekerili, mkrexeloba da siwmindis profanaciaa. Zvel eklesiaSi, imperator iustinianes kodeqsis Tanaxmad, wm. SesamoselSi ukanono gamowyoba samefo regaliebis mitacebas utoldeboda da sasamarTlos mier isjeboda. Cvens droSi e. w. `eklesiis qristiani megobrebi~ axal zneobriv mwvaleblobaSi vardebian. isini amboben, rom `misionerul~ miznebs isaxaven _ gaacnon mayurebels qristianoba meoce, apokalifsuri saukunisaTvis Rirseuli xerxiT, uCvenon RmerTi scenaze da saxareba Teatris scenidan iqadagon. am keTilma adamianebma RmerTis, angelozebisa da wmindanebis TamaSi ganizraxes. reJisorebs aRar akmayofilebT uwindeli, Cveuli istoriuli qronikebi, deteqtivebi da sasiyvarulo Tavgadasavlebi. maT gadawyvites TavianTi repertuari arc meti, arc naklebi, wm. weriliT Seavson da, rogorc Cans, enTuziazmiT Seudgnen saqmes. babilonis godolis nacvlad maT surT camde aRmarTon Teatris scena, RmerTi ki scenaze Camoiyvanon da Teatraluri rampis Suqze warmoadginon. msaxiobi, romelic hamlets da spartaks TamaSobda, axla RmerTs TamaSobs _ gamouTqmelsa da miuwvdomels, cisa da xmeleTis Semoqmeds, xelSeuxebel naTelSi mcxovrebs, romlis winaSec serafimebi saxes ifaraven. Zveli aRTqmisa da axali aRTqmis eklesiebs arasodes miuRiaT Teatri, rogorc religiuri realiebis gamosaxvis forma da saSualeba. mTel Zvelsa da axal aRTqmaSi ar arsebobs arc erTi dramatuli Janris nawarmoebi. monoTeizmis mkacri mSveniereba da saRmrTo WeSmariteba nayalbevsa da imitacias ver itanda. WeSmariteba SeuTavsebelia WeSmaritebis TamaSTan, rogorc tyuilis yvelaze samarcxvino saxesTan. 165

rogorc vTqviT, Teatri warmarTuli miTebisa da misteriebis safuZvelze Seiqmna, esaa antikuri samyaros Svili, im samyarosi, romelmac dakarga Tavdapirveli gamocxadeba da erTi RmerTis rwmena kosmiur ZalTa gaRmerTebiT, TviT adamianebis apoTeoziT da dacemul angelozTa kultiT Secvala _ dacemul angelozebs ki eklesia demonebs uwodebs. amitom Zveli qristiani apologetebisTvis warmarTuli panTeizmi ara marto religiuri paTologia da filosofiuri cTomileba iyo, aramed okulturi metafizika, demonologia da demonTa Tayvaniscema. qristianuli eklesia Teatrs mtkiced da rigoristulad uaryofda: 1. rogorc warmarTobis mier Sobils, masTan sulierad dakavSirebuls faseulobaTa sistemiT, grZnobaTa kultiT da warmarTul-kosmiuri msoflaRqmiT; 2. rogorc WeSmaritebis imitaciis meTods, moCvenebiTobisa da siyalbis samefos, sadac sinamdvileSi tyuili batonobs; 3. rogorc vnebebis, anu adamianis mSvinvieri, vnebiani gancdebis skolas (afeqturi mdgomareobebisa da faqizi nervul-fsiqikuri gancdebis gansakuTrebiT daxvewili kultis Seqmnas); 4. rogorc pirovnebis ngrevas (saxis niRbiT Secvlis xelovnebas). Teatri mxolod msaxiobebs ki ar aZlevs TamaSis mimarTulebas, stils, meTods, gamocdilebasa da Cvevas, aramed mayurebelsac. igi adamianebs artistebad aqcevs yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi, im dros, rodesac qristianuli sinanuli kacisgan sruliad sawinaaRmdegos moiTxovs _ sulis ganwmendas yovelive ucxosa da Tavsmoxveulisgan, grimisa da niRbebisagan, romliTac mas meocnebeoba da ampartavneba mosaven. eklesiam Tavis yvelaze maRal 166

instanciaSi _ msoflio da adgilobriv krebebze _ dagmo Teatri. msaxiobis profesia kerpebis damamzadeblisas utoldeboda. elvirisa (IV s.) da afrikis (408 w.) krebaTa ganCinebebi krZalavdnen msaxiobis monaTvlas manam, sanam is ar dadebda pirobas, rom samudamod daanebebda Tavs am xelobas. arlis (314 w.) krebam daadgina, ziarebisgan ganeyenebina msaxiobebi; karTagenis krebam ki (397 w.) ganawesa, rom yofili msaxiobebi eklesiaSi mxolod saxalxo monaniebis Semdeg mieRoT. TavianT TxzulebebSi qristiani apologetebi Teatrs cirkTan erTad gmobdnen _ cirkTan, sadac gladiatorTa brZolebi da qristianTa masobrivi Jleta mimdinareobda. saxelganTqmuli tertuliane werda _ TeatrSi dRis sinaTleze Ramis saqmeebi xdebao. karTagenis adgilobrivi krebis me-18 kanoni qristianebs ukrZalavs sanaxaobebis yurebas. niSandoblivia, rom am kanonis teqstSi miTiTebulia, amgvari akrZalvebi eklesiaSi yovelTvis da yvelgan arsebobdao. VI msoflio krebis 51-e kanoni ukrZalavs qristianebs Teatralur TamaSebze, cekvebze, gawvrTnili cxovelebis monawileobiT dadgmul sacirko warmodgenebze siaruls. am kanonis damrRvevT kreba ganayenebs eklesiis krebulisagan. laodikiis krebis 54-e kanoni ukrZalavs mRvdlebsa da eklesiis msaxurebs yovelgvar sanaxaobaze daswrebas, Tundac isini kerZo saxlebSi ewyobodes. Teatris es dagmoba mTel patristikas wiTel zolad gasdevs. Tanamedrove eklesias uari ar uTqvams da arc SeuZlia uari Tqvas saeklesio krebebis ganCinebebze an patristikaze (da saerTod, saeklesio gardamocemaze), sxvagvarad igi sakuTar Tavs uaryofs, uaryofs Tavis sulier da zneobriv igiveobas Zvel eklesiasTan. 167

antikuri komedia, romelic kargad iyo gamowrTvnili sakuTari RmerTebis dacinvaSi, kolizeumis velur cxovelebze aranaklebi mZvinvarebiT eZgera qristianul eklesias. msaxiobebi da jambazebi, akrobatebi da mimebi Teatralur scenebze, agreTve qalaqebis quCebsa da moednebze dgamdnen qristes jvarcmisa da mowameTa sikvdilis parodiebs. qristianobaSi Teatrma maSinve icno Tavisi Seurigebeli da uZleveli mteri _ WeSmariteba, maradiuli naTliT rom spobs tyuilisa da naxevarsimarTlis wyvdiads. Teatri warmarTuli garemoa im qristianebisTvisac, vinc arsebiTad araeklesiurebad rCebian, anu Sinaganad ar erTvebian qristianobaSi. aSkaraa zogierTi mwvaleblobis, mag., arianelobis kavSiri warmarTobasTan. arianelebi cdilobdnen qristianuli Teologiis SeerTebas platonis kosmologiasTan. dogmaturi mwvalebloba mWidro kavSirSia zneobriv mwvaleblobasTan. swavlebas qristes, rogorc RmerTis qmnilebis Sesaxeb sekularizaciisa da anTropocentrizmis suliskveTeba Sehqonda ara marto arianul dogmatikaSi, aramed arianul ritualSic. wm. aTanase aleqsandrieli amxilebs arianul liturgias imaSi, rom igi Teatralizebulia, rom ariozma taZarSi saero, Teatraluri, vnebiani melodiebi Seitana da liturgikul kanons Talias _ komediis muzisa da mfarvelis saxeli uwoda. eklesiis istorikosi evsevi mwvalebel pavle samosatelze werda, rom mas uyvarda Teatraluri pompezuroba, garSemortymuli iyo qalebiT, romlebic adidebdnen mas, rogorc ciT movlenil angelozs, bolos ki pavlem saeklesio locvebSi qristes saxeli sakuTari saxeliT Secvala. aRmosavleTis eklesiis pozicia Teatrisa da Tea168

tralurobis mimarT, yovel SemTxvevaSi, mis sakanonmdeblo dokumentebSi mainc, orTodoqsuli da ucvleli darCa. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom dasavleTis eklesia ganyofamde da SemdgomSic gmobda Taeatrsa da sanaxaobebs, rac sxvadasxva iuridiul aqtebSia asaxuli (XVII saukunemde, mag., Salonis (VII s.,) maincisa da romis (VI s.) krebebze), amis Taobaze werdnen papebi (leon IV da sxv.). magram XI saukunidan, rodesac dasavleTis eklesiis ganvardna msoflio eklesiuri cnobierebidan mizezi gaxda Zireuli gadatrialebisa misi arsebobis istoriaSi da RirebulebaTa skalis mTlianad Secvlisa, kaTolicizmis damokidebuleba Teatrisadmi nel-nela icvleba. Zveli eklesiisaTvis ucxo Teatraluroba ukve kaTolikur RmrTismsaxurebaSic aRwevs (mag., ritualuri cekvebi espaneTSi; eqvsi biWunas cekva trapezis winaSe, cekvebi toledoSi saSobao mesis dros). Cven sruliadac ar gvsurs kaTolikeTa ganawyeneba da imis Tqma, rom mesa speqtaklad iqca, magram Teatralizebuli warmodgenebi ki Zalian dauaxlovdnen mesas: aseTia, mag., monanulTa saxalxo TviTgvema himnebis galobis TanxlebiT, romelic uzarmazar brbos izidavda da sxv. Sua saukuneebis piesebi sul ufro met liturgikul elementebs iZendnen, e. i. liturgia iqceoda Teatrad da ara piriqiT, Cndeboda safrTxe, rom taZris sivrceSi Teatri SeiWreboda. SeiZleboda TviTon mRvdelmsaxurebs aReqvaT TamaSi meti efeqtis, damswreebze meti zemoqmedebis moxdenis xelSemwyob faqtorad. ukve XII saukunis SuagulSi abati elredi amxilebda im mRvdlebs, romlebic taZarSi RmrTismsaxurebis dros xan yvirilamde imaRleben xmas, xanac CurCulamde uweven; baZaven cxenis Wixvins, qalis kivils; sakurTxevelSi, gegoneba 169

scenaze idgnen, xan sasikvdilo tanjvas gamoxataven, xanac zeciur aRtacebas, msaxiobebisgan iReben uSno manWva-grexas, piris moRrecas, mxrebis aCeCas _ mokled, taZars Teatrad aqceven. ase magaliTad, iezuitTa ordenma, romelmac yvela misTvis misawvdom filosofiur, kulturul da sazogadoebriv Zalas mouxmo protestantizmis Semotevis, agreTve marTlmadideblobis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad, gadawyvita Teatri kaTolikuri eklesiis RmrTismsaxurebaze xalxis masebis mosazidad gamoeyenebina. qalaqebisa da soflebis quCebSi mowyobili sazeimo svlebi jvariT, bibliuri istoriis scenebis gaTamaSeba, taZrebis mdidruli gaformeba, ritualebis pompezuroba da garegnuli efeqturoba, rac iezuitobas axasiaTebda, niSani iyo Sinagani dacemisa da xrwnisa, niSani iyo imisa, rom kaTolikuri eklesia ara marto Sebrunda Teatrisaken, aramed masSi mokavSiris Zebnac daiwyo. protestantizmi kaTolikuri eklesiis mier Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebisa da gamiwierebis sapasuxo reaqciis saxiT warmoiSva, magram radganac mas ar gaaCnda myari dogmatika da tradiciebi, kaTolicizmze ufro metad gaxda sekularizaciis, konfesiebad, seqtebad da calkeul Temebad dayofis msxverpli, am TemebisaTvis ki Teatri SemdgomSi modernistuli eqsperimentebisa da reformatoruli STagonebis uSret wyarod iqca. gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi birmingemSi ramdenime konfesiis, maT Soris kaTolikeTa, anglikanelTa da meTodistTa warmomadgenlebis Sekreba gaimarTa. iq ganixiles sakiTxi, Tu xelovnebis romeli saxea Cvens droSi yvelaze popularuli. `swavluli mamebi~ im daskvnamde mividnen, rom aseTi saxe cirkia da mRvdelmsaxurebs ur170

Cies, TavianTi religiuri misiis ufro warmatebiT SesrulebisTvis sacirko xelovneba da iluzionizmi SeeswavlaT. ukve aRiniSna, rom gvianantikurobasa da Sua saukuneebSi, rodesac saeklesio da saero xelovneba jer kidev ar iyo mtkiced gamijnuli erTmaneTisgan, Teatri warmarTobis koncentratad da eklesiis antipodad miiCneoda. SemdgomSi, eklesiis sekularizaciis kvaldakval, Teatris arareligiuri da antireligiuri xasiaTi daiCrdila (mag., Seqspiris nawarmoebebi). eklesiisa da Teatris wrfeebi sul ufro naklebad kveTdnen erTmaneTs, magram am situaciaSic Teatris meTodi, rogorc iluzorulobisa da moCvenebiTobisa, sinamdvilis TamaSiT Secvla, sruliad ewinaaRmdegeba eklesiis mizans _ adamianis ganTavisuflebas siyalbisa da TvalTmaqcobisagan, yovelgvari, Tundac yvelaze maRali saTnoebebis TamaSisagan. XX saukunis avbediTi niSnebi mxolod birTvuli iaraRis Seqmna da moZalebuli ekologiuri katastrofebi rodia aranakleb mrisxane niSani dasasrulisa da zneobrivi fskerisa, romelzec e. w. qristianuli civilizacia aRmoCnda, gaxlavT qoreografiuli warmodgenebi _ baletebi saxarebis Temebze. aRmosavleTis eklesias marTlmadidebeli anu orTodoqsuli ewodeba, radganac igi dogmatebis siwmindes, gardamocemis mTlianobas, tradiciebisadmi erTgulebas icavs. axla ki marTlmadideblobis cixesimagris qveS Txrili gahyavT misi kedlebis asafeTqeblad. raRac Zalebs surT eklesiis siwmindeebi da umaRlesi faseulobebi Teatris scenaze gamoitanon da brwyinvale zizil-pipilebad aqcion. qriste misma mtrebma mokles, 171

magram am sikvdilma Cven cxovreba mogvaniWa. aTeistebma qriste ciliswamebisa da dacinvis sagnad aqcies, magram amiT is kidev ufro axlobeli da Zvirfasi gaxda CvenTvis. qristes talaxSi svridnen profesionali, diplomirebuli matyuarebi, magram amiT mis saxes Cvens TvalSi naTeli Seemata. dRes ki ufro saSineli ram xdeba: TviTon qristianebi uaryofen qristes, Ze RmrTisas, rodesac mis saxes mocekvave msaxiobiT cvlian. qristes mtrebma _ anam da kaiafam igi tanjvisa da sikvdilisTvis gawires, magram maTac ki azrad ar mosvliaT, qristesaTvis cekva daeZalebinaT; Tanamedrove qristianebma ki qriste scenaze mrokav jambazad da arlekinad aqcies, Tan taSsac ukraven am yovelives. jojoxeTis mesis erTerTi moqmedeba ritualuri mkrexeloba iyo. iqneb aseTi dadgmebi swored Sav mesas warmoadgenen, romelsac ver scnoben adamianebi? Tu dRes eklesia Tavisi prerogativebis nawils Teatrs gadascems, xval uciloblad TviTon Teatri SemoiWreba eklesiaSi. Tu saxarebis Teatralur dadgmebs SeeCvevian, adamianebi liturgias ara mistikuri, aramed ukve sxva, mxatvrul-Teatraluri TvalsazrisiT dauwyeben yurebas, liturgiisgan isini ganwmendas ki ara, STabeWdilebebs daelodebian, ara sulier mdgomareobas, aramed efeqts, bolos da bolos, mRvdeli Tavisi mrevlis _ Teatralebis gavleniT iZulebuli gaxdeba iTamaSos liturgia. Cven ukve vTqviT da vimeorebT: msaxiobis xelovneba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom sakuTari Tavi piesis gmirTan gaaigivos, moergos Tavis rols, ase vTqvaT, ganzavdes masSi, Sinaganad igrZnos personaJis identuroba pirovnebasTan. vis winaSe, rogor unda ilocos msaxiob172

ma, romelmac sakuTar Tavs uTxra, me RmerTi varo? zogierTi RmrTismetyveli iyenebs metaforistul termins `RmerTTan Sexvedra~. magram es `Sexvedra~, rogorc RmrTis pirispir yofnis gancda, adamianis gulis siRrmeSi xdeba, TviTon kacisaTvis moulodnelad. am Sexvedras adamianis suli mTeli cxovrebis manZilze inaxavs, magram misi sityviT gamoTqma anda aRwera SeuZlebelia. RmerTi ecxadeba suls, rogorc axali myofoba, erTi wamiT ecxadeba RmrTis madlis Suqze da es wami maradiulobis winaswargancdad aRiqmeba. axla ki undaT, rom RmerTi suli wmidis mier ki ara, rampis Suqze da aplodismentebis TanxlebiT warmoadginon. marTlmadidebeli asketebi kategoriulad gvikrZalaven gonebaSi qristes saxis Seqmnas an raime vizualuri suraTebis miRebas locvis dros. Cvenebebisa da mxedvelobiTi warmodgenebis, rogorc WeSmariti sulieri realiebis ndoba gamoucdel moRvaweebSi xSirad iwvevda sulier aSlilobas anda im mdgomareobas, romelsac patristikaSi xibli anu cTuneba ewodeba. erTxel Rirs paxomi dids boroti suli gamoecxada qristes saxiT. wm. mamam piri ibruna misgan. `ratom ar miyureb, me xom is qriste var, romelsac Sen emsaxurebi?~ _ hkiTxa demonma. `me msurs vixilo qriste ara aq, am sofelSi, aramed saukuno cxovrebaSi. aq sxva saqme maqvs mocemuli _ qristes mcnebebis Sesruleba~-o, _ miugo wm. mamam da demoni maSinve gaqra. zogierT, qristianobisadmi keTilganwyobil adamians hgonia, rom bibliur Temaze gadaRebuli kinofilmis naxva daexmareba wm. werilis ukeT SeswavlaSi. magram nebismieri scenari saxarebis Temaze ara marto oTxi saxarebis kompilaciaa, aramed maTi gadakeTeba, interpretacia, 173

axali, gamogonili personaJebisa da epizodebis Semotana. amitom scenari bibliur Temebze sxva saxarebad iqceva, TviTon reJisorma Tavis xatad da msgavsad rom Seqmna. msoflio krebaTa kanonebi da saeklesio ganCinebebi kategoriulad gvikrZalaven cru, apokrifuli saxarebebiTa da gamogonili agiografiuli nawarmoebebiT sargeblobas, miT ufro ki maT gavrcelebas. kino da Teatri ki ar aswavlis, piriqiT, aviwyebs mayurebels wm. werilis kiTxvas, cvlis ra mistikur, garegani saxis armqone gancdas gamrudebuli vizualuri warmodgenebiT. kaTolikur eklesias Tavisi daucxromeli miswrafebiT prozelitizmisken, mrevlis wevrTa ariTmetikuli simravlisken, misi uzarmazari misioneruli manqaniT, faseulobaTa kriteriumiT, romlis Tanaxmadac koleqtivi pirovnebaze maRla dgas, ar SeeZlo gverdi aevlo iseTi giganturi propagandistuli qselisaTvis, rogoricaa kino da Teatri. kaTolikuri eklesiis udidesi unari lavirebisa, saero da istoriul realiebTan Semgueblobisa gansakuTrebiT cxadad gamoCnda kaTolike-modernistebis moZraobaSi vatikanis II krebis Semdeg. magram jer kidev manamde, pap ioane XXIII-is dros (1958-63 wlebi) Camoyalibda komisia kinematografiis dargSi, romelic vatikanis mudmivmoqmed organod iqca da uSualod emorCileba kaTolikur ierarqias. papi werda: `movaleoba gvaiZulebs gansakuTrebuli yuradRebiT movepyroT Tanamedrove civilizaciis yvela faqtors; maT Soris unda davasaxeloT kino~. sakvirao kaTolikur mesas, romelic televiziiT gadmoicema, emateba inscenireba wmindanTa cxovrebidan, mere ki xSirad sxvadasxva fantastikuri ambebis translireba xdeba, saSinelebaTa filmebs rom uwodeben. amgvarad, bibliuri siuJetebis 174

gverdiT Cndebian vampirebis suraTebi, romlebic adamianis sisxls svamen, Winkebis figurebi, velur cxovelebad, jadoqrebad da magebad rom icvlian saxes. kinos, rogorc misionerobis saSualebis mimarT interess xeli Seuwyo ekumenizmis gavrcelebam. eklesiaTa msoflio sabWom kinofilmebis mTeli rigi Teologiuri gamokvlevebi gamoaqveyna. kaTolike da protestanti Teologebi axal teqnikur saSualebebs ganixilaven: videokasetebi, videodiskebi, Tanamgzavris meSveobiT mowyobili translaciebi da sxv. teqnikuri ganviTarebis Sedegad gamocxadebulia eleqtronuli eklesia _ axali saukunisa da axali azrovnebis avangardi. niSandoblivia, rom mistikuri filmebis erT-erTi yvelaze sayvareli da popularuli personaJia luciferi _ satana, romlis saxesac sxvadasxvagvar, zogjer erTob keTilganwyobil interpretacias ukeTeben. saero kompozitorebi Txzaven mesebs, sadac, kanonikuri RmrTismsaxurebisa da grigorianuli melodiebis gverdiT jazi da rok-musika JRers. amgvari mesebi zogjer pirdapir quCebSi idgmeba, da maSin religiuri himnebis galoba karnavalis cecxlovan cekvebs uerTdeba. aseTia, magaliTad, amerikeli kompozitoris, brailisis mesa. gansakuTrebiT xmamaRla gaismis axali tipis RmrTismsaxurebisken mowodeba evropisa da amerikis protestantul TemebSi. zogierT TemSi es RmrTismsaxureba iqceva Teatralur warmodgenad bibliur siuJetebze, romelSic Temis yvela wevri monawileobs. TamaSs cekva da avangarduli musika, damswreTa erToblivi simRera, zogjer ki namdvili maskaradi cvlis. erTma policielma, romelic amerikel Teolog koqsis TemSi wesrigis 175

dasacavad eswreboda locvas, Tqva, es locva ki ara, namdvili deboSiao, TviTon koqsi ki Tavisi mrevlis TavaSvebul saqciels mis sulier ganTavisuflebad miiCnevda. dRes Teatri zogadsakacobrio civilizaciis ganuyofel nawilad aRiqmeba. sul axlaxan Cvens qveyanaSi kulturisa da progresis niSnad dangreuli eklesia da mis gverdiT agebuli Teatri an klubi iTvleboda. xSirad eklesias jvars moglejdnen, sakurTxevels daangrevdnen, mere ki eklesias kinodarbazad an Teatrad aqcevdnen; amasTan, uwindel sakurTxevels scenad iyenebdnen, sadac aRebuli trapezisa da samkveTlos adgilas msaxiobebi erTob frivoluri Sinaarsis komediebs dgamdnen; anda piriqiT, sakurTxevlisgan raRac Teatraluri aivnis msgavss akeTebdnen, romlis bolo rigebic Zalian popularuli iyo Seyvarebul wyvilebs Soris. imis Tqma rodi minda, rom yvela msaxiobi aRfrTovanebuli iyo amgvar ideologiur-saganmanaTleblo muSaobaSi monawileobiT, magram samwuxarod, maTi umetesoba mSvidad TamaSobda mkvlelobebisa da paemnebis scenebs anda farsebs Sebilwul, darbeul, TiTqos jvarcmul taZrebSi, riTac TavianT mama-papaTa siwmindeebs fexiT Telavda. iaroslavski-gubelmanis ideologiurma brigadam qristianobis abuCad asagdebad ukeTesi xerxi ver monaxa _ yofili taZrebi Teatrebad, klubebad da sazogadoebriv tualetebad aqcia. Tbilisis uZveles taZars, metexsac erT dros aseTive gulaguri xvedri ergo. igi jer cixed, mere ki saxelosnod gadaakeTes, 1974 wlidan taZris gaxsnamde ki iq axalgazrduli eqsperimentuli Teatri iyo. egvterSi, sadac wm. mowame SuSanikis saflavia, Teatralur xaraxuras yridnen (pirdapir naxevrad dangreul saflavis qvaze). 176

kultura pativiscemis codnaa. TviTon sityva `kulti~ pativiscemas niSnavs. adamiani pativs unda scemdes sxvis, Tundac ucnob saflavs. mowame SuSaniki sami eklesiis _ qarTulis, somxurisa da albanuris wmindania. igi sam ers ekuTvnoda: qarTvel, somex da azerbaijanel erebs (ranis raioni dasavleT azerbaijania). misma mowamebrivma Rvawlma xuces iakob curtavels STaagona daewera Cvenamde moRweuli pirveli qarTuli nawarmoebi. wm. SuSanikis simtkice qristianobis erTgulebis magaliTi iyo mazdeanobis, Semdeg ki islamis eqspansiasTan brZolaSi. magram Teatri mis saflavs iseve moeqca, rogorc Zvel droSi sparseli mazdeanebi qristianTa saflavebs eqceodnen... axla ki imave adamianebs undaT, rom scenaze saxarebasTan dakavSirebuli eqsperimentebi moawyon.

Cveni drois hekatomba

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partis, mTiani peloponesis dedoflisa da aTenis mrisxane metoqis maxloblad mdebareobs klde, romlis cicabo kedeli Rrma xramSi eSveba. Zvelad am adgils ar stumrobdnen yvelganmavali turistebi, mkerdze Camokidebuli fotoaparatebiT rom darbian da WianWvelebiviT daZvrebian msoflios arqeologiur rukaze; arc poetebi modiodnen, raTa mTvaris idumali, vercxl177

isferi naTebiT damtkbariyvnen _ mTvare aq almodebul yinulis lods waagavs, Ramis uZiro okeaneSi mocuraves. am kldis Sverilze, rogorc cixe-simagris folorcze, spartelebs bavSvebi mohyavdaT: isini, qalaqis uxucesTa SefasebiT, ver gaxdebodnen gamZle meomari-hoplitebi, amitom mSoblebis Tvalwin yridnen ufskrulSi _ sisxlismsmeli urCxulis xaxaSi. spartelisaTvis sibralulis grZnoba ucxo unda iyos, samxedro banakis msgavs qalaq-saxelmwifoSi ar aris sneulTa, sustTa da xeibarTa adgili. es hekatomba, romelic saukuneebis manZilze grZeldeboda, spartis Zlierebisa da didebisaTvis gaRebuli msxverpli iyo. mxeci sakuTar Svilebs STanTqavda, Tu isini basri kbilebisa da brWyalebis gareSe ibadebodnen. daxocili bavSvebis sisxlis Segroveba rom SesaZlebeli yofiliyo, igi pirTamde gaavsebda ufskruls, ise, rogorc guluxvi maspinZeli avsebs Tasebs RviniT. spartaSi TavSesafars poulobdnen mkvlelebi da borotmoqmedebi. kunTmagari damnaSave iq gmirad iTvleboda, bavSvi ki, romelic mamamisis iaraRs ver aswevda, unda momkvdariyo. sisustesa da sibralulis grZnobas spartelebi or udides danaSaulad miiCnevdnen. magram istoriuli seleqciisa da dakanonebuli sisastikis mcdeloba warumatebeli gamodga. spartelebi, odesRac dariosisa da qserqses urdoebi rom moigeries, TavianTi istoriis miwuruls laCrulad gaurbodnen scipionis legionebs. maTi ukanaskneli mefe rkinis galiaSi Casves sakvirveli cxoveliviT. sparta gaqra, TiTqos TviTonac im ufskrulma STanTqa, sadac ise yridnen sakuTar Svilebs, rogorc nagavs _ qalaqis kedlidan. spartis morali jansaRi sxeulis zogierT Taname178

drove Tayvanismcemels WkuaSi daujda da, iseTi humanuri mecnierebis warmomadgeneli, rogoric medicinaa, vinme qalbatoni s. g., presaSi kaciWamiis sakadrisi winadadebiT gamovida: laboratoriuli Semowmebis gziT dadgindes adamianis Canasaxis mdgomareoba, mere ki analizis pasuxis safuZvelze waarTvan an miscen mas sicocxlis ufleba, sasikvdilo ganaCeni gamoutanon an Seiwyalon. `aseTi analizi rac SeiZleba adre unda gakeTdes, dayovneba mSoblebisaTvis vaiTu erTob savalalo aRmoCndes~, _ wers igi. Turme amiT avadmyofi bavSvisadmi nazi mzrunveloba gamoixateba. qalbatoni s. g. gvTavazobs, Tavi movWraT bavSvs mosalodneli tanjvisagan gadasarCenad, aseve im xarjebis asacileblad, rac ojaxs daawveba. iqneb Tanamedrove spartel qals am winadadebiT samecniero xarisxis mopoveba surs, ase aniWebdnen samecniero xarisxs Sua saukuneebis CineTSi mas, vinc wamebis axal saxes igonebda. samwuxarod, zneobrivi grZnobisaTvis sruliad aSkara WeSmaritebis mtkiceba gvixdeba _ kerZod imisa, rom kaciWamioba saZageli ram aris. kacobriobis kulturis yvela sferoSi: mecnierebaSi, filosofiaSi, xelovnebaSi iyo mravali didi adamiani, romelsac Tandayolili defeqtebi, naklovanebebi Tu ganukurnebeli sneulebebi hqonda. magram maT nebisyofis ZaliTa da SeupovrobiT dasZlies yovelive da iqcnen ara nagvad, aramed kacobriobis didebad. kacis buneba isea mowyobili, rom mis fizikur naklovanebebs sxva Zalebi da unarebi anazRaureben. adamianis niWs verc qimiurlaboratoriuli gziT davadgenT da verc rentgenis suraTebiT: usinaTlo homerosi, romelmac saxeli gauTqva spartelTa laSqrobas troas winaaRmdeg, spartaSi 179

rom dabadebuliyo, kacobriobas `iliada~ da `odisea~ aRar eqneboda. kacobriobas fizikurad avadmyofi ki ara, zneobrivad avadmyofi adamianebi amZimeben, magram maT mimarT sazogadoeba erTob Semwynareblur damokidebulebas iCens. avadmyofi bavSvis emociuri cxovreba SeiZleba ufro Rrmac iyos, vidre janmrTelisa; xSirad aseTi bavSvebi ufro yuradRebianebi arian TavianTi mSoblebis mimarT. Tuki ojaxi zneobis skolaa, avadmyofi bavSvebi mSoblebs gulmowyalebas aswavlian. sikeTis keTeba ukve bednierebaa, amitom sneulebTan urTierTobas da maT daxmarebas ZaluZs sulieri sixaruli mianiWos adamianebs. bavSvis mkvleloba adamianis cxovrebis yvela zneobrivi orientiris ngrevas niSnavs. egoizmsa da sisastikes jer aravisTvis moutania bedniereba. xSirad dedas Tavis Svilebs Soris yvelaze metad swored avadmyofi uyvars: tanjvaSi Sobili gansakuTrebiT Zvirfasia. qristianuli TvalsazrisiT dauSvebelia, viRac ganagebdes kacis sikvdil-sicocxlis sakiTxebs _ amis ufleba mxolod RmerTs ekuTvnis. niSandoblivia SekiTxva, patriarqma flavianem rom dausva mefe Teodosis, romelic antioqiis dasjas apirebda: `Sen SegiZlia mokvdineba, magram ZalgiZs ki sicocxlis xelaxla micema?~ sarecelze samudamod mijaWvul mraval sneuls miuRia daucxromeli locvis Sedegad zebunebrivi niWebi, maT ki, visac sofeli sulelebad Tvlida, umaRlesi sulieri sibrZne miscemia. qristianoba amqveyniur cxovrebas ise uyurebs, rogorc maradiulobisken saval gzas, rogorc etaps, sadac kacis pirovneba yalibdeba. amitom avadmyofoba da 180

janmrTeloba is situaciebia, sadac adamiani imyofeba da sadac misi xasiaTi, misi zneobrivi Sinaarsi iZerweba. xangrZlivi, ganukurnebeli sneuleba niSnavs eqstremalur pirobebs, romlebSic Cveulebrivi adamianisaTvis miuwvdomeli Zalebi da niWebi SeiZleba gamJRavndes. pretenzia, gadawyvitos bavSvis bedi, arsebiTad rom vTqvaT, sastiki materialisturi msoflmxedvelobis Sedegia. es msoflmxedveloba Zlieris mier sustis ganadgurebas evoluciis principad acxadebs, adamians ki biosistemad ganixilavs. qalbatoni s. g. mecnierebas mouwodebs, droulad gamoyos normasTan Seusabamo wundebuli produqcia, raTa misi ganadgureba moeswros, ase vTqvaT, TviT sawarmoo procesis ganmavlobaSi. aq ori msoflmxedveloba ejaxeba erTmaneTs: ras warmoadgens adamiani? suls, romelic xorciT (Tanac jer kidev Camouyalibebeli xorciT) aris Semosili, Tu biodenebiT marTul ujredebis konglomerats? Tu Tanmimdevrulobis princips daicaven, maT, vinc sneuli bavSvebis mkvlelobas uSvebs, yvela mZime avadmyofis, Rrmad moxucebulisa da Wkuidan SeSlilis mkvlelobac unda dauSvan, es ukve faSistur cinizmsac ki aRemateba. Tumca qalbatoni s. g. ar miiCnevs gonivrulad yvela avadmyofis mokvlas. ara, igi profesiiT eqimia, avadmyofebis daxocva ki mogebas mxolod mesaflaveebs moutanda. sul sxvaa mecnierebis axali dargis Seqmna, romelsac SeiZleba ewodos, magaliTad, racionaluri demografia! momxiblavi perspeqtivaa: SesaZlebelia bavSvis avadmyofobis diagnostireba jer kidev CanasaxSi da, vinc avadmyofia, maTi daxocva _ ise, rogorc jerac Tvalauxelel knutebs axrCoben wyliT savse saTlSi: roca knuti 181

Tvals gaaxels da knavils daiwyebs, misi daxrCoba ukve sacodaobaa. am operaciebis Sedegad gamomuSavebuli fuliT, ufro sworad, iatakze dayrili xurdiT, saqvelmoqmedo organizaciis Seqmna SeiZleba. erTi ambiT gvinda davasruloT: rodesac berZnebma troa daipyres, cocxlad darCenil troelebs SesTavazes daetovebinaT dasawvavad ganwiruli qalaqi, amasTan, TiToeul maTgans erTaderTi nivTis wamoRebis ufleba misces. saxelovanma troelma gmirma, eneasma Tavisi Rrmad moxucebuli da sneuli mama Seisva zurgze da Tqva, es aris Cemi yvelaze Zvirfasi ganZio. romaelebi eneass TavianT mamamTavrad miiCnevdnen da romis Zlierebas mis am keTilSobilur saqciels miawerdnen. isic niSandoblivia, rom spartis adgilas saflavze aRmarTuli ZegliviT dgas erTi patara sofeli. iq didebuli nangrevebic ki aRar darCa, rogorc, magaliTad, korinTosa da TebeSia. aTeni ki, spartis metoqe, sadac adamianis, maT Soris monisa da bavSvis, sicocxle kanoniT iyo daculi, saberZneTis dedaqalaqi gaxda _ eladis didebis sinonimi.

182

musika da locva

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arTlmadidebloba mxolod dogmatebis siwminde rodia, aramed tradiciebis erTianobisa da mTlianobis SenarCuneba. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, marTlmadidebloba wm. gardamocemis savsebaa. eklesiis yvelaze saSiSi da mzakvari mteria ganmaaxlebloba _ wm. gardamocemis sakuTari gamomgoneblobiT Secvla. sulis sferoSi erTaderTi gnosisi arsebobs _ sulieri samyaros uSualo Wvreta religiuri intuiciis meSveobiT, romelic codvebisa da vnebebisagan gulis ganwmendis kvaldakval iSveba. yovelgvari gamomgonebloba warmosaxvasa da warmodgenas efuZneba anu mSvinvier movlenaTa rigs ganekuTvneba. warmosaxva uSualod aris dakavSirebuli vnebebTan _ vnebebi xom reaqciaa saxeebze, romlebic qvecnobieris wiaRidan zedapirze amotivtivdebian. rac ufro mkveTri da STambeWdavia saxeebi da suraTebi, miT ufro metad iwveven isini mSvinvieri Zalebis daZabvas; meore mxriv, rac ufro Zlieri da daxvewilia vnebebi, rac ufro intensiuria emociebi, miT ufro warmtaci da ucnauria gonebaSi gaCenil warmodgenaTa kaleidoskopi. amitom msaxiobis an mwerlis xelovneba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom sakuTar samSvinvelSi mkveTri, warmtaci grZnobebi da vnebebi aRZras da isini mimikiTa da sityvebiT gadmosces _ ise, rogorc magi iwvevs SelocviT bneleTis sulebs dedamiwis wiaRidan. msaxiobi 183

da mwerali erTimeoris miyolebiT ganicdian Seyvarebulebis, mkvlelebis, erTguli megobrebis, Seurigebeli mtrebis mdgomareobas. vnebebi mravalferovan sazrdos moiTxoven, amitom avtorma axal-axali, TamaSisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kombinaciebis msgavsi situaciebi unda Seqmnas da am Ziebas ewodeba SemoqmedebiTi niWi. cxadia, iq ar aris da SeuZlebelicaa iyos suliereba da RmrTis madli. sulierebis imitireba SeuZlebelia. imitacia, rogorc nayalbevi, igive gamomgonebloba iqneba. mkiTxvelsa da mayurebels TanagrZnobis xelovneba moeTxoveba, moeTxoveba mometebuli mzaoba Cagonebulis misaRebad, swrafi agznebadoba da emociebis plastiuroba. xatovnad rom vTqvaT, mayureblis suli wyaliviT moZravi unda iyos, romelsac mudmivad erTi formidan meoreSi asxamen. saero xelovneba wamlekavia adamianis pirovnebisTvis. saero xelovnebis meSveobiT kacs SeuZlia gonebiT yovelgvari codva Caidinos; igi qvecnobieris doneze gardaisaxeba scenisa Tu wignis personaJebad, sakuTar Tavs eTiSeba da maTi cxovrebiT cxovrobs. eriskacebi amas emociur gamdidrebas uwodeben. magram saero xelovnebas zneobrivi Sinaarsic rom hqondes, igi adamians mainc mSvinvier doneze datovebs, samSvinvels ki mudmivad aryevs vnebebis eqo. taZarSi adamiani poulobs imas, rasac amsoflad ver grZnobda da ver ganicdida _ Sexebas sulis sferosTan. xSirad RmrTis madli sulieri cxovrebis dasawyisSi uCvenebs kacs misTvis ucnobi sulieri samyaros gamouTqmel mSvenierebas, mere ki TiTqos Tvals miefareba, raTa adamianma sakuTari moRvaweobiT, sakuTari gulis ganwmendiT SeZlos madlis saukunod miReba, SeZ184

los, rom am madliT feriscvalebis cecxlSi TviTonac sulieri samyaros, qristes eklesiis mistikuri sxeulis nawilad iqces. ganmaaxlebloba aris cda RmerTTan miaxlebisa, oRond ara madlis SewevniT, ara sulis sferosken aRmasvliT, aramed mSvinvier, ganuaxlebel planSi darCeniT, sakuTari emociebisa da warmodgenebis meSveobiT. imisaTvis, rom mSvinvierebis tyveobisgan daeRwiaT Tavi, monazvnebi tovebdnen sofels da cxovrebas mdumarebasa da locvaSi atarebdnen. isini TavianT vnebian warmosaxvas ebrZodnen, gonebidan warmodgenebsa da saxeebs ganagdebdnen, gulidan ki _ vnebebs. meudabnoeTa mTavar gansacdelebs mexsiereba warmoSobda. es gansacdelebi maT Tvalwin uecrad amoizrdeboda xolme mkveTri mogonebebis saxiT, `keTilisa da borotis Secnobis xesaviT~. magram xSirad sacTuri sulSi bgerebis CanCqeris saxiT iWreboda, rogorc momxiblavi musika, rogorc momajadoebeli simRera uteqstod. Tuki monazoni yurs miugdebda am simReras da madlismier nugeSiscemad miiRebda, musika TandaTan Zalas ukargavda mis nebisyofas; aqamde sulis siRrmeSi mimaluli vnebebi cocxldebodnen da kvlav wamoyofdnen Tavebs, rogorc gvelebi gamodian xolme soroebidan, gazafxulis siTbos rom igrZnoben. musika vnebiani ritmebis anareklia, esaa grZnobebis gansakuTrebuli, uSualo ena. saeklesio liturgikaSi mxolod ramdenime motivi iyo daSvebuli. maTi umravlesoba mociqulTa droidan iRebda saTaves, zogierTi ki ukve Zveli aRTqmis sataZro RmrTismsaxurebaSi JRerda. sulier musikas ki ar usmenen, masSi erTvebian, igi RmrTismsaxurebis fonia da ise Seeweva locvas, rogorc 185

