multipurpose integrated development of biomass

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Instituto Superior Técnico. 7/9/2015. Mário Brito. Mário Brito. MARETEC, Environment and Energy. Scientific Area, Department of Mechanical. Engineering ...

MULTIPURPOSE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMASS RESOURCES A STRATEGIC SOLUTION FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Mário Brito MARETEC, Environment and Energy Scientific Area, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico 7/9/2015

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DESCRIPTION

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FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY

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FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY Energy Crops

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FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY Grow Fields

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ANAEROBIC DIGESTION Biogas: • 65% bio-methane (CH4), • 35% carbon dioxide (CO2), • 90%). Potential for conversion to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

Developed and mature technologies By-product: effluent (50% of SOM input) – organic fertilizer. 7/9/2015

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TECHNOLOGY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION, GAS REFORMATION, FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS (F-T)

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FEEDSTOCK PRE-PROCESSING Processes: • Mechanical shredding/grinding/chipping • Thermo-chemical treatments (acid or alkali) • Steam explosion (optional) Benefits: • Yield increase as much as 50% Advantage in blending organic feedstock’s of several different origins (more stable digestion process with higher yields of methane. Mechanical pre-treatment is partly done while harvesting and during industrial transformations. Careful selection of components for blending, ensuring microbiological safety (no “melting pot” for undesirable strains). 7/9/2015

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CO-PRODUCTS FERTILIZERS

CARBON DIOXIDE (Purified)

25-35% of raw biogas

High percentage of lignin (40%):

Industrial feedstock: • Beverages • Fertilizers (urea) • Carbonates Worldwide market over 150 million tonnes per year. 7/9/2015

• Breaks down to humus • Regulates aeration and water flow • Soil improvement • Carbon soil sequestration (SOM)

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CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS

Source: US EPA

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CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS Carbon sequestration as soil biomass (average of 5 ton/ha per year) Carbon dioxide sequestration of 30-40 million ton/year (until soil saturation): 50% of the Portuguese greenhouse gas emissions

Improved watershed management: • Delayed surface runoff (avoiding erosion and nutrient leaching – soil fertility and eutrophication issues) • Prevented siltation, lower flood potential, smoother flows • Reducing eutrophication by harvesting aquatic energy crops (duckweed or seaweed) Source: USDA

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CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS (cont.) • Wildfire control by removal of biomass (energy crops) • Reducing tillage and herbicides in vineyards and orchards (weeds as energy crops) • Reuse and rehabilitation of degraded soils or wastelands (for energy crops) • Potential for some additional precipitation by condensation and fog drip (especially at coastal regions)

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ENERGY • Avoid use of liquid fuels (but compressed bio-methane or gasifier wood gas are possibilities) • The power sources should be local, renewable and supported on electricity (as possible) • Potential use of thermal solar power for heat needs (digesters at 40ºC), complementing metabolic heat. • Solar plant for a 0,8 sq km plant yields 0,5-0,7 TWh/year for a requirement of 0,75 TWh/y (taking influent from 15ºC to 40ºC). Source: NREL

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TRANSPORTATION

Source: USDA

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ECONOMIC POTENTIALS PORTUGUESE ECONOMY

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ECONOMICS • Anaerobic digestion already competitive with natural gas

• Biogas cost 0,0350,060€/kWhth vs bulk natural gas 0,0250,040€/kWhth • Conversion to liquid fuels not economically interesting • No feed-in-tariffs or other subsidies

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CAPITAL COSTS ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PLANT

• Output power: 650 MWth (est.)

• 150-200 million € per plant after development (est.)

SLURRY PIPELINE NETWORK

F-T PLANT

• 300.000 €(2014)/km (diameter of 610 mm)

• Input power: 400 MWth

• 261 km network (flat terrain), correction factors 1,1 – 1,2

• 585 million € (2014)

• 110 to 120 million € (buried pipelines)

(Remaining 250 MWth available as bio-methane)

Dedicated bio-methane plant + pipeline network: 300 million €

Combined plant (digestion plus F-T + pipeline network): 885 million €

Cost per kWth: 460€

Cost per kWth: ≈1500€

NGCC/Rankine power plants: 700 to 1500€/kWe 7/9/2015

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CONCLUSIONS • Bio-methane production fully viable and economically competitive • Liquid fuels from F-T synthesis appears only to be competitive when oil prices rise above 100€(2014)/barrel (0,063€2014/kWh) • Strategic security by developing an endogenous energy source • Flexibility on the use of combustible gases allowing CHP at the consumption spot (overall efficiencies >80%) • Environmental benefits: soil and forestry management and carbon sequestration, recovery of degraded lands, control of water flows and wildfires • The innovative approach of this work is the focus on integration for taking advantage of all potential benefits in an effective manner 7/9/2015

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CONCLUSIONS

Strategic Security

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“Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.” Winston Churchill

QUESTIONS? 7/9/2015

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