Municipal solid waste management in Kitwe City

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Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal Municipal solid waste management in Kitwe City: An engineering management perspective Bupe Getrude Mwanza, Charles Mbohwa, Arnesh Telukdarie,

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Article information: To cite this document: Bupe Getrude Mwanza, Charles Mbohwa, Arnesh Telukdarie, (2018) "Municipal solid waste management in Kitwe City: An engineering management perspective", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, https://doi.org/10.1108/MEQ-10-2017-0120 Permanent link to this document: https://doi.org/10.1108/MEQ-10-2017-0120 Downloaded on: 21 June 2018, At: 03:49 (PT) References: this document contains references to 67 other documents. To copy this document: [email protected] The fulltext of this document has been downloaded 3 times since 2018* Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by emeraldsrm:583253 []

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Municipal solid waste management in Kitwe City

Municipal solid waste management

An engineering management perspective Bupe Getrude Mwanza and Charles Mbohwa University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa, and Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LUSAKA, Mrs Bupe Mwanza At 03:49 21 June 2018 (PT)

Arnesh Telukdarie Department of Engineering Management, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Received 21 October 2017 Revised 3 March 2018 19 April 2018 Accepted 19 April 2018

Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the present municipal solid wastes (MSWs) management system, from an engineering management (EM) perspective, for the City of Kitwe while proposing a levers-driven sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM) model focussing on improving waste management (WM). Design/methodology/approach – The research work involves four stages. First, a comprehensive review of literature is conducted on MSWM. Second, structured interviews are conducted with key experts in solid waste management in the City of Kitwe in order to enhance the knowledge inputs. Third, direct observations and an interview with a WM driver are conducted in order to understand; the collection, disposal and treatment options for MSWs. Lastly, a sustainable model for managing MSWs is proposed Findings – The research findings indicate that the existing MSW system for the city is highly unsustainable and lacks EM methodologies. There are still a number of challenges in the management of MSWs which include: lack of proper collection and storage of MSWs; lack of an engineered landfill; lack of waste recovery and treatment systems; and lack of public education aimed at reducing and separating MSWs. Practical implications – A correct and detailed database for waste generation, collection, treatment and disposal is needed for the City of Kitwe. The system is necessary for WM resources allocation as well as for planning sustainable WM projects. The proposed model has been developed based on the actual observations, data collection and analysis. Originality/value – The research identifies a gap in the management of MSWs for the City of Kitwe. This work is original as no similar MSW model has been proposed globally and specific for a developing economy such as Africa. Keywords Sustainability, Model, Engineering management, Municipal solid wastes Paper type Research paper

Introduction Changes in life styles coupled with rapid urbanisation and population growth in developing economies continue to increase the per capita municipal waste generation (Bari et al., 2012; Minghwa et al., 2009; Agdag, 2008; Suocheng et al., 2001). Evidence of such changes, specific to developing economies, is the illegally disposing of waste in streets and other spaces in cities and towns. Such evidence is an indication that authorities charged with waste management (WM) responsibilities are facing challenges of sustainably managing solid waste (SW). The government and local authorities of many large busy cities in developing economies are responsible for managing SW systems from the initial point of collection to the final processing point. With modernisation, most of these organisations, especially in developing economies, are facing challenges and failing to provide a comprehensive service (Grazhdani, 2016; Kassim and Ali, 2006). The yearly total worldwide SW production is approximately 1.7 billion tons, and by 2050, 27 billion tons is expected to be generated (Karak et al., 2012). Of the expected 27 billion tons of SW generation, 13 billion tons is predicted to be municipal solid wastes (MSWs) generated from world cities. Further, Hoornweg and Bhada-Tata (2012) indicate

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal © Emerald Publishing Limited 1477-7835 DOI 10.1108/MEQ-10-2017-0120

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that 2.2 billion tons of MSWs generation is anticipated by 2025. With this anticipated increase in MSW generation, additional challenges are likely to be faced unless a sustainable solution is found. In many cases, poor management of SW results in serious environmental and sanitary problems, i.e. leachate percolation that contaminates underground water, unpleasant odours as well as likely risks of landfill areas explosions (Mor et al., 2006). In many developing economies, serious health issues with both direct and indirect efface result from uncollected SW as a result of blocked drains that cause widespread flooding and waterborne disease spreading (Wilson et al., 2013; Hoornweg, 1999). In Zambia, sustainable management of MSWs is still at its infancy. Most of the cities are facing a number of challenges and the City of Kitwe is one of them. A number of challenges relating to none compliance to engineering and managerial practices specific to MSWs exist in the town. Uncollected MSWs, none-segregation of MSWs for recovery proposes, lack of sustainable systems for the recovery of MSWs and illegally disposed of MSWs are some of the challenges faced by the stakeholders in WM in Kitwe City. A statement published in the Daily News (2014) indicates that Zambia should develop a holistic and sustainable solid waste management (SWM) system for efficient waste disposal. According to the Zambia Institute of Environmental Management (2015), the piles of uncollected waste in the major cities of Zambia is evidence that the current system of WM has not succeeded in providing a clear roadmap for managing SW. The main objective of this paper is to assess the present MSW management scenarios with emphasis on, separation and collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of MSWs from the City of Kitwe to various destinations. The specific objectives are to: analyse the collection systems used and classify the MSWs generated; identify the challenges of MSWM existing in the city; examine the recycle/reuse options available; and design a sustainable MSWM model that incorporates factors that influence waste stakeholders to participate in waste recovery and management programmes. For better understanding of the above issues, the paper is structured as follows: The second section reviews literature on the topic. The third section presents the research methodology. The fourth section focusses on the results and discussion. The fifth section presents the proposed MSWM model, and the conclusion is in the sixth section. Literature review A number of studies have assessed the factors affecting MSWM. Table I presents the summary of the factors identified by previous authors. The studies in Table I identify the factors affecting MSWM without designing a sustainable model oriented towards integrating the factors that influence stakeholders to participate in WM programmes. In a study conducted by Saxena et al. (2010), a sustainable system is designed for the city of Allahabad. The designed system incorporates technological, economic and environmental attributes towards the management of MSWs. Factors that influence the community to participate in managing MSWs are not incorporated in the designed system. Mohsen and Aghezzaf (2015) propose an integrated framework for developing sustainable WM systems in developing economies. Shekdar (2009) proposes an integrated sustainable SWM framework for Asian countries. Studies that have focussed on sustainable management of SW include (Ibrahim and Mohammad, 2016; Fuss et al., 2018; Shekdar, 2009). These studies suggest solutions to sustainable management of SW but their focus is not MSWs. While a number of options for SWM are presented on the WM hierarchy, challenges are still faced in the management process. Waste prevention is one option presented on the WM hierarchy, and some studies suggest this as the way forward (Matete and Trois, 2008; Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009). While waste prevention is suggested in these studies, Bartl (2014) highlights that putting waste prevention on top of the WM hierarchy counteracts with the interests of the producers and the retailers.