Cits _ frTebi. musikas rom usmenen, am dros locvas wyveten, xolo rodesac Tanamedrove kompozitorebis mier SeTxzul saeklesio musikaSi raRac idumali, vnebiani melodiebi JRers, goneba TiTqos paralizebulia, tkbil Tvlemas eZleva, gonebriv wyvdiadSi efloba da nebas aZlevs samSvinvels, am musikaSi daSifruli vnebebi Seisrutos. aseT dros adamiani ise, rom verc ki xvdeba, TviT eklesiaSi eZleva tkbobas anu mruSobs, locva aviwydeba, eklesiidan gamosuli ki ambobs, ra mSvenieri galoba iyoo, is ki ar esmis, rom sulierad gaZarcves. samonastro galoba ufro metad aris daaxloebuli Zvel melodiebTan, amitom igi sxvagvarad ganawyobs suls. suli ki ar tkbeba galobiT, aramed ufro Rrmad ganicdis locvis sityvebis azrs da unari eZleva, rom SeuerTdes am sityvebs, miiRos isini Tavis TavSi, rogorc gamomSrali miwa isrutavs wyals. rac Seexeba meudabnoe berebs, isini saeklesio galobas iseTive mokazmulobad miiCnevdnen, rogorc xatebis morTvas oqroTi da Zvirfasi TvlebiT. magram Tavad ar galobdnen locvisas, es soflisagan ganSorebuli sulis mdumarebas ar Seesabameboda, erToblivi RmrTismsaxurebis dros locvebs isini warTqmiT ambobdnen. dRes ganmaaxleblobam axali provokacia moigona, romelic seqtebisaTvis kargad aris cnobili, magram marTlmadideblobisTvis siaxlea _ locva gitaris TanxlebiT. male moxetiale musikosi monazvnebis axali tipi gaCndeba: zogi Tanamedrove aparaturis TanxlebiT ivlis, zogi, meti egzotikisTvis _ qnariT xelSi, isini ise daseraven Cvens midamoebs, rogorc beduinebi mogzaurobdnen stepebSi. SesaZloa, `sagzao~ monastris axali saxec gamoigonon _ rac marTalia, marTalia, gonebamaxvili xalxia! 186

sulierebasa da mSvinvierebaze sxva drosac sakmarisad gviTqvams, Tumca cxadia, es Tema dResac erT-erTi umTavresi soteriologiuri da asketuri problemaa. sulierisa da mSvinvieris dapirispirebis konteqstSi SegviZlia gavigoT, ratom xdeba eklesiuri adamianebisTvis sulieri winsvlis kvaldakval saero literatura da xelovneba ucxo da usargeblo, raRac koncentrati ganuaxlebeli soflisa, romelic ukan moitoves. ratom gaxda es stiqia maTTvis ara marto mtruli, aramed mosawyeni da uinteresoc ki? magram axla Cven gvinda erT sagangaSo faqts mivaqcioT yuradReba: ganmaaxlebloba TviT monazvnobis SigniTac aRwevs. erT-erTi Tanamedrove swavluli monazvnis wignebi, didi tiraJiT rom gamodis, origenizmis suliskveTebiTaa ganmsWvaluli da saRmrTismetyvelo ganmaaxleblobis mcdelobas warmoadgens; sxva beris Txzulebebi _ mistikisa da esqatologiis sferoSi ganmaaxleblobis SeWras, rac okultur-vizionerul bodvaSi gadadis; aris kidev erTi beri, moduri romansebis avtori _ misi Semoqmedeba TviT monazvnuri cxovrebis ganmaaxleblobaa, mdumarebisa da locvis Rvawlis Canacvleba saduqno-Teatraluri misionerobiT; igi TviTon monazons aqcevs msaxiobad, romelsac taSi unda daukra da `bis~-ze gamoiZaxo. Tu saeklesio sazogadoeba moiwonebs da keTilad ganewyoba ganmaaxleblobis amgvari mcdelobisadmi, es iqneba avismomaswavebeli niSani imisa, rom marTlmadideblebs aRar esmiT marTlmadidebloba, monazvnebs ki _ monazvnoba. maSin SeiZleba aRsruldes is, razedac ufali ambobs: `ukueTu marili igi ganqardes, raÁTa-me daimarilos?~ (mT. 5, 13). 187

yrmaTa gaxrwnis Sesaxeb

T

u gvkiTxaven, Tqveni cxovrebis romeli periodi iyo yvelaze bednierio, albaT vupasuxebT, rom bavSvoba. bavSvobis mogonebebs, ragind mZime da gaWirvebiT savsec ar unda yofiliyo igi, raRac mimzidveli Zala aqvT. bavSvobaSi iyo raRac amouxsneli, rac Semdeg davkargeT. bavSvis emociuri cxovreba ufro Rrma da mdidaria, vidre mozrdili adamianisa. yvelafers, rac gars akravs, bavSvi uSualod aRiqvams; am uSualobas igi TamaSis drosac ki ar kargavs da TavisTavadobas inarCunebs. Tumca kacobrivi siwminde pirobiTi ram aris, magram bavSvi, romelSic vnebebs jerac ar gauRviZiaT, samyaros sul sxva TvaliT uyurebs da xedavs imas, rasac Cven ukve veRar vxedavT; xatovnad Tu vityviT, igi caSi im varskvlavebs arCevs, Cveni gulgrili mzerisTvis rom dafarulia. bavSvs ufro Rrma gancda, ufro gulwrfeli siyvaruli, ufro erTguli megobroba SeuZlia, vidre mozrdils. rodesac adamians Zalian uWirs, bavSvoba cxovrebis naTel periodad axsendeba, romlis Semdegac cas nacrisferi daedo da RrublebiT daifara. TviTon bavSvis ubraloeba, Cven rom davkargeT, misi bednierebis wyaroa, misi umweoba ki _ udidesi Zala. bavSvoba margalitia kacis cxovrebaSi, axla ki surT, rom es margaliti waarTvan, talaxSi gadaagdon da fexiT gaTelon, iseve rogorc sul cota xnis win taZ188

rebs angrevdnen da raRac demonuri niSnismogebiT bRalavdnen siwmindeebs. axla imave RmrTismbrZol Zalebs bavSvobis Sebilwva surT, maT undaT bavSvebi CaiTrion garyvnilebis WaobSi, ZaliT SeuSvan gesli maT sisxlSi. satanur ritualebSi kulminaciur moments bavSvis mkvleloba warmoadgenda _ misi msxverplad Sewirva satanisaTvis. axla ki surT Caklan bavSvTa sulebi, Caklan ara daniT, aramed sulieri SxamiT, garyvnilebis WaobSi CaaxrCon, raTa am sibinZurem Tavidan bolomde gaJRinTos da daxras maTi sulebi. bavSvTa gaxrwnis saqmes nawilobriv mSoblebi asruleben, rodesac saxlSi pornografia SemoaqvT JurnalgazeTebis saxiT, anda dumiliT aZleven Svilebs uflebas, uyuron telegadacemebs, sadac cxovrebis mTeli WuWyiani, ukuRmarTi mxarea naCvenebi. amasTan, gvimtkiceben, TiTqos SeiZleba WaobSi ise gaiaro, rom tansacmeli ar daisvaro. bavSvebi ufro mZafrad Rebuloben STabeWdilebebs, vidre ufrosebi. cnobismoyvareoba bavSvis erT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa. igi ufro Zlierad da emociurad ganicdis garegan STabeWdilebebs da isini mis sulSi Zalian Rrma kvals toveben. mSoblebi, romlebic TavianTi Svilebis siwmindis SenarCunebaze ar zrunaven, imaTze uaresebi arian, bavSvebs quCaSi rom agdeben anda SiSvlebsa da mSivrebs rom toveben. magram satanur Zalebs esec ar yofniT, maT surT ZaliT gaxrwnan bavSvebi skolebisa da sxvadasxva organizaciebis meSveobiT. am organizaciebs garegnulad saqvelmoqmedo xasiaTi aqvT, magram maTi mizania bavSvis cnobierebaSi Canergon azri, rom yvelaferi nebadarTulia, maTi mizania mravalsaukunovani xalxuri tradiciebis dangreva, marTlmadide189

beli mSoblebis gavlenis Sesusteba Svilebze, surT `bavSvTa dacvis~ ideis niRabqveS TandaTan Caagonon maT, rom xalxis zneobrivi warmodgenebi mxolod bneli warsulis bneli gadmonaSTia, xolo qalwulobis SenarCuneba qorwinebamde _ is, rac adre patiosnebad iTvleboda _ TviTinkviziciad anda Svilebze mSoblebis Zaladobad warmoadginon. rodesac bavSvobas xrwnian, es Zalebi qristianul qorwinebas angreven. adamians SeuZlia Tavi gawiros ideisaTvis. memruSe gulSi SeuZlebelia iyos ideali da, Sesabamisad, arc idea arsebobs; mas erTaderTi mizani rCeba: nebismier fasad rac SeiZleba meti siamovneba gamoswuros cxovrebas. xatovnad rom vTqvaT, is eri, romelic maRali zneobrivi idealebiT cxovrobs, eklesiad iqceva, xolo eri, romelmac dakarga es idealebi, usaxuri brbo xdeba, romelsac arc warsuli aqvs, arc momavali. axla, axdenen ra sityvebis _ `kulturisa~ da `civilizaciis~ eqspluatacias, surT skolaSi axali sagnis, seqsologiis Setana, sadac maswavlebeli erotikuli TamaSebis reJisorad iqceva. biWunebma da gogonebma meuRleTa urTierTobis imitireba unda moaxdinon. maT ganumartaven ara marto praqtikul seqss, aramed paToseqsologias, aZleven rCevebs, rogor unda `daicvan Tavi~ Casaxvisagan da a. S. gasuli saukunis ocian wlebSi, revoluciis Semdeg, gaCnda sazogadoeba `Sors sircxvili!~, romelsac xelmZRvanelobda teroristi da revolucioneri qali, aleqsandra kolontai. am sazogadoebis mizani iyo gadaeCviaT adamianebi sircxvilis cnebisa da gancdisagan, rogorc `burJuaziuli gadmonaSTisagan~. adamianebs sTavazobdnen SiSvlebs evloT quCaSi, 190

erotikul partniorebad uaxloesi naTesavebi aerCiaT, moewyoT adgilebi cxovelTa koleqtiuri dagrilebisaTvis da sxv. yovelive amis magaliTs, Tavisi asakis miuxedavad, TviTon kolontai iZleoda, magram amaze wera metismetad usiamovnoa... axla sazogadoeba `Sors sircxvili!~-s programas, romelic Tavis droze ver ganxorcielda, sxva meTodebiT asruleben: ara burJuaziul ideologiasTan brZolis, aramed demokratiisa da progresis saxeliT. qalwulebriv simorcxvesa da ymawvilur Tavmdablobas yvela marTlmadideblur qveyanaSi did pativs scemdnen, sarwmunoeba da zneoba ers gadarCenaSi exmareboda. dRes mravali eri ufro saSineli alternativis winaSe dgas, vidre warsuli istoriuli gansacdelebis Jams: esaa `yofna-aryofnis~ sakiTxi, sakuTari saxis, tradiciebis, sulis, idealebis, pirdapir vityviT _ qristianobis _ SenarCuneba Tu dakargva. mSoblebi unda moiTxovdnen pornografiuli literaturis gayidvis aRkveTas da telegadacemebze kontrolis dawesebas. seqsologiis leqciebi da gakveTilebi, romlebic skolas sameZao saxlisaken mimaval kibed aqceven, ar unda iyos nebadarTuli da unda aikrZalos. is mSoblebi, mSvidad da auRelveblad rom uyureben sakuTari Svilebis gaxrwnas, moloqis Tayvanismcemlebs emsgavsebian, romlebsac TavianTi xeliT mihyavdaT Cvilebi kerpTan _ demonTan _ da mis cecxlovan wiaRSi yridnen maT.

191

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rTi ram Tavidanve unda iTqvas: Tanamedrove mecnierebaSi uamravi Teoria da hipoTeza arsebobs, ara marto gansxvavebuli erTmaneTisagan, aramed diametrulad sawinaaRmdegoc. amitom darvinis Teoria ubralod erT-erTi mravalTagania (Tanac mas arc ki gaaCnia raime faqtobrivi mtkicebulebani), magram amasTan _ yvelaze gavrcelebulic. raSi mdgomareobs darvinizmis principi? bunebaSi ganuwyveteli bunebrivi SerCeva mimdinareobs. arsebobisaTvis brZolaSi ufro Zlieri organizmebi axerxeben gadarCenas, garemosTan naklebad Semgueblebi da sustebi ki iRupebian. organizmebs uyalibdebaT gadaxrebi saxeobidan, rac sasargebloc SeiZleba gamodges, da maSin am organizmebs gadarCenis damatebiTi Sansi eZlevaT. sasargeblo niSnebi memkvidreobiT gadaecema. ase Cndeba cocxal arsebaTa axali formebi da saxeobebi. ganviTareba martividan rTulisaken mimdinareobs. SeuZliaT ki am debulebebs Cveni dakmayofileba? SegviZlia ki Cven maTze avagoT evoluciis grandiozuli Senoba? upirveles yovlisa, unda iTqvas, rom darvinis Teoria mxolod hipoTezaa, radganac aSkara mtkicebulebani mas ar gaaCnia. kacobriobis istorias ar axsovs, rom erTi saxeoba meoreSi gadasuliyo anda bunebaSi axali saxeo192

ba gaCeniliyo. Cven SegviZlia vilaparakoT mxolod saxesxvaobebze, magram ara Tvisobrivad axal saxeobebze. darvinis Teoriis Tanaxmad, evolucias ganapirobebs sami principi _ garemosTan Semguebloba, saxeobebs Soris brZola da gamravlebis unari. magram aq Cven raRac paradoqss vawydebiT: am TvisebebiT ufro metad xasiaTdebian ara umaRlesi arsebebi, aramed yvelaze dablebi _ sokoebi da is mcenareebi, romlebic sporebis saSualebiT mravldebian. yvelaze advilad garemo pirobebs swored isini eguebian. vulkanebis amofrqvevis, wyaldidobebis Semdeg anda piriqiT, udabnoSi, rodesac didxans ar modis wvima da garSemo mxolod mkvdari velia, ufro maRalganviTarebuli organizmebi iRupebian, primitiulebi ki cocxlebi rCebian. es primitiuli arsebebi, maRalganviTarebulebTan SedarebiT, gamravlebis ukeTesi unariT gamoirCevian. ase rom, darvinizmis sam princips Tu vendobiT, sicocxle sokoebisa da sporebis doneze unda gaCerebuliyo. es iqneboda cocxal arsebaTa optimaluri saxeoba, dedamiwaze cxovrebis pirobebTan Seguebuli. amgvarad, am sam princips arasgziT ar Seesabameba ufro rTuli da amitom garemosTan mimarTebaSi ufro `myife~, ufro `nazi~ saxeobebis gaCena. ganvagrZoT: darvinis Teoria kazualuria, anu SemTxveviTobebze agebuli. romelime arsebas SemTxveviT axali Tviseba uCndeba. Tu es Tviseba sasargebloa (anu axal Sansebs aZlevs garemo pirobebSi gasaZlebad), igi mocemul arsebas unarCundeba da memkvidreobiT gadaecema. ai, darvinistuli morfologiis safuZveli: umaRlesi arsebebi yvelaze dablebisgan warmoiSobian kazualurad, saerTo normisagan raRac SemTxveviTi gadaxrebis gaCenis gziT. SegviZlia ki davkmayofildeT sakiTxis 193

aseTi gadawyvetiT, aris ki es marTebuli? Cven viciT, rom ganviTarebuli organo sasargebloa, Canasaxobriv mdgomareobaSi myofi anda arasakmarisad ganviTarebuli organo ki araviTar sasurvel zemoqmedebas ar axdens, araviTar upiratesobas ar iZleva, piriqiT, organizmisaTvis tvirTad iqceva xolme. magaliTad, romeliRac arsebas, romelic evoluciis gziT frinveli unda gaxdes, momavali frTis adgilas raRac wanazardi gauCnda. TviTon darvinis Teoria uaryofs frTis uecar gaCenas, igi ambobs, rom es `raRac~ TandaTan unda Camoyalibdes frTad. da ai, arsebas, ucnobia ratom (albaT raRac anomaliis gamo) gauCnda wanazardi, romlisganac Semdeg frTa Camoyalibda. ra saerTo aqvs am wanazards mocemuli individis gadarCenasTan? araviTari. igi ar iqneba misTvis sasargeblo, piriqiT, xelsac SeuSlis arsebobisaTvis brolaSi: nadavlis daWeraSi, mtrisagan gaqcevaSi da sxv. amgvarad, sanam es wanazardi frTad iqceodes, is ki ar daexmareba, aramed zedmeti tvirTi iqneba. da ra aucilebelia, rom wanazardi darCes? rogorc SemTxveviT gaCnda, aseve SemTxveviT (Semdgom TaobebSi) igi unda gaqres. es darvinizmisaTvis wayenebuli meore kontrargumentia, romelzec mas saTqmeli aRaraferi aqvs. Semdeg: arian arsebebi, romlebic rTul metamorfozebs ganicdian. magaliTad, rodesac muxluxo peplad iqceva, muxluxos sxeuli Wiis parkSi ixsneba, sqel masas emsgavseba da Semdeg am masidan TandaTan sxva, peplis organizmi Cndeba. ra SuaSia aq sasargeblo an saziano Tvisebebi? am metamorfozas verafriT ver axsni imiT, rom arsebas `SemTxveviT~ gauCnda raRac organoebis Canasaxebi anda sxva, ase vTqvaT, sasargeblo Tvisebebi. aq ukve arsebobis rTul planzea laparaki. garda amisa, sxeulis arc 194

erTi organo ar SeiZleba ganvixiloT izolirebulad. yvela isini mWidrod arian dakavSirebulni erTmaneTTan Tav-TavianTi funqciebiT, amitom erTi organos nebismier Secvlas mTeli organizmis Secvla mohyveba. saubaria agreTve e. w. `narCen (rudimentul) organoebzec~ _ darvinizmis erT-erT debulebaze. es imas niSnavs, rom adamianis sxeulSi aris organoebi, romlebic ukve aRar funqcionireben, amiT ki mtkicdeba, rom odesRac adamianis organizmi sxvagvari iyo. magram Cven arc es ganmarteba gvakmayofilebs. gasul saukuneSi swavlulma evolucionistebma adamianis organizmSi asoTxmocamde, maTi azriT, sruliad zedmeti organo daiTvales. magram SemdgomSi maTi umetesoba Sinagani sekreciis organoebi aRmoCnda, romelTa gareSec adamianis sicocxle sruliad SeuZlebelia. amitom aq sakiTxi sxvagvarad unda daisvas: jer erTi, Cven organoebis yvela funqcias zedmiwevniT kargad ar vicnobT; meorec, adamianis organizms aqvs e. w. sarezervo organoebi, isini romelime organos dazianebisas mis funqciebs sakuTar Tavze iReben. amgvarad, Cven SegviZlia vamtkicoT, rom adamianis organizmSi zedmeti araferia. mecnierebi geologiuri Sreebis, namarxebis da a. S. asaks sxvadasxva ricxviTi mocemulobebis saxiT gansazRvraven, amitom zogierTs eCveneba, rom biblia ewinaaRmdegeba mecnierebas. magram rodesac kacobriobis asakze vlaparakobT, aTvlis wertilad viRebT Sesaqmis dasrulebas, kacis Seqmnas. manamde iyo Sesaqmis periodebi, romlebsac bibliaSi `dReebi~ ewodebaT. `dReebSi~ wm. mamebi (mag., wm. basili didi) gulisxmobdnen periodebs, romelTa xangrZlivoba CvenTvis ucnobia. `dReebi~ daiwyo jer kidev mzis Seqmnamde, amitom `dReebi~ aris 195

etapebi, rodesac axali ibadeboda, xolo ra Sualedebi iyo am etapebs Soris, Cven ar viciT _ amis dadgena ar SegviZlia. da saerTod, SeuZlia ki mecnierebas bibliuri welTaRricxvis uaryofa? dialeqtikuri materializmi ambobs, rom materia universaluri substanciaa da yvelaferi masTan aris kavSirSi; igi ganixilavs samyaros, rogorc usasrulos da mTlians, sadac SeuZlebelia arsebobdes raime, garemosagan izolirebuli. mecnierebi, romlebic geologiuri Sreebis, namarxebis da a. S. asaks gansazRvraven, daTariRebis sxvadasxva meTods iyeneben. arsebobs radioaqtiuri meTodi, e. w. kaliumargonuli meTodi. aris sxva, naxSirbaduli meTodic, es meTodi eyrdnoba im faqts, rom cnobilia naxSirorJangis molekulebis daSlis periodi. arsebobs sxva xerxebic: zogierTi mecnieri dedamiwis zedapirze arsebuli meteorituli mtvris fenebis gazomvas eyrdnoba, zogi nariyebisagan gazrdili mdinaris deltis gazomvebs (vinaidan mdinareSi naleqebis garkveuli raodenoba Caedineba, delta sul ufro matulobs sigrZeSi). SeiZleba Tu ara imis Tqma, rom daTariRebis es xerxebi zustia? Cveni planetis warsulis daTariRebisTvis uniformizmis principi unda miviRoT, es ki niSnavs: procesebi, romlebic warsulSi xdeboda, TavianTi xasiaTiTa da intensiurobiT igivea, rac dRevandel dRes mimdinare da momavalSi mosaxdeni procesebi. magram ramdenad gamarTlebulia es principi? arsebobs e. w. katalizatorebi, romelTa daxmarebiTac erTi da igive qimiuri procesi SeiZleba sxvadasxva siCqariT mimdinareobdes. aris katalizatorebi, procesebs asjer rom aCqareben. amitom, saidan viciT, rom 196

uwin ar arsebobda katalizatorebi, romelTa meSveobiTac igive procesebi Seudareblad ufro mokle vadebSi xdeboda, vidre dRes? vin mogvca ufleba vamtkicoT, rom Zvelad igive pirobebi iyo, rac dRes aris, da rom dedamiwis SeqmnaSi zustad igive Zalebi monawileobdnen, romlebic dRes moqmedeben? amgvarad, yvela es daTariReba hipoTeturia _ varaudebis sferos ekuTvnis. uniformizmi cudad urigdeba dialeqtikur materializms, romelic swored movlenebis urTierTkavSirsa da bunebaSi mimdinare ganuwyveteli xarisxobrivi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb laparakobs. Cven viciT, rom arcTu ise Soreul, CvenTvis misawvdom warsulSic ki procesebi sxvagvarad viTardeboda. mag., dedamiwis magnituri veli bevrad ufro didi iyo, vidre axlaa _ aTasnaxevari wlis manZilze TiTqmis orjer Semcirda. sxvagvari iyo uwin radiaciis intensivobis donec. TviTon materialistebi amboben, rom adre atmosferos Sedgeniloba sxvanairi iyo, e. i. maSin sxva Zalebi moqmedebdnen. uniformizmis Teoria, romelsac yvela `daTariReba~ efuZneba, ar SeiZleba dasabuTebulad miviCnioT. ganvagrZoT: daTariRebis sxvadasxva meTodi sxvadasxva, erTmaneTTan dapirispirebul Sedegs iZleva. es gansakuTrebiT exeba meteorituli mtvris fenebis gazomvis mixedviT daTariRebas. dedamiwa rom im asakis iyos, rasac evolucionistebi uTiTeben, igi mTlianad kosmiuri mtvris javSniT iqneboda SeboWili, okeaneTa fskerzec am mtvris fenebi unda idos. SesaZloa gvipasuxon, rom xdeboda mtvris TandaTanobiTi ganzaveba dedamiwis fenebSi. magram meteorituli mtveri sxva qimiuri Sedgenilobisaa, vidre dedamiwis zedapiri: iq bevrad ufro metia nikeli, amitom meteorituli mtvris aRmoCena srulia197

dac ar iqneboda Zneli. gairkva, rom es fena Zalian Txelia, gansakuTrebiT okeaneTa fskerze. magram meteorituli mtvris fenebis gazomvis mixedviT daTariRebasa da evolucionistebis koncefciebs Soris dapirispireba gansakuTrebiT naTlad gamoCnda mas Semdeg, rac adamianebma mTvaris zedapirs miaRwies. radganac iTvleboda, rom mTvare da dedamiwa daaxloebiT erTi asakisani arian, Sesabamisad, kosmiuri mtvris fena mTvareze, sadac atmosfero faqtobrivad ar arsebobs, sakmaod sqeli unda yofiliyo. fiqrobdnen, rom es fena ramdenime kilometrs aRwevda, amitom kosmosuri xomaldebi ise iyo agebuli, TiTqos isini Waobze unda damsxdariyvnen. garda amisa, varaudobdnen, rom RrmulebSi kosmiuri mtvris fena kidev ufro sqeli iqneboda. magram rodesac adamianebma mTvaris zedapirs miaRwies, aRmoCnda, rom misi zedapiri kosmiuri mtvris SedarebiT Txeli feniT iyo dafaruli da adamianebi masSi sruliadac ar Caflulan. es ukve imas mowmobs, rom dedamiwa bevrad ufro axalgazrdaa, vidre evoluciis Teoriis momxreni amtkiceben. Semdeg: evolucionistebi amboben, sicocxle umartivesi formebisgan _ virusebisgan gaCndao. magram gairkva, rom virusebs arseboba SeuZliaT mxolod ufro maRali organizmebis parazitebis saxiT. damoukideblad arseboba virusebs ar ZaluZT! darvinizmis kidev erTi `postulati~ es aris: morfologiurad adamianis msgavs arsebebs adamianur arsebaTa ricxvs ver mivakuTvnebT. adamiani aris sulieri fenomeni, romelsac xilul samyaroSi araviTari analogi ar moeZebneba. garsis msgavseba jer kidev ar amtkicebs maTSi moTavsebuli marcvlebis igiveobas (mag., xorbali da sarevela). Cven araferi viciT im namarxi arsebe198

bis fsiqikuri cxovrebis Sesaxeb, Cvens winaprebad rom acxadeben. davuSvaT, rom bunebaSi yvela maimuni gaqra, gaTxrebis dros gorilebis ramdenime ConCxi da Zvlebis fragmentebi ipoves, maT gverdiT ki _ qvebi da joxebi kaklebis Camosayrelad; maSin mecnierebs, morfologiuri principebidan gamomdinare, SeuZliaT ivaraudon, rom maT winaSea primitiuli adamianis neSti. gorilis Zvlebi mecnieruli STagonebis, disertaciebisa da monografiebis wyaro gaxdeba. magram Cven viciT, rom maimuni sruliad sxva arsebaa, Tvisobrivad gansxvavebuli adamianisgan _ esaa cxoveli. amgvarad, rodesac sxvadasxva arsebebis ConCxebs pouloben, garegnuli anatomiuri monacemebis mixedviT jer kidev arafris Tqma ar SeiZleba maTi gonebrivi SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb. es arsebebi, iseve rogorc maimunebi, SeiZleba ubralod adamianis msgavsi cxovelebi iyvnen. saerTod, morfologiis mixedviT SeuZlebelia fsiqologiaze msjeloba, miT ufro, Tuki es morfologia sakmaod saeWvo xasiaTisaa. odesRac imasac ambobdnen, rom damaxasiaTebeli niSani, romelic adamians cxovelisagan ganasxvavebs, aris Tavis tvinis qerqis farTobi da misi Sefardeba tvinis saerTo moculobasTan. magram aRmoCnda, rom delfinis Tavis tvinis qerqis farTobi aRemateba adamianisas rogorc absolutur, ise pirobiT ganzomilebebSi. amgvarad, Tu mxolod formaluri agebulebis mixedviT vimsjelebT, delfini inteleqtualurad ganviTarebis ufro maRal safexurze unda idges, vidre adamiani. Semdeg daiwyes laparaki, rom mniSvnelovania ara marto es monacemi, aramed tvinis struqturis sirTulec. magram aqac aRmoCnda, rom delfinis Tavis tvinis qerqi struqturulad bevrad ufro rTulia, vidre adamianisa. ase rom, 199

ar SeiZleba namarxi neStebis mixedviT ama Tu im arsebis gonebriv SesaZleblobebze msjeloba. jerjerobiT araviTari gardamavali formebi cxovelsa da adamians Soris aRmoCenili ar aris. isini rom arsebuliyvnen, gaugebari iqneboda, ratom gaqra uecrad yvela adamianicxoveli (Tanac gaqra mTel msoflioSi, sxvadasxva garemo pirobebis mqone yvela regionSi). albaT mxolod imitom, rom isini saerTodac ar arsebobdnen. evolucionistebi imasac amboben, rom adamianis Canasaxi Tavisi ganviTarebisas evoluciis mTavar stadiebs imeorebs. magram am Teoriasac araviTari mtkicebuleba ar gaaCnia. ZiriTadad eyrdnobian `layuCebis xvrelebis~ arsebobas Canasaxis ganviTarebis garkveul stadiaze, magram es e. w. `layuCebis xvrelebi~ gulmodgine gamokvlevisas mxolod nakecebi aRmoCnda, romlebsac araferi aqvT saerTo Tevzebis layuCebTan. isini sul sxva masalisgan Sedgebian da layuCebis funqcias arasodes asruleben, maTgan adamianis saxe yalibdeba. amasTan, maimunis nayofi garkveul adreul safexurebze gacilebiT metad hgavs adamians, vidre maimuns: Tma ara aqvs, Tavi sxva agebulebisaa da a. S. da Tuki Cven evolucionistebis princips mivyvebiT, maSin is daskvna unda gamovitanoT, rom maimuni gaCnda adamianisgan. amgvarad, darvinizmis am debulebasac araviTari mtkicebuleba ar gaaCnia.

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ri koncefcia, ori azri Cveni samyaros warmoSobisa da arsebobis Sesaxeb _ kreacionistuli1 da evoluciuri _ es ori msoflaRqma filosofiuri abstraqcia ki ara, cxovrebisadmi midgomaa, azrovnebis wesia Tavisi fsiqologiuri mxareebiT; esaa faseulobaTa skala, Sexeduleba zneobriv kanonebze, sikeTisa da borotebis cnebebTan mimarTeba. Cven bavSvobidan gvinergavdnen, rom evoluciuri Teoria ar aris raRac haerSi gamokidebuli hipoTeza, esaa mtkiced dadgenili da dasabuTebuli WeSmariteba; mecniereba, romelic mxolod ueWvel faqtebs eyrdnoba, maT Soris, arqeologiisa da paleontologiis sferodan. Cven mogviTxrobdnen ganaTxari maimunis msgavsi arsebebis, viTomda adamianis winaprebis naSTebze da maTi asakis gansazRvris sxvadasxva meTodze. gaTxrebis Sedegad mopovebul am hominidebs evoluciuri rukis ujrebze ganalagebdnen, maTi Zvlebisgan, rogorc kubebisgan, koSks agebdnen, mis bolo baqanze ki adamians aTavsebdnen. magram evoluciur Teoriasa da yvela mis sabuTs, qimiuri da radioaqtiuri meTodebis CaTvliT, mTeli rigi pasuxgaucemeli SekiTxvebi axlavs, romelTa Sesaxebac evolucionistebi dumils arCeven. jer erTi, `aviwyde1 kreacionizmi _ swavleba RmerTis mier samyaros arafrisagan Seqmnis Sesaxeb.

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baT~, rom adamiani pirvel yovlisa fsiqologiuri cnebaa da ara anatomiuri. Cven SegviZlia vipovoT fizikuri msgavseba yvela zoologiur arsebas Soris, magram es kanonzomieri movlenaa, radganac zoologiuri organizmebi erT sasicocxlo garemoSi arseboben. sxvagvarad SeuZlebelic iqneboda maTi arseboba da aucilebeli fiziologiuri funqciebis Sesruleba. magaliTs mivmarToT: gemebsa da navebs _ patara orCxomelebidan da kanjoebidan dawyebuli uzarmazari fregatebiTa da Tanamedrove saeskadro naRmosnebiT damTavrebuli, mTeli maTi gansxvavebulobis miuxedavad, konstruqciis erTi principi unda hqondeT, romelic wylis stiqiaSi maT arsebobas ganapirobebs. magram ucnauri iqneboda imis mtkiceba, rom kanjo TavisTavad iqca galerad, galera ki navTobtankerad _ isini Seqmna kacis gonebam, gaiTvaliswina ra obieqturi fizikuri kanonebi, moculobiTi sxeulebis arseboba da moZraoba wylis garemoSi. amitom zoologiur arsebaTa msgavseba umaRlesis umdablesidan warmoSobaze ki ar miuTiTebs, aramed mxolod cocxal organizmTa idealur modelze, romlebic erTian garegan garemoSi arseboben. meore Secdoma imaSi mdgomareobs, rom arasworia TviT postulatebi, romlebsac eyrdnoba geologiuri da biologiuri obieqtebis asakis gansazRvris meTodebi. izolirebuli materialuri struqturebi saerTod ar arsebobs, amitom procesebi, romlebic maTSi xdeba, rTul urTierTkavSirSia sxva sistemebTan: es exeba rogorc makro-, ise mikrosamyaros. amasTan SegaxsenebT, rom sistema arsebobs ara marto sivrceSi, aramed droSic. am dros analizis qimiuri, radioaqtiuri da sxva sax202

eebi gulisxmoben procesebis mudmivsa da garemosagan damoukidebel stabilurobas. fiqsirebuli procesebis xangrZlivoba maTTvis erTgvar `drois amTvlels~ warmoadgens, rogorc Soreuli warsulis, ise Soreuli momavlisTvisac. magram Cven viciT, rom katalizatoris Tundac sruliad umniSvnelo Carevam SeiZleba Secvalos ama Tu im procesebis dro aTasjer da asiaTasjerac ki. sruliad SeuZlebelia realurad gaviTvaliswinoT warsulisa da momavlis situaciebi da kosmiuri foni; am dros ki swored es ganapirobebs nebismieri qimiuri, fizikuri an Sidaatomuri procesebis mimdinareobas. Tu process cvalebadi sivrcobriv-droiTi garemos gareSe ganvixilavT, Sedegi imdenadve saeWvo iqneba, ramdenadac konteqstidan amoglejili frazis mniSvnelobis gagebis mcdeloba. ucnauria: evolucionistebi im Teoriis dasamtkiceblad, rom samyaro TviTganviTarebadia, mimarTaven meTodebs, romlebic samyaroSi mimdinare procesebis ucvaleblobas gulisxmoben. amgvarad, evolucionistebis meore Secdomaa procesebis analizi realurad ararsebul daxurul sistemebSi, romlebic izolirebulni arian garemosTan urTierTqmedebisgan: esaa mudmivad gadauWreli problema damkvirveblisTvis. amitom yvela aqamde gamoyenebuli meTodi dedamiwis asakis, anda adamianis arsebobis xangrZlivobis gansazRvrisaTvis faqtologiis sazRvrebs miRma dgas, hipoTezebisa da varaudebis sferos ganekuTvneba. aq Cven vlaparakobT principebze, ise rom ar vexebiT analizis meTodebis xarisxs, romlebic ar iZlevian adekvatur Sedegebs da ar arian erTmaneTTan SeTanxmebulni. es ukve kerZo xasiaTis sakiTxebia. mesame Secdoma, nawilobriv fsiqologiuri xasiaTisa, 203

aris evolucionistebis pretenzia warmoadginon samyaros mecnieruli (swored mecnieruli, da ara romantikuli) suraTi. amgvarma pretenziam sicocxle STabera aTobiT kosmogoniur Teorias, rogorc araarsidan gamowveul landebs; am Teoriebs amayad ewodaT mecnieruli, Tumca maT erTi ki SeanjRries TanamedroveTa fantazia, magram mere Cumad da ukvalod gauCinardnen. yvelaze popularuli amJamad afeTqebis, gafarToebuli samyaros Teoriaa. amasTan, igulisxmeba, rom Tavdapirvelad samyaro arsebobda ukiduresad SekumSuli materiis saxiT. magram Tuki vaRiarebT, rom es SekumSuloba absoluturia, maSin SeuZlebelia amgvari substanciis transformireba, radganac absoluturi SekumSulobis pirobebSi ar arsebobs moZraoba _ gadanacvleba an gardaqmna: erTi meores gamoricxavs. Tu SekumSuloba pirobiTia, maSin kiTxva _ `-mde~ Tu `Semdeg~ gadaWrili ar aris, xolo samyaros suraTi, romelsac evolucionistebi gvixataven, epizodad an fragmentad rCeba. am SemTxvevaSi sruliad logikuri iqneboda agnosticizmis pozicia (kerZod, rom mizezisa da saboloo Sedegis Secnoba SeuZlebelia), magram es pozicia evolucionistebs yovelgvari filosofiuri Teoriis gareSe datovebda. agnosticizmi aris gonebismieri daskvna Cveni gonebis sazRvrebisa da inteleqtualuri codnis pirobiTobis Sesaxeb. agnosticizms SeuZlia miiyvanos adamiani an sxva gnosisis Ziebamde, anu rwmenamde; anda mdare pozitivizmamde, e. i. damarcxebamde da cxovrebis miznis Ziebaze xelis aRebamde (xatovnad rom vTqvaT, pozitivizmi faqtebis fantasmagoriaa, inteleqtualuri dambliT Sepyrobili adamianis gonebas rom warmoudgeba). axla modi, CvenTvis ufro axlobel, istoriisaTvis 204

misawvdom periods movubrundeT. aq vxedavT arqeologebis mier mopovebul uzarmazar masalas _ isini xom miwisqveSa okeanis dauRalavi mezRvaurebi arian. Cvens winaSea antikuri xelovnebis nimuSebi, miwis gulidan imgvaradve amoRebuli, rogorc margalitebi amoaqvT xolme zRvidan myvinTavebs. ras gvamcnoben isini? adamianis inteleqtis evolucias? esTetikuri grZnobis ganuwyvetel ganviTarebasa da daxvewas? Zveli mxatvrebis xelovnebis TandaTanobiT zrdasa da srulyofas? nabij-nabij svlas xelovnebis istoriaSi arasrulyofilidan srulyofilisken? Tu asea, antikur xelovnebas unda daeTmo Tavisi adgili mSvenierebis kvarcxlbekze, romelsac Tanamedrove abstraqcionistebi da siurrealistebi daikavebdnen. magram Cven sxva rames vxedavT: Zveli mxatvrebis nawarmoebebi, Cvenamde moRweuli maTi Tundac sul mcire fragmentebi xelovnebis Sedevrebad warmogvidgebian. isini gvaoceben formis srulyofilebiT, Sinagani eqspresiiT, fsiqologiuri siRrmiT, kompoziciis dinamiurobiT, Sinaarsisa da mxatvruli formis erTianobiTa da imiT, rasac Cven nawarmoebis musikalobas vuwodebdiT, sadac SemoqmedebiTi ideebi, rogorc erTi musikaluri akordis xmebi, yovel detalSi arian Caqsovilni da JReren. aranakleb STambeWdavia Zveli aRmosavleTis xelovnebac _ esaa arsebobis mistikuri siRrmis Zieba. aRmosavleTis xelovneba pirobiTi da simboluria, ise rom elinizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebel eqspresiasa da fsiqologizmsac ar kargavs. ukve Zvelma egviptelebma miagnes xelovnebis im xerxs, romelic SesaZlebels xdis maradisobidan droSi, anu kosmosidan samyaroSi `gadavixedoT~: esaa Sebrunebuli perspeqtiva. evoluciis Teoria, romelsac istoriuli progresis 205

Teorias uwodeben, swori rom iyos, maSin XX saukunes albaT homerosisa da vergiliusis msgavsi geniosebis dabadebiT unda gavexarebineT, magram es ar momxdara. evoluciis momxreni adamianis ganviTarebas ratomRac teqnokratiasTan aigiveben, TiTqos kacis ideali mZlavri, zeTanamedrove kompiuteri iyos. Tumca arqeologia Zveli adamianebis mecnieruli codnis sferos Sesaxebac ki sakmao masalas iZleva gansjisaTvis. palestinis aRmosavleTiT mdebareobs tafobi, romelic mTvaris dablobs waagavs. esaa mkvdari zRvis sanapiro; aq zeciT gardamosulma cecxlma dawva siZvaSi Cafluli qalaqebi. ieso qristes amqveyniuri cxovrebis dros palestinis mkvidrni fiqrobdnen, rom es adgili usityvo winaswarmetyvelebaa, momavali cecxlovani warRvnis winasaxe. zRvis sanapiro isea dafaruli mariliT, rogorc cvriT. qariSxlis dros talRebs misi siRrmidan gamoaqvT gaqvavebuli kupris naglejebi; am zRvaSi ar aris sicocxle, igi waagavs abzindiT gajerebul wyals, romelsac Surisgebis angelozi dedamiwaze gadmoanTxevs (gamocx. 8, 11). mkvdari zRvis dablobi samaresaviT mdumarea; sanapiros kldeebSi, mwveli mzis sxivebqveS, gamxmari buCqnaria SeyuJuli; samxreTis qars, rogorc udabnos sunTqvas, erTmaneTSi areuli qviSa da marili moaqvs; iq TiTqmis arasodes wvims. maRla, haerSi, arwivebi TavianT mZlavr frTebs dayrdnobian okeaneSi mocurave afrebgaSlili navebis msgavsad. arwivebi TavianT nadavls – Sxamian gvelebs darajoben. es adgili, sadac, gegoneba, TviT drois dinebac ki SeCerebula da yovelive cocxals Rrmad CasZinebia saSinel samsjavromde, TavianT samyofelad aurCeviaT Zveli aRTqmis berebs _ esevelebs. maT kldeebSi gamouWriaT 206

gamoqvabulebi da iq damalvian sofels, iseve rogorc odesRac maTma winaprebma datoves egvipte aRTqmuli miwis sapovnelad. aq araferi iyo iseTi, maTi mzera rom daetkbo da gonebis ganbnevisTvis Seewyo xeli. dRisiT cis TaRi gamdnari spilenZis Rvars waagavda, riTac sikvdilis arsebobas Seaxsenebda; RamiT ki varskvlavebiT moWedili ca saukuno cxovrebaze esaubreboda. esevelni TavianT seqtaSi iyvnen Caketilni; axali wevrebi masSi mxolod mZime, xangrZlivi gamocdis Semdeg daiSvebodnen: mdumarebis, marxvisa da Temis uxucesTa usityvo morCilebis gavlis Semdeg. Zveli aRTqmis sxva seqtis _ Terapevtebisgan gansxvavebiT, romlebic RmerTTan Sinagan mistikur erTobas eZiebdnen, esevelni warmoadgendnen erTian organizacias myari struqturiTa da mkacri tipikoniT, romelic mis wevrebs mravalricxovan wesebsa da ritualebs avalebda. es xalxi gaerTianebuli iyo mesiis esqatologiuri molodiniT, mesiisa, romelic mospobda codvilebs dedamiwaze; maT aerTianebdaT agreTve soflis siZulvili da mtruli ganwyoba sataZro RmrTismsaxurebis mimarT. wm. istoria maT warmodgenili hqondaT ganuwyvetel brZolad naTlis Svilebsa da bneleTis Svilebs Soris da mzad iyvnen maxviliT xelSi Cabmuliyvnen am brZolaSi. esevelTa ritualebi idumalebiT iyo moculi, magram gansakuTrebuli adgili maT Soris ekava mzis sxivs, rogorc RmrTaebrivi emanaciis simbolos. amomavali mzis pirvel sxivebs isini RmrTis winaSe aRvlenili himniT unda Sexvedrodnen. am seqtis istoria dramatulad warimarTa. romis winaaRmdeg iudevelTa warumatebeli ajanyebis Semdeg esevelTa gamoqvabulebi erT-erT ukanasknel sayrdenad iqca TavganwirviT mebrZol ajanyebulTaTvis. gamZvin207

varebulma romaelma jariskacebma tyved Cavardnili iudevelebi sastiki wamebiT daxoces. esevelTa monastrebis adgilas mxolod nangrevebiRa darCa. magram alyaSemortymulma esevelebma mainc moaxerxes mTavari saunjis _ biblioTekis SenarCuneba: daxveuli pergamentebi maT moSorebiT mdebare gamoqvabulebSi gadamales. amgvarad aq, yumranis kldeebSi, rogorc qvis sarkofagebSi, isini TiTqmis cxrameti saukunis manZilze inaxebodnen (sxvaTa Soris, arsebobs cnobebi, rom yumranis zogierTi gamoqvabuli gacilebiT ufro adre aRmoaCines da damaskos bazrebSi palestinidan Camotanili xelnawerebi iyideboda). xSirad xdeba xolme, rom sasamarTloze mTavari mowme gadawyvets yvelaze bolos warsdges sasamarTlos winaSe, radganac xelTa aqvs msjavrdebulis udanaSaulobis ueWveli sabuTebi. aseve, mravalsaukunovani samsjavros _ mikerZoebuli, mtyuani da binZuri samsjavros bolos, iseTisa, rogoric iyo racionalistebis brZola bibliis winaaRmdeg (isini dauRalavad amtkicebdnen, rom mTeli wminda werili aris falsifikaciisa da nayalbevis nazavi), XX saukuneSi bibliis WeSmaritebis mowmeebad moulodnelad yumranis xelnawerebi mogvevlinen. am napovnis ambavi uCveuloa, igi raRaciT mogvagonebs bibliur ambavs saulze, dakarguli saxedrebis saZebrad rom wavida, winaswarmetyvel samoels gadaeyara da mis mier israelis mefed iqna wodebuli (1 mef. 9-10). Wabuk beduins Tikani daekarga. igi kldeebze dacocavda da xevebs aTvalierebda _ iqneb cxoveli iq gadaiCexao; mTebis ferdobebze daZvreboda da buCqebs eWideboda, rodesac uecrad udabno adgilas, sadac TiTqos adamians fexic ar daedga, gamoqvabulis Sesasvleli dainaxa. Wabuki Sevida gamoqvabulSi, im imediT, iqneb Cemi Tikani iq Seexetao, 208

da dainaxa Tixis doqebi, romlebSic Zveli xelnawerebi inaxeboda. Semdeg man Tikanic ipova da TavisianebTan dabrunda, Tan orive napovnis ambavi mouTxro: Txisa da xelnawerebisa. ojaxis wevrebi mSvenivrad mixvdnen, rom xelnawerebis sarfianad gayidva SeiZleboda (am ambis detalebze aRar SevCerdebiT: yvelaferi mZafrsiuJetian deteqtivs mogagonebdaT). bolos da bolos, yumranis teqstebi mecnierTa xelSi aRmoCnda. yumranis biblioTeka iyo XX saukunis erT-erTi udidesi arqeologiuri aRmoCena. xelnawerebma daamtkices Tanamedrove bibliuri wignebis identuroba maT ZvelTaZvel kodeqsebTan, aseve arakanonikuri teqstebis arseboba iudaur enaze, rasac racionalistebi aqamde uaryofdnen. bibliis uaryofiTi kritika, romelic SokSi aRmoCnda, Seudga umniSvnelo fragmentuli gansxvavebebis Zebnas anu patar-patara gamoxdomebis mowyobas, radgan did mindorze omis wamowyebas ver bedavda. magram es aRmoCena sensaciad iqca ara marto bibleistebisTvis, aramed astronomebisTvisac, vinaidan yumranis xelnawerebs Soris ipoves mzis kalendari, romelic esevelTa ritualur kalendars warmoadgenda. igi, iseve rogorc zogierTi sxva dokumenti, magaliTad, sataZro saganZuris ruka, kodirebuli iyo. am kalendarSi miTiTebuli iyo wlis sidideebi, magram intervali `dReRamsworobebs~ Soris da Camatebuli dReebis ricxvi ar arsebobda. astronomebi iseTive TavdadebiT Sromobdnen kalendris saidumlos amosacnobad, rogorc Sampolioni1 _ egvipturi ieroglifebis gasaSifrad. rodesac `dReRamsworobis~ sidideebi dadginda, gairkva, rom yumranis kalendris weliwadi grigorianuli kalen1 Jan fransua Sampolioni (1790-1832) _ frangi mecnieri, egvi ptologiis fuZemdebeli. misi damsaxurebaa egvi pturi ieroglifebis gaSifvra.

