®/n- i- .1 ®. MATLAB^/Simulink for. Digital Communication. Won Y. Yang, Yong S . Cho, Won G. Jeon, Jeong W. Lee, Jong H. Paik. Jae K. Kim, Mi-Hyun Lee, Kyu ...

®/n-

i- .1 ®

Won Y. Yang, Yong S. Cho, Won G. Jeon, Jeong W. Lee, Jong H. Paik Jae K. Kim, Mi-Hyun Lee, Kyu I. Lee, Kyung W. Park, Kyung S. Woo

V

PREFACE

iii

CHAPTER 1: FOURIER ANALYSIS 1.1 CONTINUOUS-TIME FOURIER SERIES (CTFS) 1.2 PROPERTIES OF CTFS 1.2.1 Time-Shifting Property 1.2.2 Frequency-Shifting Property 1.2.3 Modulation Property 1.3 CONTINUOUS-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (CTFT) 1.4 PROPERTIES OF CTFT 1.4.1 Linearity 1.4.2 Conjugate Symmetry 1.4.3 Real Translation (Time Shifting) and Complex Translation (Frequency Shifting) 1.4.4 Real Convolution and Correlation 1.4.5 Complex Convolution- Modulation/Windowing 1.4.6 Duality 1.4.7 Parseval Relation - Power Theorem 1.5 DISCRETE-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (DTFT) 1.6 DISCRETE-TIME FOURIER SERIES - DFS/DFT 1.7 SAMPLING THEOREM 1.7.1 Relationship between CTFS and DFS 1.7.2 Relationship between CTFT and DTFT 1.7.3 Sampling Theorem 1.8 POWER, ENERGY, AND CORRELATION 1.9 LOWPASS EQUIVALENT OF BANDPASS SIGNALS Problems

1 2 6 6 6 6 7 13 13 13 14 14 14 17 18 18 19 21 21 27 27 29 30 36

CHAPTER 2: PROBABILITY AND RANDOM PROCESSES 2.1 PROBABILITY 2.1.1 Definition of Probability 2.1.2 Joint Probability and Conditional Probability 2.1.3 Probability Distribution/Density Function 2.1.4 Joint Probability Density Function 2.1.5 Condtional Probability Density Function 2.1.6 Independence 2.1.7 Function of a Random Variable 2.1.8 Expectation, Covariance, and Correlation 2.1.9 Conditional Expectation 2.1.10 Central Limit Theorem -Normal Convergence Theorem 2.1.11 Random Processes 2.1.12 Stationary Processes and Ergodic Processes 2.1.13 Power Spectral Density (PSD) 2.1.14 White Noise and Colored Noise 2.2 LINEAR FILTERING AND PSD OF A RANDOM PROCESS 2.3 FADING EFFECT OF A MULTI-PATH CHANNEL Problems

39 39 39 40 41 41 41 41 42 43 47 47 49 51 53 53 57 59 62

vi

Contents

CHAPTER 3: AN ALOG MODUL ATION 3.1 AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) 3.1.1 DSB (Double Sideband)-AM (Amplitude Modulation) 3.1.2 Conventional AM (Amplitude Modulation) 3.1.3 SSB (Single Sideband)-AM(Amplitude Modulation) 3.2 ANGLE MODULATION - FREQUENCY/PHASE MODULATIONS Problems

71 71 71 75 78 82 86

CHAPTER 4: ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION 4.1 QUANTIZATION 4.1.1 Uniform Quantization 4.1.2 Non-uniform Quantization 4.1.3 Non-uniform Quantization Considering Relative Errors 4.2 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) 4.3 Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) 4.4 Delta Modulation (DM) Problems

87 87 88 89 91 95 97 100 103

CHAPTER 5: BASEBAND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION 5.1 RECEIVER (RCVR) and SNR 5.1.1 Receiver of RC Filter Type 5.1.2 Receiver of Matched Filter Type 5.1.3 Signal Correlator 5.2 SIGNALING AND ERROR PROBABILITY 5.2.1 Antipodal (Bipolar) Signaling 5.2.2 OOK(On-OffKeying)/Unipolar Signaling 5.2.3 Orthogonal Signaling 5.2.4 Signal Constellation Diagram 5.2.5 Simulation of Binary Communication 5.2.6 Multi-level(amplitude) РАМ Signaling 5.2.7 Multi-dimensional Signaling 5.2.8 Bi-orthogonal Signaling Problems