Factors affecting the management MSWs

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Unskilled manpower Inadequate public enlightenment on proper disposal methods Economic constraints and political interference Lack of suitable and efficient collection methods for MSW Lack of sanitary landfills

Reference Sharma et al. (2012), Khalil and Khan (2009), Agdag (2008), Manaf et al. (2009), Minghwa et al. (2009), Mani and Singh (2016), Reinhart et al. (2016), Damghani et al. (2008) Sharma et al. (2012), Henry et al. (2006), Saxena et al. (2010), Damghani et al. (2008), Reinhart et al. (2016) Sharma et al. (2012), Henry et al. (2006), Saxena et al. (2010).

Municipal solid waste management

Hui et al. (2006), Henry et al. (2006), Saxena et al. (2010), Zia and Devadas (2007), Pattnaik and Reddy (2010), Reinhart et al. (2016) Hui et al. (2006), Zia and Devadas (2007), Pattnaik and Reddy (2010), Reinhart et al. (2016) Henry et al. (2006), Saxena et al. (2010), Hui et al. (2006), Reinhart et al. (2016) Zia and Devadas (2007), Pattnaik and Reddy (2010) Khalil and Khan (2009), Agdag (2008), Manaf et al. (2009)

Lack of environmental assessments when setting up disposal sites Lack of treatment/processing facilities Lack of waste segregation and none provision of storage facilities Unenforced legislations and regulations Mohsen and Aghezzaf (2015), Minghwa et al. (2009), Mani and Singh (2016), Arbulú et al. (2016), Gobbi et al. (2017) Lack of information on MSW generation Arbulú et al. (2016), Gobbi et al. (2017), Mohsen and Aghezzaf and composition (2015), Zia and Devadas (2007), Pattnaik and Reddy (2010), Khalil and Khan (2009), Agdag (2008), Manaf et al. (2009) Lack of scientific and engineering Khalil and Khan, (2009), Agdag (2008), Manaf et al. (2009), Reinhart methods for waste treatment et al. (2016) Lack of resource and energy recovery Reinhart et al. (2016), Arbulú et al. (2016), Gobbi et al. (2017)

The application of the factors that influence stakeholders in SWM model development is important because stakeholders’ influences are diverse. To this effect, a number of studies have focussed on the factors that influence stakeholders to participate in WM at community level (Zaman, 2013; Marshall and Farahbakhsh, 2013; Contreras et al., 2010; Wilson, 2007). Studies at the community level have found technological, economic, environmental concerns, legislations, market share and social factors to influence stakeholders (BIO Intelligence Service, 2013; Hopewell et al., 2009; Al-Salem et al., 2009; Agamuthu et al., 2009; Xevgenos et al., 2015). Studies at households’ level have focussed attention on the factors that influence households to participate in WM programmes (Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009; Sidique et al., 2009; Lee and Paik, 2011; Welfens et al., 2015; Xevgenos et al., 2015). Socioeconomic factors are found to influence households to participate in WM programmes (Gamba and Oskamp, 1994; Vicente and Reis, 2008; Owens et al., 2000; Afroz et al., 2017). Knowledge and awareness is identified as a critical factor that influences households’ participation (Omran et al., 2009; Xevgenos et al., 2015). Studies have also identified waste collection systems (Rodrigues et al., 2016; Zhang and Wen, 2014; Xevgenos et al., 2015); legislations and regulations (Sidique et al., 2010; Xevgenos et al., 2015) and economic incentives (Welfens et al., 2015; Yau, 2010; Agamuthu et al., 2009) as influencing factors at household level. These studies reveal that there is no one single factor for development in WM and a balance among the factors varies over time. Further, these studies only analyse the factors, SWM models which integrate the factors have not been developed. The scarcity of sustainable systems that integrate the factors that influence stakeholders to participate in managing SW (i.e. MSW) is regrettable because it is this sort of information and systems that, waste managers, manufacturing companies and waste generators require for them to support the notions of resource utilisation and management for sustainable development.