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dris weliwads meaTedis meoTxe xarisxamde emTxveoda, anu praqtikulad misi identuri iyo. esevelni yumranSi qristes Sobamde II saukuneSi dasaxldnen, magram TviTon seqta gacilebiT adre arsebobda, amitom esevelTa kalendris Seqmnis dro saukuneTa siRrmeSia dafaruli. zogierTi mecnieri am TariRs israelis mefeTa periods ukavSirebs, sxvebi ki palestinis yvelaze arqaul kalendrad miiCneven. cxadia, es yvelaferi hipoTezebis sferoa da, rac ar unda momxiblavi iyos mecnieruli romantizmis sarkis miRma SeRweva, Cven mainc varCevT, metismetad ar davSordeT CvenTvis saintereso faqts, kerZod: mzis kalendris sidide Zveli msoflios astronomebma icodnen karga xniT adre, sanam romSi pap grigol XIII-is pativsacemad medlebs Camoasxamdnen da Seqmnidnen ù`uzustes~ kalendars, romelsac am ierarqis saxeli daerqmeoda. yumranis kalendris mniSvneloba imdenad didia, rom iuneskoSic ki iyo wardgenili winadadeba, igi msoflio kalendris nimuSad qceuliyo. evoluciis swavlebis mixedviT, kacobrioba, rogorc biologiuri saxeoba da adamiani, rogorc misi kerZo wevri, progresirebs, rac unda aisaxebodes filosofiisa da xelovnebis TandaTanobiT ganviTarebaze, agreTve mecnierul azrovnebaze _ teqnikuri xasiaTis gadawyvetilebebis miRebis unarze. magram, rogorc vxedavT, istoria sul sxva rames gviCvenebs. kalendris sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT Cven ufro farTo problemas SevexeT: arCevans kreaciul da evoluciur Teoriebs Soris, romelTa SeTanxmebac SeuZlebelia. dRes Cvens saswavlo dawesebulebebSi ucnauri situacia Seiqmna. orive urTierTgamomricxavi sistema paralelurad iswavleba: kreacionizmi, rogorc isto210

riuli WeSmariteba _ saRmrTo sjulis gakveTilebze da evolucionizmi, rogorc mecnieruli WeSmariteba (da ara hipoTeza) _ biologiis gakveTilebze. amasTan, evolucionizms bavSvebs darvinizmis saxiT awvdian. gana swavlebis aseTi sistema moswavleebSi skepticizmisa da nihilizmis ganviTarebas ar uwyobs xels? ratom ar gulisxmobs biologiis, zoologiis, geologiisa da msgavsi sagnebis swavlebis kursi evolucionisturi koncefciebis kritikis gacnobas, da es maSin, rodesac mecnierebas saamisod sakmarisi masala aqvs mopovebuli? albaT imitom, rom jer erTi, aq igrZnoba Zveli ideologiuri materializmis inercia, meorec _ arakompetenturoba maswavlebelTa nawilisa, romelsac urCevnia arsebuli Sablonis mixedviT aswavlos, vidre TviTganviTarebas mihyos xeli. magram arsebobs kidev erTi faqtori: maT, visac aqamde Caagonebdnen, rom isini arian hominidTa gvaris maRalorganizebuli warmomadgenlebi, anuì`inteleqtualuri sazogadoebrivi cxovelebi~, axla uWirT, itvirTon RmerTTan TavianTi msgavsebis mZime jvari. civilizaciam, romelsac xSirad eyrdnobian evolucionistebi, gamijna ra mecniereba da zneoba, msoflio apokalifsuri katastrofebis winaSe daayena. Cveni azriT, evolucionizmi faqtologiaze damyarebuli obieqturi mecniereba ki ar aris, aramed, mniSvnelovanwilad, fsiqologiuri movlena. Cveni samyaro Zalian hgavs iluminaciuri naTurebiT gaCiraRdnebul `titaniks~, romelic vin icis, saiT micuravs istoriis okeanis wyvdiadSi.

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eligiis ezoTerizmis sakiTxs udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs Cvens TanamedroveTaTvis: ara marto imitom, rom wignis bazari okulturi literaturis nakadma waleka, romelsac pretenzia aqvs ezoTerulobaze _ raRac saidumlo codnaze, Cveulebriv, Zvel sibrZnes rom uwodeben; sakiTxi gacilebiT mniSvnelovania, radganac am problemebis swori gadawyveta SesaZlebels xdis marTlmadidebeli eklesiis ufro ukeT, ufro Rrmad gagebas, gaazrebasa da Sefasebas. yvela ezoTeruli swavleba gamorCeulobasa da elitarulobas iCemebs. sulis aristokratebs anu ezoTerikosebs isini upirispireben profanebis brbos _ egzoTerikosebs, romlebic sazogadoebis garegan fenas, erTgvar CenCos warmoadgenen. warmarTuli religiebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli es koncefcia mkafiod iyo gamoxatuli gnostikur swavlebebSi, sadac adamianebi sam, erTmaneTisagan gancalkevebul xarisxad iyofodnen: umaRles xarisxs Seadgendnen pnevmatikosebi anu sulieri adamianebi, romlebic saidumlo codnas flobdnen; saSualos _ fsiqikosebi anu mSvinvieri adamianebi, yvelaze dabali xarisxisa ki somatikosebi, anu xorcieli adamianebi iyvnen. umaRlesi xarisxi ezoTerizms Seesabameboda, ori danarCeni, saSualo da dabali 214

_ egzoTerizms. gnostikosebs miaCndaT, rom egzoTerikosebisTvis moralis sayovelTaod miRebuli normebi sasargeblo da aucilebelic kia, xolo ezoTerikosi anu pnevmatikosi yovelgvari kanonebisagan, maT Soris saxarebis mcnebebisaganac, Tavisufali unda yofiliyo: igi (ezoTerikosi) sikeTesa da borotebaze maRla idga. aqedan Cans, Tu rogor mivyavarT ormag moralamde da relativizmamde swavlebas ori codnis _ rCeulTaTvis da brbosaTvis gankuTvnili codnis Sesaxeb: `profani~ kanons emorCileba, `pnevmatikosi~ ki arafriT aris SezRuduli. saidumlo codna zneobriv planSi yvelafris nebadarTulobad iqceva. gnostikosebis swavlebasTanaa gadaxlarTuli budas igavi sami lotosis Sesaxeb: maTgan erT-erTi wyalSia dafaruli, meore mxolod odnav exeba tbis zedapirs, mesames ki Tavisi yvavilebis furclebi talRebis zemoT gauSlia. buda ambobda, rom wyalqveSa lotosebi is adamianebi arian, vinc ar miiRo swavleba; lotosebi, romlebic zedapirs exebian _ isini, vinc marTalia, miiRo, magram ar esmis es swavleba; wyalszemoT gazrdilebi ki budas WeSmariti mowafeebi arian. elitarul religiaTa ricxvs ekuTvnis brahmanizmic. am swavlebis Tanaxmad, brahmanebi xalxisgan dafarul sibrZnes floben _ isini arian dabadebiT ezoTerikosebi; danarCeni kastebi imisaTvis arseboben, rom brahmanebs emsaxuron, maT religiis mxolod garegnuli formebi SeeferebaT. elitaruli iyo berZnul-romauli warmarTobac. inteleqtualur elitas filosofosTa fena warmoadgenda, garda amisa, adamians misteriebSic SeeZlo okulturi codnis miReba. aq saidumlo gnosisis ori saxe arsebobda: apolonuri ezoTerizmi, rogorc `gve215

lis Zveli sibrZne~ da dionisuri ezoTerizmi, rogorc mSvinvier-vnebiani eqstatikuroba. masonobaSi elitarulobisa da ezoTerizmis principi mkafio sistemad Camoyalibda. masonuri loJa safexurebad aris dayofili, Cveulebriv, esaa 33 safexuri. qveda safexurze myofma adamianma ar icis, ra xdeba umaRles safexurze, ra axali swavlebebi cxaddeba iq. erTi safexuridan meoreze gadasvla axal okultur saidumlosTan gandobisa da iniciaciis saxiT xdeba. aq elitarulobisa da ezoTerizmis principi ukve organizaciis konspiraciulobad iqceva. TeosofosTa swavlebac ezoTerizmisa da egzoTerizmis dapirispirebazea agebuli. Teosofosebi cdiloben yvela religiis kvintesencia monaxon, mere ki religiebi neobudisturi doqtriniT Secvalon. TeosofosTa moZRvreba, budisturis msgavsad, sikeTisa da gulmowyalebisken mowodebiT iwyeba, dasasruls ki qadagebs, rom siyvaruli, iseve rogorc siZulvili, adamianis emociur sferoSi danTqmas iwvevs da amqveyniur yofierebas miajaWvavs, amitom igi unda gaqres da Seicvalos ganurCevlobiTa da gulgrilobiT, sikeTisa da borotebis miRma dadgomiT. zogjer Teosofia zneobriv dualizmamde, maradiulobis gaukuRmarTebul gagebamde, sikeTisa da borotebis gaigivebamde midis; RmerTi da satana erTmaneTs `avseben~, zogjer ki, rogorc elene blavatskaia ambobs, `adgilebs ucvlian erTmaneTs~. blavatskaias araerTxel gaumeorebia, rom Teosofiis mizani satanis reabilitaciaa. ukiduresad ezoTerul swavlebaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba advaita-ioga. meditaciuri TviThipnozi _ `me var absoluti~ da `yofna aryofnis tolia~ _ adamians de216

monuri transis mdgomareobaSi agdebs; samyaros obieqturi myofobis uaryofa ki aTavisuflebs mas eTikisagan, romelic samyarosTan damokidebulebas asaxavs. rogorc vxedavT, ezoTerizmSi ukana planze gadadis anda saerTod ignorirebulia zneobrivi, sulieri srulyofis gza. mas cvlis saidumloTa codna, inteleqtualuri Tilismis floba saxelebis, ricxvebis, mantrebis, Selocvebis saxiT anda moralis nihilisturi uaryofa. qristianobaSi ar arsebobs dafaruli, ar arsebobs saidumloebebi saidumloTa Sesaxeb, aq sulieri wvdoma adamianis zneobazea damokidebuli da ara formulebis, ricxvebisa da saidumlo niSnebis codnaze. kacis cxovrebis wesis mixedviT izrdeba mis mier sulieri samyaros wvdomis SesaZlebloba. saxareba gadaiSleba maTTvis, vinc mas Seasrulebs. qristem am sityvebiT dagmo elitaruloba da ezoTerizmi: `aRgiareb Sen, mamao... rameTu dahfare ese brZenTagan da mecnierTa da gamoucxade ese CCvilTa~ (mT. 11, 25). qristianuli RmerTis Semecneba adamianis sulis mdgomareobazea damokidebuli: `netar iyunen wmidani guliTa, rameTu maT RmerTi ixilon~ (iqve, 5, 8). gansakuTrebul ezoTerul swavlebas warmoadgenda nacizmic. aq ukve rasa gamodis kacobriobis elitisa da ariuli samyaros Zvel saidumloTa mcvelis rolSi. es-esis jalaTebi sagangebo iniciacias iRebdnen okultur-demonuri tibeturi seqtis, `agartis~ xelSewyobiT. niSandoblivia, rom eseselebTan praqtikaSi iyo danergili iniciaciis erT-erTi saxe _ tkivilis daZleva: jalaTi erTi wuTis manZilze gaunZrevlad unda mdgariyo SiSveli masze miSvebuli gaavebuli qofakebis garemocvaSi. amgvari iniciaciebi romSi tardeboda 217

qurumad kurTxevis dros. pompeis erT-erTma freskam Semoinaxa misteriuli suraTi `dionises qurumi qalis kurTxeva~, sadac qalwuls iniciaciis ritualuri xerxebiT awameben. okulturi ezoTerizmis faqts bibliis pirvelsave gverdebze vawydebiT. religias, rogorc RmerTis morCilebas, satana upirispirebs garegnuli sagnis _ nayofis flobas, romlis meSveobiTac adamianma RmerTad qceva, Tavisi yofierebis Tavisufali gamgebloba moindoma. akrZaluli nayofi adams eCveneba Tilismad, romelic mas ucnob da usazRvro Zalebs mianiWebs. ezoTerizmSi ar arsebobs sinanuli, iq codvas arcodnad ganixilaven. sinanulis adgils swavleba ikavebs. codva sulis mier RmerTis dakargva ki ara, sikeTis nakleboba da Semcirebaa, risi anazRaurebac SesaZlebelia, amitom ezoTerikosi iolad urigdeba codvas. ezoTerizmma kaTolikur eklesiaSi SeaRwia da misi struqturis deformireba gamoiwvia. esaa Teokratia da klerikalizmi, esaa sasuliero fenis _ samRvdeloebisa da episkoposebis _ gaTiSuloba xalxisgan. ierarqiis cneba sulier erTianobas gulisxmobs, erTi kibis safexurebs, erTian sxeuls, eklesiis erTian cxovrebas; sxva SemTxvevaSi eklesiis gayofa gardauvalia. kaTolicizmSi ori eklesiaa: erTi, romelic aswavlis (sasuliero fena), meore _ romelic swavlobs, anu xalxi. elitarulobisa da ezoTerizmis erTgvari mwvervalia romis papis ucTomeloba. aq Tanamdeboba da adgili, e. i. garegnuli faqtorebi adamians ucTomelad xdian sarwmunoebis sferoSi, rac magizms waagavs. winaswarmetyvelebi da mociqulebi maSin laparakobdnen, rodesac maTSi suli wmida moqmedebda, aq ki surT aiZulon suli wmida, imoqmedos 218

maSin, rodesac papi daiwyebs laparaks. gamodis, rom papi ki ar aris damokidebuli suli wmidaze, aramed suli wmida _ papze. kaTolicizmi cdilobs Searbilos swavleba papi-adamianis saRmrTo prerogativebis Sesaxeb. iq daSvebulia sxvadasxva wes-gangebis mqone monastrebisa da skolebis farTo avtonomia, opoziciuri Jurnalebi, kritikuli gamosvlebi, rac Tavisuflebis garegnul fasads ki qmnis, magram sayovelTaobis dakargul princips ver cvlis. ezoTerizmma protestantobaSic gaJona. aq elitas mecnierebi, bibliis mkvlevrebi, inteleqtualebi Seadgenen; mistikur seqtebs Soris ki ezoTeristebi arian pietistebi, kvakerebi, irvingianelebi, svedenborgis mimdevrebi da sxv. elitas ganekuTvnebian vizionerebi _ adamianebi, romlebic iolad vardebian transsa da egzaltaciaSi. marTlmadidebeli eklesia daculia elitarulobisa da ezoTerizmisagan, radgan aq ierarqia da eriskacebi erT cocxal sxeuls warmoadgenen: yoveli adamiani pasuxs agebs marTlmadideblobis, dogmatebisa da wesebis siwmindeze (`aRmosavleTis patriarqTa epistoleni~, 1848 w.). marTlmadidebel eklesiaSi cxoneba okultur saidumloTa codnas ki ar niSnavs, aramed suli wmidis moxveWas, amis SesaZlebloba ki yvelas erTnairad aqvs: bavSvsa da filosofoss, mamakacsa da qals, ierarqsa da eriskacs; aq ar arsebobs batonoba, aq aris siyvaruliT msaxureba erTmaneTisa. Tu marTlmadidebel eklesiaSi protestantizmis mistika anda papizmis ampartavneba SeaRwevs, es ukve marTlmadidebeli eklesiis swavleba ki ara, misgan ganvrdoma iqneba. 219

marqsizmi da ideologia

i

seve rogorc yoveli filosofiuri sistema, marqsizmic cdilobs, SeimuSavos da gansazRvros Tavisi swavlebis zneobrivi mxare. amasTan, igi or postulats eyrdnoba: 1. zneobriobas, rogorc adamianis damaxasiaTebel grZnobas _ Tandayolilsa da ucvlels, romelic obieqturad ar arsebobs; 2. imas, rasac adamianebi `sindisis mowmobas~, `zneobriv kanonebs~, sikeTes, samarTlianobas, keTilSobilebas uwodeben; eseni mxolod sazogadoebriv-ekonomikuri Zalebis anarekls warmoadgenen, es Zalebi ki, Tavis mxriv, ubralod warmoebis produqtia da sxva araferi. amiT marqsizmi gvaswavlis, rom cnebebi, romlebic Cven adamianis mTavar ganmasxvavebel niSnebad migvaCnia, pirobiTia, droebiTi da mravalferovani. sakuTar sulSi Cven vgrZnobT maradiul zneobriv kanons da sxva adamianebTan urTierTobaSic amave kanonis arsebobas veyrdnobiT. kacis zneoba rom pirobiTi, cvalebadi da amorfuli iyos, es rom iseTi movlena iyos, romelsac ar gaaCnia mudmivi da myari Sinaarsi, CvenTvis SeuZlebeli iqneboda sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqis kuTvnili literaturuli nawarmoebebisa da saerTod, msoflios xalxebis xelovnebis gageba. xelovnebis safuZvels asaxuli movlenebisa da situaciebis emociuri aRqmisa da TanagrZnobis unari warmoadgens. zneobrivi cnebebi amorfuli rom iyos, es nawarmoebebi 220

CvenTvis daxuruli da daluquli aRmoCndeboda. marqsizmi zneobis evoluciaze saubrobs da ambobs, rom zneoba sawarmoo da sazogadoebrivi struqturebis evoluciazea damokidebuli. magram sinamdvileSi im istoriul monakveTSi, Cveni Tvali rom miswvdeba, sruliadac ver vxedavT zneobriv progress. piriqiT, egoizmi da egocentrizmi, mtruli an gulgrili ganwyoba Cveni droisaTvis ufroa damaxasiaTebeli, vidre gasuli saukuneebisaTvis. Tu zneobriobad sawarmoosazogadoebrivi struqturebis solidarobas miviCnevT, maSin did qalaqebSi, sadac samrewvelo struqturebi da organizaciebi ufro ganviTarebulia da sawarmoo damokidebuleba _ ufro mWidro, zneobis done ufro maRali unda iyos, siyvaruli da urTierTdaxmarebac ufro Zlieri unda iyos, vidre primitiuli warmoebis mqone adgilebSi. Tumca realurad Cven sruliad sapirispiro rames vawydebiT: zneobrivi garemo did qalaqebSi ufro gaxrwnilia, adamianebis urTierToba ki ufro civi da gaucxoebuli. amitom sawarmoo progresi sruliadac ar midis zneobrivi progresis paralelurad, piriqiT, ufro zneobriv regress iwvevs. yvelaze civilizebuli da teqnokratiuli qveynebi gamoirCevian danaSaulobaTa maRali doniT, ojaxebis rRveviT, mSoblebsa da Svilebs Soris mtruli ganwyobiTa da ganxeTqilebiT, adamianebis emociuri gagrilebiT erTmaneTisadmi. amitom marqsizmis postulati zneobis, rogorc sawarmoo urTierTobebis produqtis Sesaxeb, aSkara faqtebs ewinaaRmdegeba. marqsizmi aswavlis, rom zneobriobis kriteriums sazogadoebrivi sargebloba warmoadgens. aq zneobrioba pragmatizmisa da viwro praqticizmis gavlenas ganicdis, anu zneobrivia is, rac sasargebloa. magram 221

xalxi da sazogadoeba, imave marqsizmis swavlebiT, erTgvarovani rodia. ibadeba kiTxva: sazogadoebis romeli nawili warmoadgens mTel sazogadoebas, romeli nawili aRiqmeba, rogorc mTeli xalxi da visa aqvs ufleba, ilaparakos da xalxis magivrad gadawyvitos, ra aris misTvis saWiro da sasargeblo? arsebiTad, marqsizmma zneobriobis Sesaxeb iezuituri Teoria ganaviTara: `mizani amarTlebs saSualebebs~, ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, mizani akurTxebs saSualebebs. esaa apologia danaSaulebisa, romlebic aRar gvevlinebian danaSaulebad, radganac xalxis saxeliT arian Cadenili. marqsistul swavlebaze didi gavlena moaxdina iudaurma qiliazmma (swavleba dedamiwaze RmrTis sasufevlis aTaswliani periodis Sesaxeb). baruqis apokriful wignSi dawvrilebiT aris aRwerili siuxvisa da amqveyniur sikeTeTa meufeba, romliTac marTalni datkbebian, xorblis TavTavebiT dazneqili Reroebi da yurZnis mtevnebi, kaci rom ver moereva asawevad. marqsizmic amqveynad pirdeba adamianebs siuxvis samefos. apokrifebi israelis mtrebis mospobaze laparakoben; marqsizmi klasobrivi mtrebis ganadgurebasa da amis Semdgom xalxis bednier cxovrebas qadagebs: mesiis rols aq TviTon marqsi asrulebs, bibliis rols ki _ `kapitali~. marqsistebis enac ki misanTa qadagebas waagavs: isini sakuTari Tavisadmi usityvo da ucilobel rwmenas moiTxoven. am adamianebs araviTari mtkicebulebebi ar mohyavT, maRalfardovani da utifari toni aqvT, mowinaaRmdegesTan polemikas gaurbian _ maT ubralod lafSi svrian. marqsistebis sayvareli xerxia Tavi ar Seiwuxon oponentebis mier wamoyenebuli debulebebis logikuri 222

analiziT, ubralod, ironiiTa da sarkazmiT _ literaturuli masxaraobiTa da xulignobiT pasuxoben. marqsizmi XIX saukunis miTologiaa, sadac dakarguli `oqros saukune~ pirvelyofil wyobilebas warmoadgens, momavali komunizmi ki _ saturnis mefobis dabrunebas. marqsizmi sakuTar Tavs mecnierul msoflmxedvelobas uwodebs. es msoflmxedveloba TiTqos azris Tavisuflebas unda gulisxmobdes, magram swored azris Tavisuflebisa eSinia marqsizms yvelaze metad, amitom marqsistuli msoflmxedveloba umecrebasa da inkvizicias eyrdnoba. marqsizmisadmi kritikuli damokidebuleba ikrZaleba, rogorc danaSauli, Tanamedrove filosofiuri sistemebis kvleva saxelmwifosaTvis saSiS saqmianobad cxaddeba; adamianebs sTavazoben Seuval WeSmaritebad miiRon marqsizmi da mis qurumTa qadagebas usminon. marqsistuli filosofiis yvelaze susti wertili is aris, rom Tavisi WeSmaritebisa da mniSvnelovnebis yvelaze Zlier, uZlevel da udavo argumentad mohyavs pretenzia, TiTqos misi moZRvreba mecnierulad dasabuTebulia. marqsistebis azriT, maTi sistema, sxva filosofiuri mimdinareobebisagan gansxvavebiT, mecnieruli faqtebisa da Teoriebisagan agebuli myari Senobaa. danarCen filosofiur sistemebs marqsizmi mxolod uniadago logikur abstraqciebad, subieqtur iluzorul warmodgenebad anda sinamdvilis deformirebul aRqmad ganixilavs, sadac WeSmariteba SezRuduli da Seryvnilia gonebrivi da klasobrivi CamorCenilobiT. Tuki marqsizmi mecnieruli msoflmxedvelobaa, igi misi Tanamedrove mecnierebis donezea damokidebuli, xolo vinaidan marqsizmi XIX saukunis SuagulSi gaCnda, Sesabamisad, is 150 wlis winandeli mecnierebis doniT 223

aris ganpirobebuli. Cveni droisaTvis im xanis samecniero monacemebi arazusti da areul-dareuli Cans, mecnieruli Teoriebi ki _ SezRuduli da primitiuli. am Teoriebis umetesoba karga xania, rac mecnierebis istoriis arqivs Cabarda. marqsizmi aswavlis, rom filosofia aris ekonomikur bazisze dafuZnebuli zednaSeni. magram es bazisi Zireulad Secvlilia. maS, rogorRa unda iarsebos haerSi gamokidebulma zednaSenma? hegelianobis kvaldakval, marqsizmi qadagebs, rom yovel Teziss Tavisi antiTezisi aqvs, romelic ebrZvis Teziss da, Zalas rom moikrebs, anadgurebs mas. amasTan, Tezisi da antiTezisi Tvisobrivad icvlebian da xdeba maTi sinTezi. maSin ratomaa, rom marqsizmi, rogorc filosofiis istoriis fenomeni, sakuTar Tavs istoriaze maRla ayenebs da ar uSvebs Tavisi antiTezisis warmoSobas, romelsac Seerwymeboda da Tvisobrivad axal filosofiur sistemad iqceoda, e. i. marqsizmi aRar iqneboda? marqsizmi fardobiT WeSmaritebaze laparakobs, Tumca sityvebi `fardobiToba~ da `WeSmariteba~ SeuTavsebelni arian. fardobiTi WeSmariteba moCvenebiT damajereblobas niSnavs, igi marqsistuli gagebiT WeSmaritebasTan miaxloebis usasrulo process gulisxmobs. magram, jer erTi, es procesi SeiZleba iyos ara marto miaxloeba WeSmaritebasTan, aramed misgan gandgomac _ mecnierebis istoriaSi amis uamravi magaliTi arsebobs. meorec, fardobiT WeSmaritebaSi Cven ver SevZlebT imis garkvevas, ra aris WeSmariteba da ra _ sicrue, radgan praqtika abstraqciisa da ganzogadebis pretenziis mqone Teoriebis Semowmebas ki ara, faqtebis Semowmebas gulisxmobs. amis magaliTia aristarqe samoselis heliocentruli wamodgenebi, romlebic did xniT gandevna samecniero sferodan 224

ptolemeosis geocentrulma sistemam. es ukanaskneli Teoriulad araswori iyo, magram amis miuxedavad, saukuneebis manZilze emsaxureboda adamianebis faqtiur moTxovnilebebs, anu praqtikiT gamocdas gadioda. amas garda, fardobiTi WeSmaritebis cneba Zveli daskvnebisa da koncefciebis ganuwyvetel revizias moiTxovs, radganac codnis moculoba sul ufro izrdeba. maS, am fardobiT WeSmaritebaTa samyaroSi ra fokusis daxmarebiT acxadebs marqsizmi, rom Seuvali WeSmaritebis mflobelia? TviTon marqsizmi aRiarebs, rom igi cariel adgilas ar aRmocenebula da asaxelebs Tavis wyaroebs. magram es wyaroebi didi xnis win yavlgasuli, araswori da arazusti masalaa. rogorRa aigeboda myari Senoba dangrevis piras misuli masalisagan? am logikur xarvezebs sakereblebs adeben marqsis gamorCeuli filosofiuri `ganaTebebisa~ da gamWriaxobis saxiT. magram TviTon materializms mecnieruli intuicia gansakuTrebul gnostikur Zalad ki ar miaCnia, aramed obieqturi faqtebis swrafi sinTezirebis unarad sakuTar qvecnobier fenaSi. marqsizmis swavlebiT, filosofiuri azri mis xelT arsebuli masaliT operirebs. marqsizmi ganviTarebadi kapitalisturi wyobilebis kategoriebiT msjelobs da ara raRac universaluri codnisa da winaswarmetyveluri gamocxadebebis safuZvelze, romlebic gaugebaria, saidan gaCndnen. marqsistuli sistemis xelovnuroba da simaxinje gansakuTrebiT aSkarad Cans eTikis sakiTxebSi. marqsizmisaTvis zneobrivia is, rac sasargebloa, amasTan, sargebloba gulisxmobs ara mTeli kacobriobis, aramed mxolod misi nawilis _ proletariatis interesebs. es sargebloba or nawilad iyofa: 1. momavali keTil225

dReobis utopiuri suraTi, romlisTvisac garkveuli msxverplis gaRebaa saWiro; 2. brZola da revolucia, sadac sargebloba am brZolaSi gamarjvebas utoldeba. amasTan, sxva klasebisa da fenebis interesebi ignorirebulia, xolo radganac amgvar brZolaSi mogebis meti Sansi imas aqvs, vinc yvela saSualebas iyenebs gamarjvebis mosapoveblad, sargebloba sisastikisa da uprincipobis saxes iRebs. Tumca zneobriobas, rogorc cnebas, pirdapir ar uaryofen da xazs ar usvamen, piriqiT, mis eqspluatacias axdenen. zogadsakacobrio tanjvasa da mouwyoblobas marqsistebi `eqspluatatorTa~ garkveuli klasis arsebobas miaweren da zneobrivad imas acxadeben, rac `eqspluatatorebisa~ da im Zalebis mospobas emsaxureba, nebsiT Tu uneblieT am klass rom uwyoben xels anda revoluciuri brZolis msvlelobas aneleben. marqsizmis mier uaryofili religia, arsebiTad, masSive cocxlobs paradoqsuli saxiT. komunizmi aRuTqvams adamianebs samoTxes dedamiwaze, magram ara bibliur samoTxes, aramed apokrifebis samoTxes, yvela grZnobadi siamovnebis TanxlebiT, erTgvar `siuxvis qveyanas~. aq muSaTa klasi mesianur ers warmoadgens, marqsi _ mesias, marqsistebi _ winaswarmetyvelebs, romelTa sityvebsac, rogorc zeciur gamocxadebas, xalxi sityvis Seubruneblad unda emorCilebodes. marqsizmis mtrebs, rogorc bnel Zalas, istoriis tribunali ganadgurebas usjis. dRevandeli kacobrioba momavali kacobriobis saxeliT marqsistuli moloqis samsxverploze unda iqnes mitanili. marqsizmi qadagebs moyvasis _ realurad arsebuli adamianebis _ siZulvils da `Soreuli~, jer ararsebuli adamianebis siyvaruls, anu momavali kacobriobis raRac abstraqciis siyvaruls. 226

marqsizmi amtkicebs, rom sazogadoebriv-politikuri wyoba ekonomikur baziss emyareba. mecniereba, teqnika da warmoeba ganuwyvetliv viTardeba, ekonomikuri bazisi ki icvleba. maSin ratom fiqroben komunizmis Teoretikosebi, rom komunizmi, rogorc sazogadoebrivi wyoba, ucvleli da sabolooa? maTive Teoriis Tanaxmad xom bazisis Secvlas axali formaciebis warmoSoba unda mohyves? komunistebi gaurbian am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemas, isini sayovelTao keTildReobis suraTs xataven da migvaniSneben, rom komunizmis SenarCunebiT yvela unda iyos dainteresebuli. magram Tu es asea, xom viciT, rom marqsizmis swavlebis Tanaxmad, sazogadoebrivi wyoba obieqturi xasiaTis ekonomikuri mizezebisgan yalibdeba da ara adamianebis survilebisgan. am sakiTxis gadasawyvetad marqsistebi uars amboben istoriis `ekonomikuri interpretaciis~ meTodze, romelsac TviTon uweven propagandas da maT mierve uaryofili idealizmis sferoSi gadadian.

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induizmis Sesaxeb

m

ebrZoli aTeizmi mebrZolma induizmma Secvala. kacobriobis religiur-istoriul cxovrebaSi arsebobs erTi faqtori, romlis gansazRvrac SeuZlebelia, magram, amave dros, ufro sarwmunoa, vidre yvela mtkicebuleba da prognozi, rac ar unda zust monacemebs eyrdnobodnen isini. es faqtoria xalxis intuicia, uSecdomod rom miuTiTebs, saidan unda velodeT ubedurebebsa da katastrofebs, romel saidumlo organizaciebSi mzaddeba sabediswero gegmebi, romeli mxridan daecema qristianul qveynebs Tovlis zvaviviT momskdari axali hunebis urdo. Cveni winaprebisaTvis amgvari esqatologiuri tragediebis sfero da wyaro iyo samxreTaRmosavleTi. aRmosavleTi stepia, Tvaluwvdeneli da mudam zRvasaviT mRelvare. am stepSi mtacebel mgelTa xrovebiviT daZrwodnen moxetiale tomebi, uzarmazar manZilebs rom gadiodnen sakvebisa da nadavlis ZiebaSi. maT ar gaaCndaT samSoblo, ufro sworad, maTi samSoblo TviTon es Tvaluwvdeneli stepi iyo. aq ibadebodnen isini karvebSi, bavSvobidanve swavlobdnen cxenze jdomas da mSvild-isris xmarebas. momTabare TiTqos Serwymoda Tavis cxens da kacis enasaviT esmoda misi ena. maT ar hqondaT qalaqebi, ufro sworad, maTi Cardaxiani etlebi da urmebi, TeqiTa da xaliCebiT mofenili, TviTon iyvnen stepSi mogzau228

ri qalaqebi. usityvo stepi ki, rogorc zRva _ mSvidi amindis dros, Tavis wiaRSi qariSxals amzadebda: stepi iyo bude mtacebelTa, Sewyaleba rom ar icodnen. stepis sazRvari iyo mindori, sadac adamianebi miwas amuSavebdnen, wyali gahyavdaT, baRebs rgavdnen, qalaqebs aSenebdnen. uecrad momTabareebi moCvenebebiviT daatydebodnen Tavs qalaqis gareubnebs, Tan nadavli mihqondaT da isev uCumrad qrebodnen udabnoSi, ukan ki daumarxav gvamTa grovebs da naxanZrals tovebdnen. samxreT-aRmosavleTi yvelaze maRali mTebia msoflioSi _ pamiri da himalaebi. isini hgvanan erTierTmaneTze damdgar aTobiT babilonis godols, anda cecxlis lavas, miwis wiaRidan amoxeTqils, zeviT, zecisken rom mieqaneba da, TovliviT TeTr da casaviT lurj yinulad qceuli, Sua gzaSi SeCerebula. pamiri da himalaebi saidumlosaviT utyvni arian da RamesaviT TvalSeudgamni. himalaebis mwvervalebi Tovlian goliaTs hgvanan, romelsac surs cis TaRs miswvdes da iqidan varskvlavebi mowyvitos. wm. andria, qristesaTvis salosi, winaswarmxedveli da winaswarmetyveli, ambobda, rom aleqsandre makedonelma Caketa rkinis karebi aRmosavleTis mTis xeobaSi, xolo soflis aRsasruls es kari gaiReba da uricxvi urdoebi dasavleTisken daiZvrebian. maSin daiwyeba ubedurebebi, kacobriobas jer rom ar unaxavs da ar ganucdia. rkinis kari elinisturi samyaroa, romelic Semdeg qristianobiT iqna ganaTlebuli, am karis ukan ki imaleba Turanis, indoeTisa da tibetis Zveli magiuri warmarToba, mravali saukunis manZilze rom ikrebs Zalebs qristianobasTan sabrZolvelad. aRmosavleTi gobisa da yara-yumis udabnoebia, sadac erTxel ukve Seikriba monRolTa uzarmazari laSqari TemuCinis 229

droSebis qveS, rogorc termitebi _ TavianT miwisqveSa budeebSi. monRolTa urdom dasavleTisaken mimaval gzaze erTmaneTs Seuria xalxebi da tomebi, TiTqos erT mduRare qvabSi Cayara, da ise gadaawyo dedamiwis ruka, rogorc saTamaSo banqos dasta. Cingiz-xani aleqsandre makedonels gautolda, mxolod im gansxvavebiT, rom Tavisi maxvili dasavleTisaken mimarTa. momavali ubedurebebi da kataklizmebi, winaswarmetyvelTa mier uwyebuli, ioane RmrTismetyvelis `apokalifsSi~ sazareli moCvenebebiviT cvlian erTmaneTs, magram arsebobs maTi Semanelebeli Zalac _ qristianoba, amitom demonuri gegmebis Sesasruleblad Tavdapirvelad qristianobas unda gauswordnen, mospon an daamaxinjon igi, datovon qristianobisgan mxolodRa saxeli. msoflios deqristianizaciis globaluri procesi ukve daiwyo. ufalma satanas mtyuari da kacismkvleli uwoda. demonis brZola eklesiis winaaRmdeg xorcieldeba qristianebis devniT, magram, amave dros, sulieri tyuilis _ mwvaleblobaTa da crumoZRvrebaTa gavrcelebiT. es brZola cixesimagris alyas SeiZleba SevadaroT: garegan mters mis WiSkarsa da kedlebze miaqvs ieriSi, qalaqis SigniT ki faruli mtrebi misi gadawvis gegmas adgenen. ukve mociqulebis dros romis saxelmwifo manqana mTeli simZimiT daawva qristianul Temebs. mowameTa sisxli Rvarad moedineboda, rogorc wiTeli Rvino _ sawnaxelis Rarebidan, da amasTan, warmarToba axal dartymasac amzadebda: samariis misan-okultistebsa da frigiis qurumebs Soris gaCnda qristianobis ideologiuri provokacia _ swavleba, romelsac qriste kosmiuri suli-arqontis doneze unda daeyvana da misTvis adgili panTeonis romelime kuTxeSi mieCina. am swavlebis 230

mixedviT qriste Ze RmrTisa ki ara, warmarTuli RvTaeba unda gamxdariyo. saxarebas miTologiuri kosmologiis prokrustes sarecels akravdnen, eklesiis saidumloebebs ki okultur gandobad acxadebdnen _ iseTad, rogoric, vTqvaT, demetrasa da ozirisisadmi miZRvnili qTonuri misteriebi iyo. gnosticizmma miizida warmarTuli samyaros inteleqtualuri Zalebi, magram igi ver daemyno eklesiis sxeuls. ukve pavle da ioane mociqulebi afrTxilebdnen qristianebs mglis maxeebisa da ormoebis Sesaxeb, romlebic warmarTobas maT gzaze hqonda dagebuli. Tumca gnosticizmi ar gamqrala, igi arsebobas montanizmis saxiT ganagrZobda bogomilebis, pavlikianelebis, albigovelebisa da katarebis saxiT, raindTa ordenebis saidumlo loJebSi, `sionis priorTa~ da tamplierTa loJebSi. warmarTobis meore cda qristianul samyaroSi SeRwevisa gaxda moZraoba renesansis, anu aRorZinebis saxeliT _ igulisxmeboda antikurobis aRorZineba. Tu Zvelma gnosticizmma Tavis gzad ZiriTadad filosofia da mistika airCia, renesansma xelovnebas mimarTa. warmarTul samyaros qristianul eklesiebSi unda SeeRwia freskebis, qandakebebis, wmindanTa xatebis saxiT. Tu antikur xalxebs hqondaT sulierebisadmi, `ucnobi RmerTisadmi~ daukmayofilebeli miswrafeba, renesanss swored is surda, rom, rogorc mZime CeqmiT, Tavisi suraTebis materialuri simZimiTa da xorcieli vnebianobiT gaesrisa sulierebis narCenebi. qristes xan apolonad gamosaxavdnen, xan herkulesad. qalwul mariamis saxis dasaxatad naturad iyenebdnen axalgazrda, mxiarul da frivolur romael ymawvilqalebs, zogjer ki TviTon mxatvrebis vnebiani siyvarulis sagnebs. siqstes kapelis kedle231

bze gamoCnda miTiuri personaJebi: mag., qaroni, stiqsis mdinareze micvalebulTa sulebi rom gadahyavs da sxv. xelovneba ufro intimuria sulisaTvis, vidre filosofia. fsevdoqristianul taZarSi suls panTeoni xvdeboda. iq iyvnen warmarTuli RmerTebi, qristes da wmindanebs amofarebulni, da isini adamianis qvecnobierebas kosmiur RvTaebebad, xorcisa da sisxlis zeimad warmoedgina. erT-erTma romaelma mRvdelmTavarma, romelic Tavisi arCevis Semdeg vatikanSi Sevida, uneblieT wamoiZaxa: `RmerTo Cemo, es xom warmarTuli RmerTebia!~ aRSfoTebuli papis sityvebs romis sazogadoeba erTmaneTs gadascemda, rogorc TavSesaqcev anekdots, magram ufro xSirad romis eklesiis saWeTmpyroblebi TviTon afinansebdnen aseT samuSaos ganaTlebuli humanistis saxelis dasamkvidreblad. renesansis xelovneba kaTolikur mesaSi SeiWra da igi operisa da karnavalis melodiebTan daaaxlova. warmarTul samyaroSi taZari TeatrTan iyo gaerTianebuli. Zveli romis yvelaze didi Teatri veneras taZris safexurebze iyo ganTavsebuli. sanam aRorZinebuli warmarTobis am karnavalebze brbos winaSe masxaraobdnen da qristianobas dascinodnen bokaCio, erazm roterdameli, margarita navareli da maRali wris sxva komediantebi, mahmadianuri samyaro ukve uWerda rkinis marwuxebs evropas. reaqciam postrenesansul kaTolikobaze protestantizmisa da luTeranobis formiT saqmes ver uSvela: piriqiT, adamianebis cnobierebaSi kidev ufro meti racionalizmi da gamiwiereba Seitana. dasavleTis qristianebs ar gaaCndaT Zveli eklesiis liturgikuli siRrme. renesansma da protestantizmma niadagi moumzades materializmsa da pozitivizms. 232

dasavleT evropaSi inteligenciis msoflmxedvelobam TandaTan skeptikuri hedonizmis forma miiRo. aRmosavleT evropaSi, romelmac SeinarCuna Zveli gadmocemebi da liturgika, qristianobis miwasTan gasworeba Zneli iyo, amitom masTan brZola Zaldatanebad iqca, XX saukuneSi ki _ aTeistur inkviziciad. ganmeorda warmarTuli devnis dro, magram bevrad uaresi formiT. Tanamedrove saxelmwifoebi romis imperiasTan SedarebiT represiuli da sadazvervo aparatis uzarmazari gantotvilobiT gamoirCeodnen, masobrivi informaciis koncentraciac Seudareblad meti iyo, Sesabamisad, adamianis sazogadoebrivi da piradi cxovrebis kontrolis SesaZleblobac _ gacilebiT didi. amitom eklesias sistematurad, gegmazomierad anadgurebdnen. ara mxolod yovel qalaqSi, yovel sofelSic ki iyo mowameTa sisxliT savse Tavisi kolizeumi. aTeisturma propagandam xelSi aiRo ara mxolod mxatvruli literatura, aramed samecniero gamocemebic, romlebsac araferi hqondaT saerTo raime msoflmxedvelobasTan; am wignebs daRiviT edoT aTeisturi beWedi. eklesiaSi siaruli adamians gariyulad aqcevda sazogadoebaSi, yovel SemTxvevaSi, misTvis uamravi winaRobiT iyo Caxergili yovelgvari sazogadoebrivi da samecniero moRvaweobis gza. religiis mudmiv tabuirebas Tan sdevda dacinva, ciliswameba da abuCad agdeba. am xelovnur sinjaraSi, rogorc alqimikosebis homunkulusi, unda gaCeniliyo axali adamiani, axali sazogadoebis mSenebeli. aTeulobiT wlis manZilze warmoiSva uzarmazari gadamwvari mindori _ sulieri umecrebis udabno. magram adamianSi SeuZlebelia masSi Cadebuli religiurobis grZnobis, saidumlos winaSe mistikuri 233

mowiwebis bolomde aRmofxvra. aTeizmma aRmosavleTSi da pozitivizmma dasavleTSi Seqmnes Rrma sulieri umecrebis da, amave dros, religiisadmi gaucnobierebeli ltolvis atmosfero, romelsac veraferi akmayofilebda: verc siamovnebis kulti _ hedonizmi da verc kulti beladi-zeadamianisa. aTeizmis pirdapirma dartymam amowura Tavisi Zalebi, Tumca Tavisi saqme ki gaakeTa. amjerad yofili qristianuli samyaro mzad iyo warmarTobis axali, Tavisi gaqanebisa da saguldagulod Sedgenili gegmis TvalsazrisiT jer arnaxuli SemotevisTvis. himalaebisa da tibetis WiSkari gaiRo da qristianul _ magram vai, rom ukve araqristianul _ samyaros Tavs daatyda aRmosavluri panTeisturi mistikis, okulturi sistemebis, budisturi, induisturi, Cinuri religiebis nakadi, kabalistikisa da magiis sxvadasxva saxelmZRvanelosTan Sereuli. Semoteva Tavisi masStabebiT aRemateba hunebisa da monRolebis Semosevas. Tu hunebis niaRvari katalaunis1 mindvrebze daiwrita, es Semoseva araviTar dabrkolebas aRar awydeba. evropis dedaqalaqebSi qristianuli taZrebis gverdiT Sendeba Sivasa da budas kerpebi, jvaris nacvlad gandgomili qristianebi gulze amuletebs ikideben TeTri spilos an Sivas terfis saxiT, kabalistur niSnebs, Tilismebsa da demonis gamosaxulebebsac ki atareben. zogierT qristianul qveyanaSi ufro meti aRmosavluri aSrami, kriSnaitebis, budistebis, Sivaitebis Temia, vidre monasteri. Zveli aRmosavluri religiebi evropelTa gemovnebas eguebian. TiTqmis yvela aRmosavluri religia da seqta 1 brZola katalaunis mindvrebze, sadac hunebi ganadgurdnen da bolo moeRo maT warmatebebs.