107 107 109 110 112 114 114 118 119 121 123 127 129 133 136

CHAPTER 6: BANDLIMITED CHANNEL AND EQUALIZER 6.1 BANDLIMITED CHANNEL 6.1.1 Nyquist Bandwidth 6.1.2 Raised-Cosine Frequency Response 6.1.3 Partial Respone Signaling - Duobinary Signaling 6.2 EQUALIZER 6.2.1 Zero-Forcing Equalizer (ZFE) 6.2.2 MMSE Equalizer (MMSEE) 6.2.3 Adaptive Equalizer (ADE) 6.2.4 Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) Problems

139 139 139 141 143 148 148 151 154 155 159

CHAPTER 7: BANDPASSDIGITALTRANSMISSION 7.1 AMPLITUDE MODULATION - AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING (ASK) 7.2 FREQUENCY MODULATION - FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK) 7.3 PHASE MODULATION - PHASE SHIFT KEYING (PSK) 7.4 DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHFT KEYING (DPSK) 7.5 QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (QAM) - PAM/PSK

169 169 178 187 190 195

Contents

7.6 COMPARISON OF VARIOUS SIGNALINGS Problems

vii

200 205

CHAPTER 8: CARRIER RECOVERY AND SYMBOL SYNCHRONIZATION 8.1 INTRODUCTION 8.2 PLL (PHASE-LOCKED LOOP) 8.3 ESTIMATION OF CARRIER PHASE USING PLL 8.4 CARRIER PHASE RECOVERY 8.4.1 Carrier Phase Recovery Using a Squaring Loop for BPSK Signals 8.4.2 Carrier Phase Recovery Using Costas Loop for PSK Signals 8.4.3 Carrier Phase Recovery for QAM Signals 8.5 SYMBOL SYNCHRONIZATION (TIMING RECOVERY) 8.5.1 Early-Late Gate Timing Recovery for BPSK Signals 8.5.2 NDA-ELD Synchronizer for PSK Signals Problems

225 225 226 231 233 233 235 238 241 241 244 247

CHAPTER 9: INFORMATION AND CODING 9.1 MEASURE OF INFORMATION - ENTROPY 9.2 SOURCE CODING 9.2.1 Huffman Coding 9.2.2 Lempel-Zip-Welch Coding 9.2.3 Source Coding vs. Channel Coding 9.3 CHANNEL MODEL AND CHANNEL CAPACITY 9.4 CHANNEL CODING 9.4.1 Waveform Coding 9.4.2 Linear Block Coding 9.4.3 Cyclic Coding 9.4.4 Convolutional Coding and Viterbi Decoding 9.4.5 Trellis-Coded Modulation (TCM) 9.4.6 Turbo Coding 9.4.7 Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) Coding 9.4.8 Differential Space-Time Block Coding (DSTBC) 9.5 CODING GAIN Problems

255 255 256 256 259 262 263 268 269 270 279 284 293 297 308 313 316 318

CHAPTER 10: SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM 10.1 PN (Pseudo Noise) Sequence 10.2 DS-SS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) 10.3 FH-SS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) Problems CHAPTER 11: OFDM SYSTEM 11.1 OVERVIEW OF OFDM 11.2 FREQUENCY BAND AND BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY OF OFDM 11.3 CARRIER RECOVERY AND SYMBOL SYNCHRONIZATION 11.4 CHANNEL ESTIMATION AND EQUALIZATION 11.5 INTERLEAVING AND DEiNTERLEAVING 11.6 PUNCTURING AND DEPUNCTURING 11.7 IEEESTANDARD802.11A- 1999 Problems

337 337 345 350 354 357 357 361 362 379 382 384 386 393

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Contents

APPENDICIES Appendix A: Appendix B: Appendix C: Appendix D: Appendix E: Appendix F:

Fourier Series/Transform Laplace Transform and z -Transform Differentiation w.r.t. a Vector Useful Formulas MATLAB Introduction Simulink

407 407 412 414 415 417 421

REFERENCES

425

INDEX

427