Table I. Factors affecting MSW management

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Methodology Qualitative data collection In this research, MSWs are defined as waste generated from different parts of a society for example; commercial institutions, public places, households, health and educational institutions etc., collected directly or not by the municipality (Williams, 2005). A qualitative approach is used to conduct the research as it provides the means to understand and explore meaning groups or people ascribe to human or social problems (Creswell, 2009). The study is conducted in three stages: (1) In Stage 1, published and unpublished work from the municipality is used to extract information on regulations and laws on MSWM in Zambia. A comprehensive and extensive, online literature review is conducted using the keywords in academic and non-academic journals to assess MSWM from an engineering management (EM) approach. This is conducted to enable the development of a sustainable MSWM model. (2) In Stage 2, structured interviews are conducted during the months of June and July 2016, with ten purposively selected Kitwe City SWM experts. The experts interviewed at the municipality and private waste companies are in-charge of the SWM departments. A total of five are interviewed from the municipality. Equally from the private sector, a total of five experts from different companies are interviewed. The interviews are conducted to enhance the data collected from literature reviewing. (3) Stage 3 is an observational study to independently observe the current situation regarding WM practices in Kitwe. These observations are conducted in selected urban areas and the city centre of Kitwe City for a period of four weeks. The researchers personally observed the type of waste receptacles used, the variety of waste receptacles, the disposal patterns and waste collections methods used. A site visit to Buchi dumpsite in Kitwe City is conducted and few scavengers are interviewed. A driver of a private MSW collection company is interviewed. The questions are directed towards obtaining data on: MSW collection, disposal status and treatment options as well as on the challenges; and ways to alleviate MSWM challenges. Structured interview guide The structured interviews are designed with a total of 30 questions and 7 sections. Table II shows a summary of the structured interview guide and its focus. Information on MSWM practices and system elements (generation, collection, segregation, treatment and disposal) is gathered. Further, the interview guide comprises of questions on the challenges of managing MSWs in Kitwe City and factors that influence waste generators to participate in WM programmes. Data analysis Using content analysis, data from the interviews are analysed. Themes and codes are formed for comparison with the data obtained. Content analysis is used to examine data that are collected for repeated occurrences. Themes include: WM practises, generation, collection, treatment and disposal. Further themes on MSW management challenges and factors that influence stakeholders to participate in WM programmes are formed. Further, data are obtained from the companies’ records and using graphs and tables; these data are presented. Data obtained from company records are on waste disposal, waste characterisation, waste collection and the amount of MSW generated per individual per day. The information obtained and analysed from the interviews is used to develop a sustainable MSWM model for Kitwe City.

No. Section

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I

Focus of interview

Initial information

Type of organisation Position of respondent II Waste management practises Existing legislations and regulations Policy framework III Waste generation and Amount generated per year composition Amount generated per individual per day MSW generation rates for previous years Sources of MSW generated in Kitwe City Composition of MSW Percentage composition of MSW Characterisation of sources of MSW IV Waste segregation and Existence of waste segregation collection Types of wastes segregated Reasons for segregation Types of waste collection systems Types and number of transportation vehicles Frequency of waste collection Amount of MSW collected per month V Waste treatment and disposal Existing engineering and scientific treatment options for MSW Types of wastes treated Amount of waste disposed Disposal methods used Engineering options of managing disposal sites VI MSW challenges Existing challenges of the waste management system elements of Kitwe City VII Factors to promotes Identify factors (levers) that can influence stakeholder participation in stakeholder involvement sustainable management of MSW in Kitwe City

Study area Kitwe is Zambia’s third largest city and was conferred city status in 1967. It is a mining city with rich copper ore deposits. It is bordered by Luanshya, Mufulira, Kalulushi, Lufwanyama and Ndola. It is situated at 12.82° South latitude, 28.2° East longitude and 1,213 metres elevation above the sea level. It covers an area of 777 km². The population of Kitwe is 522,092, and the annual growth rate approximated at 3.3 per cent (Central Statistics of Zambia, 2011). In the near future, the population is expected to grow more rapidly as a result of the city being a mining and trade centre (Kitwe City Council Strategic Plan for 2012-2016, 2012). The increase in the population of Kitwe City is attributed to vast economic activities. This contributes to the increase in the rate of MSW generation and the associated WM challenges faced by the local authorities. The evidence of such challenges is the illegally disposed of waste on the streets of Kitwe City and the lack of suitable disposal methods. According to the Environmental Council of Zambia (2010), most of the SW collected in Kitwe City is openly dumped and burnt without the implementation of proper disposal methods. The dumpsites on which waste is disposed lack proper environmental pollution control and monitoring. Such a situation in the management of MSWs requires a sustainable solution to tackle the challenges facing the authorities. Results and discussion Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) practices (policy framework) In Zambia, the management of MSW is governed by the Local Government Act Section 84. The regulations under this act are citied as the local government (SWM) regulations, 2011. These regulations are used to manage SW generated in, brought in from one area or through