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TavianT religiur swavlebaSi amorfuli da adogmaturi, bundovani da gamoucnobia, maT xelmZRvaneloben guruebi _ winaswarmetyvelebi, `cocxali RmerTebi~. yovel gurus Tavisi swavleba, Tavisi sistema aqvs da Tavis Tavs aSkaradac rom ewinaaRmdegebodes, es ar iwvevs dapirispirebasa da protests. mowafe amas swavlebis siRrmiT xsnis, romelsac umecarni ver gaigeben. aq kargad mofiqrebuli sistemaa: neoinduizmis moZRvreba (mahaTmebis `gamocxadebebi~) Sinagani winaaRmdegobebiT savse da cvalebadia, amitom misi uaryofa Znelia. Tqven yovelTvis SeiZleba giTxran, rom sworad ver gaigeT gurus moZRvreba, SemogTavazon citata imave gurus wignidan an sityvebidan, romelic sruliad sawinaaRmdegoa msjelobisa, axlaxan rom waikiTxeT. TavianT swavlebebs guruebi warmoadgenen, rogorc `Zvel sibrZnes~, romelic qveyanas maTi meSveobiT euwya. fragmentuli teqstebi, vedebidan, upaniSadebidan da gitadan amoRebuli, maTi komentarebi, siyvarulis, Zmobisa da Tavganwirvisaken rom mogviwodeben, qristianobasTan siaxlovis iluzias qmnian, magram es gamiznulad SeniRbuli moqmedebaa. ufro xSirad aq erTi da igive frazebis gameoreba xdeba sxvadasxva variantiT, maTSi igrZnoba ara sulieri siyvaruli, aramed xelovnurad egzaltirebuli adamianis nervuli agzneba. am frazebSi ar arsebobs gamokveTili azri da struqtura da amaSia maTi sisustec da Zalac. azri SeiZleba daupirispiro mxolod azrs, amgvar swavlebebSi garkveva ki iseve Znelia, rogorc joxiT wylis gayofa. es swavlebebi Zalian hgvanan Cinuri abreSumis fardebs: Tu maT Seexebi, xeli veraviTar winaaRmdegobas ver igrZnobs, xels gauSveb _ da fardebi uwindel formas miiReben. bolos da bo235

los getyvian: `Cven igive gvjera, rac Tqven, oRond ise, rom es gacnobierebulic gvaqvs da gvesmis kidec; Tqven ki, marTalia, uargvyofT, magram igive gwamT, rac Cven, oRond ver acnobierebT amas. Cveni swavleba ezoTerulia, miiReT igi da Tqven ukeT SeicnobT sakuTar religias~. qristianobasTan dakavSirebiT es daaxloebiT ase SeiZleba gavigoT: `Tqven iqnebiT elitaruli qristianebi, oRond qristes gareSe~. Tanamedrove induisturi seqtebis analizi SeuZlebelia maTi medinobisa da bundovanebis gamo, SeiZleba mxolod yvelaze zogadi debulebebis gamoyofa. maTi umravlesoba vedantisa da budizmis swavlebebs eyrdnoba. vedanta da budizmi miwisqveSa wylebia, romlebic filosofiur skolebs, indoeTis mistikur swavlebebs kvebavs, imaTac ki, romlebic TiTqos uaryofen vedebs. induisturi okultizmis avangardi evropaSi `Teosofiuri sazogadoebaa~, romelmac religiebis Tanasworoba aRiara, sinamdvileSi ki budizmsa da brahmanizmzea orientirebuli. am swavlebaTa (vedantisa da budizmis) ZiriTadi postulatebi ase SeiZleba CamovayaliboT: pirveli principuli gansxvavebaa swavleba RmerTis Sesaxeb. yvela Zveli induisturi swavleba kategoriulad uaryofs pirovnul RmerTs. maTTvis RmerTi raRac usaxelo, upirovno sulia, brahmani; mas SeiZleba hqondes uamravi droebiTi personifikacia, niRabi, romlebsac igi ixsnis da kvlav ikeTebs. brahmani yofierebis principia, magram es yofiereba or modalobaSi xdeba: Tvisobrivsa da araTvisobrivSi. Tvisobrivi aris kosmiuri yofiereba, romelsac aqvs ganfeniloba da atributika. araTvisobrivi _ es aris yofiereba yovelgvari Tvise236

bebisa da mravlobiTobis gareSe. RvTaeba absoluturia. amqveyniuri yofiereba iluzia da ocnebebia, patara biWis mier gaSvebuli sapnis buStebia, niRbebis cekvaa. wuTisofeli ukvalod Caivlis, rogorc aCrdilebi da sizmrebi. mTavrdeba droTa cikli _ `brahmas dRe~, iwyeba `brahmas Rame~. samyaro Tavisi xilulobiTa da ricxobriobiT qreba, brahma parabrahmaSi gadadis, sadac yofna aryofnas erwymis: SeuZlebelia Tqma, arsebobs brahma Tu ar arsebobs. Semdeg TviT brahmis SigniT Cndeba qveynierebebis Seqmnis survili. es survili mwifdeba da iqceva kosmiur kvercxad, saidanac Cndeba xiluli ca da miwa. iwyeba `brahmas dRe~. samyaros Sesaqme _ es aris absolutis arasrulyofileba, `codva ucodvelisa~. erTma tibetelma poetma Tqva, Semecneba qmnis qveynierebebs da Semecneba angrevs qveynierebebso. induizmis miTologia, iseve rogorc elinisturi miTologia, kosmiuri Zalebisken aris mimarTuli; momavali iq ar aris, TviT dro ukan ixevs, TiTqos zurgi Seuqcevia istoriis msvlelobisTviso, warsuls ki momavlis adgili daukavebia. Caketil ciklSi, rogorc Caketil wreSi, ar aris da SeuZlebelicaa iyos raime axali, iq mxolod ganmeorebaa. brahmas maradiuloba ganmeorebaTa maradiulobaa. meore swavleba kosmoss Seexeba. esaa brahmas grandiozuli qmnileba, romelic mis ganxorcielebadac SeiZleboda migveRo, sinamdvileSi ki mxolod speqtaklis dekoraciaa. materia sicarielea. msoflio istoriis bolo aqtSi kosmosi qreba cecxlis alSi, ise rom erT muWa ferflsac ki ar tovebs. individualuri, kerZo, piradi da kosmiuri myofoba qreba, rogorc optikuri tyuili. Rame Camodgeba. 237

mesame swavlebaa swavleba adamianis Sesaxeb. es yvelafericaa da araferic. misi suli _ atmani identuria RmrTaebrivi sulis _ brahmanisa, magram adamiani, rogorc individi da pirovneba, ar arsebobs. empiriuli adamiani iluziaa, yovelgvari mravlobiToba _ tyuili, amitom emocia da azri aris tyuilis samyarosTan urTierToba. subieqti, obieqti da siyvaruli, rogorc urTierToba amaT Soris, ar arsebobs. `me var Sen, Sen xar is, anu brahmani~. erTaderTi Rirseuli mdgomareoba aris sakuTari Tavis, rogorc absolutis meditacia. yvela induisturi swavlebis suli da guli aris metemfsiqozi, sulTa gadasaxlebis rwmena. Tuki swavleba `erTiani myofobis~ Sesaxeb anadgurebs eTikas, rogorc sazogadoebriv urTierTobaTa formas, swavleba metemfsiqozisa da reinkarnaciis Sesaxeb spobs cnebas da Sinagan gancdas codvisa, rogorc absolutur sulTan gayrisa. amitom indur TeosofiaSi ar arsebobs sinanuli, rogorc codvis emociuri uaryofa, aris mxolod gansja codvis, rogorc gonebis Secdomis, ucodinrobis, umecrebis Sesaxeb. praqtikulad codva mxolod fexis Senelebaa gardasaxvis gzaze. samoTxe da jojoxeTi ar arsebobs: jojoxeTi amqveyniuri cxovrebaa, samoTxe ki _ misi datoveba. adamiani ramdenime sxeulSi ganixileba: materialurSi, astralurSi, eTerulSi, mentalurSi, magram yvela isini efemerulni arian, realuria mxolod adamianis suli _ atmani. swavleba sulTa gardasaxvis Sesaxeb Seicavs sulieri evoluciis principebs, es ki sruliad ewinaaRmdegeba imas, rac CvenTvis cnobili istoriuli periodis literaturis, istoriis, filosofiis, xelovnebis sferodan viciT: kacobrioba ki ar Rebulobs sulierebas, aramed kargavs mas, ki ar uax238

lovdeba RmerTs, aramed Sordeba. amitom swavleba metemfsiqozisa da reinkarnaciis Sesaxeb niSnavs sulier Cixs kacobriobisaTvis: ara aRmasvla taZris kibeebze, aramed danTqma codvisa da borotebis zRvaSi, satanizmis ufskrulSi, romlis talRebic nel-nela faraven sulierebis ukanasknel kunZulebs. axal guruTa induizmi Tavis TavSi Seicavs aRgznebis xelovnur meTodebs, egzaltacias, cekvebs, Sivas, kriSnas da sxva RmerTebis saxelebis xmamaRal wamoyvirebebs an meditaciur varjiSebs. zogi meditacias locvas adarebs, magram locva aris dialogi sulsa da RmerTs Soris, meditacia ki _ sakuTari Tavisadmi mimarTuli monologi. locvisas, iseve rogorc saubrisas, adamiani simiviT daZabuli unda iyos, raTa misma gulma igrZnos da gaiazros locvis sityvebi. meditaciis dros piriqiT, rekomendebulia sxeulis sruli moSveba, erTgvari Zilis imitacia. adamianma sityvebi unda warmoTqvas monotonurad, saaTis wikwikiviT. esaa avtohipnozis mdgomareoba: kaci sakuTar Tavs mimarTavs. Tu es locvaa, romeli RmerTis mimarT aRevlineba igi? sakuTari `me~-s mimarT, romelic mis qvecnobierTan aris gaigivebuli. budizmis filosofia aris swavleba Sinagan fsiqologiur mdgomareobebze. budizmis asketizmi _ esaa adamianis emociuri, inteleqtualuri Sinaarsis mospoba, magram ara msoflio sulSi _ brahmaSi CaZirviT, aramed yofierebis vakuumSi _ nirvanaSi danTqmiT. sxvaTa Soris, budizmSi, romelic uaryofs RmerTs, gaCnda swavleba TviT budaze, rogorc umaRles RmerTze. zogi TvalsazrisiT igi istoriuli sakia-munia, gautama, sxvebis Tanaxmad _ raRac kabalisturi adam kadmonis msgavsi; oRond Tuki kadmoni qveynis arqetipi da masalaa, kosmi239

uri buda qveynierebis myofobis principia, anu uaryofa im nirvanisa _ sruli vakuumisa, romelsac sakia-munis swavleba qadagebda. ra izidavs Tanamedrove evropels induistur swavlebaTa Wrel konglomeratSi? utilitarizmi da pragmatizmi. ioga mokaSkaSe reklamebSi sTavazobs adamians okulturi Zalebis ganviTarebas, sakuTari Tavis flobas (rac Tanamedrove biznesmenisTvis aucilebelia), sxvebze zemoqmedebas, gankurnebas im sneulebebisgan, romlebsac oficialuri medicina ver kurnavs, zogjer ki iqamdec midian, rom amqveynad samudamo cxovrebasa da samudamo axalgazrdobas pirdebian adamianebs. unda iTqvas, rom ioga iyenebs tradiciul indur gimnastikas (xaTxa-iogas), romlis msgavsic aqvT Cinelebsac da Zvel sparselebsac. kriSnaizmis hedonizmi Tavisi grZnobadi wes-CveulebebiTa da meditaciebiT, yovelgvari sazogadoebrivi normisagan gaTavisuflebisken mowodebiT mimzidvelia adamianebisaTvis, romlebic cxovrebis azrs siamovnebaSi xedaven, radgan es siamovneba religiuri kultis xarisxamde ahyavT. mistika cxoveli RmerTisadmi siyvarulis gareSe magiisa da okultizmisken mimavali gzaa, romelsac zogierTi seqta gvTavazobs. adamianis sulieri ampartavnebis grZnobas yvelaze metad exmianeba vedantis swavleba imis Sesaxeb, rom adamiani aris absoluti, romelic ver acnobierebs Tavis Tavs. gavixsenoT, rom satanisa da adamis pirveli codva iyo swrafva samyaroSi RmerTad damkvidrebisaken, rom momavali antiqriste aiZulebs msoflios xalxebs Tayvani scen mas, rogorc RmerTs. vedantis meditacia imeorebs luciferis codvisa da da240

cemis ambavs, ramdenime sityvad Sekruls: `me var da ara ars sxua RmerT Cemsa gareSe~ (2 sj. 32, 39). Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi cxovrebisagan daRlilobis grZnobas, unebisyofobas, sulis pasiurobas adamianebi xSirad TviTmkvlelobamde mihyavs, anda gamosavals sulier TviTmkvlelobaSi, aryofnisaken umtkivneulod gadasvlaSi eZieben. swavlebas RmerTze, rogorc kosmiur an zekosmiur upirovno Zalaze, umaRles gonebaze, Semoqmed sawyisze teqnologiuri saukunis adamiani, romelic manqanebsa da meqanizmebs Soris cxovrobs, ufro advilad Rebulobs, vidre cocxali RmerTis ideas. magram yvelaze mTavari qristianobis ucodinrobaa, ucodinroba uzarmazari mdinarisa, romlis napirze sxedan da wyurviliT ixocebian: erTni _ imitom, rom ar sjeraT, Tu am mdinareSi wyalia, meoreni _ imitom, rom ar surT daixaron wylis dasalevad _ ar surT daimdablon TavianTi ampartavani suli da sinanulis gziT miiRon saukuno cxovreba.

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udizmi aris religia uRmerTod, sikvdilisa da sulieri TviTmkvlelobis daxvewili filosofia. buda didi mxatvaria, romelmac saocari fsiqologiuri Zalis suraTi daxata: kosmiuri arseboba rogorc msoflio tragedia, kacTa cxovreba _ `wamebis baRi~, sadac yvavilnarSi gvelebi daZvrebian, abreSumis xaliCebis qveS ki jalaTis xmali da marwuxebia damaluli. budizmis mizani utilitarulia: adamiani unda gaTavisufldes tanjvisagan, romelsac indoeli brZeni yofierebasTan aigivebs. yofierebis ukiduresi da yovlismomcveli kriticizmis gzaze budizmma adamianis azrovnebis saboloo zRvars miaRwia da iq, aryofnis ufskrulis piras, monusxuliviT Sedga. budizmisaTvis ar arsebobs xidi or napirs _ drosa da maradisobas Soris, igi uaryofs RmerTTan Tanaziarebas, rogorc kacobrivi SezRudulobis gadalaxvas absolutur yofierebaSi gadasvlis gziT da filosofiuri skepticizmis doneze rCeba. budizmisaTvis sicocxle sikvdilia, xolo sikvdili _ sicocxle. sakia-munis qadageba ganwiruli sazogadoebis samaresTan aRvlenili rekviemia. Zen-budizmi Soreuli aRmosavleTis budizmis erTerTi Stoa. igi waagavs qrizanTemebis Taiguls, garegnulad mSveniers, magram usunos. Zen-budizmi SeiZleba gan242

vixiloT, rogorc aRmosavluri pietizmis Taviseburi reaqcia budisturi filosofiis elitarulsa da daxvewil inteleqtualizmze. es indoCinuri hibridi daosizmis gavleniT gaCnda, romlisganac Zenma gadaiRo formaluri logikis filosofiuri sistemebisa da cnebiTi kategoriebis ugulebelyofa, budizmsa da vedizmSi rom aris gavrcelebuli. Zeni amreziT ekideba yovelgvar samecniero da sazogadoebriv saqmianobas, sizifes unayofo Sromad da msoflio harmoniis darRvevad miiCnevs mas. Zen-budizmis mizania adamianis sakuTari Tavisaken mibruneba TviTWvretis gziT. WeSmariteba ZenisTvis sulis moZraobaa, romelic raRaciT bavSvis yvirils waagavs da yovelgvar azrsa da emociaze ufro Rrmad devs. azri, rogorc myari cneba, Zen-budizmisaTvis sicruea. WeSmariteba TiTqos qvecnobiers amoaqvs refleqsiis zedapirze, meditacia mxatvar-impresionistis funjia, romlis meSveobiTac qvecnobieri uecar, moulodnel Canaxats qmnis refleqsiis tiloze. Zen-budizmis klasikur budizmTan damokidebuleba raRaciT platonizmTan Zveli cinikosebis damokidebulebas mogvagonebs. Zen-budizmi garkveulad egzistencializms exmaureba, magram Tuki es ukanaskneli adamians ganixilavs iseTad, rogoric igi aris, yvela Tavisi empiriuli da fsiqikuri ganzomilebiT, Zeni mas TviT adamianis sulis bnel siRrmeSi daeZebs, pirvelyofil qaoss rom waagavs. Zen-budizms garegnuli analogiebi eZebneba plotinis inteleqtualuri TviTuaryofis eqstazTan. magram plotinisTvis gamartivebis gza inteleqtualuri aristokratizmis gzaa, TviTuaryofamde rom midis filosofiuri Semecnebis savsebis meSveobiT, romlis 243

miRmac gasaocari ufskrulia arcodnisa; Zen-budizmi ki ufro aristokratiuli esTetizmia, igi uaryofs logikuri azrovnebis arasrulyofilobasa da pirobiTobas rogorc dialeqtikur, ise metafizikur aspeqtSi. Zeni nel-nela ki ar arRvevs filosofiuri azris maqmanebs, aramed erTi xelis mosmiT wyvets _ obobas qseliviT, xels rom uSlis fanjridan sinaTlis Semosvlas. azri Zen-budizmisaTvis ucabed ganaTebas waagavs da uecari mignebis xasiaTs atarebs. igi fardas xdis qvecnobiers, raTa eleqtronis sadeniviT gaaSiSvlos Tavisi `me~, aqedan modis paradoqsebis, saTqmelis bolomde uTqmelobis, mokle aforizmebis, dacinvisa da salosobis siyvaruli. Zeni CineTSi aRmocenda VI saukunis dasawyisSi, mis fuZemdeblad iTvleba bodhidharma _ es Taviseburi indoeli diogene. VI-VIII saukuneebSi Zen-budizmi iaponiaSi gavrcelda da iq, samuraebis qveyanaSi, dasrulebuli saxe miiRo. Zen-budizmi mxolod religiuri fenomeni rodia, man mTeli skola Seqmna literaturaSi, filosofiasa da xelovnebaSi. misi mizania iluzoruli, garegnuli yofierebis gadatana sakuTar TavSi Caketil yofierebaSi, romelic aryofnis velidan gamomdinareobs da romelSic gamqralia yofierebasTan dakavSirebuli cnebebi da Tvisebebi, e. i. formis mospobis gziT pirdapir arsze, yofierebis sufTa energiaze gadasvla xdeba yofierebis ganmsazRvreli kategoriebis gareSe. `ra aris Zen-budizmi?~ hkiTxa mowafem maswavlebels da pasuxad lazaTiani aliyuri miiRo. am naklebad filosofiuri JestiT maswavlebelma daanaxa mowafes, Tu ra Caidina man Tavisi SekiTxviT: Seuracxyo Zenis arsi, romelic imaSi mdgomareobs, rom uSualos SualobiTi 244

formiT (sityviT) Secnoba SeuZlebelia. uSualoSi igulisxmeba subieqtis damokidebuleba obieqtis mimarT, `me~-si – imasTan, rac `me~ ar aris, agreTve sakuTar TavTan. amasTan, subieqtisa da obieqtis, rogorc gnostikuri cnebebisa da kategoriebis filosofiuri analizi sruliad gamoiricxeba. Zeni niSnavs `gonebis Semokrebas, asketur pozas~. asketi isea Casafrebuli sakuTari qvecnobierebis ufskrulTan, rogorc kata _ Tagvis sorosTan, da iWers Tagvs _ Tavisi `me~-s yvelaze Rrma impulss, romelic zedapirze amotivtivda, amasTan, wmends mas garegnuli qerqisgan _ imisgan, rac `me~ ar aris. Zenis maswavlebelma, filosofiuri skolebisa da logikuri sistemebis tyeSi gamozrdilma beberma mgelma Tavis moswavleebs Talgami uCvena da hkiTxa: `ra aris es?~ siCume Camovarda, mxolod erT-erTi mowafe wamodga da uTxra: `maswavlebelo, momeci erTi da SevWam~. garSemo sicili atyda, magram maswavlebeli aRtacebuli darCa pasuxiT: mowafem obieqti garegani, vizualuri planidan miznobrivSi gadaitana da uSualo gancdad aRiqva igi. Talgamis, rogorc TvisebaTa jamis aRwera gonebis Wyleta iqneboda, mowafem ki igi Tavisi Sinagani cxovrebis faqtad aqcia. is, rom TalgamiT gamomZRari adamiani ukve sxva pasuxs gascems am SekiTxvas, maswavlebels naklebad ainteresebs _ mTavari meTodia. Zens xom pirovnebasTan ki ara, efemerul individualobasTan aqvs saqme, romelsac ganuwyvetliv medin nakads adarebs. XX saukuneSi, ukiduresi individualizmis, kulturisa da filosofiis dekadansis epoqaSi Zen-budizmi gavrcelda ara marto aziis qveynebSi, aramed sxva kontinentebzec. budisti ise gadadis nirvanaSi, rogorc transis mdgomareobaSi, Zen-budizmSi ki TviTon cxovre245

ba aRiqmeba nirvanas prizmaSi ukiduresi gamartivebis meSveobiT. Zen-budistisaTvis yofna iqidan iwyeba, sadac qvecnobieris `me~ ukve aRar iyofa, Tundac es `me~ nulis toli wertili anda energetikuli vakuumi iyos. magram `me~ ganuyoflad iq aRiqmeba, sadac analitikuri azri mTavrdeba, sadac azris safarveli aRar arsebobs, anu uxeSi instinqtebisa da faqizi kosmiuri intuiciis sfero iwyeba. amitom filosofiisa da xelovnebis planSi Zeni Tavis TavSi aTavsebs veluri bavSvis vulgarulobas da daxvewili dekadentis esTetizms. xelovnebis sferoSi misi intuitivizmi meditaciur impresionizmSi anda asociaciur simbolikaSi gadadis. Zen-budizmi budisturi superegzistencializmia, budizmia budas gareSe, adogmaturi swavlebaa, igi arc gardamocemas cnobs, arc sarwmunoebis simboloebs; es aris adamianis poezia (ufro zustad, `xma~), Tanac uSualo adamianisa, romelic Tavisufalia yovelgvari wesebisa da pirobiTobebisgan, avtoritetebisa da maswavleblebisagan da, rac mTavaria, Tavisufalia sakuTari azrisagan, rogorc Semecnebis garegnuli formisagan. esaa saocari trfoba sakuTari bneli qvecnobierisadmi, Tavis TavSi danTqma, meditacia iseT siRrmeze, sadac yofna aryofnasTanaa gaigivebuli. Tu sakia-munis budizmi elitarulia, bodhidharmas budizmi anarqiulia. bodhidharma mTvrali budaa. misi kultia dacinva, damangreveli Zala nebismieri avtoritetisa, maT Soris budasic; dacinva, romelic mimarTulia yovelgvari pirobiTobis, maT Soris sakuTari Tavis winaaRmdegac. aq aris raRac msgavseba froidizmTan, magram Tu froidizmi qvecnobieris niSnebis aRmoCenasa da gaSifvras cdilobs, Zeni Serwymulia maTTan. Zeni ganzrax infantilurobamde 246

misuli miswrafebaa gaubraloebisken. xelovnebaSi esaa is simboluri primitivizmi, romelSic erTi xazi, funjis erTi mosma mTeli suraTis magivrobas wevs. esaa anarqistuli swavleba, magram sociologiuri da filosofiuri eqskursebis gareSe, esaa carieli asparezi dauokebeli TviTSemoqmedebisaTvis, sadac, gadanergili xesaviT, mSvenivrad xarobs nasesxebi filosofiur-eTikuri sistemebic, oRond ara rogorc daskvnebi, aramed rogorc gamonaTqvamebi. esaa sicocxlis arad Cagdeba da formis darRvevisaken swrafva, oRond ise, rom Sinaarsi gadarCes, ufro sworad, formis damsxvreviT moipovon Sinaarsi, rogorc kvercxis naWuWs texen misi gulis amosaRebad. esaa filosofiis siZulvili da, amave dros, filosofiuri paradoqsebis siyvaruli, yofierebis arad Cagdeba da aryofnis winaSe mowiweba, budisturi gulgriloba TviT budas mimarT, yvelafrisagan Tavisufleba araraobis saxeliT, mowafeebi umaswavleblod, swavleba TviT swavlebis gansazRvrebis gareSe, ukugdeba safuZvlis gareSe da uaryofa mtkicebis gareSe _ esaa alogikuri logika imisa, rom samyaro mxolod iluziaa. Zenis ironia da dacinva, yofierebisadmi mimarTuli, mayureblis sicilia Tojinebis TeatrSi, xolo meditacia _ sakuTari qvecnobieris siRrmeSi danTqma da iqidan laparaki, oRond msubuqi qaragmiT, tuSis mosmas rom waagavs iaponur miniaturaze. mainc vina var `me~? Zen-budizmi am kiTxvaze pasuxs ar iZleva. socialuri adamianisagan igi empiriulisaken midis, empiriulisgan _ qveempiriulisken, iracionalurisken, sadac yofierebis RerZi aryofnisas erwymis. Zeni aris gonebis Semokreba, poza da meTodi sulis bnel kunWulebze dakvirvebisaTvis, sadac gaurkveveli 247

impulsebi Cndeba da CrdiliviT bundovan qaragmebSi gadadis. es qaragmebi piTias winaswarmetyvelebad aRiqmeba, mere ki dacinvis qar-cecxlSi tardeba, raTa isini gaqvavebul formebad ar iqcnen da TavianTi avtoritetiT ar dagvTrgunon. es intuitivizmi ki ar aris, rogorc realuri Zala da sulis Tviseba, aramed ufro filosofiuri impresionizmi, rogorc sulis amosxltoma. Zen-budizmi aRmosavluri cinizmia: akritikebs ra faseulobaTa sistemas, rogorc iluzias, mas uaryofis gziT moCvenebiT Tavisuflebamde _ nulis Tavisuflebamde mivyavarT. budizmis msgavsad, Zeni ar iZleva pasuxebs cxovrebis ontologiur sakiTxebze. RvTaeba misTvis ar arsebobs, iseve rogorc pirovneba, yofna borotebasTan aris gaigivebuli. Tu budizmi msoflio borotebisagan xsnas aristokratiul ganurCevlobasa da ama soflis arad CagdebaSi, mis emociur uaryofaSi xedavs, Zenbudizmis Tavdacvis forma isaa, rom msoflio tragedias msoflio komediad aqcevs. `vin aris sakia-muni~? ikiTxa maswavlebelma. `jagrisi sazogadoebriv tualetSi~, _ upasuxa mowafem. magram ratom ewodeba Zens budizmi? imitom, rom igi ar scildeba samyaros budisturi uaryofis sazRvrebs, imitom, rom yvela arsebul sistemaze ufro mtkiced da kategoriulad uaryofs ama sofels da yofnas borotebasTan aigivebs. Zen-budizmi sikvdilis religiaa, es swavleba gverds uvlis adamianis sulsa da samSvinvels da akvirdeba mis instinqtebs _ ise, rogorc patara biWi uWris Tojinas mucels da mis SigniT Tivasa da bambas aRmoaCens. Zen-budizmis sicili igivea, rac damsxvreuli foladis xarxari salvador dalis apokalifsur tiloebze. Zen-budizmi gaxlavT religia esTeti-samuraebisa, 248

romlebic uSiSrad iswrafvian sikvdilis Sesaxvedrad. es ganwirulTa religiaa. marTlmadideblobisagan Sors mdgomi adamianebi yvelaze xSirad am SekiTxvebs gvisvamen: SeiZleba Tu ara Zenis Sedareba qristianobasTan qristes gareSe? ar arsebobs qristianoba qristes gareSe. ieso nazareveli aris cocxali guli axali aRTqmisa. Zeni uaryofs pirovnul RmerTs, suls, rogorc ukvdav substancias, pirvelqmnil codvas, gamoxsnasa da gamomxsnels, adamianisa da samyaros momaval feriscvalebas, anu mTel qristianul moZRvrebas. Zeni adogmaturi da amorfulia, amitom Tavisuflad SeuZlia gamoiyenos zogierTi qristianuli termini, romlisTvisac evropels yuri aqvs SeCveuli, oRond Zeni am terminebSi sul sxva, budistur azrs debs. ras warmoadgens Zenis meTodologia? Zeni uSualo Semecnebas mimarTavs, magram meditaciur formulebs iyenebs, romlebic misive principebiT TiTqos miuRebeli unda iyos asketis sulisaTvis. vinaa Tavdebi, rom aseTi meditacia sulis Sinaarsis sublimacias moaxdens da ar Seqmnis ampartavnebisa da vnebebis qseliT dafarul axal fsiqikur kompleqsebs? Zenbudistebi wes-Cveulebebs uaryofen, magram amave dros egzotikuri dekoraciebiT rTaven TavianT skolebsa da monastrebs. vin aris `erTi, yovlismwvdomi buda~ Zenis mixedviT? es ar aris kosmosis arqetipi, adam kadmonisa da kaba249

listebis swavlebis msgavsi da, miT umetes, arc preistoriuli buda gautama. è`erTi buda~ antiyofierebis principia, romelic yofierebis yvelaze Rrma fenebSi devs. es ufro `budisturi Sivaa~, oRond personifikaciisa da miTologiis gareSe. is aris ara `vin~, aramed yvelgan myofi `arara.~. rogor xorcieldeba Zeni asketur praqtikaSi? Zeni, anu Cinurad `Cani~, rogorc vTqviT, niSnavs pozas, asketur xerxs, gonebis Semokrebas. asketi zis lotosis pozaSi, fexebi Sekecili aqvs da saxiT kedliskenaa mibrunebuli, kedeli Savad aris SeRebili. Savi feri cisartyelas ferebs ar Seicavs, igi nTqavs ferebs, magram ar ireklavs, esaa kosmiuri da fsiqikuri sicarielis simbolo. amasTan, asketi drodadro budas saxels axsenebs, magram gulisxmobs kosmiur budas. xandaxan igi mokle aforizmebs imeorebs meditaciis gasaRrmaveblad, ufro xSirad ki dums da Wvrets Sav fers, rogorc aqcedenturi (substanciis armqone) yofierebis ararsebobas. azrisa da survilebisagan daclili, carieli suli Tvisebebisa da xarisxisagan daclil ufskruls _ aryofnas unda Seerwyas. magram TviTfiqsaciis mdgomareobaSi suli gamocxadebad Rebulobs Tavis bnel, gadabrunebul mxares da im kosmiuri sulebis impulsebs, romlebsac igi xvdeba Tavis gzaze `arsaiT~. qristianuli mistika sicarielisa da sikvdilis am sulebs demonebs uwodebs, xolo xatweruli tradicia maT Savi feriT gamosaxavs.

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vens Tanamedroveebs warmarToba miTebis anTologiad, Zveli adamianis fantaziiT Seqmnil zRaprul qveynad, religiur romantikad anda daxvewili esTetikisa da xelovnebis samyarod warmoudgeniaT, dRemde rom STaagonebs mxatvrebsa da poetebs. magram wminda mamebis, qristianobis apologetebisa da mistikosebisTvis warmarToba kacobriobis sulieri katastrofa iyo, WeSmariti RmerTis dakargva da Tayvaniscema demonuri Zalebisa, romlebic warmarTuli RmerTebis saxelebiTa da niRbebiT evlinebodnen adamianebs. es iyo Savi, damangreveli energiis samyaro, bneleTisa da sulieri SeSlilobis sfero, sadac RmrTaebrivi logosis naTeli ver aRwevda. qristianebisTvis warmarTuli bomonebi arqeologiuri muzeumebi, samxatvro galereebi an Tilismebis bazroba rodi iyo, aramed satanuri Zalebis Savbneli sadgomi, sulieri vampirebis garemo, romlebic ise cxovrobdnen am kerpebSi, rogorc qvis sxeulebSi da adamianebisgan msxverplsa da Tayvaniscemas iRebdnen. eseni iyvnen Zveli samyaros gamoucnobi binadrebi, romelTa namdvili saxe yvelaze uSiSar vaJkacebsac ki Zrwolas mohgvrida. 251

zevsis uzarmazari bomoni pergamonSi da serapisisa _ egvipteSi, fidiasis qandakebasaviT daxvewili artemidas taZari efesoSi qristianTa sulier Tvals satanis koSkebad da sasaxleebad warmoudgeboda, sadac dacemuli angelozebi kacobriobis daRupvis gegmebze saTaTbirod ikribebodnen. qriste satanis meufebis dasamxobad movida soflad. es Tavisi demonuri intuiciiT igrZno warmarTulma samyarom da daarsebis dRidanve dauwyo brZola eklesias. satana erTimeoris miyolebiT Tavs atexda qristianobas aTasgvar devnas, TiTqos surda sisxlis nakadulebSi CaexrCo eklesia da wamebis cecxliT amoeSanTa kacTa gulebidan qristes saxeli. magram qristianobis yvelaze saSiSi mtrebi arc sastiki imperatorebi da qurumebi iyvnen, arc sisxls mowyurebuli brbo, aramed mwvalebeli gnostikosebi, faruli warmarTebi, romlebic TavianTi cru swavlebebiT acdunebdnen qristianebs da ganaSorebdnen maT eklesias. gnostikosebi cdilobdnen qristianobisa da warmarTobis SeerTebas da TavianT fantastikur sistemebSi qristesa da warmarT RmerTebs erTi sawyisis emanaciebad da eonebad warmoadgendnen. gnosticizms rom gaemarjva, qristianoba warmarTobas Seereoda da masTan asimilaciis msxverpli gaxdeboda... eklesia gansacdelTa cecxlidan oqrosaviT gamoxurvebuli gamovida. gnosticizmi damarcxda, magram ki ar gamqrala, aramed okultur-Teosofiur swavlebebad gardaisaxa. Teosofia lirikuli sevda rodia antikuri xanis gamo, raRac `mistriuli kavSiris~ filosofosTa nostalgiis msgavsi, aramed warmarTobidan qristianul samyaroSi Semogdebuli troas cxeni. 252

winamdebare narkvevSi gvsurda mogveca mokle cnobebi Teosofiis Sesaxeb. am amocanis sirTule is gaxldaT, rom Teosofia aris swavlebaTa da SexedulebaTa mTeli konglomerati. maTi diferencirebis saSualeba Cven ara gvaqvs, amitom Teosofiis ZiriTad principebze, tendenciebsa da meTodebze msjeloba varCieT. amasTan, yuradReba gavamaxvileT blavatskaias moZRvrebaze, rogorc Tanamedrove Teosofiis damaxasiaTebel movlenaze. Cveni narkvevis mizania daexmaros qristianebs Teosofiis demonuri arsisa da antiqristianuli mimarTulebis SecnobaSi. ra aris Teosofia? sityva `Teosofia~ berZnulidan iTargmneba rogorc saRmrTo sibrZne. am pretenziuli saxelwodebiT iniRbeba Tanamedrove warmarToba, romelsac qristianobis damxoba da eklesiis adgilas panTeonis _ `yvela RmerTis taZris~ ageba aqvs ganzraxuli. TviTon TeosofosTa ganmartebiT, es aris swavleba, romelic iswrafvis msoflio religiaTa erTianobis gamovlenisaken, raTa isini erT, universalur sistemad Camoayalibos. rogor afasebs Teosofia qristianobas? qristianoba, pirvel yovlisa, aris mowmoba soflad mosuli macxovris, Ze RmrTisas Sesaxeb, romelic gaxda Ze kacisa da Tavi Tvisi dasdo msxverplad kacTa codvebisaTvis. Teosofia akninebs qristes religiuri reformatoris donemde, uwodebs ra bundovansa da amorful sityvas _ `gandobili~. TeosofosebisTvis qristianoba regionalur-istoriuli religiaa, romelzec, maTi az253

riT, kacobriobam metismetad didi xniT SeaCera Tavisi yuradReba. Teosofiis damokidebuleba qristesTan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania qristianisTvis, romelic am koncefciaSi garkvevas cdilobs. Tu SeiZleba, cota ufro konkretulad CamoayalibeT Tqveni azri azri. Teosofia aris warmarTobis recidivi qristianul samyaroSi. aq Cven jerjerobiT vlaparakobT blavatskaias `Teosofiur sazogadoebaze~ da ara msoflio religiebis istoriaSi arsebul sxvadasxva Teosofiur mimdinareobebze. blavatskaia da misi mimdevrebi iZulebulebi iyvnen Tu ara qristes mxurvale rwmenisaTvis, romelic qristianul regionebSi SedarebiT minelebulia, qristianuli tradiciisaTvis mainc gaewiaT angariSi: es tradicia sulier faseulobaTa garkveul skalas wrmoadgens, romelic am qveynebSi jer kidev ar aRmofxvrila. amitom Teosofosebi malavdnen TavianT antiqristianul ideebs da maT Sesaxeb mxolod TanamoazreTa viwro wreSi anda megobrebisadmi miweril kerZo werilebSi laparakobdnen. farTo masebisaTvis gankuTvnil popularul literaturaSi isini keTilganwyobilni iyvnen qristianobis mimarT, magram cdilobdnen mkiTxvelisaTvis CaegonebinaT, rom arsebobs qristianobis ori saxe: garegani (egzoTeruli) anu eklesiuri, romelic garkveuli doqtrinisagan da wes-Cveulebebisagan Sedgeba, da Sinagani (ezoTeruli), romliskenac Teosofias mivyavarT. cnobierebis damuSavebis gaazrebuli sistema, romelsac Teosofosebi iyeneben, SeiZleba SevadaroT skolas, sadac yovel klass Tavisi programa aqvs. pirveli klasis amocanaa dogmaturi da saekle254

sio swavlebis diskreditacia. axalbedebs esaubrebian raRac Rrma, `uvicebisaTvis~ miuwvdomel, saidumlo qristianobaze. qristes cxovrebas isini alegoriulad ganmartaven: jvarcmas erTgvar fsiqologiur dramad warmoadgenen, aRdgomas _ Sinagan aqtad, romelic adamianis sulSi xdeba, istoriuli qristes adgils ki raRac usaxuri qriste iWers. meore klasSi qristianobas ufro ubodiSod eqcevian, magram mainc sakmaod frTxiloben, msxverpli rom ar SeaSinon, sanam igi sabolood gaexveodes badeSi. aq aswavlian, rom yovel ersa da yovel epoqas Tav-Tavisi `mxsnelebi~ hyavs: ieso qriste utoldeba budas, zoroastrs, piTagoras, muhameds, induri da Cinuri okulturfilosofiuri sistemebis damaarseblebsa da tibetel mahaTmebs. amis paralelurad xdeba aRmosavluri magiis gacnoba, tardeba praqtikuli mecadineobebi okultizmsa da iogaSi. adamiani TandaTan SehyavT demonur ZalTa velSi, romelic damangrevlad moqmedebs mis fsiqikaze; igi iRebs demonuri mdgomareobis gamocdilebas da amis Sedegad Sinaganad ganudgeba qristes, Tundac Tavi formalurad qristianad miaCndes. qristianobis Secnoba niSnavs eklesiis cxovrebaSi CarTvas, dogmatebis miRebas saRmrTo gamocxadebad, RmerTTan ziarebis gancdas sakuTar mistikur gamocdilebaSi, romelic, Tavis mxriv, eklesiis gamocdilebas eyrdnoba; qristianobis Secnoba niSnavs cxovrobde qristian moRvaweTa nawerebis xelmZRvanelobiT _ im moRvaweTa, romlebmac demonur ZalebTan da sakuTar vnebebTan sulieri brZolis gza ganvles. TeosofiaSi amis SesaZlebloba gamoricxulia. qristianul mistikasa da sinanulis locvas warmarTuli himnebis mantrebi, iogTa asanebi da praqtikuli magiis 255

xerxebi cvlis. am Tvalsawieridan qristianoba usicocxlo, civ doqtrinad gamoiyureba. Teosofia cdilobs yovelgvari religiuri sistemisagan gancalkevebul, maTze maRla mdgom sistemad warmoaCinos Tavi, sinamdvileSi ki saxecvlili budizmiTa da SivaizmiT ikvebeba, xolo kosmologia da anTropologia, emblemebi da wesCveulebebi, praqtikuli xerxebi da meditacia himalaisa da tibetis `wminda~ wignebidan da tradiciebidan aqvs nasesxebi. am sulier velSi CarTuli adamianisTvis vedantisa da upaniSadebis, budasa da lao-Zis swavlebani ufro axlobeli xdeba, vidre qristianoba. Semdeg klasSi mowafeebs Caagoneben, rom qriste TeosofosTaTvis saerTod ar aris ieso nazareveli, aramed `gandobilTa~ pirobiTi saxelia, rom qriste SeiZleba gaxdes yoveli adamiani, vinc garkveul sulier xarisxs miaRwevs. amis Semdeg axlad moqceulTa yuradReba eTmoba Teosofiis devizs: `WeSmariteba _ religiaze maRla~. am myvirala frazis mizania gaTiSos ori cneba: WeSmariteba da religia, romlebic qristianobaSi erTni arian. maSasadame, religia (aq ki aSkarad qristianoba igulisxmeba) WeSmaritebaze dabla dgas. magram Tuki WeSmariteba religiis miRma imyofeba, maSin sad veZioT igi da saerTod, ra saWiroa TviT religia? am SemTxvevaSi religiis alternativa TiTqos agnosticizmi an aTeizmi unda gaxdes. magram Teosofia acxadebs, rom yoveli religia fardobiT WeSmaritebas flobs, amitom adamiani sxva religiebis Seswavlis gziT unda `amdidrebdes~ Tavis sarwmunoebas anda TviTon Seqmnas axali religia. qristianuli religia aris sulis feriscvaleba RmrTis madliTa da kacis piradi moRvaweobiT, amasTan, gulis ganwmendis kvaldakval sulieri Semecnebis saz256

Rvrebic farTovdeba. Teosofosebi ki adamians, romelic sinanulis cecxliT ar ganwmendila, vnebebiTaa savse da egoizmiT Sepyrobili, adamians, romelsac xelovnurad gaberili usazRvro ampartavnebis suli dauflebia, sTavazoben, rom TviTon, sakuTar Zalebze dayrdnobiT, sakuTari warmodgenebisa da okulturi gamocdilebis safuZvelze Seqmnas Tavisi religia, anu `RmrTis aRmSeneblobas~ mihyos xeli. aseT religiaSi adamiani Tavisi Tavis, agreTve mis gulsa da gonebaze gabatonebul vnebian ZalTa proecirebas axdens, da es religia iqceva misi ampartavnebisa da inteleqtualuri fanatizmis mier Sobili fuWi ocnebis nayofad. TeosofosTa umetesoba am etapze Cerdeba, magram arsebobs kidev sxva, `umaRlesi~ klasi, romelsac elene blavatskaias Tanamoazreni da axlo megobrebi ekuTvnodnen. maT blavatskaia Teosofiis mTavar amocanas, anu qristianobis sruli mospobis aucileblobas umJRavnebda da amaSi xedavda Tavisi moZRvrebis arsebobis mizans: `swored qristianTa RmerTia namdvili satana, _ ambobda igi, _ aTeistebi dogmatikosebi arian da ara RmerTis arsebobis uarmyofelni~. ras warmoadgens Teosofia, rogorc swavleba? satanis religias, qristianobis antipods, romelSic RmerTi demonis saxiT surT warmoaCinon, demonebs ki ise emsaxurebian, rogorc RmerTs. blavatskaia axalgazrdobaSi Jurnal `luciferis~ redaqtori iyo. am Tavisi `pirveli siyvarulis~ erTguleba man mTeli sicocxlis manZilze SeinarCuna.

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ra SeiZleba iTqvas TviTon blavatskaiaze? igi warmoSobiT germaneli iyo, mamamisi ruseTis armiaSi msaxurobda oficrad. blavatskaias dis mowmobiT, mas bavSvobidanve saocari fantazia hqonda, eqspromtad Txzavda zRaprebsa da moTxrobebs, ase rom, mTlianad Tavisi romantiuli ocnebebis samyaroSi cxovrobda. igi sruliad axalgazrda gahyva colad general blavatskis, romelic ramdenime TveSi miatova. aqedan iwyeba misi dausrulebeliò`odisea~: didxans cxovrobda indoeTSi, mogzaurobda tibetsa da himalaebSi, werda narkvevebs gazeTebisa da eTnografiuli krebulebisTvis, erTxans spiritizmiTac iyo gatacebuli da Zlier mediumad iTvleboda. Semdeg ingliseli tantristi polkovniki gaicno, romelic ramdenime gamokvlevis avtori iyo budizmSi da Tavisi mogzauroba ukve masTan erTad ganagrZo. blavatskaiam dawera mravali wigni okultizmis Sesaxeb: `saidumlo doqtrina~, `mxilebuli izida~ da mravali sxva, romlebSic aRmosavluri da evropuli okultizmis sferoSi miRebuli erudiciis demonstrirebas axdenda. es nawarmoebebi ekleqtizmiTa da winaaRmdegobriobiT arian savse, maTi filosofiuri Rirebulebac umniSvneloa, Tumca, marTalia, qaosurad (amasTan, avtori wyaroebs TiTqmis ar uTiTebs), uzarmazar masalas eyrdnoba. blavatskaias SeeZlo abstraqtul sagnebze warmtaci da saintereso saubari, Tavis wignebs uxvad urTavda indoeTis tomebis eTnikuri yofis aRweras, maTi religiuri ritualebis, adgilobriv mkvidrebTan Sexvedrebisa da saubrebis gadmocemas, amitom es wignebi interesiT ikiTxeba. blavatskaias literaturuli talanti da mdi258

dari fantazia albaT ufro metad daexmara Teosofiis saqmes, vidre misive okulturi unarebi. blavatskaia sicocxlis bolomde amtkicebda, rom mudmivi kavSiri hqonda tibetel mahaTmebTan, maTgan iRebda brZanebebs, ekiTxeboda da pasuxebsac Rebulobda. Tavisi cxovreba mas tibetis mTebSi mcxovrebi maswavleblebis nebis aRsrulebad miaCnda. okulturi moRvaweoba blavatskaiam daiwyo micvalebulTa sulebis (sinamdvileSi ki eSmakebis) mediumis rangSi, xolo daasrula, rogorc tibetis lamebis mediumma (mizandasaxuli demonizmi). adamianis msoflmxedveloba ganuyofladaa dakavSirebuli mis zneobriobasTan, amitom cru swavlebas cxovrebaSic sicrue mosdevs. cnobili mwerali da istorikosi vsevolod soloviovi, romelic piradad icnobda blavatskaias, brals sdebda mas yalTabandobasa da SarlatanobaSi, magram es metismetad msubuqi da uwyinari braldebaa. marTalia, tyuili eSmakebis stiqiaa, magram okultizmi mxolod iluzia rodia. religiuri okultizmis miRma dgas satanuri Zalebisa da damangreveli Savi energiis veli. mravali adamiani moxvedrila blavatskaias Savbneli xiblis qveS, maT Soris isinic, visac sruliadac ver daswamebdiT gulubryvilobas. SeiZleba Tu ara imis Tqma, rom rom dRes Teosofia kargavs Tavis popularobas? indoeTSi, madrasis gareubanSi, aRmarTulia Teosofiuri taZari, romlis mTavari RirsSesaniSnaoba gaxlavT elene blavatskaias uzarmazari qandakeba _ igi taxtis msgavs savarZelSi zis. kerpis fexebTan yovelTvis devs cocxali yvavilebis Taiguli: blavatskaia indoeTis wmindania. 259

ramdenime wlis win iuneskom `blavatskaias weliwadi~, anu misi erTwliani msoflio iubile gamoacxada. am formiT gamoxates Tanamedrove humanistebma da liberalebma TavianTi madliereba luciferis Tayvanismcemlis mimarT. aRsaniSnavia, rom vatikanis kontrolqveS myofma gamomcemlobam dabeWda blavatskaias `saidumlo doqtrina~, romelsac Teosofosebi okultizmis enciklopediad miiCneven. Teosofiam racionalizmiT sneulsa da sulierebisgan daclil dasavleTs cru alternativa _ okulturi spiritizmi SesTavaza. amrigad, materializmi, romelic amden xans batonobda adamianebis gonebaze, demonizmis Sesavali gaxda. Teosofiis mTavari damsaxureba warmarTobis winaSe is aris, rom man niadagi moamzada qristianul regionebSi CineTisa da indoeTis okultur swavlebaTa farTo gavrcelebisaTvis. deqristianizaciis es procesi ki ar neldeba, piriqiT, sul ufro globaluri xdeba. ra gansakuTrebuli safrTxe momdinareobs Teosofiisgan? is, rom igi qadagebs yvela religiis erTianobas, e. i. sicruisa da WeSmaritebis erTianobas. Cven gvTavazoben gavmdidrdeT sxva religiebis gamocdilebiT _ SeviswavloT es gamocdileba da misi saSualebiT TviT qristianoba gavaRrmaoT. es cru suliereba, romelmac Sivaitebis, budisti tantristebisa da Samanebis suliskveTeba SeiTvisa, Signidan angrevs qristianobas da misgan mxolod Cveul terminologiasa da saxelwodebebs tovebs. yofili qristiani aRar aRiqvams qristes, rogorc Tavis 260

piradsa da erTaderT mxsnels. qriste misTvis (Sesabamisad warmarTuli bunebis mqone Sinagani religiuri gancdisa) upirovno kosmiur Zalad iqceva, xolo dogmatebi sulis cxovrebad da sinaTled ki aRar aRiqmeba, aramed droebiT istoriul-filosofiur kategoriebad. araswori religiuri gamocdileba azianebs adamianis guls _ misi arsebis sulier centrs, religiuri cxovrebis wyaros, xolo rodesac dedaqalaqi ecema, provinciebis dapyroba ukve ubralod drois sakiTxia. gagvigia, rom qristianobaSi mTavari dogmatebia, sxva danarCeni ki naklebad mniSvnelovania da amitom maTi Secvlac SeiZlebao? es igivea, vTqvaT: adamianSi mTavari Tavia, maSasadame, sxeuli SegviZlia nawilebad davWraTo. dogmatebi maradiuli WeSmaritebebia, romlebic aRematebian logikuri Semecnebis SezRudul SesaZleblobebs, radganac yofierebis sxva sferos _ sulier samyaros ganekuTvnebian. maTi SeTvisebis SesaZleblobas sarwmunoeba gvaZlevs da eklesiaSi moqmedi suli wmida gvimowmebs. marTlmadidebloba mTliani, erTiani sasicocxlo organizmia, romelSic ganuyreladaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli dogmatebi, kanonebi, saidumloebebi da wesebi. istoriuli gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom eklesiis wminda swavlebis uarmyofelma verc erTma reformatorulma sazogadoebam ver SeinarCuna dogmatebi wmindad da Seuryvnelad. romelma politikurma moZraobam gamoiyena blavatskaias ideebi? faSizmma, romelic ara mxolod politikuri, aramed ideuri da okulturi mimdinareobacaa. faSizmma blav261

atskaiasgan isesxa Teoria rasebsa da umaRles rasebze, arielebze, maT momaval meufebaze, indoeTis mTebSi mdebare arielTa samSobloze, svastikaze, rogorc arielTa emblemaze, zeadamianze, yinulisa da cecxlis _ kacobriobis bedis ganmsazRvreli ori stiqiis maradiul brZolaze, tibetur mistikaze, romelmac qristianoba unda Secvalos da sxv. aRsaniSnavia, rom elitaruli loJa `tule~, romelTanac axalgazrdobaSi axlos iyo hitleri, tibetis mistikis SeswavliT iyo dakavebuli. mogvianebiT tibeteli lamebi hitleris saidumlo mrCevlebi da es-esis damsjeli razmebis instruqtorebi gaxdnen. berlinis dacemis Semdeg naxes tibeturi warmomavlobis ucnobi adamianebis aTasamde gvami _ isini germaneli oficrebis formebSi iyvnen gamowyobilni da sicocxle TviTmkvlelobiT daesrulebinaT. zogierTi mkvlevari amtkicebs, rom hitleris nekromania tibetur mistikasTan iyo dakavSirebuli. Semoifargleba Tu ara Teosofiis cneba blavatskaiasa da `Teosofiuri sazogadoebis~ swavlebiT? ara. Teosofias xangrZlivi istoria da winareistoria aqvs, radgan mTeli swavleba damaxasiaTebelia warmarTuli religiebisTvis, romelTa obieqti aris kosmosi Tavisi TvisebebiTa da gamovlinebebiT. rac ar unda mravalferovani iyos warmarTobis formebi Tav-TavianTi miTologiiTa da wes-CveulebebiT, isini mainc ver amaRldebian kosmiur sferoze, amitom warmarTuli RmerTebi kosmiur ZalTa gansaxierebad, erTi substanciis produqtad rCebian. 262

crureligiebi is sivrcea, romelsac cruRmerTebi, kosmiur RvTaebaTa niRbebSi gamowyobili mtyuari sulebi anu dacemuli angelozebi avseben. amitom warmarTuli religiebi da miTologiuri warmodgenebi erTmaneTs urigdebodnen da mtrad ekidebodnen monoTeizms _ erTi RmerTis rwmenas. Zveli da axali aRTqmis mTeli istoria aris WeSmariti religiis _ erTi, absoluturi, pirovnuli RmerTis rwmenis brZola warmarTul TeosofiasTan. ra kavSirSia tamplierTa rainduli ordeni TeosofiasTan fiasTan? tamplierTa ordeni _ `taZris raindebi~ iyo elitaruli kaTolikuri ordeni, romlis wevrebi mxolod Zveli feodaluri gvarebis STamomavlebi SeiZleboda gamxdariyvnen. es ordeni XII saukuneSi Seiqmna palestinaSi, qristiani momlocvelebis dasacavad mahmadianebisa da avazakebisagan. es iyo Caketili, TviTmmarTveli organizacia, romelsac saTaveSi didi magistri edga. am ordenis Sinagan cxovrebasa da magistris kompetenciaSi Carevis ufleba ar hqonda TviT romis paps _ mTeli samefoebisa da mefeebis bedis gamgebels. raindTa samxedro yazarmebi ierusalimis dangreuli taZris teritoriaze iyo agebuli, amitomac ukavSirebdnen isini sakuTar Tavs solomonis taZars. am taZris adgilas aRmarTuli omaris meCeTi tamplierebma TavianT samlocvelod aqcies, sadac ordenis upiratesni _ priorebi msaxurobdnen. Semdeg ukve sruliad moulodneli da warmoudgeneli ram xdeba: kaTolike raindebi islamis mistikur seqtebs ukavSirdebian, gansakuTrebiT ki asasidebis _ sastiki mkvlelebis seqtas. am seqtis saTaveSi idga Seixi, 263

romelsac `mTebis uxucess~ eZaxdnen. igi libanis mTebSi mimalul miudgomel koSkSi cxovrobda da jvarosnebi misi xSiri stumrebi iyvnen. amave dros raindebi dauaxlovdnen iudevelTa saidumlo kavSirebsa da okultur sazogadoebebs, magaliTad, `wminda sionis kavSirs~, romelsac tamplierTa konspiraciul enaze `sionis upiratesni~ ewoda da maTi okulturi gamocdilebis gamoyeneba daiwyes _ guSindeli metoqeni erTi saidumlo Zmobis wevrebi gaxdnen. ordenis SigniT kvlav ucnauri ambebi xdeboda, romelTa eqoc yazarmebis kedlebis gareTac gavida. ordenSi Sesvlis msurvelebs gaugonar gamocdas uwyobdnen: sakuTari nebis uaryofisa da magistris sruli morCilebisaTvis mzadyofnis dasadastureblad maT aiZulebdnen daemtvriaT da Semdeg fexiT gaeTelaT jvari. ordenSi axlad Sesuls imis uflebac ki ar hqonda, qristiani yofiliyo _ is mTlianad da ganuyoflad ekuTvnoda ordens, risTvisac ordeni Tavis yovlisSemZle mfarvelobas hpirdeboda. tamplierebis emblema iyo erT cxenze mjdomi ori mxedari, erTobisa da urTierTdaxmarebis niSani. tamplierebs TavianTi ganStoebuli organizaciebi hqondaT msoflios mraval qveyanaSi, gansakuTrebiT inglissa da safrangeTSi. inglisSi raindebma gadawyvites solomonis taZris aslis ageba (rac iudevelebma ierusalimSi ver ganaxorcieles), magram gairkva, rom Senoba Tavisi arqiteqturuli formebiT omaris meCeTs waagavda. dasawyisma gansazRvra dasasruli. iudeurma da mahmadianurma okultizmma `uflis saflavis mcvelni~ demonTa farul Tayvanismcemlebad aqcia. winaswarmetyvel ezekiels babilonis tyveobaSi hqonda xilva, rom mRvdlebi dRisiT ieRovas emsaxurebodnen, RamiT ki 264

taZris miwisqveSeTSi kerpebs swiravdnen msxverpls. es xilva winaswarmetyvels RmerTma imis gasagebad mouvlina, Tu ratom daeca wminda qalaqi. axla ki ierusalimis taZris nangrevebze tamplierebi demons scemdnen Tayvans buhomedis kerpis saxiT. ra daskvnis gamotana SeiZleba tamplierebis am pirquSi ambidan? rom sxva religiebis okulturi gamocdileba ki ar amdidrebs qristianobas, rogorc amas Teosofosebi amtkiceben, aramed anadgurebs mas: jer qristianul mistikas, Semdeg ki dogmatikas. yovelgvari magiis sawyisi warmarTul samyaroSi imaleba da demonologiiTa da demonTa TayvaniscemiT mTavrdeba. tamplierebisa da TeosofosebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia qristianobaSi okulturi praqtikis danergva. aq marTlac xdeba gaerTianeba, magram gaerTianeba satanis Savi droSis qveS. sxvaTa Soris, Teosofosebi erTsa da imave gaurkvevel da bundovan sityvas, `sulierebas~ uwodeben rogorc qristianebis, iseve demonuri religiebis mimdevarTa mistikur gancdebs, sul erTia, locvaSi wasul qristian bers exeba saqme Tu Tavisi kerpis winaSe damxobil, krunCxvebiT Sepyrobil Samans. ra rols asrulebs metemfsiqozis (sulTa gadasaxlebis) Teoria TeosofiaSi? am swavlebas, esoden damaxasiaTebels warmarTuli religiebisTvis, erT-erTi centraluri adgili uWiravs TeosofiaSi. metemfsiqozi klavs saukuno cxovrebis, keTilisa da borotis saboloo ganyofis, samoTxisa da jojoxeTis rwmenas _ samoTxe da jojoxeTi Teosofi265

urad moazrovne qristianisaTvis mxolod raRac alegoriebi, droebiTi fsiqikuri mdgomareobebia. warmarTobas kacobriobis istoria ciklebad warmoudgenia, sadac dasawyisi dasasrulis tolia, dro ki ukanaa mimarTuli. gardasaxvis Teoria qadagebs kosmosisa da kacobriobis mibrunebas Tavisi dasabamisken, mis gaqrobas absolutSi. yofierebis mizani da perspeqtiva aq ar arsebobs. zneobrivi TvalsazrisiT sulTa gadasaxlebis Teoria advilad iqceva praqtikad, roca yvelaferi nebadarTulia, radgan codvis tragizmi _ RmerTisgan gandgoma da saukuno cxovrebis dakargva _ sulieri evoluciis kibeze droebiTi dayovnebis perspeqtiviT icvleba. metemfsiqozi aris kidev erTi sacTuri adamianis isedac vnebebiT savse, codvebisaken midrekili gulisTvis. ra adgili uWiravs budizms TeosofiaSi? budizmi izidavs Teosofosebs Tavisi adogmatizmiT da imiTac, rom advilad axerxebs sxvadasxva religiebTan Tanaarsebobas. ezoTeruli budizmi Tavis mimdevrebs siyvarulsa da siZulvilze, keTilsa da borotze maRla dgomisaken mouwodebs. budistisaTvis siyvaruli iseve saxifaToa, rogorc siZulvili, radganac igi adamians samyaros mbrunav borbals akravs. misTvis erTaderTi swori mdgomareobaa gaucxoeba, ganurCevloba da gulgriloba. `gandobilobis~ umaRles safexurze mdgom budistebs aswavlian, rom sikeTe da boroteba, rogorc zneobrivi kategoriebi, saerTod ar arseboben, radganac isini yofierebis sferos ganekuTvnebian, xolo yofierebisken ltolva budistma unda moklas Tavis TavSi. es moCvenebiTi Tavisufleba zneobrivi akrZalvebisagan 266

Zalian gvagonebs nicSeanur Tavisuflebas: nicSes zeadamiani, iseve rogorc budisti, keTilisa da borotis miRma dgas. unda iTqvas, rom Teosofia mistikur Wvretasa da okultizmze dayrdnobiT gverds uvlis asketikas, rogorc vnebebTan brZolas, amitom ezoTerul budizms Teosofosi mihyavs ara vnebebisagan Tavisuflebamde, aramed Tavisuflebamde vnebebisaTvis. swamda Tu ara blavatskaias ieso qristes istoriuloba? `Teosofiuri sazogadoebis~ mdivnis, kudriavcevis mowmobiT, blavatskaia Tavis megobrebs eubneboda, rom ar swams saxarebiseuli qriste da am sityvas gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT iyenebs: misTvis es aris `gandobili~ adamiani. qristes saxeli am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba Seicvalos budas an nebismieri sxva vedisturi RmerTis saxeliT. radganac blavatskaia Tavis moZRvrebas qristianebs uqadagebda, amitom taqtikuri mosazrebebiT iZulebuli iyo konspiraciuli enisaTvis miemarTa. raSi mdgomareobs mTavari gansxvaveba Teosofiasa da qristianobas Soris? Teosofosebi uaryofen pirovnul RmerTs, xolo Tu mainc iyeneben sityva `RmerTs~, amiT aRniSnaven yofierebis sawyiss _ raRac upirovno Zalas, romelic Tavisi Tavidan qmnis samyaroebs, sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, kosmosi aris am absolutis droebiTi forma (modaloba) _ igi sruliad umiznod qmnis da isev angrevs samyaroebs. TviT maradiuloba samyaros Seqmna da ngrevaa, es aris yofnisa da aryofnis ciklebi; samyaroebi absolutis uf267

skrulidan Cndebian da Semdeg isev ufskrulSi inTqmebian. Teosofosebi uaryofen wm. samebis dogmats. blavatskaiasTvis mama RmerTi aris sastiki satana, ieso qriste _ evangelistebis mier gamogonili dramis personaJi, suli wmida arc pirovnebaa da arc absolutis emanacia, aramed e. w. `gandobilTa~ garkveuli mdgomareoba, raRac okulturi eqstazis msgavsi. Teosofosebi uaryofen adamians, rogorc pirovnebas. maTTvis igi mxolod fenomenia _ droebiTi movlena, okeanis zedapirze mogdebuli qafi, romelic kvlav okeanes daubrundeba da sruliad gauCinardeba masSi. Teosofosebi uaryofen swavlebas pirvelqmnili codvis Sesaxeb da cvlian mas swavlebiT karmisa (mizez-Sedegobrivi kanonzomierebis) da gardasaxvis Sesaxeb, amitom maTTvis ucxoa mudmivi, daZabuli brZola codvasTan. amis nacvlad gvTavazoben meditaciebs RmerTisa da adamianis TanaarsebobisTvis. rogorc vTqviT, Teosofosebi uaryofen agreTve samoTxisa da jojoxeTis realurobas. maT es cnebebi saxe-alegoriebis, anda profanebisaTvis gamiznuli pedagogiuri meTodebis xarisxamde dahyavT. Tumca Teosofia Tavis Tavs yovelgvari religiuri sistemebis miRma mdgomad miiCnevs, magram Teosofosebis RmerTi, iseve, rogorc iogebisa, aris Siva _ samyaroTa Semmusrveli. misi emblemebi gansakuTrebiT gavrcelebulia Teosofosebs Soris. unda iTqvas, rom induistur `trimurTis~: brahmas, viSnusa da Sivas araferi aqvT saerTo qristianul samebasTan. esaa absolutis sami gamovlineba _ samyaroTa Seqmna, dacva da dangreva. Teosofosebi uaryofen demonur samyaros, rogorc 268

RmerTisgan gandgomil angelozebs, Tumca xSirad iyeneben sityvebs `eSmaki~, `satana~ alegoriuli mniSvnelobiT. maTTvis boroti sulebi yvelaze dabali, gaunaTlebeli sulebi arian, romlebic droTa manZilze yofierebis umaRles safexurze avlen. Teosofosebi demonebSi zogjer borot sulebsac gulisxmoben _ adamianis gonebis mier Sobil uCinmaCinebs. amrigad, blavatskaias moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, adamiani sazarel kosmiur urCxulad gvevlineba, romelic ganuwyvetliv Sobs eSmakebs Tavisi cnobierebis emanaciis gziT. Teosofosebs miaCniaT, rom adamiani ramdenime sxeulisgan Sedgeba: materialuri, astraluri (mSvinvieri), mentaluri da sulieri sxeulebisgan. adamianis arsi, anu TviTon adamiani aris misi suli (mas atmans uwodeben), danarCeni sxeulebi mxolod droebiTi garsia, naWuWebi, romlebic atmans faraven, isini ucxoni arian adamianisTvis. atmanma _ sulma unda Seignos Tavisi igiveoba brahmasTan _ absolutTan. Teosofia uaryofs micvalebulTa aRdgomas da sulis individualobis SenarCunebas. individi kosmiurs unda SeerTos. samyaro absolutSi _ brahmaSi unda CaiZiros, brahma ki parabrahmaSi unda dainTqas, sadac TviT yofna-aryofnis cnebac ki qreba. absoluts ar gaaCnia Tvisebebi, mas arc siyvaruli SeuZlia, arc locvebi esmis, is qmnis da anadgurebs samyaroebs, mere ki isev xelaxla qmnis da anadgurebs. absoluti Tavisi Sinagani myofobis kanonebs emorCileba _ Seqmnisa da ganadgurebis ritmebs, rogorc saaTis qanqaris mudmiv rxevas.

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yovel religias Tavisi mistika da Tavisi kulti aqvs. ra SeiZleba iTqvas Teosofosebis mistikisa da ritualebis Sesaxeb? Cven ukve vTqviT, rom Teosofia araviTar religiur sistemasTan ar aigivebs Tavis Tavs. igi amtkicebs, rom religiebi erTi centrisaken mimavali gzebia da yovel adamians sTavazobs, iyos nebismieri religiis mimdevari, daicvas misi wes-Cveulebebi, magram sxva religiebic Seiswavlos, kontaqti hqondes maTTan da maTi gamocdilebiT gamdidrdes. Tumca TviTon Teosofia upiratesad budizmisa da Sivaizmisaken aris midrekili, amitom Teosofosis mistikuri gamocdileba da sulieri gancdebi, Tundac igi qristianuli eklesiis, meCeTis an sinagogis wevri iyos formalurad, panTeisturi xasiaTisaa. am mistikisaTvis ucxoa pirovnul RmerTTan urTierTobis gancda, masSi ori tendencia vlindeba: inteleqtualurbudisturi CaZirva araraobaSi da emociur-Samanuri eqstazi, rogorc kosmosis sulebTan Serwyma. Teosofosebis mistika mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli okultur mecadineobebTan. aseTebia, magaliTad, guruebsa da mahaTmebTan telepatiuri kavSiris damyareba, astralSi gasvla, agreTve magiuri xerxebi: mantrebis kiTxva, sulebis gamoZaxeba da sxv. swored amitom migvaCnia Teosofosebis mistika demonebTan urTierTobad da demonologiad. zogierTi rituali tradiciul-induisturi warmoSobisaa, mag., yvavilebisa da nayofis mitana gurus gamosaxulebasTan. TeosofiaSi gamoyenebuli emblemebidan gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva svastika, rogorc msoflio wrebrunvis simbolo. zogi mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom Teosofosebi am emblemaSi konspiraciul mniS270

vnelobas deben (gatexili jvari). falikuri gamosaxuleba, romelsac `Sivas rodins~ uwodeben, miuTiTebs Teosofiis kavSirze tantrizmTan (budizmis erotikuli varianti); wre gvelis saxed, romelsac pirSi Tavisive kudis bolo uWiravs Caketili wris, samyaroTa Seqmnisa da ngrevis simboloa (dasawyisi udris dasasruls). Teosofosebi dasaSvebad miiCneven locvas, magram mxolod rogorc religiuri Semecnebis yvelaze dabal gamovlinebas `profanebisTvis~, romlebsac RvTaebis personifikacia sWirdebaT. brZenma ki icis, rom RvTaeba TviT masSia, amitom locvas, rogorc dialogs, igi cvlis meditaciiT _ sakuTar sulSi CabrunebiT. daviT winaswarmetyveli Tavis erT-erT fsalmunSi wers: `yovelni RmerTni warmarTTani eSmak arian, xolo ufalman cani Seqmna~ (fs. 95,5). am RmerTebs Soris TeosofosebisTvis pirveli adgili uWiravs Sivas _ induistur lucifers. riTi izidavs Tanamedrove adamians Teosofia? Teosofia, ise rom ar moiTxovs qristes uaryofas (yovel SemTxvevaSi, Tavidan mainc), adamians aTavisuflebs saxarebis mcnebebis Sesrulebis zneobrivi movaleobisgan da qristianul morals budistur-Sivaituri nihilizmiT cvlis. Cveni saukunis seni ampartavnebaa. Teosofia aqezebs da aviTarebs am vnebas, Caagonebs adamians, sakuTar Zalebs daeyrdnos, metic, TviT adamians acxadebs RmerTad. Teosofiuri mistikis arsi adamianis mier sakuTari RvTaebriobis SecnobaSi mdgomareobs. aq satanisa da adamis codva meordeba, romlebmac RmerTis gareSe moindomes 271

RmerTad qceva. Tanamedrove adamiani iolad egeba am Zvel ankesze. Teosofia gerds uvlis asketikas, igi mas mistikuri WvretiTa da religiis kvleva-ZiebiT cvlis, rasac `sulierebas~ uwodebs. adamians Caagoneben, rom Teosofiis meTodebis gacnoba daexmareba mas egviptel qurumTa misteriebis wvdomasa Tu qaldevel astronomTa saidumloebebis amoxsnaSi, erTi sityviT, mTeli kacobriobis mier saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi dagrovili sibrZnis SeTvisebaSi. Teosofosebi Tanamedrove adamians zeadamianuri Zalebis: naTelmxilvelobis, sxva adamianebze zemoqmedebisa da maTi marTvis unaris miniWebas hpirdebian, Tanac amas iseT reklamas ukeTeben, TiTqos tibetisa da indoeTis egzotikur saqonels sTavazobdnen _ aseTi reklama kacze hipnoziviT moqmedebs. imiT, rom codvas umecrebad asaRebs, Teosofia adamianis zneobas aZinebs, xolo gardasaxvis Teoriis saSualebiT codvis tragikul Sedegebs umalavs, es ki xels aZlevs adamianis gulSi damarxul gZnobierebasa da vnebebs. metic, Teosofia aswavlis, rom `gandobilTaTvis~ aRar arsebobs iseTi zneobrivi kategoriebi, rogoricaa sikeTe da boroteba. da swored es surs sofels, romlis axlandel mdgomareobas `zneobrivi dekadansi~ SeiZleba ewodos. Teosofia adamianebs bunebriv sikeTeebsac hpirdeba _ sulis simSvides, janmrTelobas, dRegrZelobas, mexsierebis gaumjobesebas da sxv. sinamdvileSi ki sulis simSvide gulgrilobiT, sakuTar saqcielze pasuxismgeblobis moxsniT icvleba. perifrazs Tu mivmarTavT, es 272

ase SeiZleba CamovayaliboT: `scode da nu Seinaneb. rac ar unda Caidino, erTi bolo gelis: absolutSi dabruneba da danTqma~. Teosofia gvirCevs avtotreningsa da meditaciebs, raTa Tavis mimdevrebs sakuTari RvTaebriobis rwmena ganumtkicos. aseTi meditacuri wvrTnis Sedegad adamiani Tavs ise grZnobs, rogorc guliveri _ liliputebis qveyanaSi. yovelive amas ki mosdevs fsiqologiuri Zvra: emociuri gaciveba da ampartavnuli TviTizolacia anda isteriuli egzaltacia. rogor uyurebs dRes Teosofias kaTolikur-protestantuli samyaro? arsebobs didi da realuri safrTxe, rom Teosofiuri deqristianizaciis suliskveTeba ara mxolod nel-nela aRwevs dasavleTis konfesiebsa da denominaciebSi, aramed maTi saSualebiTac ki moqmedebs marTlmadideblobaze. kaTolikur da protestantul samyaroSi ori mimarTuleba ikveTeba: fundamentalistebisa da reformator-liberalebis. pirvelebi Tavs ikaveben religiaTaSorisi da konfesiaTaSorisi kontaqtebis, urTierTzemoqmedebisa da ideebis gavlenisagan; liberalebi ki am sakiTxSi did komunikabelobas iCenen da mzad arian ara mxolod qristianuli, aramed araqristianuli konfesiebisganac isesxon ideebi. qristianuli konfesiebis warmomadgenlebi, maT Soris mRvdelmTavrebic, Teosofiur yrilobebsa da iubileebs eswrebian da sityviT gamodian. isini acxadeben, rom induri Teosofia maT daexmara sxva religiebis istoriul konteqstSi ufro farTod dainaxon qristianobis dogmatebi, Tamamad uaryon is, rac ucxoa TanamedroveobisaTvis da ga273

naaxlon qristianoba mistikuri gamocdilebiT misi gamdidrebis gziT. ukve arsebobs kaTolikuri monastrebi, sadac iogaSi varjiSoben, agreTve protestantuli Temebi, romelTa yofaSic Sevida Zen-budizmSi gavrcelebuli meditacia. liberali RmrTismetyvelebi mogviwodeben gadavxedoT wm. werilis RmrTivsulierebis sakiTxs, miviRoT evoluciis Teoria, uarvyoT swavleba pirvelqmnil codvaze, saSinel samsjavrosa da saukuno satanjvelze. dRes xSirad ewyoba qristianebisa da warmarTebis erToblivi locvebi _ qristianebs TiTqos daviwyniaT, rom devnis dros wmindanebi wamebasa da sikvdils arCevdnen warmarTul ritualebSi Tundac formalur monawileobas. Zveli eklesia warmarTul wes-CveulebebSi monawileobasa da warmarTuli emblemebis Tayvaniscemas sarwmunoebis Ralatad, qristes uaryofad miiCnevda. aseT adamianebs `dacemulebs~ uwodebdnen, maT didi xniT ganayenebdnen xolme ziarebisgan da eklesiis krebulSi gamoCenis nebas ar aZlevdnen. axla ki gandgomilebis codvas sxva saxels uwodeben _ `qristianobis gamdidrebas araqristianuli religiebis sulieri gamocdilebiT~. es sakuTar venaSi gvamis sisxlis Seyvanas niSnavs. dasavleTis liturgikaSi Teosofiuri tendenciebi mkvidrdeba. popularuli xdeba e.w. `karnavaluri mesebi~, romlebic pirdapir quCebSi tardeba rok- da pop-musikis akompanementis TanxlebiT; am kakafoniaSi gamoarCevT eqstazSi Cavardnili afrikeli da indieli Samanebis sakulto cekvebis ritmebs. brbo aWrelebulia aTasgvari TilismebiTa da amuletebiT, urCxulTa feradi niRbebiT, totemebis rqebiTa da mamlis frTebiT. dasavleTi isea asimilirebuli warmarTobasTan, rom 274

am `mxiarul mesebSi~ verafers xedavs mkrexelurs. maT monawileebs sakuTari Tavebi keTil kaTolikeebad miaCniaT, xolo sakarnavalo oromtriali warmarTobis recidivi ki ara, `ganaxlebuli qristianoba~ _ gaTavisuflebuli xorcis Teologia hgoniaT. Teosofiis mimarT gansakuTrebiT damyoli aRmoCnda protestantuli samyaro. mis farTo arealSi egzotikuri xeebis msgavsad izrdeba warmarTuli samlocveloebi da aSramebi _ Tan ufro swrafad, vidre warmarTul qveynebSi. qristianobis mospoba niSnavs qristes, rogorc Ze RmrTisas da soflis erTaderTi macxovris sarwmunoebis mospobas. swored aqeTkenaa mimarTuli warmarTi Teosofosebis mcdeloba: kriSnaitebi qristianebs STaagoneben, rom qriste da kriSna erTi da igivea, lamebi gvimtkiceben, qriste adreul siymawvileSi tibeteli lamebis mowafe iyoo, bonzebi gveubnebian, TiTqos qriste jvarze ki ar mokvda, iaponiaSi daimala, ojaxi da col-Svili hyavda da sintoisturi1 wes-Cveulebis mixedviT daikrZala... XX saukunes Tavisuflad SeiZleba ewodos meore renesansi da warmarTobis oqros xana. ra daskvnis gamotana SeiZleba yovelive zemoTqmulidan? warmarTuli demonizmi marTlmadidebel eklesiaSi SemoRwevas lamobs ara marto aRmosavleTidan, aramed dasavleTidanac. saxarebam gagvimJRavna, rom bolo Jams qveynad movlen cruqristeebi da cruwinaswarmetyvelebi, daiwyeba didi gandgoma qristesgan. crumoZRvarTa 1 sintoizmi _ budizmTan erTad erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli religia iaponiaSi.

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qadageba demonuri saswaulebisa da ucnauri zeciuri movlenebis TanxlebiT warimarTeba. magia da okultizmi, axali religiebi da eSmakis saswaulebi sulieri sicruis warRvnasaviT movardeba dedmiwaze, raTa marTlmadideblobis ukanaskneli kunZulebic walekos. am saswaulTa macTuri Zala imdenad didi iqneba, rom, rogorc qriste ambobs, `marTali Zniad ganeres~ (marTalic Znelad gadarCeba, _ mTarg.) (1 petr. 4, 18). solomon brZenma _ brZenma mefeTa Soris da mefem brZenTa Soris, romelmac TviTon Seicno keTilisa da borotis raoba, Tavisi cxovrebis mimwuxrs `igavTa wignSi~ saidumlo sityvebi Cawera: `su (svi) wyali jurRmulTagan SenTa wyaroÁsa~ (ig. 5,15). es sityvebi qristians winaswarmetyvelis mcnebad unda esmodes: misi jurRmuli (wyalsatevi) marTlmadideblobaa, xolo wyaro _ eklesia.