Municipal solid waste management

Table II. Structured interview guide

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another area or with other waste managed together as SW (Republic of Zambia Government, 2011). The regulations bind all waste generators, transporters, recyclers and collectors of SW. The regulations stipulate the establishment of a Waste Management Unit (WMU) in every council that focusses on and coordinates activities relating to SWM within the area. The WMU operates in a cost neutral manner by generating enough money for payment on all required expenditures as well as providing an affordable and efficient waste collection and disposal system for the city. A statutory body known as the Environmental Council of Zambia exists to control and organise environmental management; ensure environmental protection through regulations enforcement; and awareness promotion, control and prevention of pollution to ensure sustainable development of good health as well as the welfare of people, animals and the Zambian environment. Despite the existence of this body, the WMU in the local council of Kitwe City faces a number of challenges of managing MSW. Documented practices on WM are rarely followed and these have compromised the state of the city and public health. According to the Auditor Report on SWM, waste disposed of at a local dumpsite in Kitwe City is burnt instead of being compacted, and open trucks and trailers are used to transport SW and this is contrary to the regulations. Waste composition and generation MSW generation has been significant despite the decline in the application of acceptable WM practises. The total estimated amount of MSW generated in Kitwe City in 2010 was 234,941.4 kg per day or 0.45 kg/day per person. Accordingly, in the year 2000, the population of Kitwe City was at 388,646 people and the total estimated amount of MSW was 62,960.65 tons per year while for the year 2010, the estimated amount of MSW generated was at 84,578.90 tons per year for a population of 522,092 people. In the last two decades, the amount of MSW generated has increased by 25.6 per cent. The composition of MSW in Kitwe City is mainly organic waste, plastics, papers, metals, glass and others. The composition of the MSW is shown in Figure 1. In Kitwe City, waste is mainly generated from residential, commercial, industrial and Chisokone market sources. These sources account for most of the recyclable and biodegradable waste. Residential waste consists mainly of garden waste, food waste, plastics and papers. Sweepings, plastics, paper, food and cardboard constitute commercial Plastics

Metals

Glass 9%

Other

Organic

Paper

13%

4% 4%

13%

Figure 1. MSW composition (%) for Kitwe City

57%

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waste while industrial waste consists of metal, paper, glass and plastic waste. Chisokone market is accounted for separately since it generates a huge amount of waste. Food waste, paper, sweepings, plastics, cardboards and pieces of cloth constitute waste generated at Chisokone market. Greater than 50 per cent of the MSWs generated in Kitwe City are organic waste. The information on the sources of MSWs generated in Kitwe City is presented in Table III.

Municipal solid waste management

Status on MSW segregation and collection The important aspects of WM such as collection, transport and disposal of MSWs are necessary for aesthetic and environmental causes as well as provision of good health (Minghwa et al., 2009). An effective SWM system encompasses waste segregation during the process of storage by waste generators. Segregation of MSW is not practiced in Kitwe City. It is a practice which has not been promoted by the municipality and the other private waste collectors. However, waste receptacles are provided by some private waste collectors but no waste segregation is encouraged. Further, no legislation exists on waste segregation in Zambia and this has contributed to lack of SW segregation. Various types of vehicles are used for collecting SW and the type of vehicle depends on the width of the road and the type of collection bin (Chiplunkar et al., 1981). In Kitwe City, the collection of SW is performed without much regard given to the type of truck and the width of the roads. Approximately 30 per cent of waste generated is collected and disposed of at Buchi dumpsite in Kitwe City. The municipality and the private waste collectors manage waste collections. The municipality collect MSWs from non-residential areas through street sweeping and from dustbins and skips placed at strategic points in the city centre. Residential areas are managed by the private waste collectors. The municipality collect MSWs from the central business areas, markets, the main bus stations and from areas where waste has been illegally disposed of. Municipality women sanitary sweep the roads and collect the waste. The collected waste is transferred to the collection point using handcarts in readiness for disposal. Trucks, tractors and compactors are used in the transportation of the waste. A total of two skip loaders, one compactor, two front loaders and five tipper trucks are used in transporting waste by the municipality. The vehicles are covered with tents in order to prevent waste from falling off the vehicles. A total of 11 private waste collecting companies exist in Kitwe City. These companies collect SW from urban and peri-urban areas where the road network is not bad. Kerbside waste collection method is used to collect waste from waste generators at a fee. The fact that waste collection and transportation is a significant cost in the arena of WM, most collection points (i.e. households) are visited once a week at scheduled times. Commercial

Category Type of waste

Source/waste generator

I II

Residential Commercial

III IV V VI

Food waste, paper, glass, tin cans, garden waste, other wastes Food waste, plastic, glass, tin cans, paper, demolition and construction waste, other wastes Food waste, demolition and construction waste, glass, tin cans, paper, plastics, other wastes Pharmaceutical, biological, surgical, biological, pharmaceutical, food wastes, garden waste, paper, plastics, tin cans, ash, glass, other wastes Demolition and construction waste, hazardous, glass, plastic, paper, tin cans, metal, ash, rubber, other wastes Dead animals, roadside litter, street sweeping

Institutional Hospital Industrial Streets CBD

Table III. Sources of MSW in Kitwe City

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and industrial SW is either collected by the private waste collectors or the generators themselves. However, some commercial and industrial SW generators burn their waste without environmental and pollution control mechanisms. Of the waste generated in Kitwe City, 10 per cent is collected for disposal by the private waste collectors. Despite the existence of regulations and legislations on SWM from the point of generation to the point of disposal, some households and business premises still resort to practising unsustainable methods of disposing of their waste such as burning and burying. Others throw their waste in unhygienic ways outside their shops and houses. The existence of the informal waste collectors’ (IWCs) aids in collecting some of these wastes. The IWCs scavenge for valuable SW such as metals, papers, plastics and glass.