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anTroposofiis Sesaxeb prologi anTroposofia _ germaneli okultistis, rudolf Staineris moZRvreba _ farTod gavrcelda Cveni inteligenciis erT nawilSi, romelsac religiuri ganaTleba ar miuRia, eklesiisagan Sorsa aris, magram, amave dros, mdare materialuri warmodgenebi da koncefciebi ar akmayofilebs. anTroposofia gnostikuri swavlebaa da, principSi, okulturi mistikisa da Teosofiis farglebs ar scildeba. magram Staineri cdilobs Tavisi spekulatiuri msjelobebi da saeWvo vizioneroba mis Tanamedrove mecnierul Teoriebs miusadagos, ocnebaSi mopovebuli `sulTa xilvebi~ ki mecnierebis winaSe gadaSlil axal perspeqtivebad warmoadginos. am ori sferos _ magiisa da gamoyenebiTi mecnierebebis _ Sereva anTroposofias mecnierebis saxes aZlevs, rac adamianebis garkveuli wrisTvis momxiblavia. aq sulierebas yalbi inteleqtualizmi enacvleba, religia ki, rogorc RmerTTan erToba da nebayoflobiT aRebuli cxovrebiseuli Rvawli, abstraqciebiT, magiuri formulebis Teoriuli SeTvisebiT, okulturi simbolikiTa da aprioruli koncefciebiT icvleba. niSandoblivia, rom anTroposofia germaniaSi gaCnda da Tavisi centri SveicariaSi daafuZna: es is qveynebia, sadac reformatorobam qristianuli tradiciebis narCenebic ki gaanadgura, qristianoba adogmaturi gaxada da, arsebiTad, subieqturi fsiqikuri gancdebisa da sekularizebuli moralis sibrtyemde daiyvana. 277

anTroposofia, upirveles yovlisa, msoflmxedvelobiTi sistemaa, magram misi es metafizikuri mxare Cveni anTroposofosebisTvis yvelaze naklebad aris cnobili da, raRac ucnaurad, maTi yuradRebis miRma rCeba. bevri maTgani sakuTar Tavs marTlmadidebel qristianad miiCnevs, anTroposofias ki _ mecnierebad, romelic maT qristianobis saidumloebaTa ufro Rrmad `wvdomaSi~ daexmareba. am SemTxvevaSi garkveuli fsiqologiuri gamocanis winaSe vdgebiT _ seriozul da, erTi SexedviT, patiosan adamianebs, romlebsac TiTqos Stainerizmi da qristianoba keTilsindisierad, gulmodgined unda SeedarebinaT erTmaneTisTvis, ar esmiT, rom aq laparakia yvelaze mTavarze, anu arCevanze monoTeizmsa da warmarTobas Soris: erT mxaresaa saxarebiseuli qriste, WeSmariti RmerTi, soflis ganmgebeli, meore mxares ki Staineris RmerTi _ eqvsi elohimis gansaxiereba, solaruli RmerTi. aq kidev erTi fsiqologiuri aspeqti iCens Tavs: elitarulobis pretenzia. anTroposofoss sakuTari Tavi `gandobilad~, saidumloTa mflobelad, `profanebis~ brboze maRla mdgomad warmoudgenia, am dros ki qristianobis siZliere isaa, rom igi universaluria _ erTnairad misawvdomia filosofosisa da ubralo miwis muSisTvis, moxucebisa da bavSvebisTvis; qristianobis sidiade mis ubraloebaSia, romlis miRmac sulis uZiro siRrme imaleba. aq RmerTTan Tanaziarebisa da zneobrivi srulyofis unari inteleqtualuri daxvewilobiT da okulturi `saidumloebebis~ codniT ki ar izomeba, aramed gulis siwmindiT, sarwmunoebis siRrmiT da nebayoflobiT aRebuli cxovrebiseuli RvawliT. Cveni naSromis mizania warmovaCinoT qristianobisa da anTroposofiis SeuTavsebloba umTavres ontologiur sakiTxebSi: Teologiasa da anTropologiaSi. 278

anTroposofia

ra aris anTroposofia? esaa germaneli mistikosis, rudolf Staineris moZRvreba, igi warmoadgens Teosofiis erT-erT nairsaxeobas, romelic 1913 wels damoukidebel okultur skolad Camoyalibda. sityva `anTroposofia~ berZnulia da ori Zirisagan Sedgeba: `anTropos~ _ adamiani da `sofia~ _ sibrZne. Teosofiisgan (`Teos~ _ RmerTi da `sofia~ _ sibrZne) gansxvavebiT, anTroposofia xazs usvams, rom RmerTis adgilas mas gaRmerTebuli adamianis dayeneba surs. amitom anTroposofia arafrad agdebs TviT swavlebasa da cnebas RmerTis Sesaxeb da sxva saqmeebiT aris dakavebuli: okulturi TeoriebiT samyaros, adamianis evoluciis, kosmiuri sulebis _ `saRmrTo ierarqiis~ Sesaxeb da, gansakuTrebiT, TeoriiT kacis bunebis Sedgenilobis Sesaxeb. amasTan, Tavis anTropologiur ideebs igi induizmisa da Teosofiisgan sesxulobs. anTroposofia ekleqtikuri swavlebaa, romelic aRmosavluri da dasavluri okultizmis farTo arsenaliT sargeblobs, magram, amave dros, germanul mistikasa (ekharti) da filosofiaSi (hegeli) ukve Camoyalibebul tradicias eyrdnoba. anTroposofia, iseve rogorc yvela okulturi mecniereba, pirobas debs, rom adamianis fsiqikis zebunebriv Zalebs warmoaCens da Tavis mimdevrebs miscems saidumlo, dafarul codnas kosmosisa da adamianis Sesaxeb. XX saukunis aTian wlebSi Staineri blavatskaia-bezantis `Teosofiur sazogadoebaSi~ germanul seqcias xelmZRvanelobda. pirveli msoflio 279

omis win igi gamovida `Teosofiuri sazogadoebidan~ da sakuTari okulturi skola daaarsa, romlis miznadac warmarTobis sayovelTao aRorZineba rCeboda, gansakuTrebiT evropaSi. Staineri cdilobda Tavisi moZRvrebisTvis xelovnurad qristianizebuli forma mieca. man saxarebis komentirebasac ki mohkida xeli, Tumca cxadia, es komentarebi okultur-warmarTuli suliskveTebisa iyo. sicocxlis bolos igi leqciebis cikliT gamovida, romelsac `mexuTe saxareba~ uwoda. am wigns igi Tavisi cxovrebis mTavar wignad miiCnevda _ umaRles, sulier saxarebad. mTavari anTroposofiuli koncefcia Stainerma maniqevelebisgan isesxa: erT-erTi kosmiuri RvTaeba _ mzis eoni, saxelad qriste, gadadis kacze, iesoze, raTa ixsnas da ganasulieros qveyniereba; qriste _ `mzis suli~ iwyebs brZolas arimanTan (belzebelTan) _ materialurobis principTan, sikvdilis ganmgebelTan. am brZolaSi monawileobs luciferi _ idumalebiT moculi arseba, romelic xan qristes mowinaaRmdegea, xanac misi `mziuri Zma~. Stainerma gaiTvaliswina Tanamedrove evropelis fsiqologiuri Tavisebureba: miswrafeba erTdroulad zusti mecnierebebisa da bundovani pietizmisken, utilitaruli codnisa da filosofiuri abstraqciebisken. amitomac cdilobda, Tavisi `naTelmxilveluri zmanebebi~ hegelis dialeqtikis kategoriebiT gadmoeca. ra SeiZleba iTqvas rudolf Staineris Sesaxeb? Staineri profesiiT inJineri iyo. igi goeTes Semoqmedebas ikvlevda (gansakuTrebiT sabunebismetyvelo sferoSi) da mis TxzulebaTa oTxmoctomeulis redaqtirebaSic ki monawileobda. Staineri swavlobda germanul 280

filosofias, ainteresebda religiebisa da mwvaleblobebis istoria, icnobda bibliis kritikas, magram misi cxovrebis mTavar saqmed Teoriuli da praqtikuli okultizmis Seswavla iqca. Staineri cnobilia, rogorc eqimi, romelmac e. w. `rTul homeopaTiaSi~ ramdenime axali recepti Seitana. literaturuli interesebis farTo wris miuxedavad, mas arc mewarmis niWi aklda da, zogierTi cnobis Tanaxmad, Tambaqos fabrikis aqcioneri da Tanamflobelic iyo (Tumca anTroposofosebi amtkiceben, rom es misi mogvare, `anTroposofiuli sazogadoebis~ damfinansebeli iyo). Stainerma SveicariaSi anTroposofiuli taZari aago sakuTari naxazebisa da gaTvlebis mixedviT. igi 1925 wels gardaicvala da, induisturi tradiciis Tanaxmad, misi gvami dawves. ra gansxvavebaa Teosofiasa da anTroposofias Soris? Teosofiam Tavis devizad `religiaTa Tanasworoba~ gamoacxada. `Teosofiuri sazogadoebis~ wevrebi SeiZleba iyvnen sxvadasxva msoflmxedvelobis adamianebi (`dogmatikosebis~ anu im adamianebis garda, vinc darwmunebulia sakuTari religiis mTavari principebis WeSmaritebaSi). Teosofia mouwodebs adamianebs damoukideblad Seiswavlon religiebi, raTa maTSi Zveli sibrZne ipovon, e. i. mouwodebs religiuri ekleqtizmisaken, sadac religiebis tradiciuli formebi SeiZleba uwindeli darCes, magram SinaarsiT es evraziuli okultizmi iqneba. Staineri Teosofosebze ufro kategoriulia. igi acxadebs, rom anTroposofia erTaderTi swavlebaa, 281

romelsac ZaluZs kacobriobis xsna uxeSi materializmisa da demonizmisagan. RmerTis pirovnul Ziebasa da sakuTar TavSi RmerTis aRmSeneblobas, romelsac Teosofia aqezebda, Staineri cvlis mowafeebis ndobiT maswavleblis, rogorc winaswarmetyvelisadmi _ am SemTxvevaSi ndobiT Stainerisadmi, misi `naTelmxilveluri~ unarebisadmi. Teosofia indoeTisa da tibetis mistikazea orientirebuli. budizmi, induizmi da lamaizmi is miwisqveSa wylebia, Teosofias rom asazrdoeben. anTroposofia bevr rameSi emTxveva Teosofias (reinkarnacia, karma da a. S.), magram StainerisTvis ieso realuri piria, maSin, rodesac TeosofosTa umravlesoba mas gamonagonad miiCnevs. Tumca unda gvaxsovdes, rom es aris ara istoriuli qriste _ ieso nazareveli, aramed mzis eoni _ mzis suli, romelsac Staineri qristes uwodebs. StainerisaTvis misaRebia TeosofosTa mraval kosmologiuri da anTropologiuri koncefcia: metemfsiqozis Teoria, karma, rogorc Surisgebisa da nacvalgebis kanoni da a. S., magram igi ufro farTod iyenebs sxva wyaroebs: gnosticizms, maniqevelobas, kabalas, albigovelTa da rozenkroicerTa swavlebas (TviTon Staineri rozenkroicerTa ordenis grosmaisteri iyo). mTavari gansxvaveba Teosofiasa da anTroposofias Soris qristes Sesaxeb maT swavlebebSi mdgomareobs. Teosofia qristes erT-erT `gandobilad~, zneobis maswavleblad warmoadgens, budasa da muhameds Soris rom uWiravs adgili. anTroposofia qristes mzis eonad, raRac solarul RvTaebad gamosaxavs, amonisa da miTras analogad da mas drois mocemul monakveTSi Tavisi astrologiuri olimpis mTavar moqmed pirad miiCnevs. 282

Semdeg qriste da luciferi adgilebs ucvlian erTmaneTs: qriste lucifers Tavis siyvaruls aZlevs, xolo luciferi qristes _ Tavis inteleqts. daskvniT aqtSi vulkanis _ umaRlesi RvTaebis, cecxlis mefoba iwyeba. ra mtkicebulebebis moyvana SeiZleba imis sasargeblod, rom qristianoba da anTroposofia SeuTavsebelni arian gnoseologiur aspeqtSi? qristianuli swavlebis safuZvelia dogmatebi _ saRmrTo gamocxadebiT mocemuli maradiuli WeSmaritebebi. es is codnaa, romelic RmerTma ganucxada adamianebs sakuTari Tavisa da sulieri samyaros Sesaxeb, sxva sityvebiT, dogmatebi RmerTis TviTgancxadebaa kacobrivi sityvis doneze. dogmatebi wm. werilsa da wm. gardamocemaSi arian daculni, xolo gamovlindebian da myar, ucvlel formas Rebuloben eklesiis cnobierebasa da TviTgamoxatvaSi, romelsac sayovelTaoba, erToba ewodeba. sayovelTaoba warmoadgens eklesiis erTianobisa da sakuTar TavTan igiveobriobis princips drosa da sivrceSi. gamocxadeba da dogmatebi, romlebic msoflio krebebma gansazRvres, suli wmidis mier eklesiis cocxal organizmSi inaxeboda. eklesiis erTianoba siyvarulis erTianobiT aris daculi, am erTianobis umaRlesi gamoxatuleba ki liturgia da ziarebaa. StainerisTvis arc gamocxadeba arsebobs, arc eklesia, arsebobs mxolod subieqturi okulturi gamocdileba, romelic mis sakuTar `sulTa xilvebsa~ da inteleqtualur SesaZleblobebs eyrdnoba. amgvarad, Staineri erTobis princips sakuTar TavSi Caketil individualizms upirispirebs, sadac WeSmaritebisa da tyuilis ganmasxvavebeli kriteriumebi ar arsebobs. 283

ra SeiZleba iTqvas qristianuli sarwmunoebis simbolos _ mrwamsisa da anTroposofiuli metafizikis, rogorc gadmocemis meTodis Taobaze? sarwmunoebis simbolo qristianuli sarwmunoebis mTavari dogmatebis mokle gadmocemaa, romelic garkveul sistemad aris Camoyalibebuli. sityva `simbolo~ niSnavs `kavSirs~, `nimuSs~. sarwmunoebis simbolo I da II msoflio saeklesio krebebze iqna Sedgenili, Semdgomma krebebma ki igi marTlmadidebluri aRmsareblobis maradiul nimuSad daamtkices. krebebma akrZales sarwmunoebis simbolos yovelgvari Secvla. igi eklesiis Tavis TavTan igiveobis mowmobas warmoadgens. StainerTan verc misi swavlebis mkafio Tezisebs vipoviT, verc sistemas, verc gadmocemis Tanmimdevrulobas: mas ar hyolia uSualo winamorbedebi, igi, ase vTqvaT, sakuTari Tavisgan `iSva~. magram, amave dros, Staineri sruliadac ar aris originaluri, piriqiT, ekleqtikosia. Staineri uzarmazar masalas sesxulobs sul sxvadasxva wyaroebidan: warmarTuli TeurgiebiT dawyebuli saxarebebiT, maT Soris apokrifuli saxarebebiT damTavrebuli, gnostikuri sistemebidan _ hegelis filosofiamde. anTroposofia gvaocebs imiT, rom aq ar arsebobs raime Tanmimdevruloba da mTlianoba; esaa konglomerati winaaRmdegobrivi Sexedulebebisa, wyvetili, TiTqos SemTxveviT wamosrolili ideebisa da daumTavrebeli msjelobebisa. amgvari winaaRmdegobrioba, erTi mxriv, Staineris Txrobis stiliT, misi azrovnebis mudmivi konvulsiebiTaa gamowveuli, meore mxriv ki im masalis qaosurobiT, romliTac Staineri sargeblobs _ ufro sworad, romlis plagiatsac axdens, radgan Tavis 284

leqciebSi arasodes miuTiTebs wyaroebs, yvelafers TviTon miiwers. Tumca, Cveni azriT, es gacnobierebuli meTodia: wyali unda aamRvrio, rom fskeri ar gamoCndes. Tqven TqviT, rom Staineri cdilobda, Tavisi okultur-mWvretelobiTi xedvebi germanuli filosofiis kategoriebSi Camoeyalibebina. magram hegelianobisTvis damaxasiaTebelia sistematizacia da is, rasac Cven panlogizms vuwodebdiT, Staineris azrovneba ki narkomanis zmanebebiviT araprognozirebadia. rogor davukavSiroT es ori ram erTmaneTs? Staineri hegelisagan sesxulobs ara logizms, aramed mis paradoqsul dialeqtikas, gansakuTrebiT, swavlebas winaaRmdegobaTa igiveobriobis Sesaxeb, romelic yvelaze moulodneli azrobrivi naxtomebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. hegelis swavlebiT, istoria aris absolutis TviTSemecnebisa da TviTgamoxatvis procesi adamianis gonebis meSveobiT. es swavleba Stainers SesaZleblobas aZlevda daeskvna, rom istoriis garkveul periodebSi esa Tu is eri da xalxi rCeuli eri xdeba, da rom germaneli eri da germaneli mistikosebi elitarulebi arian. Stainers aklda hegelis azrovnebis bumberazuli masStabebi, raTa inteleqtualuri qaosi logosis msgavsebad mainc eqcia; amitom adamiani, romelic anTroposofiis Seswavlas cdilobs, labirinTSi xvdeba, sadac uamravi karia, magram yvela gasasvleli CixiT mTavrdeba. StainerTan erT gasaocar faqts vawydebiT: igi erT leqciaSi uaryofs imas, rasac sxva dros dabejiTebiT amtkicebda.

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Staineri TeosofosTa Soris Tavisi ganaTlebiT gamoirCeoda. nuTu ver moaxerxa, Tavisi Sexedulebebi mwyobr sistemad Camoeyalibebina? Cven ukve vaxseneT Staineris erTi Tviseba: Tavis azrs igi bolomde ki ar gamoTqvamda, aramed TiTqos Suaze wyvetda da moulodnelad, swrafi naxtomiT, sxva Temaze gadadioda. magram gulubryviloba iqneboda gvefiqra, rom amgvari bolomde uTqmeloba da azris dausrulebloba mxolod Temis gauazreblobis, gulmaviwyobis, anda azrovnebis araTanmimdevrulobis brali iyo. aq ufro xelovnuri efeqturobis xerxia, ukve aprobirebuli advaita-iogasa da TeosofiaSi, kerZod: sakuTari swavleba rac SeiZleba bundovani unda gaxado, raTa man, wyaliviT, nebismieri forma miiRos _ WurWlis formis Sesabamisad. es Sinagani bundovaneba da winaaRmdegobrioba farTo taqtikuri manevrirebisa da SeniRbvis saSualebas iZleva: Staineris ideebi rom sistemad Camoyalibebuliyo da dasrulebuli saxe mieRo, maSin maTi antiqristianuli arsic gamoaSkaravdeboda. amitom Staineris okulturdemonuri swavleba fsevdoqristianuli terminologiisa da Segnebulad dausrulebeli azrebis sqel burusSia gaxveuli. kidev risi Tqma SeiZleba Staineris meTodologiaze? Tavis leqciebSi igi ganuwyvetliv imeorebs da saxes ucvlis ramdenime azrs, magram ki ar aviTarebs maT, aramed raRac sityvier Caketil wreebs xazavs. esec fsiqologiuri xerxia: Staineris msjeloba Tavidan 286

winaaRmdegobasa da protests iwvevs, mere kacis cnobiereba adaptacias ganicdis da eCveva maT, mravalgzisi gameorebis Semdeg ki es msjeloba ukve nacnobi xdeba da adamians igi karga xnis win damtkicebuli da sayovelTaod cnobili WeSmariteba hgonia. kerZod, ra SeuTavsebloba arsebobs Stainerizmsa da qristianobas Soris dogmatur planSi? amisaTvis sarwmunoebis simbolo, romelic qristianuli dogmatebis mokle gadmocemas warmoadgens, Staineris yvelaze xSirad gameorebul mosazrebebs unda SevadaroT. rogor afasebs anTroposofia qristianobis pirvel da meore dogmats _ swavlebas wm. samebis Sesaxeb? Cven gvwams absoluturi, erTi, samgvamovani RmerTi: mama, Ze da suli wmida; ara sami RmerTi, aramed erTi RmerTi, sadac sami hipostasi erTmaneTs ganmsWvalavs da erTmaneTSi myofobs. yoveli hipostasi absoluturia, amitom aq ricxvi raodenobas ki ara, myofobas gamoxatavs: sami tolia erTisa. dogmati yovladwmida samebis Sesaxeb aRemateba adamianis gonebas da rwmeniT miiReba, sxvagvarad kacobrivi goneba SeZlebda moecva RmerTi, e. i. `zeabsoluturi~ iqneboda (rasac farulad qadagebs hegelianoba). Staineri uaryofs dogmats yovladwmida samebis Sesaxeb; xolo Tu mainc iyenebs am sityvas, isic hegelianuri mniSvnelobiT _ rogorc sam periods.

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swamda Tu ara Stainers erTi RmerTi? Cven gvwams erTi RmerTi, srulyofili suli, maradiuli da usasrulo, romelic iyo, aris da iqneba, soflisaTvis transcendentuli (miuwvdomeli) Tavisi arsebiT da imanenturi (aRqmadi) Tavisi moqmedebebiTa da energiebiT. StainerisTvis erTi RmerTi ar arsebobs. SveicariaSi anTroposofiuli taZris gaxsnisas man ganacxada, rom swams ara RmerTi, aramed RmerTebi da rom misi cxovrebis mTavari misia warmarTobis aRorZinebaa. am taZarSi xisgan gamoWrili warmarTuli kerpebi dganan. RmerTis bibliur saxelebs Staineri Tavis interpretacias ukeTebs: `ieRova~ misTvis erT-erTi yvelaze dabali rangis RvTaebaa, romelic bibliaSi mTavarangeloz miqaelis saxeliTac ixsenieba; esaa mTvaris RvTaeba, romelic Tavis TavSi materialuriobis princips Seicavs da iudevelTa nacionalur RvTaebad iqca (aq Staineri baueris skolis Sexedulebas imeorebs, romelic biblias aTeisturi poziciidan akritikebda). Tumca Staineri am sakiTxSi sakuTar Tavs ewinaaRmdegeba: londonSi wakiTxul leqciaze man moulodnelad ganacxada, rom mTvaris RvTaebasTan ieRovas gaigiveba blavatskaias `oinebia~, romelic ebrZoda qristianobas, TviTon Stainers ki miaCnia, rom ieRova dakavSirebulia mTvaresTan, magram mTvaris suli ar aris. saxel `sabaoTs~ igi RmerTs ki ara, varskvlavebs ukavSirebs da am saxels astrologiur axsnas uZebnis. sityva `elohim~-Si Staineri raRac upirovno kosmiur sulebs gulisxmobs, romlebsac sxva arsebebSi Casaxlebis unari SeswevT. Staineris mixedviT, qriste Tavis TavSi Svid sul-elohims Seicavs, ufro mets, vidre ieRova da 288

amitom, ierarqiulad masze maRla dgas. wm. basili didi ambobda: `ar arsebobs mwvalebloba, romelic Ze RmerTs mama RmerTze ufro maRla daayenebda~. magram anTroposofia swored aseTi mwvalebloba aRmoCnda. anTroposofias, Teosofiisgan gansxvavebiT, ufro qristocentruli xasiaTi aqvs; amas xSirad usvamdnen xazs Staineri da misi mimdevrebi. vin aris ieso qriste anTroposofosTa swavlebis Tanaxmad? qristianoba gvaswavlis, rom Ze RmrTisa aris zeciuri mamis xati da, rogorc srulyofili xati, yvelafriT misi Tanasworia: pirovnuli myofobiT, ZlierebiT, RirsebiT da RmrTaebrivi srulyofilebiT. Ze RmrTisam xorci Seisxa kacTa cxonebisaTvis, iqca WeSmarit kacad da darCa WeSmarit RmerTad. ganxorcielebuli Ze RmrTisas saxeli _ ieso niSnavs `macxovars~, qriste _ suli wmidiT cxebuls. Staineri iesos ganacalkevebs qristesgan. misTvis qriste arc absoluturi sulia da arc srulyofili RmerTi, aramed mzis eoni, romelsac pirveli adgili uWiravs planetarul sulTa Soris. igi Tavis TavSi Seicavs Svid energetikul sul-elohims da amitom RmerTze, ufro sworad, Zveli aRTqmis RmerTebze maRla dgas. swavleba qristes, rogorc mzis RvTaebis Sesaxeb Stainerma sparseli qurumis, manisgan isesxa; mani iyo maniqevelTa gnostikuri seqtis fuZemdebeli, romelic mazdeanobisa (cecxlis Tayvaniscemis) da qristianobis SeerTebas cdilobda. swavleba qristes, rogorc erTerTi umaRlesi eonis Sesaxeb, II saukunis gnostikosebsac hqondaT _ valentinussa da basilids. rac Seexeba iesos, StainerisTvis igi ubralo adamiania, iosebisa da 289

mariamis vaJiSvili. Staineri, metemfsiqozis Teoriaze dayrdnobiT, mas zaratustras sulis ganxorcielebad miiCnevs (esaa ieso maTes saxarebidan); Semdeg Staineri sxva iesoze wers (lukas saxarebidan). pirveli ieso bavSvobaSi kvdeba, misi suli sxva iesos sxeulSi gadadis _ budas astraluri sxeulis ganxorcielebaSi; amitom ieso ori Zveli `gandobilis~ _ budasa da zaratustras reinkarnaciaa. StainerisTvis ieso ZiebiTa da eWvebiT `gatanjuli~, keTili, magram meryevi nebis adamiania. Staineri ambobs, TiTqos mas gamoecxada, rogor Sevida erTxel ieso sofelSi, sadac warmarTebi cxovrobdnen da kinaRam kerpebs Seswira msxverpli _ amisgan mxolod gulis SeRonebam ixsna. amgvarad, Staineri iesos arasrulyofil, rTul pirovnebad miiCnevs. Stainers bevrad ufro dabali warmodgena aqvs iesoze, vidre yurans. yurani aRiarebs mariamis qalwulebas, misi Zis saswaulebriv Sobas (yurani, Tavi `mariami~) da aswavlis, rom ieso xorcielad iqna zecad ayvanili. yovelive amas uaryofs Staineri, romelic anTroposofias qristianobis `mwvervalad~ acxadebs.

ras gulisxmobda Staineri iesos naTlisRebaSi? 30 wlis iesoze gadmovida mzis eoni _ qriste, iesosa da qristes TandaTanobiTi SeerTeba golgoTamde grZeldeboda. amgvari Sexeduleba, sxvadasxva variantebiT, bevri gnostikuri seqtisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli.

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ras gulisxmobda Staineri golgoTis msxverplsa da kacobriobis gamoxsnaSi? qristianoba aswavlis, rom Ze RmrTisa xdeba Ze kacisa. igi Tavisi TaviT anacvlebs jvarze codvil kacobriobas: msgavsi msxverplad iwireba msgavsisaTvis, magram, amave dros, qriste srulyofil RmerTad rCeba, amitom mis msxverpls absoluturi mniSvneloba aqvs. StainerisTvis qristes jvarcma kacobriobis gamosyidva ki ara, golgoTis tragediaa, romelmac Zveli misteriebis saidumloebi gamoacxada. Staineris TqmiT, is, rac warmarTuli taZrebis kedlebSi, misteriuli niSnebis qveS xdeboda, qristem saqveynod gamoitana. amitom saxareba axali aRTqma ki ar aris, aramed Zveli misteriebis popularizacia. Stainers miaCnia, rom jvarcma TviT qristesaTvis iyo saWiro: golgoTaze moxda ieso-kacis qristeeonTan saboloo `SeerTeba~. golgoTis misteriis azri isaa, rom solaruli RmerTi miwaze dasaxlda da axla mis dasanaxad zeviT ki ara, qveviT unda daixedo. Staineris azriT, rom ara golgoTis msxverpli, luciferi naadrevad waiyvanda kacobriobas Tavis `gasxivosnebul sulier sferoebSi~ da miwieri evoluciis bunebriv svlas daarRvevda. rogor afasebda Staineri qristes daflvas? mas miaCnda, rom moxda miwisZvra, iesos sxeuli saflavisTvis gankuTvnili gamoqvabulis napralSi Cavarda, mere miwa kvlav SeerTda, iesos sxeuli ki miwis siRrmeSi darCa da dRemde iq imyofeba. Tavis mier SeTxzul am ambavs Staineri gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebda.

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rogor afasebda Staineri qristes mkvdreTiT aRdgomas? rogorc vTqviT, Staineris Tanaxmad, iesos sxeuli miwis siRrmeSi imyofeba. mzis eoni-qriste da iesos suli ar momkvdaran. maS, raRa aRsdga? TviTon aRdgoma xom sikvdilidan sicocxleSi gadasvlas niSnavs? Tuki iesos suli mis sxeuls ar SeerTebia, mkvdreTiT aRdgomac ver moxdeboda. ucnobia, ras gulisxmoben anTroposofosebi sityvebSi `qriste aRsdga~, romliTac isini erTmaneTs esalmebian aRdgomis dResaswaulze. SegviZlia mxolod vivaraudoT, rom esaa qristes gnostikuri gaTavisufleba iesos fizikuri sxulisagan. anTroposofiuli swavlebis mixedviT, vin ixsna qristem golgoTis msxverplis meSveobiT? Staineris azriT, qristem ixsna ara kacobrioba, aramed miwis eoni, rogorc cocxali arseba. aq Staineris swavleba gnostikos valentinusis azrs uaxlovdeba, romelic aswavlida, rom qristes eonma materialurobaSi Cafluli sofiis eoni ixsna. valentinusisTvis materia sulis satusaRoa, pleromis (yofierebis sisavsis) daSlis Sedegi. materia StainerisTvisac dacemuli stiqiaa, Tumca garkveuli TvalsazrisiT dadebiT rolsac asrulebs: maRali sulierebis misaRebad moumwifebel kacobriobas luciferis `naTlisagan~ icavs. amitom materia Tavis TavSi Seicavs rogorc dadebiT, ise uaryofiT funqciebs. Staineris mixedviT, msoflio istoriis (ufro sworad, kosmiuri ciklis) dasasruls materia fers ki ar icvlis, aramed ganadgurdeba.

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rogor afasebs Staineri Zvel aRTqmas? civi zrdilobianobiT. es ieRovas aRTqmaa, mTvaris RvTaebisa, romelic STaagonebda Tavis winaswarmetyvelebs. arqevsma, Zveli aRTqmis drois RmerTma, gaakeTa Tavisa saqme da SeuZlia datovos scena. rogor afasebs Staineri axali aRTqmis wignebs? saxarebebis mimarT Stainers gaorebuli damokidebuleba aqvs. man Seadgina gnostikuri egzegetika, ase rom, TiTqosda aRiarebs saxarebebs, magram, amave dros, winaswar azustebs, rom saxarebebSi gadmocemuli movlenebis erTmaneTTan SeTanxmeba SeuZlebelia, amitom gaugebaria, aris Tu ara axali aRTqma anTroposofosebisTvis WeSmaritebis wyaro. Seqmnili daZabulobis gansamuxtad Stainerma saocari diplomatiis unari gamoiCina da ganacxada, rom is ar apirebs saxarebebis istoriuli faqtologiis dadasturebas an uaryofas, mxolod maTi sulieri mniSvneloba ainteresebs. magram radganac simboloebi garkveul movlenebTan aris dakavSirebuli da aucilebelia maTi materialuri substratis an aRiareba, an uaryofa, Staineri rTul mdgomareobaSi xvdeba: Tuki miiRebs saxarebas, rogorc umaRles WeSmaritebas, mTeli misi swavleba daingreva; xolo Tu saerTod uaryofs saxarebas, maSin dakargavs Tavis mimdevarTa umravlesobas, visac Tavi qristianad miaCnia. amitom Staineri aseT xerxs mimarTavs: igi acxadebs, TiTqos ioanes saxarebasa da sam sinoptikur (maTes, markozis da lukas saxarebebi) saxarebas Soris winaaRmdegobebi SeimCneva. Staineris TqmiT, Tuki ioanes saxarebas miiRebs, man, rogorc principulma adamianma, danarCenebi unda uaryos, xolo Tuki 293

sam sinoptikur saxarebas miiRebs, maSin ioanes saxareba unda miiCnios arasando wyarod. am sakiTxis saukeTeso gadawyvetas Staineri imaSi xedavs, rom e. w. `memarcxene hegelianelebs~ akritikebs da xSirad eyrdnoba racionalist harnaks, romelic Tavisi SexedulebebiT arianelobasTan idga axlos. ase rom, gamodis, TiTqos Staineri mzad aris miiRos saxarebebi, magram, amave dros, surs pirnaTeli iyos mecnierebis winaSe, romelmac `daamtkica~, rom saxarebebi gviandeli interpolaciebiT (damatebebiT) iqna Sevsebuli. Stainers es sxvadasxva manipulaciebis SesaZleblobas aZlevs: kerZod, saxarebebidan Rebulobs imas, rasac anTroposofosebisTvis misaRebia, danarCens ki uaryofs, rogorc Secdomas da gviandel damatebebs. Staineri zogjer imasac acxadebs, rom SesaZlebelia saxarebebis SeTanxmeba maTi `okulturi planis~ daxmarebiT. romeli saxarebaa StainerisTvis yvelaze avtoritetuli? misi sakuTari wigni, romelsac `mexuTe saxareba~ uwoda... Tumca isic unda iTqvas, rom `mexuTe saxareba~ anTroposofiul literaturaSi farTod ar gavrcelebula. igi anTroposofosebisTvis `sakraluri~ wignia, romelsac malaven `aragandobilTagan~ da urCeven adamianebs, es wigni mxolod safuZvliani anTroposofiuli momzadebis Semdeg waikiTxon. ras gulisxmobda Staineri amaRlebaSi? StainerisTvis esaa iesos sulis uxorco zeaRsvla sulier sferoSi. 294

rogor warmoedgina Stainers qristes meored mosvla? igi ambobda, rom qriste uaxloes aTwleulebSi eTerovani sxeuliT mova amsoflad da mas ixilaven XX saukunis 20-30-iani wlebis anTroposofosebi. amgvarad, Staineris swavlebis Tanaxmad, meored mosvla ukve Sedga. rogor afasebs anTroposofia drosa da pirovnebas? qristianuli swavlebis Tanaxmad, dro kosmosTan erTad Seiqmna. rodesac msoflio istoria dasruldeba da samyaro fers icvlis, dro gaqreba. dro maradisobis fonze miedineba, igi srulyofili myofobis ki ara, yofierebis anu kacobriobis Camoyalibebis periodis kategoriaa. StainerisTvis dros cikluri xasiaTi aqvs: igi ukan, wreze miedineba, rogorc miTSi. misTvis saboloo mizani aris evolucia _ samyaros restavracia, Tavdapirvel mdgomareobasTan dabruneba. anTroposofiul `ierarqiaSi~ TvalsaCino adgili uWiravs arqevss _ drois RvTaebas, istoriis ganmgebels. dro eonebSia moqceuli da maT SigniT miedineba. TviTon sityva `eons~ Staineri zustad arsad ar gansazRvravs.es an yofierebis garkveuli saxe Tu periodia, anda cocxali arseba, Tu arada erTisa da meoris Sexameba. Staineri momavalzec laparakobs, magram igi iluzorulia, esaa mxolod universumis wriuli moZraobis Semdgomi etapi. Staineri istorias impresionistis TvaliT umzers: misi swavlebis diapazonidan qveynis dasawyisisa da dasasrulis, gnoseologiisa da esqatologiis sakiTxebi amo295

vardnilia. drois jaWvidan igi iRebs garkveul cikls, rogorc kosmiur epizods, romlis RerZia adamianis sulis romani raRac upirovno sulTan; es Zalian waagavs gnostikos valentinusis mier gadmocemul sofias mogzaurobas, anda fsiqeas Tavgadasavlebs apuleusis `metamorfozebSi~. StainerisTvis drois lokaluri nakadis dasasruli sakuTar sawyisTan dabrunebaa (mdinaris SesarTavis mibruneba saTavesTan). erTi eoni meores Sobs: arqevsis adgilas axali arqevsi modis, dro maradiulobaSi ki ara, ucnobi mimarTulebiT miedineba. swamda Tu ara Stainers suli wmida, rogorc pirovnuli RmerTi? ara. misTvis suli wmida upirovno kosmiuri siyvarulia, mociqulTa gamofxizleba, misi `mexuTe saxareba~ da a. S. madli raRac sinaTlis emanaciis msgavsia, ZalTa veli, eonebisa da RvTaebebis energia anu, rozenkroicerebis enaze rom vTqvaT, RvTaebrivi eleqtroba. zogjer sityva `madlSi~ Staineri adamianis subieqtur mdgomareobas gulisxmobs transis an Rrma meditaciis dros. saxarebis swavleba imis Sesaxeb, rom suli wmida mama RmerTisgan gamodis, StainerisTvis miuRebelia: suli wmidis sawyisi SeuZlebelia mTvaris RvTaeba ieRova, anu kosmiuri materialurobis principi iyos. gamodis, rom materialurobisa da fizikalurobisadmi midrekilebis gamo iahve axlosaa arimanTan. ratom ekideba qristianoba uaryofiTad okultizmSi danergil meditacias? Teosofosebs, anTroposofosebsa da iogebs Soris gavrcelebuli meditacia xelovnuri xerxia, raTa gone296

bis Semokrebis saSualebiT gamoiwvios sulis iZulebiTi kavSiri warmosaxviT obieqtebTan, romlebsac cnobierebaSi sityvieri formulebis an grZnobadi saxeebis gziT nergaven. meditacia hipnozis saxesxvaobas warmoadgens; misi meSveobiT adamianis fsiqika advilad STagonebadi xdeba da ise saWiroebs am STagonebebs, rogorc dopings an narkotiks. garda amisa, meditaciis dros samSvinvelis Zalebi gaorebulia: adamiani ise mimarTavs Tavis abstraqtul `me~-s, rogorc RvTaebas da cdilobs Tavi dairwmunos sakuTar arsebul an ararsebul SesaZleblobebSi, dabolos _ sakuTar RvTaebriobaSi. es fsiqikuri egoTeizmi (sakuTari Tavis gaRmerTeba) demonizmad iqceva, romelic samSvinvels an cru sulierebis, an Sizofreniis kars uRebs. ufro konkretulad gviTxariT, riT gansxvavdeba qristianuli gamocxadeba anTroposofiuli swavlebisagan RvTaebebis Sesaxeb? qristianoba gvaswavlis RmerTis, rogorc absoluturi sulis Sesaxeb, romelic mTeli Tavisi mTlianobiT sufevs yoveliveSi da mTlianad yoveliveze maRla dgas; igi droisa da sivrcis gareSe myofobs, igia siyvaruli da wyaro siyvarulisa; igi ecxadeba sofels, rogorc srulyofili sibrZne, yovladZliereba da umaRlesi mSveniereba, igia soflis Semoqmedi da yovlismpyrobeli. erT-erTi saRmrTo saxeli _ `ieRova~ anu `myofi~ niSnavs myofobis mqones sakuTar TavSi (saocaria, rom Stainers, romelic xSirad eyrdnoba istoriul lingvistikas, daaviwyda: mTvaris RvTaebas ar ZaluZs hqondes myofoba sakuTar TavSi da amitom SeuZlebelia ieRova ewodebodes). 297

RmerTi yovelgvari myofobis principia. misi gangeba mTel samyaros moicavs _ galaqtikidan atomebamde; igi vlindeba samyaroSi an mis mier mocemuli kanonebiT, an uSualod, rogorc moyvaruli Zala, romelic ismens da igebs Cvens locvebs. RmerTi yovlad Tavisufali da yovlad Zlieria; igia sjulmdebeli, romelic mis mier mocemul kanonebze maRla dgas. StainerisTvis RvTaeba, ufro sworad, RmerTebi ar arian yovlad Zlierni; isini kosmiuri ZalebiT, sulebiTa da energiebiT arian SezRudulni da amitom iZulebulni xdebian imoqmedon garkveuli situaciebis gaTvaliswinebiT, TavianTi SesaZleblobebis farglebSi. Staineris RmerTebi astrologiis kanonebs eqvemdebarebian da, arsebiTad, maT mier determinirebulnic arian: ise moqmedeben, rom Tvali varskvlavian caze uWiravT (ase ganmartavs Staineri qristes Sobis TariRs). swavleba samyaros Seqmnis Sesaxeb anTroposofiis erT-erTi yvelaze bundovani da daxlarTuli problemaa. ufro savaraudoa, rom Staineri ganzrax uvlis gverds am sakiTxs: mas urCevnia saqme ukve mzamzareul da moqmedebaSi moyvanil samyarosTan hqondes. Staineri albaT mainc monizmis momxrea da erT sawyiss aRiarebs, magram ucnobia, risi sawyisia es _ maradiulobisa Tu ciklisa. bundovani rCeba materiis sakiTxic: Staineris RmerTebi ufro xSirad ukve arsebul materialurobasTan kavSirSi ganixilebian. iyo Tu ara, anTroposofosebis azriT, nivTiereba Tanadausabamo usaxo sawyisisa, romelic gnostikosTa `ufskrulsa da mdumarebas~ hgavs, Tu potenciurad arsebobda am idumal sawyisSi, Tu sxvagvarad amboben _ rom 298

materia sxva aramiwieri samyaroebidan kosmosSi Cacvenil sulTa degradaciis Sedegia? es sakiTxi anTroposofiisTvis gordiasis kvanZs warmoadgens _ iqneb imitomac, rom am swavlebaSi TviT droisa da maradiulobis cnebebi ar aris diferencirebuli da maradiuloba moiazreba, rogorc drois ganmeorebadi wreebi. Staineris azri mis mowafeebs keTili delfiniviT eTamaSeba, romelic xan CayvinTavs, xan wylis zedapirze amova, elvisebur wreebs gaavlebs da kvlav miimaleba. qristianTaTvis soflis dabadeba RmerTis siyvarulis gamovlinebaa, RmerTisa, romelsac surs, rom qmnili arsebebi miseul netarebasa da miseul srulyofilebas aziaros. anTroposofosTaTvis samyaros Seqmnis mizani gansazRvruli ar aris, es ufro pirvelwyaroebSi Cadebuli ritmia, romlisganac ciklebi ibadebian ara rogorc Tavisufali qmnilebebi, aramed aucileblobidan gamomdinare. amqveyniuri, materialuri arseboba raRac Soreuli kosmiuri katastrofis Sedegad aris warmodgenili. zogjer Staineri hegelis koncefcias uaxlovdeba, romlis mixedviTac samyaros Seqmna da istoria RvTaebis, e. i. kosmosis TviTgamoxatvisa da sakuTari Tavis Secnobis anu evoluciis saSualebaa. StainerisTvis uSualo Semoqmedebi _ soflis demiurgebi da ganmgeblebi _ kosmiuri sulebi arian. zaratustras swavlebis msgavsad, saidanac man uamravi idea isesxa, Staineri miiCnevs, rom soflis SesaqmeSi mxolod keTili ki ara, boroti sulebic monawileobdnen. amitom misi swavleba panTeizmsa da dualizms Soris meryeobs. 299

ras warmoadgens Staineris angelologia? Stainerma warmarTuli sistemebisa da ebrauli kabalisagan isesxa swavleba sifiritebis, eonebis, arqontebis, arqevsebis Sesaxeb. igi xandaxan gakvriT exeba agreTve qristianul swavlebas angelozebze, Tumca mxolod misi diskreditaciis mizniT. wm. dionise areopagelis `zeciur ierarqiaSi~ RmerTTan yvelaze axlos, umaRles safexurze dganan serafimebi _ cecxlovani sulebi, romlebic TavianTi mTliani, ganuyofeli siyvaruliT RmerTisken arian mimarTulebi. maT Semdeg arian qerubimni _ sibrZniTa da codniT aRsavse sulni. mesame adgilze arian saydarni, maTze saidumlod myofobs RmerTi Tavisi maradiuli gamobrwyinebebiT. Stainers miaCnda, rom umaRlesi sulni arian saydarni, Semdeg qerubimni, mesame adgilze ki serafimebs ayenebs. unda aRiniSnos, rom mexuTe msoflio saeklesio krebam eklesiisgan ganyeneba anu anaTema gamoucxada yvelas, visac swams zeciuri mnaTobebi, rogorc cocxali arsebebi da vinc angelozebs soflis Semoqmedebad miiCnevs; laodikiis krebam ki akrZala angelozebis, rogorc RvTaebebisa da samyaros ganmgeblebis Tayvaniscema. am gaukuRmarTebul angelologias mexuTe msoflio saeklesio krebis wm. mamebma `warmarTuli crumorwmuneoba~ uwodes. gnostikosebisa da kabalistebisgan Stainerma isesxa swavleba angelozTa samyaros kavSirze anbanis asoebTan (upiratesad Zvelebraul anbanTan). Zvel okultistebs miaCndaT, rom anbanis asoebis garkveul variantebsa da simbolur gamosaxulebebSi Sexameba SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes, rogorc daskvniTi formulebi kosmiur sulebze Zalauflebis misaRebad. sxvadasxva magiuri ma300

nipulaciis meSveobiT gnostikosebi eonTa saxelebs adgendnen, rac aseve akrZala laodikiis krebam. Teosofosebi aqveynebdnen Jurnals saTauriT `lucifer-gnosisi~, sadac cdilobdnen daemtkicebinaT, rom zeciur ZalTa dacemuli mTavari sinamdvileSi kacobriobis saukeTeso megobaria. Staineri luciferis daxasiaTebis dros ufro frTxilobs. igi acxadebs, rom luciferi naTlisa da cecxlis stiqia iyo, magram kosmiuri alis siWarbem SeiZleba daarRvios harmonia, amitom zogierT daavadebas Staineri luciferuls uwodebs. luciferis antipodad gamodis cnobili demoni arimani, belzebelidan aRebuli asli. Staineri acxadebs, dedamiwaze qriste rom ar mosuliyo, luciferi kacobriobas dedamiwis sferodan Tavis cecxlovan samyaroSi waiyvanda, magram ara qvesknelSi, aramed wminda spiritualizmis (sulierebis) samyaroSi. `sulswrafi siyvarulis~ am moqmedebiT luciferi daarRvevda evoluciis astrologiur msvlelobas: dedamiwa, rogorc cocxali arseba, udabnod iqceoda, kosmiur okeaneSi arsebuli ukacrieli kunZulis msgavsad. maSin dedamiwis dasaxmareblad mTvaris RvTaeba (bibliuri ieRova) movida, romelmac materialuri mizidulobis kanonebi Seqmna:Ldedamiwam daiwyo mTvaris, aseve Tavis mkvidrTa mizidva; adamians gansakuTrebuli grZnoba gauCnda dedamiwis, rogorc sakuTari saxlis mimarT. amgvarad, luciferis sapirispirod, ieRovam Seqmna is, rac SemdgomSi niutonma aRmoaCina _ mizidulobis kanoni. Staineris sikvdilis Semdeg `luciferul TeatrSi~ konspiraciis farda aswies. amJamad luciferi ganixileba rogorc promeTe, romelic adamianebma ver icnes, Sveicarieli anTroposofosebi ki sakuTar Tavs ara marto 301

`sulier qristianebsa~ da `TeTr Zmebs~, aramed `luciferis Svilebsac~ uwodeben. marTalia, Staineri lanZRavda blavatskaias imis gamo, rom mas qristes adgilas luciferis dayeneba surda da mtrulad iyo ganwyobili ieRovas, rogorc `mTvaris, vercxlisa da iudevelTa~ RmerTisadmi, magram sinamdvileSi aq uTanxmoeba arsebiTSi ki ara, strategiaSi iyo: Staineri, blavatskaiasgan gansxvavebiT, miiCnevda, rom luciferis `saidumlos~ ufro seriozuli momzadeba sWirdeba: ara ieRovas winaaRmdeg mowyobili revoluciis, aramed anTroposofiiT gamdidrebuli azrovnebis evoluciis meSveobiT. rogor afasebs Staineri marTlmadidebel eklesiasa da qristianul konfesiebs? aq Staineris diplomatiis unari virtuozuli xelovnebis dones aRwevs. igi acxadebs, rom RmerTi yvela religiur TemSi myofobs, oRond sxvadasxva xarisxiT; anTroposofia ar ewinaaRmdegeba maT aRmsareblobasa da tradiciebs, ubralod, qristianuli Temebisa da konfesiebis wevrebs ufro Rrma da sulier codnas aniWebs RmerTis Sesaxeb. maTi uwindeli `gulubryvilo RmrTismoSiSeba~, Staineris leqciebis wyalobiT, sulieri codniT icvleba. Staineri TiTqos arc erT konfesias ar uaryofs _ mxolod adamianebis daxmareba surs. magram es jer mxolod dasawyisia. amis Semdeg Staineri acxadebs, rom anTroposofia mowodebulia kacobriobis kosmiuri integraciis (gaerTianebis) mosaxdenad. saxtad tovebs ra Tavis mimdevrebs esoden gamaognebeli perspeqtiviT, Staineri axali SetevisaTvis emzadeba: igi ambobs, rom yvela religia da konfesia, gamonaklisis ga302

reSe, cdeboda, rodesac miaCnda, rom RmrTis Tayvaniscemas aswavlida, sinamdvileSi isini yvelaze dabal sulebs mimarTavdnen; es fsevdoRmerTebi _ cxadia, demonebi _ Rebulobdnen ra Tayvaniscemasa da locvebs, adamianebTan kontaqts amyarebdnen. amgvarad, uwindel mtkicebas, rom RmerTi yvela qristianul TemSi myofobs, Staineri TviTonve ukuagdebs. igi axla ukve aSkarad acxadebs, rom Tuki samyaro anTroposofiis maSvel rgols ar CaeWida, materializmisa da demonologiis zRvaSi CaiZireba. statiaSi `karma da adamianis profesiebi~ Staineri yvela qristianul konfesias `umecrebas, Secdomas, sicrues~ uwodebs. igi wers, rom Tuki Tanamedrove adamiani Tavis sarwmunoebas WeSmaritad miiCnevs, igi Semcdaria, cxovrobs `tyuilSi, Sinagan cTomilebaSi, bundovan warmodgenebs Soris~. am sakiTxSi Staineri eTanxmeba blavatskaias, romelic werda: `materialistebi isini ki ar arian, vinc RmerTis arsebobas uaryofs, aramed dogmatikosebi (eklesiuri qristianebi)~. Stainerma imiT daiwyo, rom qristianebs SesTavaza, TavianTi sarwmunoeba ezoTeruli swavlebis daxmarebiT gaeRrmavebinaT, xolo daasrula imiT, rom yvela religia da konfesia `uRmerTobisa da satanizmisaken~ mimaval gzad gamoacxada. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom Staineri Tavis mimdevrebs orad yofda: `gareganad~ da `Sinaganad~. pirvelebs sajaro leqciebs ukiTxavda, meoreebs ki Sin esaubreboda _ gansakuTrebuli piradi mowvevis Semdeg. aseT Sexvedrebs igi `intimur saubrebs~ uwodebda.