Figure 2. MSW disposed by the private waste companies in Kitwe

MSW Disposed Quantity (tons)

Status of the existing MSW treatment and disposal system It is absolutely necessary to composite and characterise MSW for the purpose of implementing suitable management and disposal plans and practices for energy and resource recovery before appropriate methods of disposal are considered (Nilanthi et al., 2007; Yousuf and Rahman, 2007). In this study, it is found that no waste characterisation is performed by both the municipality and the private waste collectors. The waste collectors have no system to characterise the amount of waste generated and collected for disposal. Kitwe City has no material recovery facilities (MRFs), and this has made it difficult to account for waste that is recovered, reused and recycled. In a research conducted by Kazimbaya-Senkwe and Mwale (2001), 35 per cent of industrial waste is disposed of at the dumpsites by the companies, while 21 per cent use pits, 19 per cent incinerate and 17 per cent give their waste to other companies for reuse or recycling. The inspection and monitoring of the existing dumpsites in Kitwe City is not consistent. Sanitary practises such as fencing or daily application of soil is not practised at any of the dumpsites. Open burning is a common practice at the dumpsites and is mainly practised to free some space for additional waste disposal without taking into account the dioxins produced. The dumpsites in Kitwe City do not have liners for preventing ground water pollution. In the poor suburban areas and the outskirts of the city, illegal disposal of MSWs at the roadsides, road serves and riversides is often practiced. Figure 2 shows the amount of MSW disposed of at a dumpsite in Kitwe City by private waste companies. The figure accounts for 10 per cent of the MSWs collected for disposal by the private waste collectors. Further, the amount of MSWs disposed of in 2017 is twice the amount that was disposed of in 2000.

45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0

Year MSW Disposed

1

2

3

4

5

6

2012

2013 25,201

2014 19,297

2015 27,814

2016 24,991

2017

20,000

41,229

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MSW substance flow In this study, the current flow of SW lacks an engineering and scientific approach. Figure 3 depicts the scenario of the flow of SW in Kitwe City. From the points of generation, SW is either collected by the municipality, private waste collectors or the IWCs. In cases where the IWCs (rag pickers) reclaim valuable waste, it is sold for reuse or recycling purposes. Considering an EM approach, the municipality and the private waste collectors have not engaged sustainable options of treating these wastes. According to Khalil (2014), EM applies scientific disciplines when implementing and designing systems and processes while considering engineering relationships among management tasks and the human element in marketing, production, research and other services. The current MSWM system does not utilise systematic EM concepts when managing waste. Sustainable options of managing waste such as waste segregation are not practiced by the waste stakeholders. The system of waste collection does not take into account waste quantities and composition. Area characteristics and application of the latest technologies such as geographic information systems in order to maintain databases for waste generated, collected and disposed does not exist. Further, waste prevention, resource recovery, societal context, economic and environmental aspects have not been considered in the current system of managing MSW. The only option of WM is collection from the source with or without provision of waste receptacle and final disposal of the waste without any form of waste treatment by the waste collectors.

Municipal solid waste management

MSWM challenges Engineered solutions The MSWM system of Kitwe City lacks engineering solutions to manage MSWs. Recycling, energy recovery and composting are not conducted by the municipality and private waste collectors. MSWs are collected and disposed of at a dumpsite. The existing dumpsite is not an engineered landfill. Further, the municipalities and the private waste collectors lack assessment tools for evaluating potentially sustainable solutions (life cycle assessment), lack of volume reduction of unrecoverable waste, lack of advanced waste collection vehicles and lack of appropriate leachate treatment techniques. Similar challenges of managing MSWs are identified in these studies (Saxena et al., 2010; Manaf et al., 2009; Reinhart et al., 2016). Public education The management of MSWs is not entirely a technical approach. Educating the public on the benefits of WM and resource recovery is important. Education works in motivating public Industrial/Commercial Waste