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risi Tqma SeiZleba anTroposofiuli taZris, `anTroposofiuli sazogadoebis~ wesebisa da ritualebis Sesaxeb? pirveli msoflio omis win Stainerma SveicariaSi aago goeTesadmi miZRvnili anTroposofiuli taZari. taZari formiT adamianis Tavis qalas waagavda, igi ramdenime samlocvelod iyo dayofili, romlebSic warmarTuli RmerTebis kerpebi idga. samSeneblo samuSaoebis dros Staineri xelosnebisagan moiTxovda, rom am kerpebis figurebi da saxeebi kuTxovani da wawvetebuli, anu demonebis gamosaxulebebTan mimsgavsebuli yofiliyo. taZarSi idga vitraJebi astrologiuri cxrilebiTa da simboloebiT. Stainerma iwinaswarmetyvela, rom taZari samasi weli idgeboda, magram igi male dawva sulierad avadmyofma anTroposofosma. ramdenime wlis Semdeg Stainerma axali taZari aaSena da masac `goeTenaumi~ uwoda. Sveicaria anTroposofiis centrad iqca. anTroposofiul ritualebs Soris SeiZleba aRvniSnoT scenuri warmodgenebi: mag., misteriebi Siures wignis, `diadi gandobilebis~ mixedviT. am warmodgenis zogierTi scenari TviTon Stainerma dawera. anTroposofiul ritualebSi Sedis agreTve sakulto ritmuli cekvebi, romlebic mravali warmarTuli religiisaTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. Stainers miaCnda, rom cekvis meSveobiT saxarebis Sinaarsis gadmocema SeiZleba. swamda Tu ara Stainers mkvdarTa aRdgoma da saukuno cxovreba? qristianoba gvaswavlis, rom sxeuli sulis instrumentia, adamianis ganumeoreblobisa da individualobis 304

erT-erTi principi, amitom mkvdreTiT aRdgoma sulisa da xorcis SeerTebaa, adamianis xelaxla Seqmnaa mTlian pirovnebad. Stainers ar swams qristes xorciT aRdgoma, misTvis arc sayovelTao mkvdreTiT aRdgoma arsebobs. gardasaxvis Teoria sxeuls uyurebs, rogorc droebiT samosels, romelsac suli ganiZarcvavs, raTa Semdeg sxva Seimosos. Staineris esqatologia ukiduresad gaurkvevelia: `6 000 wlis Semdeg Cven iupiterze vicxovrebT~, _ aRuTqvams igi Tavis mimdevrebs. sxvagan Staineri samoTxiseul cxovrebaze laparakobs, magram am dros ucnaur saxes iyenebs: `samoTxeSi suli iseT netarebas grZnobs, rogorsac kvercxebze mjdomi kruxi~. rogorc ityvian, komentarebi zedmetia. SeiZleba Tu ara imis mtkiceba, rom marTlmadidebeli qristiani ar SeiZleba erqvas anTroposofoss, romelic pativs scems marTlmadidebel eklesias, RmrTismsaxurebas eswreba da saidumloebebSic Rebulobs monawileobas? aris Tu ara amgvari adamiani, misTvisve SeumCnevlad, ukve ganyenebuli eklesiisgan? modi, msoflio saeklesio krebebs gadavxedoT: pirvel krebaze anaTemas gadaeca swavleba, romlis Tanaxmadac Ze RmrTisa arasruli RmerTia; meore krebaze _ swavleba, romlis Tanaxmadac suli wmida sruli RmerTi ki ar aris, aramed yvelaze dabali RmerTi anda raRac Zala; mesame krebam eklesiisgan ganayena isini, vinc qalwul mariams RmrTismSoblad ar miiCnevda; meoTxe krebam anaTemas gadasca isini, vinc uaryofs eklesiis swavlebas imis Sesaxeb, rom ieso qristes ori buneba aqvs: RmrTaebrivi da kacobrivi erT hipostasSi; mexuTe krebam maT gamoutana 305

anaTema, visac sulTa gadasaxleba, astrologia, mantika da sxva warmarTuli swavlebebi swams; meeqvse krebam eklesiisgan ganayena isini, visac ieso qristes hipostasSi ori nebis _ RmrTaebrivisa da kacobrivis arseboba ar sjera, sadac kacobrivi neba yovelTvis emorCileba RmrTaebrivs da mis Tanaxmad moqmedebs; meSvide krebam daamtkica Tayvaniscema xatebisa, rogorc sulieri samyaros vizualuri xerxebiT gamoxatvis saSualebisa. xatebis Tayvaniscemis safuZvelia: `da sityuaÁ igi xorciel iqmna da daemkvidra Cuen Soris~ (in. 1, 14). StainerisTvis absolutur suls ar Seusxams kacobrivi xorci, amitom misi vizualuri gamosaxva SeuZlebelia. anTroposofiaSi xatebi ar arsebobs, maT adgils warmarTuli kerpebi da bundovani mistikuri ferwera ikavebs. amitom anTroposofosebi Svidive msoflio krebis anaTemis qveS arian moqceulni, Tumca erTisac sakmarisia, rom eklesiis gareT aRmoCnde. Staineris momxreebi amboben, rom Tavdapirvelad eklesia anTroposofiis monaTesave Zvel sibrZnes inaxavda, Semdeg ki, msoflio krebebis periodSi, mociqulTa droisaTvis ucxo dogmatebi miiRo da materializebuli gaxda. amgvarad, isini eklesiis istorias or nawilad yofen: WeSmariti eklesia, romelic pirveli msoflio saeklesio krebis TariRamde (IV saukunis dasawyisi) grZeldeba da nikeis krebamdeli periodis saxeliT aris cnobili, da meore periodi _ IV saukunidan Cvens dromde, rodesac, anTroposofosTa azriT, eklesiam dakarga Tavisi Tavdapirveli swavleba. jer erTi, amgvari gayofa SeuZlebelia, radgan eklesia erT wm. werilsa da wm. gardamocemas inaxavs. qristianuli Temebi uzarmazar, erTmaneTisgan gancalkev306

ebul teritoriebze saxlobdnen, romlebic skviTiis yinulebidan saharis udabnomde, britaneTidan samxreT indoeTamde iyo gadaWimuli; maT sxvadasxva eTnikuri Semadgenloba hqondaT da mxolod sarwmunoeba aerTianebdaT, ase rom, ar SeeZloT raime xiluli mizezis gareSe misi Seryvna da gaukuRmarTeba. sayovelTaobis principi, sadac yoveli qristiani pasuxs agebs sarwmunoebis siwmindisa da tradiciebis SenarCunebaze, imis garantiaa, rom eklesiis swavleba ucvleli da Tavisi Tavis igiveobrivia. eklesia cocxali, liturgiis moqmedi organizmia, romelic inaxavs gamocxadebas da mas Taobidan Taobas gadascems, xolo TviTon gamocxadeba icavs eklesias da myofobs masSi. anTroposofosebs miaCniaT, rom Zveli eklesia maTi swavlebis monaTesave iyo. Cven vfiqrobT, aseTi gancxadebebi an ucodinrobis Sedegia, an kidev upatiosnobisa. jer kidev ioane RmrTismetyveli ukrZalavda qristianebs urTierTobas mwvaleblebTan, romlebic qristes xorcielad mosvlas uaryofdnen. eseni iyvnen gnostikosdoketebi da aswavlidnen, rom qriste soflad movida gamWvirvale eTerovani sxeuliT (Staineris azriT, aseTi mosvla 1914 wels ganxorcielda). pavle mociquli tites mimarT epistoleSi afrTxilebs mas: `xolo sicofisaTa maT ZiebaTa da tomis racxaTa da xdomaTa da lalvaTa sjulisaTa ganeSore, rameTu arian urgeb da amao~ (tit. 3, 9;). tomTa aRracxva da saxeldeba iyo swavleba eonebis, rogorc samyaros SemoqmedTa Sesaxeb. pavle mociquli yovelive amas arakebad, anu warmarTul miTologiad miiCnevs. efrem asuris TxzulebebSi Semonaxulia pavle mociqulis arakanonikuri epistole; igi mimarTulia gnostikosebis winaaRmdeg, romlebic amtkicebdnen, rom 307

RmerTi yovlad Zlieri ki ar aris, aramed zeciur mnaTobebzea damokidebuli. gnosticizmis fuZemdebeli gaxda svimon mogvi, igi petre mociquls sTxovda, mieyida misTvis saswaulebis qmnis Zala. es mogvi tvirosel meZavTan erTad mogzaurobda da sakuTar Tavs RvTaebad asaRebda, Tavis Tanamgzavr qals ki _ gardasaxul elened, romlis gamoc troa daiRupa. wignSi `klimentionebi~, romelic petre mociqulis mowafes, klimenti romaels ekuTvnoda, aRwerilia petre mociqulis brZola svimon mogvTan; es ukanaskneli magiur okultur saSualebebs iyenebda qristianobis mosaspobad. mociqul ioane RmrTismetyvelis mowafe, polikarpe smirneli gnostikos eresiarqosis SekiTxvas, micani Tu verao, ase upasuxebs: `gicani, satanis pirmSov~. gnostikosi markiane eklesiisgan ganayena da SeaCvena sakuTarma mamam _ pontos episkoposma palmem. astrolog-axalpiTagorelebis, iudeveli Teosofosebis (kabalis winamorbedebis), aRmosavleli Teurgebis swavlebebi, agreTve StainerisaTvis aseTi sayvareli misteriuli warmodgenebi II-III saukuneebis qristianma apologetebma amxiles, rogorc warmarTuli magizmi da demonTa Tayvaniscema. gnostikosTa swavleba, saidanac Staineri Tavis `STagonebasa~ da leqciebis masalebs sesxulobda, gansakuTrebuli gulmodginebiT aris ganxiluli wm. mRvdelmowame irineos lionelis (II saukunis episkoposi da mowame) TxzulebaSi `xuTi wigni mwvaleblobaTa winaaRmdeg~ da wm. ipolite romaelis (III s.) wignebSi `filosofiuri biblioTeka~. am nawarmoebebTan gacnoba sakmarisia imaSi dasarwmu308

neblad, rom eklesiam jer kidev nikeis krebamdel periodSi uaryo okultur-warmarTuli swavlebebi, romlebzec Stainerma anTroposofiis Senoba daafuZna. Staineri ironiulad uwodebs tradiciul qristianobas `gulubryvilo RvTismoSiSebas~ da mas upirispirebs anTroposofias, rogorc mecnierebas. amaze ras ityviT? jer erTi, rwmena pasiuri STagonebadobis mdgomareoba ki ara, piriqiT, sulieri Zalaa, gansakuTrebuli intuicia, adamianis unari RmerTTan urTierTobisa, sulis Sinagani mowmoba, rom arsebobs sulieri samyaro da rom suli swored mas ekuTvnis. gulis uSualo rwmena gamoRviZebuli sulis dinamikaa da Cven mas RmrTis maRal niWad miviCnevT. rac Seexeba qristianebisTvis uvicobis dabralebas da maTi misamarTiT nasrol ironiul replikebs, es mxolod Staineris arasakmarisi kulturulobis niSania. klimenti aleqsandrielis Cvenamde moRweuli Txzulebebi: `stromatebi~ da `pedagogi~ (II s.) antikuri filosofiis mTel enciklopedias Seicavs. qristianuli katexizatoruli skola aleqsandriaSi, romelic, zogierTi cnobis Tanaxmad, markoz mociqulma daaarsa, Tavisi drois saukeTeso akademiebis simaRleze idga. iq mxolod qristianebi ki ara, warmarTebic Sediodnen, raTa ukeTesad SeeswavlaT filosofia. II saukunis katexizatorma, patenma icoda ara mxolod elinuri, aramed induri filosofiac. origene (II s.) Tavis apologiaSi `celsiusis winaaRmdeg~ adasturebs, rom elinisturi filosofiis mravalma warmomadgenelma WeSmariteba qristianobaSi hpova. amis magaliTia II 309

saukunis apologeti, yofili platonikosi, wm. iustine filosofosi. oriode sityvas vityviT Staineris gancxadebaze, TiTqos anTroposofia mecnierebas warmoadgendes: mecniereba is procesia, romelsac dasasruli ar gaaCnia, sadac, faqtebis dagrovebis kvaldakval, erTi hipoTeza meores cvlis, amasTan, erTi da imave faqtebis safuZvelze sxvadasxva Teoriebis Seqmna SeiZleba. mecnierebas ar ZaluZs msoflmxedvelobiTi problematikis gadaWra, radganac metafizikuri sakiTxebi misi dakvirvebis farglebs miRmaa, anu mis kompetenciaSi ar Sedis. ideebi, romlebsac Staineri iyenebs, magaliTad, `saRmrTo ierarqia~, mecnierul eqsperiments ar eqvemdebareba. rac Seexeba filosofias, igi logikiT ise operirebs, rogorc instrumentiT, romliTac warmosaxviTi Senoba unda aigos, am Senobis saZirkvelSi ki postulatebi _ aradamtkicebadi debulebebi devs. Staineris swavleba ar Seesabameba filosofiuri azrovnebis principebs, radganac mas arc mkafio postulatebi gaaCnia, arc azris logikuri Tanmimdevruloba. maS, ras warmoadgens Staineris swavleba? Staineris swavleba okulturi sistemebisgan nasesxeb ekleqtikur azrebs warmoadgens. anTroposofiuli `mecniereba~ sinamdvileSi Staineris avtoritetisadmi anTroposofosebis ndobas emyareba. ra adgili uWiravs Staineris swavlebaSi metemfsiqozs (swavlebas sulTa gadasaxlebis Sesaxeb)? es swavleba anTroposofiis, rogorc panTeisturi msoflmxedvelobis organuli nawilia. garda amisa, 310

Stainers igi ufro farTo manevrirebisaTvis sWirdeba, raTa erTi aradamtkicebadiT meore aradamtkicebadi amtkicos. Cven ukve vTqviT, rom Staineri iesos sulier genealogiaSi zaratustrasa da budas rTavda. rac Seexeba sakuTar Tavs, Staineri aSkarad mianiSnebda, rom masSi piTagoras suli ganxorcielda, rom ivliane gandgomili Semdeg astronomi kepleri gaxda. ufro mZime iyo netari avgustines SemTxveva: Stainerma mas ver apatia maniqevelebis winaaRmdeg brZola da ganacxada, rom netar avgustineSi iuda iskariotelis suli Casaxlda. Staineri xSirad adarebda napoleons karlos dids da Tavis mowafeebs TandaTanobiT Caagonebda, TiTqos napoleoni imperator karlosis reinkarnacia iyo; Tumca Semdeg moulodnelad ganacxada, rom man Tavisi kvlevebis safuZvelze daadgina: napoleons araviTari adamianuri suli ar hqonia. amrigad, Stainerma anTropologia axali aRmoCeniT gaamdidra: kacTa Soris cxovroben gansakuTrebuli adamianismagvari arsebebi _ usulo monstrebi. ratom iyo hitleri Stainerizmisadmi mtrulad ganwyobili? anTroposofia sruliadac ar ewinaaRmdegeboda faSistur ideologias. nacistebma uamravi idea isesxes Stainerisagan, magaliTad, idea naciis sulis, rogorc realuri arsebis Sesaxeb; metafizikuri ritmebis Sesaxeb, romlebsac erebi aviTareben da romlebzec didad aris damokidebuli maTi istoria da Zliereba. faSisturma elitam garSemo astrologebi da okultistebi Semoikriba. meore msoflio omis win hitlerma ganacxada, amJamad kosmiuri ritmebi germaniisaTvis yvelaze 311

xelsayrelia da momentis xelidan gaSveba ar SeiZlebao. rogorc vTqviT, Staineris swavleba eris sulis Sesaxeb nacistebma imisTvis gamoiyenes, rom germaneli erisa da saxelmwifos gansakuTrebuli kulti gamoecxadebinaT. unda aRiniSnos, rom es swavleba originaluri ar aris, igi ukve platonikosebsa da gnostikosebTan gvxvdeba. Cveulebriv, totalitaruli reJimebi sdevnian saidumlo sazogadoebebsa da kavSirebs, imaT garda, romlebsac TviTon ekuTvnian. `anTroposofiul sazogadoebas~ jer kidev imperiisdroindeli germaniis mTavroba miiCnevda masonobis nairsaxeobad, hitleri ki konkurencias ver itanda. SeiZleba Tu ara iZulebiTi emigracia vuwodoT Staineris gamgzavrebas SveicariaSi anTroposofiuli taZris asagebad? pirveli msoflio omis dasawyisSi `anTroposofiuli sazogadoeba~ droebiT daixura, magram SveicariaSi taZris aSenebis gegma Stainerma da misma mowafeebma am ambamde karga xniT adre Seadgines. Staineri ambobda, rom man okulturi gziT gamoikvlia taZris asaSeneblad gamosadegi adgili da igi SveicariaSi aRmoaCina. amitom anTroposofosebs miaCniaT, rom Sveicarias gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs kacobriobis sulieri evoluciis istoriaSi (cxadia, okultur planSi). anTroposofiaSi TvalsaCino adgili uWiravs swavlebas adamianis etapobrivi fsiqikuri ganviTarebis Sesaxeb. es raRas niSnavs? Staineri ambobda, rom nayofis, Semdeg ki organizmis ganviTarebis garkveul periodebSi suli aramateri312

alur sxeulebs Rebulobs: astralurs, mentalurs da a. S. ra Tqma unda, es ara mxolod qristianul swavlebas _ kreacionzms ewinaaRmdegeba (sulis Seqmnas RmerTis mier, rac, eklesiis swavlebiT, CasaxvisTanave xdeba), aramed axali sirTuleebi Seaqvs metemfsiqozis swavlebaSi: ras warmoadgens suli da ra rCeba masSi uwindeli gardasaxvebis Semdeg? astraluri sxeuli xom emociebis sferod iTvleba, mentaluri ki _ gonebis sferod. magram mTavari ubedureba is gaxlavT, rom Stainers miaCnia, TiTqos nayofs Tavisi arsebobis pirvel kvireebSi suli ar gaaCnia da Sesabamisad, am periodSi aborti kaciskvlad ar iTvleba. am gancxadebas ukve adamianis sisxlis suni asdis. ratom moipova Staineris swavlebam popularoba Cveni inteligenciis garkveul nawilSi? Staineri cudi fsiqologi ar iyo. man gaiTvaliswina misi Tanamedrove inteligenciis gaucxoeba qristianuli religiisadmi. qristianoba kacisagan nebayoflobiT aRebul cxovrebiseul Rvawls moiTxovs _ sakuTar vnebebTan da, upirveles yovlisa, ampartavnebasTan brZolas. okultizmi arafers moiTxovs. igi adamians saidumlo, sakraluri codnis mopovebis iol gzas sTavazobs. inteligencia SeCveulia im azrs, rom kacis goneba ara marto materialuri samyaros, aramed metafizikuri sakiTxebis Secnobis raRac universaluri iaraRia. amitom inteligencias urCevnia, WeSmariteba nebayoflobiT aRebuli cxovrebiseuli Rvawlis meSveobiT ki ar eZios, aramed ganyenebuli msjelobebiT. unda iTqvas, rom Staineri, TeosofosTa umravlesobisgan gansxvavebiT, sakmaod farTo, Tumca siRrmes moklebul erudi313

cias flobda. misi mistikuri SesaZleblobebi saeWvo xasiaTisaa da ZiriTadad Zveli okulturi WeSmaritebebis wyvetili, mSrali gadmocemiT Semoifargleba. aq Zveli okultistebis vizioneroba ki ara, ufro okultur Temaze agebuli inteleqtualuri fantazioroba igrZnoba. Tavis saqmeSi, rogorc eqimi da arqiteqtori, Staineri profesiul codnasa da SemoqmedebiT midgomas iCens da, amasTan, xelovnurad ukavSirebs maT anTroposofias, raTa Tavis ganyenebul-spekulatiur msjelobas mecnierebis saxe mieces. Staineri xSirad banalur WeSmaritebebs imeorebs, magram damrigebluri toniT, romelic azris iseT diqtatorebsac ki SeSurdebodaT, rogorebic hegeli da marqsi iyvnen. arcTu iSviaTad Staineri gulubryvilobamdec ki midis, magaliTad, saubrobs saartelo muSaobis upiratesobebze da amas sakuTar ekonomikur aRmoCenad asaRebs. misi swavleba Zvel gnostikur sistemebs eyrdnoba, antikuri da Sua saukuneebis inteligenciis Caketil wreebSi rom iyo gavrcelebuli da amitom mkveTrad gamoxatuli elitaruli xasiaTisaa. adamiani, romelic Stainers kiTxulobs, sakuTar Tavs umecar brboze maRla mdgom `inteleqtualur aristokratad~ miiCnevs. SeiZleba Tu ara, rom anTroposofias religia ewodos? anTroposofia ignorirebas ukeTebs religiis mTavar sagans _ swavlebas RmerTis Sesaxeb. Staineri samyaros raRac impresionistul gamosaxulebad warmogvidgens. anTroposofia ar iZleva pasuxs yofierebis ontologiur sakiTxebze: ra aris kaci, risTvis mosula igi aq, am 314

sofelSi, rogoria adamianisa da kosmosis ukanaskneli xvedri. Staineri tradiciul qristianobas `RmerTdakargul umecrebas~ uwodebs; cxadia, aq marTlmadidebeli eklesiac igulisxmeba. statiaSi `profesiebis karma~ igi ramdenjerme imeorebs azrs, rom qristianuli Temebi RmerTis magivrad kosmiur sulebs scemen Tayvans, rac maT demonizmamde an mkvdar materializmamde miiyvans. magram is sulebi, romlebzec Staineri Tavis swavlebaSi laparakobs da romlebic RmerTis kuTvnil Tayvaniscemas Rebuloben, anu fsevdoRmerTebi, ukve arian demonebi. Tu Staineris Txzulebebidan yvela mis azrsa da msjelobas gamovarCevT, rac qristianuli religiis Sesaxeb uTqvams da maT garkveuli sistemis saxiT gadmovcemT, erTob ubadruki sanaxaoba warmogvidgeba: raRac meduzis msgavsi, zRvis siRrmeSi myofi rom ferad yvavils waagavs, wylidan amotanili ki lorwovani koSti aRmoCndeba. swamda Tu ara Stainers, rom adamiani RmerTma Seqmna, Tu igi evoluciis produqtad miaCnda? es yvelaze gaugebari da bneliT moculi problematikaa anTroposofiul metafizikaSi, romelic saerTod bundovanebiT, saTqmelis bolomde uTqmelobiTa da amorfulobiT gamoirCeva. Staineri evolucionistia, Sesabamisad, Sesaqmis idea misTvis sruliad ucxoa. darvini da hegeli mas Tanamoazreebad Tu ara, Tanamgzavrebad mainc miaCnia, romelTa hipoTezebi da koncefciebi azrovnebis garkveul stilsa da sulier atmosferos qmnian _ es stili da es atmosfero anTroposofiis ideebis gavrcelebas uwyobs xels, 315

rogorc am ideebis Sevseba da koreqcia. darvinis Tanaxmad, biologiuri evolucia kazualurobis (SemTxveviToba, romelic axal formebs Sobs) princips emyareba. Staineri SemTxveviTobas cvlis voluntarizmiT (aseT SemTxvevaSi sulieri arseba TviTon irCevs TavisTvis formebs). gaurkveveli rCeba agreTve determinirebulia, ganpirobebulia Tu ara am arsebis cnobiereba, realuria Tu fiqtiuri misi Tavisufali arCevani? upirovno Semoqmedi Zalis mimarT Staineri iyenebs gamoTqmas `adamianis avtori~. cxadia, es arc bibliuri Semoqmedia da arc aristotelesa da gnostikosebis demiurgi: `avtorebi~ Turme mcenareTa ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli, maTSi Casaxlebuli eTeruli Zalebi arian. Staineris Tanaxmad, suli cxovelur mdgomareobaSi astralur sxeuls Rebulobs, kacobrivSi ki _ mentalurs, amave dros, arc Tavis sulier arss icvlis. eTeruli, astraluri, mentaluri sxeulebi mxolod skafandrebia, romlebsac suli ixdis an ixuravs arsebobis pirobebis mixedviT. Tumca erT adgilas Staineri sawinaaRmdego azrs gamoTqvams, kerZod: suli ise ganiZarcvavs uxeS garss, rogorc sahaero burTis kalaTidan yrian zedmet nivTebs, raTa Zaladakarguli burTi haerSi gaCerdes. aq evolucia raRac umaRlesi regresirebadi Zalebisadmi winaaRmdegobad aris warmodgenili.

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determinirebuli Teologia Staineri ambobda, rom budasac SeiZleba ewodos logosi, oRond im mniSvnelobiT, rom man miaRwia logosis mdgomareobas da rom budas meSveobiT am mdgomareobas sxva adamianebic aRwevdnen. rac Seexeba iesos, budasagan gansxvavebiT, mas ki ar miuRwevia logosTan erTianobisTvis, aramed logosi ganxorcielda masSi. aq Cven dabneulebi vrCebiT: Tu adamianis suls iesos gareSec SeuZlia logosamde misvla, maSin raRa saWiro iyo logosis ganxorcieleba? am Cixidan Tavis dasaRwevad Staineri aviTarebs azrs, rom budasa da qristes cxovrebebSic da swavlebebSic saocari Tanxvedrebia. paraleli mTavrdeba qristes feriscvalebiT Taborze, romelsac Staineri sikvdilis win budas nirvanaSi CaZirvasTan aigivebs. magram es ver xsnis mTavar kiTxvas: Tu kacobriobas SeeZlo Zveli misteriebisa da budas swavlebis meSveobiT logosamde misvla, maSin raSi mdgomareobs qristes mTavari misia? Turme imaSi, rom golgoTis misteriaSi gamoecxadebina xalxisTvis is, rac warmarTul taZrebSi iyo dafaruli. amgvarad, qriste warmogvidgeba mistagogad _ Zveli okulturi sibrZnis popularizatorad (ix. Staineris wigni `Zveli droisa da qristianobis misteriebi~). is azri, TiTqos budas biografiasa da saxarebebs Soris didi msgavsebaa, Stainerma bibliis racionalisturi kritikis banakisgan isesxa. amasTan, budas cxovrebis Zvel redaqciebSi aseTi msgavseba ar arsebobs, gviandel redaqciebSi ki, romlebic saxarebebis Seqmnidan ramdenime saukunis Semdeg daiwera, aSkara interpolaciebis xasiaTs atarebs. 317

hqonda Tu ara iesos Tavisufali neba Staineris azriT? Staineri wers, rom buda da ieso iseTive aucileblobis ZaliT moqmedebdnen, rogori aucileblobiTac xdeba qimiuri reaqciebi nivTierebaSi. isini Turme mxolod Zvel misteriebSi Cadebuli programis Semsrulebelni yofilan; mTeli maTi cxovreba, sul mcire wvrilmanebis CaTvliT, ganpirobebulad da winaswar gansazRvrulad cxaddeba (ix. `Zveli droisa da qristianobis misteriebi~). zogierT leqciaSi Staineri ambobs, rom iesom gaaTavisufla adamianis pirovneba koleqtivizmisgan, agreTve tomobrivi, gvarovnuli Tu saxelmwifoebrivi iZulebiTi unifikaciisagan. amave dros Staineri pirovnebis cnebas, romelic verafriT ver uTavsdeba gardasaxvis Teorias, raRac ganusazRvreli `me~-Ti anacvlebs. Tavisi swavlebiT erebisa da tomebis sulTa Sesaxeb Staineri ukve uqvemdebarebs kacis suls am arqontebs. TviTon swavleba zogadi cnebebis, rogorc cocxali arsebebis Sesaxeb rTul subordinacias qmnis, sadac zogadi cneba (am SemTxvevaSi _ eri) gamodis ufro maRali da dominanturi, vidre kerZo (am SemTxvevaSi _ pirovneba) da misi ganmapirobebeli. `me~-s Staineriseul cnebas, romelsac man `RvTaebrivi naperwkali~ uwoda, erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba _ TviTSemecneba aqvs. eqvsi elohimi _ eqvsi `me~ mzis eon-qristeSi erT `me~-d iqcevian, eqvsi TviTSemecneba _ erT TviTSemecnebad, qriste-eonad da ieso-kacad, romlebsac pirovnebebi ewodaT; Semdeg ori pirovnebisgan jvarze erTi pirovneba yalibdeba, amis mere ki qristesa da iesos pirovnebebi kvlav iyofian. Staineri acxadebs, rom qristes Tan miaqvs Tavisi `me~, 318

romelic garegnulad iesos msgavsi xdeba; magram misive swavlebis mixedviT, eTeruli sxeuli mcenareebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli, eTeruli sxeuli ki SeuZlebelia iyos pirovneba da Caanacvlos igi. sxva variantSi qriste miwaze rCeba iesos sxeulTan erTad da mzis RvTaebidan miwis RvTaebad iqceva, xolo radganac miwa droebiTia da iupiteris mdgomareobaSi gadadis, gaugebaria, ra daemarTeba iesos momavalSi. dabolos, mesame varianti: iesos astraluri da eTeruli sxeulebi qristesTan erTad erT `me~-Si erTiandebian. am SemTxvevaSi qristes `me~ SvidniSna xdeba: eqvsi eoni da ieso-kacis `me~. es `determinirebuli Teologia~ gvafiqrebinebs, rom Staineris anTroposofia principulad ar gansxvavdeba gviandeli induizmisa an plotinisagan, romlebsac hegelisa da Sopenhaueris idealisturi filosofia uaxlovdeba: maTTvis qriste msoflio piesis droebiTi personaJia, am piesis Tavsa da boloSi dgas viRac `yovlad myofi~, romelsac Staineri statiaSi `cxovreba sikvdilamde da mis Semdeg~ brahmasTan aigivebs.

ra aris progresi Staineris swavlebis mixedviT? Staineri evolucionistia, magram formebis evoluciaze igi laparakobs materialur planSi, amitom misTvis dasaSvebia iseTi gamoTqmebi, rogoricaa `darvinis keTili genia~, `hekeli aris qristiani qristes gareSe~ da a. S. Staineri wers, rom saturnze adamianma Tavisi fizikuri sxeuli miiRo, mzeze _ eTeruli, mTvareze _ astraluri; Semdeg acxadebs, rom es saxelwodebebi ar SeiZleba Tanamedrove mzis sistemas anda adamianebis momaval arsebobas mivusadagoT. amis mere Staineri am319

bobs _ da es Zalze mniSvnelovania _ rom adamianis yvela sxeuli, materialuric da sulieric, ukve Tavidanve arsebobda ideis saxiT, romelic realoba iyo; Semdeg acxadebs, rom materialuroba aris arsebobis dasawyisi da dasasruli. am Tavdapirvel ideas, anu ideebis sferos, Staineri zogjer platonis sayvareli terminiT _ `sofiiT~ aRniSnavs. aRwers ra atlantebs, meore adamianur rasas lemurebis Semdeg, Staineri acxadebs, rom maT Tanamedrove adamianze gacilebiT metad hqondaT miniWebuli sulieri xedvisa da naTelmxilvelobis unari, aseve CvenTvis dafarul bunebis Zalebsac icnobdnen. Semdeg Staineri wers, rom atlantebi TavianTi epoqis dasawyisSi keTilebi iyvnen da RmerTebs emorCilebodnen, magram Semdeg demonTa Tayvaniscema daiwyes, maSin geologiurma katastrofam miwis piridan aRgava kacobriobis es winare samSoblo. yovelive amis safuZvelze SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom Staineris evolucia SemovliT gzas warmoadgens sawyisi wertilisken _ adamianis mier dakargulis kvlav SeZenisken. amasTan, kacobriobis istoriis CvenTvis cnobil periodSi saTaveebisgan daSoreba grZeldeba: `sulieri xedvismieri~ intuicia mdare racionalizmiT icvleba, `keTili RmerTebis~ msaxureba _ borotebisa da demonocentrizmis nakadad, romlis winaaRdgomac anTroposofias ekisreba. ra adgili uWiravs saxarebebs Staineris SemoqmedebaSi? Stainerma dawera markozisa da ioanes saxarebebis komentarebi da Seecada, saxarebis teqstze dayrdnobiT ganeviTarebina Tavisi okulturi sistema. am mxriv 320

gansakuTrebiT niSandoblivia ioanes saxarebis Staineriseuli ganmarteba. saxarebis SerCeviTi teqsti is tramplinia, saidanac misi azri adgils swydeba da Cveuli Teosofiuri warmodgenebis sivrceSi daexeteba. es komentarebi grZeli msjelobebiTa da gameorebebiTaa savse, aq ar arsebobs araviTari gegma, xSirad ki arc uSualod saxarebasTan dakavSirebuli Tematika. Staineris ena mSrali da uferulia. TviTmxilvelni TavianT mogonebebSi yvebian, rom Staineris leqciebze msmenelebs xSirad eZinebodaT, rac dadebiT faqtorad iTvleboda, kerZod _ TiTqos mZinareebSi `Ramis cnobiereba~ iRviZebda, raRac pirvelyofili intuiciis msgavsi, romelic maT Staineris leqciebis uSualo SeTvisebaSi exmareboda. Staineri acxadebs, rom ioanes saxarebis avtori sinamdvileSi mkvdreTiT aRdgomili lazarea. amiT Staineri arafrad agdebs istoriul cnobebs ioanes avtorobis Sesaxeb, agreTve im ubralo faqts, rom mociqulebs hyavdaT mowafeebi, romlebsac SeuZlebelia, ar scodnodaT saxarebis avtoris saxeli. aseTebi iyvnen, magaliTad, papiasi, egnate, polikarpe da klimenti, romelTac werilobiTi memkvidreobac datoves. aseve, Staineri usafuZvlod uaryofs wm. irineos lionelisa da apologetebis mowmobebs, nawilobriv TviTon mwvalebel-gnostikosebis azrsac ki, romlebic iZulebulni iyvnen eRiarebinaT ioanes saxarebis namdviloba. saerTod, StainerisTvis damaxasiaTebelia Zveli qristianuli literaturisa da patristikis arcodna an maTi Segnebuli ignorireba sakuTari sistemis dasacavad. magram am SemTxvevaSi kidev sxva ramac Cans: Staineri uaryofs sinoptikuri saxarebebis mowmobas ioanes 321

pirovnebis Sesaxeb. ukve aqedanac cxadia Staineris damokidebuleba axali aRTqmis mimarT: misTvis igi RmrTivsulieri wm. werili da qristianuli aRmsareblobis safuZveli ki ara, nedli masalaa, saidanac SeiZleba SerCeviT amoiRo, rac mogewoneba da aseve usafuZvlod uaryo, rac Sens Sexedulebebs ar eTanxmeba. unda iTqvas, rom esaa antiqristianuli mwvaleblobebisa da racionalisturi kritikis Cveulebrivi xerxi _ maSinac ki, rodesac mas akaSis saidumlo JamTaaRweriTa da sakuTari `sulTa xilvebiT~ amarTleben.

logosis Sesaxeb swavlebas logosis Sesaxeb Staineri qristianobamdel warmarTul mniSvnelobas aniWebs. misTvis logosi WeSmariti, absoluturi da srulyofili RmerTi ki ara, kosmosis ideaa, qveynierebis Seqmnis modeli da nimuSi. Staineri acxadebs, rom kanas galileaSi ieso iq myofTa donemde daeSva da Seasrula `dionisuri msxverplSewirva~, anu warmarTuli misteriis rituali. Staineri interpretacias ukeTebs lukas saxarebaSi mocemul genealogias _ `Sobis wigns~ da amtkicebs, rom Ze RmrTisa SeiZleba ewodos am genealogiuri xis nebismier pirs. Ze RmrTisa aq moiazreba ara marto simboluri, aramed panTeisturi mniSvnelobiTac. rogorc vTqviT, Stainers miaCnia, rom ieso xorcieli mSoblebisagan iSva; am SobasTan qristes _ solarul RvTaebas _ araviTari kavSiri ara hqonia, igi iesoze maSin `gadmovida~, roca is 30 wlisa iyo. sinamdvileSi ki maTes saxarebaSi weria: 322

`xolo ieso qristes SobaÁ esreT iyo: rameTu Txovil iyo dedaÁ misi mariam iosebisa da, vidre SerTvadmde maTa, ipova igi midgomil sulisagan wmidisa~ (mT. 1, 18). aq Staineri saxarebis aSkara damaxinjebasa da profanaciaze midis. ieso qristes mier memruSe dedakacis miteveba _ saRmrTo mowyalebisa da siyvarulis es aqti Stainers metemfsiqozis Teoriamde dahyavs. Turme qriste mxolod imitom ar gansjis meZavs, rom misi msajuli misive karma iqneba da Surisgebas Semdgom gardasaxvaSi miiRebs. ase rom, qristes siyvaruli, romelmac ara marto codvili dedakacis Caqolvis msurvelni ganacvifra, aramed dRemde aocebs saxarebis mkiTxvelebsac, StainerTan gulgrilobiTa da ganurCevlobiT icvleba. qriste TiTqos ambobs: Cven ratom unda ganvsajoT codvili dedakaci, Tuki mas TviTon sakuTari karma gansjis. aq RmerTis siyvaruli Tavisi dacemuli qmnilebisadmi usulo kanonze miTiTebiT icvleba. qristes mier jvarze Sewiruli msxverpli StainerTan gnostikur koncefciad aris warmodgenili, romelic gnostikos valentinusis sistemas mogvagonebs: erTerTi umaRlesi eoni _ qriste poulobs sxva eons _ miwas (valentinusTan _ sofias), raTa ganasulieros igi da ixsnas uxeSi materialurobisagan. qriste adamianebTan mimarTebaSi warmodgenilia principad, romelic individs koleqtivis monobisgan aTavisuflebs. ras warmoadgens adamianis pirovneba anTroposofiuli TvalsazrisiT? jer imaze visaubroT, Tu ras aswavlis qristianoba adamianis pirovnebis Sesaxeb. 323

adamianis pirovneba erTiani da ganumeorebeli monadaa, romelic zneobrivi da aqsiologiuri mniSvnelobiT ufro maRla dgas, vidre cnebebi `adamianis buneba~ da `adamianis individualoba~. adamianis buneba struqturis, Zalebisa da unarebis is mocemulobaa, rac yovel admians danarCeni individebisgan ganasxvavebs da mas unikalur fenomenad aqcevs. pirovneba, romelic Tavis TavSi Seicavs bunebasac da individualobasac, amave dros umaRles kategorias ganekuTvneba da iseT unarebs gulisxmobs, rogoricaa Tavisufali neba, miznis gansazRvra, motivebis SerCeva, zneobrivi grZnoba da SemoqmedebiTi midgoma mTel Tavis gamovlinebebSi. pirovnuli ganviTareba adamianis idealur nimuSTan miaxloebas niSnavs (es ideali ieso qristem Tavisi sakuTari saxiT mogvca). gardasaxvis Teoria, romelic anTroposofiam okultur-warmarTuli Sexedulebebisgan gadmoiRo, spobs TviT pirovnebis cnebas, amitom qristes mier adamianis pirovnebis xsnis Sesaxeb swavlebis (soteriologiis) paralizebasac axdensa, anu ugulebelyofilia qristes mier adamianis pirovnebis gamoxsna. StainerisTvis adamianis `me~ amorfuli da ganusazRvrelia, mag., misi swavlebis mixedviT zaratustras suli iesoSi ganxorcieldeba, Semdeg yrma ieso kvdeba da misi suli sxva yrma iesoSi gadadis da erwymis mas. gamodis, rom orive suls erTi pirovnebis Seqmna SeuZlia e. i. suli aRar aris substancia. 30 wlis asakSi iesos suli kvlav danawevrdeba da zaratustras `me~ mas tovebs. aseTive metamorfozas ganicdis iesos `dedinacvalic~: iesos deda bavSvis dabadebis Semdeg male kvdeba, iesos mama colad irTavs qvrivs, romelsac Svili moukvda, 30 wlis Semdeg ki iesos 324

gardacvlili dedis suli mis cocxal dedinacvalSi saxldeba da orive suli erTmaneTs erwymis erT ganuyofel pirovnebad. aq uaryofilia ara marto pirovnebis, rogorc RmerTis msgavsi arsebis ganumeorebloba da unikaluroba, aramed adamianis individualurobac ki. Staineri wers, rom ieso iSveba suli wmidisa da sofiasagan, amasTan, suli wmida `ganaTebas~ aRniSnavs, sofia ki _ iesos dedis astraluri sxeulis siwmindes. rac Seexeba iosebs, Staineris azriT, masze SeiZleba vilaparakoT, rogorc mSobelze, im azriT, rom `RmerTi sisxlSi vlindeba~. iesos dedis sofia dedinacvalSi saxldeba, romelsac amieridan sofia ewodeba; xolo ra emarTeba dedinacvlis astralur sxeuls, romelmac sxvisi astraluri sxeuli miiRo, ucnobia. Staineri amtkicebs, rom qriste, rogorc mzis eoni, Tavisi eTeruli sxeuliT iesos eTerul sxeuls miemsgavsa, amitom, rodesac qriste mova miwaze eTeruli sxeuliT, `gandobilni~ masSi iesos nakvTebs icnoben. magram Staineri lukas saxarebis ganmartebaSi wers, rom fizikuri sxeuli Sobs eTerul sxeuls. maS, rogor eqneboda qristes, elohimebis _ usxeulo kosmiuri sulebis _ ganxorcielebas, eonsa da mzis RvTaebas eTeruli sxeuli? Staineris sistemas ewodeba `swavleba adamianis Sesaxeb~, Tumca masSi, rogorc gadauWrel winaaRmdegobaTa gorgalSi, TviTon adamiani ikargeba. ras gulisxmobs Staineri pirovnul cxonebaSi? Staineri amtkicebs, rom meditaciis gziT adamians SeuZlia miaRwios sofiisa da suli wmidis mdgomareobas (mcnebebi, anu religiis nebelobiTi mxare, ignorirebulia). sofia astralis ganmwmendelia, suli wmida ki 325

_ ganmanaTlebeli. Staineri imasac axsenebs, rom Zveli ierofantebi (qurumebi) aZinebdnen TavianT mowafeebs, am gziT maTi astrali fizikuri sxeulidan gamohyavdaT da wmendnen maT, mere ki kvlav mZinareebs ubrunebdnen, ase rom ara, mokvdebodnen. Stainers miaCnia, rom dRevandel dRes sxva varjiSi ufro mizanSewonilia: sakmarisia ioanes saxarebis miseuli interpretaciis meditacia, rom anTroposofosis sxeuli sofiad iqceva da suli wmidis Svili gaxdeba. ase rom, qristes mimsgavseba azrobrivi abstraqciebi, meditaciebi da vizioneroba yofila, cxoneba ki azrovnebis varjiSebis sistemad gvevlineba. isic unda SevniSnoT, rom Staineri adamianis azrs realur sagnebad qcevis unars miawers: mis kosmologiaSi arsebobs adamianis azrebisagan Seqmnili sfero, fizikuri samyaros erTgvari analogi. ese igi, yoveli zRapruli samyaro aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi realia xdeba da yvelaze produqtiuli goneba maT hqoniaT, visac fantazia da ocneba uyvars. aris Tu ara anTroposofosebis swavlebis mixedviT qriste winasaukuno RmerTi da srulyofili pirovneba? Staineris swavlebiT, Tavidan Cvens kosmiur sferoSi arsebobda Svidi elohimi _ suli, romelTagan erT-erTi, Staineris TqmiT, sakuTari nebiT gaxda mTvaris RvTaeba _ ieRova, sxva eqvsma elohimma ki mzis eoni, qriste Seadgines. vin arian elohimebi, amas Staineri ar azustebs, magram rakiRa maTSi sakuTari neba arsebobs, ese igi, elohimi raRac upirovno Zala ki ara, pirovnuli sulia. eqvsi pirovneba erT pirovnebas qmnis, amasTan, isini ki ar qrebian am pirovnebaSi, aramed myofoben masSi. amgvarad, 326

pirovneba monada aRar aris, esaa cneba, romlis daSla da awyoba SeiZleba. pirovneba ekuTvnis ara koleqtivs, aramed konkretul arsebas, romelsac aqvs Tavisufali neba da cnobiereba, cnobiereba ki Tavis TavSi Seicavs Semmecneblobasa da TviTSemecnebas. pirovneba arsebas erTianobisa da droSi sakuTar TavTan igiveobriobis, erTiani `me~-s grZnobas aniWebs. pirovnebas ar ZaluZs sakuTari Tavis konstruireba anda nawilebad daSla, TiTqos kubikebisagan agebul koSkze iyos laparaki. amitom Staineri uaryofs qristeSi pirovnebis arsebobas, yovel SemTxvevaSi, am sityvis qristianuli gagebiT. StainerisTvis qriste droSi gaCnda, maSasadame, mas ar gaaCnia winasaukuno myofoba. am mxriv logosi ioanes saxarebaSi qristeze adre arsebobs (qristesgan gansxvavebulia). Staineris interpretaciiT logosi xan kosmosis nimuSia, xan SemoqmedebiTi Zala, xan adamianis arsi, xanac adamianis sityvas uaxlovdeba. amitom Staineri, neopiTagorelebis msgavsad, kacis azrs da sityvas qmnadobis Zalas, anu realur sagnebSi gardasaxvis unars miawers. erTi SexedviT ise Cans, rom qriste StainerTan mTavari kosmiuri RvTaebaa da `sulTa ierarqiis~ saTaveSi dgas, magram irkveva, rom Staineri mas am adgilsac ki ar uTmobs. Staineri acxadebs, rom arseboben sxva, ucnobi kosmiuri sferoebi Tav-TavianTi ierarqiebiT. amgvarad, qriste StainerisTvis `provinciuli RvTaebaa~.