Private Waste Collectors

Sell for Reuse/Recycling

Construction Waste

Rag Pickers Residential Waste

City Centre/Main Markets/illegally disposed of Waste

Hospital Waste

Dump-site

KCC

Incineration

Figure 3. Solid waste flow in Kitwe

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participation in WM programmes. Sidique et al. (2010) suggests that education has a positive effect on the rate of recycling. Educating the public on recycling improves recycling rates. In Kitwe City, there is a lack of education on WM issues and studies by Damghani et al. (2008) and Reinhart et al. (2016) identify similar challenges. The public are not informed and educated on the key benefits of managing their waste. This has resulted in poor public perceptions towards WM issues. Legislation and regulations Existing legislations and regulations on WM are not effectively enforced by the responsible bodies. MSW is illegally disposed of on the streets. The current dumpsite operates without proper environmental and engineering certification. Unsustainable methods of managing MSWs such as burning and burying are practised by the industries and the community without prosecution. Ineffective enforcement of legislations and regulations is a major challenge facing the cities (Arbulú et al., 2016; Mohsen and Aghezzaf, 2015; Minghwa et al., 2009). Waste collection and transportation In the City of Kitwe, waste collection and transportation are a challenge faced by the municipalities and the private waste collectors (Arbulú et al., 2016; Khalil and Khan, 2009; Agdag, 2008; Manaf et al., 2009). A number of vehicles operate without proper maintenance services, and this affects the transportation of waste from the point of generation to the final disposal point. Further, the existing transportation capacity is not able to cater for the growing population. In most urban areas of Kitwe City, waste collection is conducted once a week by the private waste collectors. Factors influencing stakeholders participation The municipality and the private waste collectors pointed out a number of factors that influence stakeholders to participate in WM programmes. Economic incentives motivate stakeholders to respond positively to WM programmes. Yau (2010) affirms that economic incentives promote recycling, and Welfens et al. (2015) suggest that, sustainable behaviours are initiated by economic incentives. The municipality and the private waste collectors indicated that economic values attached to wastes has promoted informal recoveries and recycling. Knowledge and awareness on WM issues is a critical factor that influences stakeholders’ participation. Singhirunnusorn et al. (2012) point out that the provision of information and rising awareness on environmental issues is critical for successful community WM programmes. The municipality affirmed that awareness and knowledge on WM is a critical factor for influencing stakeholder participation. However, the existing MSW scenario in Kitwe city has not focussed on awareness and knowledge on WM. Legislations and regulations are important factors that influence stakeholders’ participation in WM programmes (Xevgenos et al., 2015). The private waste collectors and municipality indicated that, the legislations and regulations are not effectively enforced, and this has contributed to the current state of MSWM. The municipality and the private waste collectors affirmed that, legislations and regulations work in influencing stakeholders to participate in WM programmes but effective enforcement is required. The service providers indicated that waste collection and recycling facilities are important factors for influencing participation in WM programmes. The current waste collection systems in Kitwe City are not in a state to influence stakeholder participation in WM programmes as indicated by the service providers. However, a number of studies have affirmed that waste collection systems influence households to participate in WM programmes (Sidique et al., 2010; Xevgenos et al., 2015). The service providers indicated that effective waste collection systems and MRFs influence stakeholders’ participation.

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A number of studies have indicated that socioeconomic factors (age, gender, education and income levels) influence stakeholder participation in WM programmes (Vicente and Reis, 2008; Owens et al., 2000; Afroz et al., 2017). From the service providers’ perspective, socioeconomic factors of income and education levels can influence stakeholders to participate in WM programmes in Kitwe City. The municipality and private waste collectors indicated that technological advances in terms of recycling and sorting machinery influence manufacturing and recycling companies to participate in recovery programmes. BIO Intelligence Service (2013) affirms that technological advancements in developed economies, has contributed to improved WM. Economic factors such as reduced taxation on imported recycling machinery is indicated by the waste service providers as a way forward to influence company participation in recycling programmes. Societal participation, enforcement of legislations and increased environmental campaigns are indicated by the waste service providers as factors that contribute to recovery and recycling programmes. Other than technological, economic, social, environmental concerns and legislations, the service providers indicated that an improved market share for recoverable and recyclable products influences waste convertors and waste pickers to recovery more. The above-mentioned factors are supported in literature by a number of studies (Bio Intelligence Service, 2013; Hopewell et al., 2009; Al-Salem et al., 2009; Agamuthu et al., 2009; Xevgenos et al., 2015).

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Proposed sustainable MSWM model MSWM challenges in developing economies can be solved. However, several strategies need to be developed and effectively implemented from all sectors of the society. An all-inclusive approach is important since SWM is everyone’s responsibility. In this paper, an integrated MSWM model is proposed for the City of Kitwe as shown in Figure 4. Integrated Waste Collectors

Levers on Waste Generators

Waste Buyers

Private Waste Collectors

Reuse, Recycler, Energy Recovery, Composting

Demographic Factors MSW Generation Points

Segregated MSW

Municipality Technological

Knowledge and Awareness Informal Waste Collectors

Economic Incentives

Economic and Market Share

Social Concerns Waste Collection Systems

Legislations and Waste Policies

None Segregated MSW

Environmental Concerns

Legislations and Laws

Levers on Waste Buyers

Figure 4. Proposed sustainable municipal solid waste management model

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components for achieving sustainable WM are depicted in the model. The model focusses on integrating the key factors that influence stakeholders to participate in WM programmes as identified from the assessment. In this model, the factors that influence stakeholders to participate in WM programmes are referred to as “levers”. For the proposed MSWs management model, the inputs and outputs are shown. The inputs for the model are the MSWs as defined by Williams (2005). The focus of the model is to collect segregated MSWs from the waste generators. However, in growing urban cities, it is inevitable to find unsegregated MSWs. Unsegregated wastes are sorted by the IWCs and formal waste collectors using appropriate sorting methods. Recoverable wastes such as plastics, metals, papers, and organic are separated for reusing, recycling, composting and energy recovery purposes. The outputs for the model include compost, recyclable/reusable products and energy but downside outputs are unavoidable. In order for the inputs and outputs of the model to be managed sustainably, the model integrates the levers that influence stakeholders to participate in WM programmes. These levers are integrated in the model to enhance sustainable management of MSWs. The important levers integrated in the model focus on waste generators, waste segregation and waste buyers. Levers for waste generators In order to achieve sustainable management of MSW, a number of options should be tabled out by the service providers. The minimisation of legally and illegally disposed of waste requires the adoption of the 3Rs concept. However, in order to achieve the 3Rs concept, an understanding of the levers that influence waste generators to reduce, reuse and recycle wastes is important. The designed model has proposed an adoption and understanding of the levers such as demographic factors, knowledge and awareness, waste collection systems, economic incentives, legislations and waste policies. The service providers have pointed out that demographic factors of age, gender, education, income and household size influence WM programmes. This has been confirmed by a number of studies (Lee and Paik, 2011; Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009; Sidique et al., 2009). Therefore, when designing WM programmes for managing waste, the service providers should assess socioeconomic factors in the urban areas. This can be facilitated by engaging in research initiatives. Awareness and knowledge on the options for recovering and managing waste is important for waste generators, and it is the responsibility of the waste managers to avail such information. Therefore, the model depicts awareness and knowledge as a lever that should be considered in WM programmes. Waste collection systems and economic incentives work in influencing waste generators to participate in waste recovery and management programmes (Xevgenos et al., 2015; Welfens et al., 2015). This implies that understanding the different types of waste collection systems as well as understanding the types preferred by the waste generators can work in influencing them to recover and manage waste sustainably. Nevertheless, waste generators are also influenced by economic incentives, such as money and consideration of this lever in recovery programmes, is necessary. Legislations and waste policies work in influencing waste generators at household the level as well as at the community level (Xevgenos et al., 2015). Therefore, this lever has been depicted in the model for adoption. The local authorities should consider formulating new waste policies and legislations that can work in ensuring sustainable recovery of waste. Understanding the depicted levers in the model and applying them to different areas of the city can result in sustainable management as well as recovery of waste. However, different levers can work in different areas of the city. This implies that preliminary research should be conducted before the commencement of the recovery programmes.

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Waste segregation Wastes that are used in the production of other products are unsustainably managed in the City of Kitwe. Unsustainable options of managing wastes such as burning, burying or illegal disposes should not be considered. Options such as recycling, reusing, remanufacturing, composting or energy recovery should be considered. However, these options can be successfully implemented through source waste segregation. The purposes for implementing source segregation should be clearly indicated to the stakeholders through awareness programmes. Nevertheless, source segregation can be enforced through the provision of incentives and national-wide legalisation. The designed MSWM model depicts waste segregation. However, the recovery of unsegregated wastes is inevitable. Therefore, it is also depicted in the model. The model depicts that, both segregated and unsegregated wastes should be sustainably managed in the City of Kitwe. A study by Kazimbaya-Senkwe and Mwale (2001) reveals that most of the waste collected from Chisokone market is organic. Therefore, segregating this waste type from other wastes can result in sustainable composting projects in Kitwe City. Industries that manufacture paper, plastic, glass and metal can benefit from waste recovery programmes. Majority of waste recovery programmes are conducted by the IWCs in Kitwe City. Kazimbaya-Senkwe and Mwale (2001) confirms that, 38-41 per cent of the waste recoveries are performed by the IWCs. This implies that the effective implementation of source segregation will increase IWC recoveries. Levers on waste buyers The recovery of wastes from the waste generators is unsustainable with none-existence of the levers that influence the waste buyers to participate in recovery programmes. For this reason, the designed model incorporates levers that influence waste buyers to participate in the recovery programmes. Market share, technological capacity, legislations, environmental and social concerns are depicted in the model. The sustainable MSWM model is designed with an all-inclusive approach. This approach outlines the importance of implementing waste recovery programmes to waste generators, managers and convertors. However, the following levers are critical to the waste convertors. Technological levers include improvement in sorting techniques and size reduction technologies; improvement in recycling technology and infrastructure; and designing of products for recyclability or re-manufacturability. Social levers include using incentives to motivate waste recovery at household levels; efficiency of the municipality; incorporation of the IWCs into formalised systems; and introduction of waste segregation programmes and consumer awareness on waste recovery. Economic levers include lowering of energy required during recycling; and lowering waste recovery logistic costs and having comparable recycling and disposal costs. Market-share levers include development of end markets for recycle-streams; and closer engagement of stakeholders with one another along the supply-chain and development of market systems relying on recovered material. Finally, legislations and environmental concerns levers include enforcement of extended producer responsibility; enforcement of national-wide laws on waste recycling; source waste segregation; and creation of quality standards and certification schemes for waste convertors. Understanding and implementing these levers in waste converting industries increases waste recovery rates. However, the effective implementation of the above-stated levers requires government involvement. Conclusions In developing economies, local authorities and private waste companies encounter several challenges in managing MSWs. In order to solve MSWs challenges, specific solutions tailored to the context of application should be designed.