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metemfsiqozis Sesaxeb anTroposofia, iseve rogorc Teosofia, iziarebs warmarTul Sexedulebas sulTa gadasaxlebis (metemfsiqozis) Sesaxeb. niSandoblivia, rom bevr Cvens Tanamedroves es Teoria ufro humanurad da logikurad eCveneba, vidre bibliuri swavleba adamianis sulis Seqmnis Sesaxeb (kreacionizmi). metemfsiqozi maT RvTaebisken zeaRsvlad, zneobrivi srulyofilebisa da sulieri evoluciisken mimaval gzad warmoudgebaT. amasTan, mxedvelobidan rCebaT aSkara faqti: msoflioSi borotebis potenciali izrdeba, kacobrioba RmerTisken ki ara midis, Sordeba mas; `qiliasturi optimizmis~ sulieri evoluciis nacvlad ukve garkveviT vgrZnobT apokalifsuri katastrofebis sunTqvas. anTroposofosebi, iseve rogorc Teosofosebi, cdiloben bibliaSi ipovon metemfsiqozis Teoriis dadastureba: isini arafrad agdeben wm. werilis uamrav teqsts amqveyniuri cxovrebis erTaderTobisa da unikalurobis Sesaxeb, romelzec saukuno cxovrebaa damokidebuli da TavianTi Teoriis dasamtkiceblad mohyavT qristes sityvebi ioane naTlismcemelze, rom `...igi ars elia, romeli movals~ (mT. 11, 14). magram aq qriste elia winaswarmetyvelis pirovnebaze ki ara, mis misiaze laparakobs _ igi qristes winamorbedi unda gaxdes. am mimarTebaSi ioanes misia emTxveva elia winaswarmetyvelis momaval mosvlas miwaze soflis aRsasrulis _ qristes meored mosvlis win. wm. werilSi saxeli xSirad pirdapiri ki ara, pirobiTi mniSvnelobiT aris moyvanili, riTac msaxurebis Taviseburebaze, mis Rirsebebsa an msaxurebis saxeze xdeba 328

miTiTeba. magaliTad, mociquli ioane `Zed quxilisa~ iwodeba, mSvidobismyofelni `Zeni RmrTisani~ arian, mezvere zaqe _ `abraamis Ze~, iuda _ `eSmaki~, TviTon ioane naTlismcemeli markozis saxarebaSi `angelozad~ aris moxseniebuli. maTes saxarebidan moyvanili es sabuTi Staineris azrovnebis araTanmimdevrulobaze ufro metyvelebs, kerZod, elia winaswarmetyveli ar momkvdara, igi sulier sferoSi iqna ayvanili, amitom, Tundac igi soflad ioane naTlismcemlis saxeliT mosuliyo, am movlenas araferi eqneboda saerTo metemfsiqozTan _ sikvdilis Semdeg sulis sxva sxeulSi gadasaxlebasTan. ioanes saxarebaSi moyvanilia naTlismcemlis saubari mwignobrebsa da farisevlebTan, sadac igi pirdapir ambobs, rom ar aris elia (in. 1, 21). isic niSandoblivia, rom Staineri, romelic Cveulebriv ioanes saxarebas amjobinebs sam sinoptikur saxarebas, amjerad ignorirebas ukeTebs mas. feriscvalebisas qriste elia winaswarmetyvels esaubreba. anTroposofosebi amboben, rom feriscvaleba ioane naTlismcemlis sikvdilis Semdeg iyo, magram amiT kidev ufro ewinaaRmdegebian sakuTar Tavs: Tu, qristes siityvebiT, `ara aRdgomil ars naSobTagani dedaTaÁ ufroÁs iovane naTlismcemelisaÁ~ (mrk. 11, 11), maSin, anTroposofosebis swavlebis mixedviT, elias suls evolucia unda ganecada da ioanes suli gamxdariyo. maS, rogorRa SeeZlo mas involucia da ukan dabruneba? Staineri acxadebs, rom qristem pirovnuli cneba koleqtiurisgan ganacalkeva, rom qristes sityvebi: `pirvel abrahamis yofadmde me var~ (in. 8, 58) sruli sisavsiT SeuZlia miiRos sakuTar Tavze yovel ezoTerul qristians. erTi SexedviT, Staineri adamianSi pirovnu329

li sawyisis hiperbolizacias axdens da igi RvTaebis xarisxamde ahyavs, magram SemdgomSi pirovneba erTi gardasaxvidan meoreSi gardamavali, droebiTi mdgomareoba aRmoCndeba; rac Seexeba abstraqtul da bundovan `me~-s, Staineri mas xan `RvTaebriv naperwkals~ uwodebs, xanac astraluri sxeulis nayofs _ sadRac atlantebis periodis meore naxevarSi Seqmnils. Staineri qristes pirovnebas uwodebs, magram irkveva, rom Turme qriste elohimebis ganxorcieleba, e. i. koleqtiuri cnebaa, sulTa erTgvari erToba da sinqronuli moqmedeba. religia aris kavSiri adamiansa da RmerTs Soris. anTroposofosebTan ar arsebobs es ori kardinaluri cneba: vin aris RmerTi da vin _ adamiani _ `me~. erTi RmerTis, Tundac rogorc erTi sawyisis sakiTxs Staineri gverds uvlis anda pirdapir uaryofs (`me mwams ara RmerTi, aramed RmerTebi~ _ esaa amonaridi dornaxSi taZris gaxsnisas Tqmuli sityvidan), adamianis `me~ze ki, Tumca bevrs laparakobs, magram arsebiTad aseve araferi uTqvams. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom Staineri vedisturi religiebis suliskveTebis monistia. leqciaSi `sicocxle sikvdilis Semdeg~ Staineri laparakobs sulier sferoze, sadac suli Seicnobs, rom `me~ igivea, rac `Sen~, anu me movicav samyaros mis yovladerTobaSi da masTan igiveobrivi vxdebi (yofierebis individualuri Segneba kosmiurSi gadadis), xolo kidev ufro gansulierebul sferoSi mas ecxadeba, rom `me~ aris yovelgan myofi, yovlismomcveli absoluturi suli (Staineri SeniSnavs, rom es suli igivea, rac brahma). amgvarad, Staineri warmarTuli panTeizmis 330

Tvalsawiers ver scdeba; misi swavleba adamianis Sesaxeb Teosofiuri anTropologiis garTulebul variants warmoadgens. Staineri aRgviTqvams, rom jer saturnze vicxovrebT, Semdeg ki veneraze. ramden xans gastans kacobriobis es planetaTaSorisi xetiali, ucnobia. ras warmoadgens anTroposofosebis swavleba RmrTaebrivi logosis Sesaxeb: `pirveliTgan iyo sityuaÁ da sityuaÁ igi iyo RmrTisa Tana da RmerTi iyo sityuaÁ igi~ (in. 1, 1)? Staineri ramdenime leqciaSi ayalibebs Tavis azrs RmrTaebrivi logosis Taobaze, magram misi swavleba, Cveulebisamebr, gaurkveveli da winaaRmdegobrivia. logosi StainerTan aris ara saxarebiseuli sityva _ Ze RmrTisa da RmerTi, aramed ufro filonis logosi, romelic saTaves iRebs platonis swavlebidan RmrTaebrivi ideebis Sesaxeb. StainerisTvis logosi ufro adre arsebobs, vidre qriste da ieRova, esaa erTgvari saxe, romelic samyaros safuZvlad da modelad gvevlineba. Staineri Tavis Cveul stilSi urevs erTmaneTSi winasaukunosa da droebiT myofobas, amitom logosi masTan mravalsaxovania. aq Staineri or swavlebas Soris meryeobs: erTia gnostikos-dualistebis moZRvreba, romlis Tanaxmadac yvelaze dabali RmerTi, demiurgi qmnis samyaroebs kosmosis (logosis) nimuSis mixedviT, meore ki stoikosTa swavlebaa: stoikosebi ambobdnen, rom logosi anu logosebi sulieri da energetikuli Teslia, saidanac samyaro viTardeba. logosi poulobs qristes, mere ki iesos, da am azriT ganxorcieldeba. 331

magram logosi ar aris absoluturi da srulyofili RmerTi, amitom Staineris swavleba am sakiTxSi warmarTobisa da platonuri iudaizmis mxares gadaxvevaa. Staineri, grZnobs ra Tavisi poziciis sisustes, cdilobs gaemijnos gnostikosebs da acxadebs, rom isini uaryofen qristes xorcielad mosvlas, ezoTeruli qristianoba ki, romelsac igi jer Teosofias, mere ki anTroposofiasac miakuTvnebs, Rebulobs mas. aq ori uzustobaa: pirveli is, rom StainerTan qriste ki ar ganxorcieldeba, aramed iesos sxeuliT sargeblobs, rCeba ra iesosagan gancalkevebul arsebad jvarcmamde, jvarcmis Semdeg ki kvlav tovebs mas, raTa kvlav movides soflad eTeruli sxeuliT. meorec, qristes xorcielad mosvlas yvela gnostikosi ki ar uaryofda, aramed erT-erTi ganStoeba _ doketebi, romlebic aswavlidnen, rom qriste aCrdilisebri sxeuliT movida. sxva gnostikosebi, mag., maniqevelebi _ gnostikosi mani anu pavlikianelebi, aseve maTi memkvidreebi, bogomilebi da albigovelebi ar uaryofdnen, rom iesoSi qristecaa damkvidrebuli. leqciebi logosis Sesaxeb Stainerma 1908 wels waikiTxa _ maSin igi Teosofiur sazogadoebas ekuTvnoda da amdenad, ezoTeruli qristianobis cnebas Teosofias miawerda, miuxedavad imisa, rom am wreSi mravali gansxvavebuli azri iyo qristesa da qristianobaze, iqamde, rom zogi iesos istoriul arsebobasac ki uaryofda. amitom Staineris gamonaTqvamebs logosis Sesaxeb Cven gnostikuri platonizmis variantebad miviCnevT. ra isesxa Stainerma platonisagan? 332

Stainerma platonisagan isesxa warmarTuli swavleba zogad cnebebze (koleqtivebze), rogorc sulieri sferos umaRles cocxal arsebebze. dedamiwa man stiqiebis, tyeebis, liTonebis, mineralebisa da sxva sulebiT daasaxla, qondriskacebi kvlav sabadoebs daubrundnen miwisqveSa saganZuris dasacavad, baRebsa da yvavilnarebSi ki elfebi dasaxldnen. Staineri aviTarebda swavlebas erTa sulebisa (RvTaebebisa) da drois RvTaebebis Sesaxeb. swavleba sulTa Sesaxeb nacistebma gadaiRes da Tavis ideologiur iaraRad aqcies _ maT ganacxades, rom umaRles erebs ufleba aqvT udablesi erebis beds ganagebdnen da mTel xalxebs mosaspobad wiravdnen. rac Seexeba drois RvTaebebs, arqevsebs, es swavleba Stainers saSualebas aZlevda, rom WeSmariteba droebiT, fardobiT, warmaval cnebad mieCnia. yovel periods WeSmaritebis sakuTari gageba aqvs, yovel arqevss axali warmodgenebi da gamocxadebebi moaqvs Tan. amgvarad, TviT qristianobac relativistur msoflmxedvelobad iqceva. bevri anTroposofosi uaryofs, rom panTeistia. amaze ras ityviT? panTeizmi aris swavleba, romlis postulatia adamianis sulis erTarseboba anu igiveoba absolutur RvTaebriv sulTan. sityva `panTeizmi~ niSnavs, rom RmerTi yvelaferSia. panTeizmi spobs adamianis pirovnebis cnebas: individualuri yofiereba kosmiurSi ganzavdeba, kosmiuri ki _ absoluturSi. WeSmariti realia aris `erTi~, xolo samyaros mravalferovneba an am `erTis~ droebiTi formebia, anda ubralod aRqmiTi iluzia. ai, 333

ras wers Staineri amis Taobaze: `sulTa qveynis pirvel sferoSi adamiani azrebs Soris mogzaurobs, magram es azrebi realuri arsebebi arian~. amis Semdeg kaci kargavs individualobis grZnobas, mas axali cnebebi uCndeba, iwyebs fiqrs, rom `is, rac Sens irgvliv aris, Sen TviTon xar~. magram es vedantas Zvelinduri sibrZnis erT-erTi ZiriTadi azria: garegani samyaro _ es Turme Sen TviTon xar. amgvarad, individualuri yofiereba kosmiurSi ganzavdeba da erwymis mas, Semdeg ki adamiani `sakuTar Tavs pirveli sulis erT-erT wevrad (absolutTan erTarsebobad) aRiqvams da TviTonac grZnobs Tavis TavSi pirveli sulis sityvas _ `me var pirveli suli~. vedantas sibrZne RaRadebs: `me var brahmani~. ase rom, adamianis suli, Teosofiur-induisturi terminologiiT _ atmani moiazreba absoluturi sulis, brahmanis ara marto Tanaarsad, aramed igiveobrivad (citatebi amoRebulia Staineris wignidan `Teosofia~, Tavi `suli sulTa qveyanaSi~).

metemfsiqozis evoluciis Sesaxeb Tumca Staineri acxadebs, rom eTanxmeba bibliur istorias samyaros Sesaqmis Sesaxeb, magram misi koncefcia adamianis warmoSobis Taobaze okultur-mistikur xasiaTs atarebs da ara bibliurs _ igi Teosofiuri anTropogenezis variants warmoadgens. 334

Staineri evolucionistur poziciaze dgas. misi azriT, adamianma mineralis, mcenarisa da cxovelis mdgomareobebi gamoiara da axla Tavisi ganviTarebis meoTxe fazaSi imyofeba. marTalia, Staineri darvinisti ar iyo, magram araerTxel ganucxadebia, rom darvinisa da hegelis Teoriebi iribad mxars uWeren anTroposofiul swavlebas. metemfsiqozi cxovel da pirovnul RmerTs, romelic adamianTan kavSirs amyarebs, `kanonis RmerTiT~ cvlis, romelmac TanagrZnoba ar icis. siyvarulis, rogorc RvTaebrivi Tavisuflebis cneba anTroposofosebTan mizez-Sedegobrivi urTierTobiT icvleba, rasac isini samarTlianobad moiazreben, Tumca sinamdvileSi es ufro SurisZiebaa. qriste aRar aris kacisaTvis pirovnuli macxovari. adamians acxonebs da warwymeds misi sakuTari saqmeebi (karma). Cveni azriT, SurisZieba tanjvis miyenebiTT adamians aucileblad ukeTess ar xdis. tanjva aris piroba da, mas rom kacis meqanikurad Secvla SesZleboda, maSin adamiani garegani viTarebebisa da situaciebis nayofi iqneboda. qristianuli swavlebis Tanaxmad, tanjva aris mowodeba da SesaZlebloba cxovrebis ufro Rrmad gaazrebisaken, magram es mowodeba yovelTvis rodia Sesmenili. tanjvas mxolod sinanulamde miyvana ki ara, kacis kidev ufro gaboroteba da gasastikebac SeuZlia. amis magaliTia qristesTan erTad jvarcmuli ori avazakis sxvadasxva mdgomareoba sikvdilis win. anTroposofosebi, iseve rogorc Teosofosebi, amboben, rom sisatikea kacisaTvis mxolod erTi sicocxlis 335

micema saimisod, rom man sakuTari Tavis, rogorc zneobrivi arsebis gaazreba da RmerTTan Tavisi damokidebulebis gansazRvra SeZlos. magram gardasaxvaTa jaWvs, romelSic kacis boroti neba rCeba da moqmedebs, aRorZineba ki ara, kidev ufro meti dacema SeiZleba mohyves. samyaros istoriaSi Cven vxedavT ara sikeTis evolucias, ara kacobriobis gansulierebas, aramed piriqiT _ borotebis, Zaladobisa da garyvnilebis eskalacias. metemfsiqozi marTlac rom arsebobdes, igi im kibis msgavsi iqneboda, romlis safexurebsac zeviT ki ara, qveviT mivyavarT _ ara RmerTisken, aramed RmerTisgan. anTroposofosebi amboben, rom adamianis cnobierebaSi wina arsebobaTa gamocdileba grovdeba, magram TviTon zneobriobis cneba qvecnobieris Sinaarsi ki ara, cnobierebis donea, sadac adamiani Tavisufal arCevans akeTebs motivebs Soris. qvecnobieridan momavali impulsebi mxolod Sinagani situaciebia, zneobrivi moqmedeba _ swori gadawyvetileba, romelSic goneba da neba monawileoben: ra saWiroa gakveTili, Tu kacs misi gageba da gaazreba ar SeuZlia? anTroposofosebi saubroben karmaze, rogorc samarTlianobis kanonze, magram samarTlianoba mizezsa da Sedegs Soris garkveul Sesabamisobasa da wonasworobas gulisxmobs. gamodis, rom usamarTloba iqneboda, Tuki adamiani aTasi cxovrebiT icxovrebda, aTasives wmindad gaatarebda da amisaTvis saukuno netarebas daimkvidrebda, radgan aTasi cxovreba maradisobasTan SedarebiT erTi wamia. ese igi, Cven unda uarvyoT swavleba saukuno netarebis Sesaxeb an vaRiaroT kanoni ara karmisa, aramed 336

pirovnuli RmerTisa, romlis saxelic siyvarulia. cxoneba saqmeebis jami ki ara, im sulis mdgomareobaa, RmerTis aRqmis unariT rom aris dajildoebuli. ra aris codva anTroposofiuli gagebiT? anTroposofiaSi ar arsebobs swavleba sikeTisa da borotebis Sesaxeb, Tumca Staineris yoveli leqcia Seicavda mowodebas sikeTis keTebisaken Semdgomi gardasaxvebisaTvis aucilebeli karmis Sesaqmnelad. magram swavleba saTnoebisa da codvis Sesaxeb, Cveulebriv, bundovani da trivialuri frazebiT Semoifargleba. zogjer am cnebebs Staineri induisturi filosofiidan anda misi Tanamedrove racionalisturi fsiqologiidan sesxulobda. Staineri saubrobs sulieri sferoebis kosmiur cnobierebaze, sadac `me~ `Sen~-ad iqceva. samyaro TviTon pirovnebis organul nawilad aRiqmeba. Staineri amas brahmas cnobierebas anu `yovelgan myof, yovlismomcvel suls~ uwodebs. esaa cnobili induisturi dogmatis perifrazi: `me var Sen, Sen ki is xar~. aqedan gamomdinare logikuri daskvnaa, rom yovelgvari simravle iluziaa da Tavis motyueba. magram Stainers aseTi daskvna ar gamoaqvs: igi ambobs, rom adamiani, romelic kosmosTan Tavis igiveobas aRmoaCens, ar kargavs Tavis `me~-s, anu subieqtsa da obieqts Soris gansxvavebis grZnobas. Stainers aseTi magaliTi mohyavs: kosmiuri igiveobis mdgomareobaSi myofi adamianebis TviTSegneba wreebs waagavs, romlebic sididiT erTni arian, magram ferebiT _ gansxvavebulni. Cveni azriT, subieqtsa da obieqts Soris gansxvaveba da araadekvaturi pirovnuli urTier337

Tobebi ukve SeuTavsebelia arian absoluturi igiveobisa da erTianobis principTan, induisturi da budisturi filosofiebi am sakiTxSi ufro Tanmimdevrulebi arian. siyvarulis safuZveli Tavganwirvaa, xolo principi `me var Sen, Sen ki is xar~ spobs siyvarulis realur obieqts. Semdeg Staineri laparakobs zneobriobaze, rogorc Surisgebaze agebul sistemaze, karmad wodebul kanonze. aq zneoba raRac fizikuri ganzomilebis formas Rebulobs, mizez-Sedegobriobis meqanikur jaWvs emsgavseba, sadac ar aris siyvarulis adgili _ siyvaruli xom adamianis sulis Tavisufali aqtia, sulisa, romlisTvisac siyvaruli ukve sazRauria. amis mere Staineri acxadebs, rom TviTon zneobriobac pirobiTia: zneobrivia is, rac xels uwyobs evolucias, xolo yvelaferi, rac naadrevi an nagvianevia, ukve borotebaa. aq zneoba adamianis pirovnebis mTavari Tvisebidan qcevis mizanSewonil normebad gardaiqmneba, romlebic raRac Soreuli miznebis ganxorcielebas uwyoben xels. amis magaliTad Stainers arimanis impulsi mohyavs _ esaa naadrevi impulsi, romelic sulieri progresis Tanmimdevrobas daarRvevda. Stainers miaCnia, rom kacis sulieri ganviTarebis kvaldakval zneobrivi kriteriumebic icvlebian da idealurni xdebian. praqtikaSi es relativizmi romaul gamoTqmas waagavs: `rac iupiters Seefereba, xars ar Seefereba~. Staineri Tavis rozenkroicerul misteriebSi Sefaruli formiT gnostikosebisa da albigovelebis morals qadagebs: `Seican codva, raTa Seicno sikeTe~. 338

Cveni azriT, yovel elitarul sistemas, romelic adamians ararsebul uflebebs aniWebs, zneoba subieqturi warmodgenebis sferoSi gadahyavs da, arsebiTad, `revoluciur moralad~ aqcevs.

Staineri da hegeli hegeli axali drois _ racionalizmisa da sulieri dekadansis epoqis _ idealisturi filosofiis udidesi warmomadgenelia. filosofiuri sistemebi germaniaSi minezingerebis simRerebiviT erTimeoris miyolebiT Cndebian. gaRmerTebuli goneba eswrafvis azris foierverkiT gaanaTos yofierebis bneli qveskneli. filosofias unda zecamde aRmarTos babilonis godoli, sadac kirisa da aguris magivrad mofilosofose gonebis adamianebi erTmaneTs morgebuli silogizmebis gamoyenebas cdiloben. Tumca es titanuri Sroma yovelTvis daumTavrebeli rCeba: koSki sakuTari simZimis qveS ingreva. hegelma erT-erTi yvelaze grandiozuli Senoba aago, raRac `filosofiis qalRmerTis sasaxlis~ msgavsi. unda aRiniSnos, rom idealisturi filosofia da religia Zireulad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan. religia aris adamianis sulis uSualo kavSiri RmerTTan, pirovnuli urTierToba, romelic locvisa da mcnebebis _ zneobrivi kanonebis _ Sesrulebis gziT xorcieldeba. religia yofierebis yvela mxares moicavs. esaa kacobrivi da RmrTaebrivi nebis harmonia. religiis dasawyisi mowiwebaa, dasasruli _ siyvaruli. 339

filosofosebisTvis RmerTi da transcendentuli (miRmuri) samyaro racionaluri kvlevis sagania. religias suli RmerTamde ahyavs, filosofias ki miwaze Camohyavs RmerTi da mas adamianis gonebis kategoriebSi amwyvdevs, gonebisa, romelic Teoriebisa da silogizmebis SedgeniTaa garTuli. hegelTan TviTon logikaa gaRmerTebuli; misi ukiduresi racionalizmi religiur eqstazad da winaswarmetyvelur simtkiced JRers. hegelisaTvis logikis gziT mxolod RmerTis Secnoba rodia SesaZlebeli, TviT RmerTi da misi modaloba _ kosmosi logikas (dialeqtikur, anu paradoqsul logikas, arsebiTad, antilogikas) aris daqvemdebarebuli. hegelisaTvis RmerTi aris absoluti, romelsac dakarguli aqvs TviTSegneba da sakuTar Tavs Tavis qmnilebebSi eZiebs. istoria hegelisaTvis RmerTis Camoyalibeba da TviTgamorkvevaa. umaRlesi goni mocemul istoriul etapze TviT hegelis gonad gancxaddeba da erwymis mas. umaRlesi fenomenologiuri suli, rogorc zogadi cneba, germaneli eris sulad iqceva. abstraqtul universaliebsa da zogad cnebebSi adamianis pirovnebis adgili aRar rCeba. hegelis absoluts ar gaaCnia RmerTis iseTi Tvisebebi, rogoricaa cnobiereba da TviTSegneba, am mxriv igi adamians Camouvardeba, magram TviTon adamianic, bolos da bolos, msoflio istoriis scenaze ubralo niRabi aRmoCndeba. RmerTi eZiebs sakuTari Tavis gancxadebis gzebs sasrulis saSualebiT, ese igi, igi arasrulyofili da SezRudulia. ratom da rogor daeca RmerTi, gamocanad rCeba panTeistebisTvis _ iqneba es platoni, hegeli, goeTe Tu Staineri. `umaRlesi logosi~ usinaT340

lo aRmoCndeba, romelic istoriis gza-Sarebze eZiebs Tavis Tavs. usinaTlo absoluti hegels CasWidebia, raTa misgan Seityos Tavisi warsuli da momavali, Tavisi gza sakuTari Tavis gancxadebisaken. `tevtoni filosofosi~ qedmaRlurad uxsnis absoluts, Tu vin aris igi da `sulis fenomenologiaSi~ mis biografias wers. hegelis RmerTi usaxelo, sastiki Zalaa, romelic cxaddeba ara rogorc Tavisufali suli, aramed rogorc logikis rkinis jaWvebiT SeboWili tusaRi; TviTon kosmosi da RmerTi erTni arian, amitom erTia maTi kanonebic. Tumca hegelma, dauqvemdebara ra RmerTi logikas, TviTon logika gaxada iracionaluri. misTvis filosofiis istoria panlogizmis ilustraciaa. imisaTvis, rom am absurdul swavlebaSi RmerTis Sesaxeb aSkara Cixebsa da winaaRmdegobebs gaqceoda, hegelma Tavisi dialeqtikis meSveobiT TviTon am winaaRmdegobebs misca logikuri forma. es swavleba winaaRmdegobaTa brZolisa da igiveobis Sesaxeb fantastikur alogizmad iqca, sadac sikeTe da boroteba erTmaneTs Tanxvdeba. hegelisaTvis dialeqtikis dasawyiss RmerTSi arsebuli winaaRmdegoba warmoadgens. RmerTis wiaRSi mimdinare tragedia msoflio istoriad iqceva. am `metafizikuri dialeqtikiT~, ufro sworad, demonuri provokaciiT hegeli yvelaze metad biomesgan aris davalebuli, Tumca TviTon hegeli ufro xSirad prokle diadoxoss imowmebs _ neoplatonikoss, romlis saxiTac agoniaSi myofi antikurma samyarom ukanasknelad gaibrZola qristianobis winaaRmdeg. hegeli fiqrobda, rom religia arasrulyofili filosofiaa, romelic momavalSi unda mokvdes da Tavisi adgili sufTa logicizms dauTmos. 341

amgvarad, hegelisaTvis religia azrovnebis arasrulyofilebas warmoadgens. grZnobebisa da gancdebis gama _ siyvaruli, Tanalmoba da a. S. misTvis dabrkolebaa sufTa logikuri azrovnebisTvis _ adamianis gonebis erTaderTi Rirseuli saqmianobisTvis. hegeli uaryofda qristianobis pirvel dogmats _ wm. samebis rwmenas. misTvis RmerTis sami hipostasi metafora an logikuri silogizmis forma iyo (Tezisi, antiTeza, sinTezi), anda drois sami ganzomilebis _ warsulis, awmyosa da momavlis _ erTianoba. qristianoba hegelis sistemaSi droebiT, pirobiT, fardobiT cnebad iyo warmodgenili. niSandoblivia, rom bibliis yvelaze cnobili kritikosebi, romlebic cdilobdnen biblia fantastikuri Tqmulebebisa da miTebis krebulad gaesaRebinaT, memarcxene hegelianelebi iyvnen (baueri, Strausi da sxv.). rac Seexeba Teologebs _ memarjvene hegelianelebs, romlebic dialeqtikisa da qristianobis SeerTebas eswrafodnen, maTTvis, rogorc wesi, saxarebis swavleba maradiuli WeSmariteba ki ar iyo, aramed gardamavali periodi suli wmidis axali gamocxadebebisken. bibliur Txrobas adamianis codviT dacemis Sesaxeb hegelma uwoda `udidesi miTi msoflio miTebs Soris~. misTvis kacis janyi RmerTis winaaRmdeg da misi ganvardna RmerTisgan aracnobieri cxoveluri mdgomareobidan Segnebul saqmianobaze gadasvlas moaswavebda, `akrZaluli xilis~ mowyveta ki _ xelovnebis, mecnierebis da SemoqmedebiTi muSaobis dasawyiss. amitom gvelis saxis mimRebi satana hegelisaTvis kacobriobis `keTili megobari~ gaxda, raRac promeTes msgavsi, romelmac olim342

podan cecxli moitana miwaze, anda RvTaeba, romelmac adams brma Tvali auxila. amgvarad, hegeli Tavisi dialeqtikis meSveobiT cdilobs bibliuri RmerTi demonis an tiranis adgilas daayenos, demoni ki _ RmerTis, rogorc kacobriobis ganmaTavisufleblis adgilas. SesaZloa, swored aseTi provokaciebisTvis gaxda saWiro dialeqtikis wisqvilis qvasaviT mbrunavi borbali. maS, amis Semdeg rogor SeiZleboda, Stainers hegeli ar hyvareboda da mocaleobis Jams `germanel filosofosTa maestros~ amayi profiliT ar damtkbariyo: hegelis Tavis tvifari Stainers mudam Tan dahqonda.

Staineri da goeTe Stainers araerTxel ganucxadebia, rom maswavleblebi ar hyavda. anTroposofias, rogorc SexedulebaTa sistemas, sinamdvileSi ki usistemo da qaosur mozaikas, igi Tavis mistikur niWierebasa da `sulTa xilvebs~ miawerda _ TiTqos SeeZlo warsulis ufskrulidan kosmiuri da istoriuli movlenebis gamowveva da astraluri niSnebis mixedviT maTi amokiTxva. gamodis, rom Staineri, ase vTqvaT, sakuTari Tavidan aRmocenda da Tavis swavlebas sakuTar avtoritetze afuZnebda. am dros, rac ar unda paradoqsuli iyos, Staineri ar iyo TviTmyofadi moazrovne: masalas Tavisi leqciebisTvis igi sxvadasxva wyaroebidan sesxulobda, amasTan, arCevda imas, rac TviTon moswonda, rac auditoriaze STabeWdilebas moaxdenda da daainteresebda, calkeuli konstuqciebis 343

mTlianoba da Sekruloba ki naklebad aRelvebda. amitom igi xSirad uaryofs imas, rasac sul axlaxan amtkicebda da piriqiT, amtkicebs imas, rasac cota xnis win skeptikurad uyurebda. Staineri ekleqtikosi iyo. magram mis cxovrebasa da SemoqmedebaSi gansakuTrebuli roli sam pirovnebas eniWeboda: goeTes, hegelsa da hekels. goeTes aCrdili mas yvelgan ise dahyveboda, rogorc fausts _ mefistofeli. goeTe erTaderTi adamiani iyo, romelic StainerisTvis mTlianad iyo misaRebi da yvelaze did avtoritetad miaCnda. Stainers araerTxel ganucxadebia, rom Tanamedrove adamianis sulierebis kriteriums goeTesadmi misi damokidebuleba warmoadgens. metic, igi ambobda, rom `anTroposofia _ esaa goeTes mimdevroba dRes~. magram goeTe Staineris uSualo maswavlebeli ar yofila. aq bevrad ufro mniSvnelovani ramaa Cadebuli _ sulTa mistikuri naTesaoba. Staineri goeTes Semoqmedebas mecnieruli kvlevis an mxatvruli STagonebis nayofad ki ar miiCnevda, aramed raRac mistikur gamocxadebad, romlis talRebsac igi Tavis cnobierebaSic grZnobda. amitom Stainerma uzarmazari Sroma itvirTa _ monawileoba miiRo goeTes arqivebisa da Txzulebebis gamocemis redaqtirebaSi, romelic 80 vrcel toms Seadgenda. ra akavSirebs goeTesa da Stainers? upirveles yovlisa _ warmarTuli magizmis suliskveTeba. goeTesTvis, iseve rogorc StainerisTvis, pirovnuli RmerTi ar arsebobs: RvTaeba kosmoss Seerwya, kosmosi ki sulTa samyofels warmoadgenda, romelsac Stainerma `saRmrTo ierarqia~ uwoda, goeTem ki ufro gulaxdilad _ de344

monebi. goeTesTvis sami sityva: mistika, magia da demonizmi sinonimebi iyo, Tu igi xandaxan sityva `RmerTebs~ xmarobda, rogorc kosmosis an gansulierebuli bunebis simboloebs sWirdeboda. qristianobis mimarT goeTes yovelTvis mkveTrad uaryofiTi damokidebuleba hqonda _ iseve rogorc rozenkroicerebs, okulturi ordenis wevrebs, Staineri rom ekuTvnoda. magram goeTe, iyo ra `saidumlo mrCeveli~ anu maRali rangis moxele, iZulebuli xdeboda oficialurad pativiscema gamoexata qristianuli eklesiisadmi mimarT. amitom qristianobis apologetebsac da mis mtrebsac SeeZloT goeTes Semoqmedebidan maTTvis xelsayreli citatebis gamoZebna. goeTe TiTqos imiT iZiebda Surs Tavisi laCruli orpirobisTvis, rom mwared dascinoda qristianobas. magaliTad, erT Tavis megobars igi daexmara protestantul TemSi episkoposobis miRebaSi, mere ki misdami mimarTul misasalmebel werilSi SeniSna, qristes aqamde erTi saxedari hyavda, axla ki isini mravalni ariano (protestant episkoposebs gulisxmobda). gansakuTrebul siZulvils goeTe jvaris mimarT ganicdida: erTgan wers, rom yvelaze metad ver itans baRlinjoebs, nivris suns da jvars. goeTesTvis yvelaze axlobeli filosofosi hegeli iyo, maT urTierTpativiscema, TiTqmis megobroba akavSirebdaT. magram goeTem ukmayofileba gamoTqva imis gamo, rom hegeli daajildoves gerbiT, romelzec bu (sibrZnis alegoria) da jvari iyo gamosaxuli. igi dabejiTebiT moiTxovda, rom gerbidan amoeRoT jvaris niSani, rogorc sibrZnis ideasTan SeuTavsebeli. 345

buneba goeTes sulebiT dasaxlebulad eCveneboda _ Zveli elinis msgavsad, romelic yvelaferSi RmerTebs xedavda _ ver xedavda mxolod erT, WeSmarit RmerTs. goeTes materia cnobierebis mqoned miaCnda, magram sayovelTao gansulierebis (heloZoizmis) es Teoria masTan sayovelTao demonologiad gadaiqca, xolo materiis gansuliereba _ nivTierebis satanizaciad. arsebobs ramdenime racionalisturi Teoria religiis warmoSobis Sesaxeb, romlebic uaryofen RmerTis arsebobas da adamianSi Tandayolili religiuri grZnobis arsebobas. goeTem am Teoriebs Tavisic daumata, romelsac `esTetikuri~ ewoda: misTvis religia kosmiuri mSvenierebis gancdaa. mSveniereba sikeTisa da borotebis cnebaTa mimarT neitraluria, amitom goeTesTvis qristesa da eSmakis individuloba Tanabrad faseulia. TviTon goeTe arc aTeisti iyo, arc materialisti, magram man xeli Seuwyo frangi aTeistis (formalurad _ deistis), didros Txzulebebis Targmanis gamocemas, sadac didro mkiTxvels qristianobis dacinviT arTobda. goeTesa da Sileris daxmarebiT didros wignebi germanulad ufro adre gamoqveynda, vidre frangulad. goeTem engelsis qeba daimsaxura _ ara misi SromebisTvis sabunebismetyvelo ganxriT anda mxatvruli SemoqmedebisTvis, aramed imitom, rom sityva `RmerTi~ goeTesTvis autaneli iyo da masSi raRac fsiqikuri alergiis msagavs reaqcias iwvevda. arsebobs mosazreba, rom goeTes mTavari nawarmoebi `fausti~, romelsac igi mTeli cxovrebis manZilze werda, rozenkroicerebis misteriebis krebuls an, yovel SemTxvevaSi, maT Temaze Seqmnil variaciebs warmoadgens. 346

qristianobisadmi Tavisi damokidebuleba goeTem gamoxata poemaSi `korinTeli stumari~. aq igi wers, rom qristianobam mospo kacTa Soris siyvaruli da megobroba, rom qristes sikvdili sisxlis niaRvrebis dasawyiss moaswavebda. mas aRafrTovanebda warmarToba, rogorc WeSmariti mSveniereba da adamianuroba. poema `korinTeli stumari~ aseTi mowodebiT mTavrdeboda: `modi, gavfrindeT Cveni Zveli RmerTebisken~! es niSandoblivi sityvebi anTroposofiis devizadac gamodgebodnen... am ucnauri triumviratis mesame wevri aRmoCnda germaneli bunebismetyveli, biologi hekeli. es gaxldaT saSualo mecnieri, magram saxeli gaiTqva biogenezis TeoriiT, romelmac Tanamedroveni Tavisi siaxliT gaaogna, dReisaTvis ki mecnierebis falsifikaciis qrestomaTiul nimuSad iqca. hekeliseuli biogenezis Teoria imaSi mdgomareobs, rom embrioni Tavisi ganviTarebisas imeorebs evoluciis fazebs darviniseuli kibis mixedviT, anu igi sxvadasxva arsebaTa formebs iRebs _ amebidan moyolebuli vidre primatamde. hekels miaCnda, rom Tavisi naSromebiT uciloblad daadastura darvinis Teoria. magram ukve misma Tanamedrove mecnierebma amxiles igi yalbismqnelobasa da falsifikaciaSi: biologiis doqtori basi presaSi gamovida biogenezis Teoriis uaryofiT da ganacxada, rom hekelis mier gamocemuli embrionis ganviTarebis atlasi nayofis ganviTarebis etapebs ki ar asaxavs, aramed TviTon aris nayofi hekelis fantaziisa. hekelma, rogorc mas sCveoda, lanZRvaginebiT aiklo oponenti, magram Semdeg, mtkicebulebaTa simravlis gamo, iZulebuli gaxda eRiarebina, rom am 347

atlasis ilustraciebis nawili misi abstraqtuli warmodgenebis nayofi iyo. Tumca, amasTan erTad, utifrad ganacxada, momavalSi mecniereba uTuod daadasturebs Cems mixvedrebso. riTi SeeZlo hekels Staineris daintereseba? aq hekelis cxovrebis sxva mxare unda gavixsenoT _ es gaxlavT misi Seurigebeli brZola qristianobasTan, romelic paroqsizmis Setevebamde midioda. Tavis sajaro leqciebsa da broSurebSi igi dascinoda saxarebas, Tumca maSin oficialurad jer kidev germaniis luTeranul eklesias ekuTvnoda; Semdeg presaSi ganacxada, rom wyvetda kavSirs qristianobasTan: erTi sityviT, ubralod ki ar gamovida kirxedan, karic xmamaRla gamoijaxuna, raTa sazogadoebis yuradReba miepyro sakuTari personisadmi. Staineris garda, hekeliT aRtaceba vladimer ulianovmac gamoxata: man Tqva, hekelma mumiebs silebi gaulawunao. hekelma farTo kampania gaaCaRa qristianobis winaaRmdeg da quCis jambaziviT Seuracxyofda morwmuneTa religiur grZnobebs. magram hekelma uneblieT gaamJRavna darvinizmis popularobis saidumlo: kerZod, man ganacxada, rom darvinizmi religiaa da ara mecnieruli sistema. marTlac, darvinizmi religiad irwmunes, gamocxadebad miiRes, rwmenadakarguli adamianebisTvis darvinizmi qristianobis alternativad iqca. hekels ar akmayofilebda darvinis saSualo epigonis roli, man axali religiis qadageba daiwyo: es iyo umartivesTa, anu erTujredian arsebaTa Tayvaniscema, sakuTari Tavi ki winaparTa am originaluri religiis mTavar qurumad gamoacxada. aseT mkrexelur masxarao348

bas araerTi mimdevari gamouCnda, maTi daxmarebiT hekelma berlinSi `umartivesTa muzeumi~ Seqmna, romelsac primitivTa taZari uwoda. am muzeumis gaxsnisas hekelma ganacxada, rom misi religia male daamarcxebda qristianobas. hekelis mowafeebma germaniis mTavrobas mimarTva gaugzavnes da moiTxoves, rom yvela taZari da samlocvelo saxli maTTvis gadaecaT, raTa iq umartivesTa biologiuri taZari-muzeumebi anu `jansaRi gonebis~ taZrebi gaexsnaT. Tu safrangeTis revoluciis dros parizis RmrTismSoblis taZarSi dabinavebuli SiSveli gombio iakobinelTaTvis gonebis, ufro sworad, gonebis kultis simbolos warmoadgenda, hekelis mimdevarTaTvis misi adgili amebam daikava. amaSi mdgomareobs okultist Staineris simpaTiis mTavari mizezi eSmakeuli aTeistis, hekelis mimarT: Zmebi erTmaneTs saerTo suliskveTebiT scnoben.

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mkiTxvelo, am wignis gamomcemeli umorCilesad gTxovT moixsenoT sulni gardacvalebulTa monaTa da mxevalTa RvTisaTa: daviTisi, nodarisa, lavrentisa, grigolisa, veniasi da Tamarisa.

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daibeWda gamomcemloba `meridianSi~ Tbilisi, al. yazbegis gamz. #45 [email protected] gamomcemlobis direqtori kaxaber rusiZe kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa daviT kutubiZe

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