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The study analyses the waste collection systems used in Kitwe City. Kerbside waste collection system is the most prominent system used by the municipality and private waste collectors. The types of waste generated in Kitwe City are classified into residential, commercial, industrial, institutional and market wastes. Organic waste constitutes 57 per cent of MSWs, followed by plastic wastes (13 per cent). A number of MSWM challenges are identified in Kitwe City: lack of engineering solutions; lack of education on WM and environmental issues; lack of effective waste collection systems and MRFs; and ineffectively enforced legislations and regulations on WM. A number of recoverable wastes such as plastics, metals, paper, glass and organic constitute the MSWs of Kitwe City. However, the municipality and private waste collectors have not implemented WM aspects such as recycling, composting and energy recovery in their organisations. The private waste collectors and waste pickers recover plastics, metals, papers and glass for sell to waste converting companies. A levers-driven MSWM model is designed for the City of Kitwe. The designed MSWM model is not only applicable to the City of Kitwe but also to cities influenced with similar levers. The levers and options suggested for managing MSWs in this study work in helping waste managers as well as industries develop strategies for recovering and managing wastes. Further, the study has provided a platform for waste managers to understand the relevance of the waste generators and the levers in the recovery processes for waste. References Afroz, R., Rahman, A., Masud, M.M. and Akhtar, R. (2017), “The knowledge, awareness, attitude and motivational analysis of plastic waste and household perspective in Malaysia”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 24, pp. 2304-2315. Agamuthu, P., Khidzir, M.K. and Hamid, S.F. (2009), “Drivers of sustainable waste management in Asia”, Waste Management & Research, pp. 1-9. Agdag, O.N. (2008), “Comparison of old and new municipal solid waste management systems in Denizli, Turkey”, Waste Management, Vol. 29, pp. 456-464. Al-Salem, S.A., Lettieri, P. and Baeyens, J. (2009), “Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): a review”, Waste Management, Vol. 29, pp. 2625-2643. Arbulú, I., Lozano, J. and Rey-Maquieira, J. (2016), “The challenges of municipal solid waste management systems provided by public-private partnerships in mature tourist destinations: the case of Mallorca”, Waste Management, Vol. 51, pp. 252-258. Bari, Q.H., Hassen, K.M. and Haque, M.E. (2012), “Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh”, Waste Management, Vol. 32, pp. 2029-2036. Bartl, A. (2014), “Ways and entanglements of the waste hierarchy”, Waste Management, Vol. 34, pp. 1-2. BIO Intelligence Service (2013), “Study on an increased mechanical recycling target for plastics”, final report prepared for Plastic Recyclers Europe, BIO Intelligence Service. Central Statistics of Zambia (2011), “2010 Census of Population and Housing”, available at: www. zamstats.gov.zm/report/Census/2010/National/2010%20Census%20of%20Population%20 Summary%20Report.pdf (accessed 20 October 2016). Chiplunkar, A.V., Mehndiratta, S.L. and Khanna, P. (1981), “Optimization of refuse collection systems”, Journal of Environmental Engineering Division ASCE, Vol. 107 No. EE6, pp. 1203-1211. Contreras, F., Ishil, S. and Aramaki, T. (2010), “Drivers in current and future municipal solid waste management systems: cases in Yokohama and Boston”, Waste Management and Research, Vol. 28, pp. 76-93. Creswell, J.W. (2009), Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches, SAGE Publications. Daily News (2014), “Dumped garbage in the central business district in Lusaka”, 3 October, p.4.

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Vicente, P. and Reis, E. (2008), “Factors influencing households’ participation in recycling”, Waste Management & Research, Vol. 26, pp. 140-146. Welfens, M.L., Nordmann, J. and Seibt, A. (2015), “Drivers and barriers to return and recycling of mobile phones: case studies of communication and collection campaigns”, Journal of Cleaner Production, pp. 1-14. Williams, P.T. (2005), Waste Treatment and Disposal, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex. Wilson, D.C. (2007), “Development drivers for waste management”, Waste Management Resources, Vol. 25, pp. 198-207. Wilson, D.C., Velis, C.A. and Rodic, L. (2013), “Integrated sustainable waste management in developing countries”, Proceeding of the Institution of Civil Engineers Waste Resources Management, Vol. 166 No. WR2, pp. 52-68. Xevgenos, D., Papadaskalopoulou, C., Panaretou, V., Moustakas, K. and Malami, D. (2015), “Success stories for recycling of MSW at municipal level”, Waste and Biomass Valorization, Vol. 6, pp. 657-684. Yau, Y. (2010), “Domestic waste recycling, collective action and economic incentive: the case in Hong Kong”, Waste Management, Vol. 30, pp. 2440-2447. Yousuf, T.B. and Rahman, M. (2007), “Monitoring quantity and characteristics of municipal solid waste in Dhaka City”, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 135, pp. 3-11. Zaman, U.A. (2013), “Identification of waste management development drivers and potential emerging waste treatment technologies”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 10, pp. 455-464. Zambia Institute of Environmental Management (2015), “Report of the auditor general on solid waste management in Zambia”, available at: www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/ nationalwaste_management_strategy.pdf (accessed 17 January 2017). Zhang, H. and Wen, Z.G. (2014), “The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China”, Waste Management, Vol. 34, pp. 987-998. Zia, H. and Devadas, V. (2007), “Municipal solid waste management in Kanpur, India: obstacles and prospects”, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 89-108. About the authors Bupe Getrude Mwanza is PhD Candidate with the School of Engineering Management at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. She is a BSc holder in Production Management from The Copperbelt University and MEng in Manufacturing Systems and Operations Management from the National University of Science and Technology. She has research interests in solid waste management, manufacturing technologies, maintenance management, cleaner production and operations management. She has published and presented works on Maintenance Management and Solid Waste Management. She is a Member of the Engineering Institute of Zambia (EIZ), The Southern Africa Institute for Industrial Engineers (SAIIE) and the Zambia Network for Environmental Educators and Practitioners (ZANEEP). Bupe Getrude Mwanza is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: [email protected] Professor Charles Mbohwa is Vice Dean of Postgraduate Studies, Research and Innovation, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. As an

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established Researcher and Professor in Sustainability Engineering, his specialisations include renewable energy systems, bio-fuel feasibility and sustainability, life cycle assessment and healthcare operations management. He has presented at numerous conferences and published more than 150 papers in peer-reviewed journals and conferences, six book chapters and one book. He holds an MSc degree in Operations Management and Manufacturing Systems from the University of Nottingham, UK, and completed his doctoral studies at Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Japan. Professor Arnesh Telukdarie is Senior Academic at the University of Johannesburg. He holds a DEng and is a registered Professional Engineer. He has over 20 years of industrial experience in Manufacturing Systems and Business Optimisation Systems. He has many international peer-reviewed journal publications and conference proceedings. He is a Consulting Engineer in Engineering Management, Business Optimisation and Systems.

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