Neuroanatomy 21 March - KTH

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Page 1. Neuroanatomy. KTH Neuroscience @ KI 2011. Lennart Brodin. Department of Neuroscience. Page 2. brain spinal cord cranial nerves spinal nerves ...

Neuroanatomy KTH Neuroscience @ KI 2011

Lennart Brodin Department of Neuroscience

brain spinal cord

cranial nerves spinal nerves

The components of the CNS

Telencephalon Diencephalon Brainstem Cerebellum

Spinal cord

Telencephalon

Cerebral Cortex

Cerebellum Brainstem

Telencephalon:

Hemispheres

Cerebral Cortex

Telencephalon

Brainstem

Spinal cord

Cerebellum

Sectioning the brain - nomenclature

Coronal section Grey matter: cell bodies of neurons

White matter: nerve tracts, Myelin gives the white color

Sagittal section

Diencephalon

Corpus callosum: Connects the hemispheres

Telencephalon

Thalamus Cerebellum

Hypothalamus Brainstem

Spinal cord

From CNS Visual Perspectives: www.3d-brain.ki.se

Diencephalon

Telencephalon

Thalamus Hypothalamus

Cerebellum Hjärnstammen

Ryggmärgen

© Anna Josephsson

The Cerebral Cortex

The Cerebral Cortex Sulcus Gyrus

Grey matter

White matter

Sulcus centralis Gyrus precentralis: Motor functions

Gyrus postcentralis: Sensory functions

The Cerebral Cortex – Division into Functional Areas Association areas

sensory

motor

Primary areas

hearing vision

Cerebral cortex, division into hemispheres

Left

Right

The Cerebral Cortex – Division into Lobes Frontal lobe

Sulcus centralis

The Cerebral Cortex – Division into Lobes Frontal lobe

Sulcus centralis

Temporal lobe

The Cerebral Cortex – Division into Lobes Frontal lobe

Sulcus centralis

Parietal lobe

Temporal lobe

The Cerebral Cortex – Division into Lobes Frontal lobe

Sulcus centralis

Parietal lobe

Occipital lobe Temporal lobe

The Cerebral Cortex – Division into Lobes Frontal lobe Parietal lobe

Occipital lobe

Temporal lobe

Localization of functions to lobes Hjässlob

Nacklob Tinninglob

The Frontal lobe

1848: The famous case of the railway worker Phineas Gage gave the first insigths into the functions of the frontal lobe

The Frontal lobe

The Frontal lobe Personality Social competence Motivation

Temporallob The temporal lobe

recognition

Activation of the temporal lobe during recognition of a known face

fMRI signal indicates increased activity

The parietal lobe attention

Temporallob

Damage of the right parietal lobe

Damage of the right parietal lobe

The occipital lobe Temporallob

Receives and processes visual information

Language: specific regions in the frontal and temporal lobes

Language: specific regions in the frontal and temporal lobes

Wernickes area: language perception Damage results in sensory aphasia Broca´s area: language expression Damage results in motor aphasia

Deep brain structures: subcortical nuclei

Subcortikal nuclei Telencephalon: The basal ganglia Nucleus caudatus Putamen Striatum Globus pallidus

The Basal Ganglia

Nucleus caudatus

Putamen

The Basal Ganglia coronal section Nucleus caudatus

Putamen

The Basal Ganglia coronal section

nucleus caudatus

putamen

globus pallidus

The Basal Ganglia coronal section

The Basal Ganglia horisontal section Putamen

Nucleus caudatus Globus pallidus

Subcortikal nuclei Telencephalon: The basal ganglia Nucleus caudatus Putamen Striatum Globus pallidus

Motor control Cognition Emotions

Diencephalon horisontal section

Thalamus

Diencephalon Thalamus

Nucleus caudatus

Putamen

Diencephalon Diencephalon coronalsnitt

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

From CNS Visual Perspectives: www.3d-brain.ki.se

Thalamus Hypothalamus

© Anna Josephsson

Diencephalon

Thalamus:

the brains “switch board”: relays sensory input to the cerebral cortex

Thalamus relays sensory input to the cerebral cortex

cortex

thalamus

nerve fiber from the skin

Diencephalon

Hypothalamus Homeostasis: Body temperature Hunger-satiety Thirst Emotions

Diencephalon

Hypothalamus Homeostasis: Body temperature Hunger-satiety Thirst Emotions The pituitary gland: controls different hormonal glands (adrenals, thyroid gland)

The anatomy of emotions

The Limbic System

The anatomy of emotions The “old” view of the limbic system

The anatomy of emotions The “modern” view of the limbic system: Anterior part: emotions; Posterior part: memory

Amygdala

The anatomy of emotions The “modern” view of the limbic system: Anterior part: emotions; Posterior part: memory

The Anatomy of Memory

Different Forms of Memory

Declarative memory

Non-declarative memory

Memories that can be described in words

Can not be described (e.g how to ride a bicycle)

Brain structures participating in declarative memory: The posterior part of the limbic system

Hippocampus

Brain structures participating in declarative memory: The posterior part of the limbic system

Hippocampus seen from below (parts of the temporal lobes removed)

Anatomical Substrates of Different Forms of Memory

Declarative memory

Hippocampus Fornix Corpus mammilare

Non-declarative memory

Basal ganglia Cerebellum Cerebral cortex

The Brainstem

The Brainstem

Mesencephalon

Pons Medulla oblongata

Cranial nerves emerging from the brainstem mediate sensory and motor functions in the head

(I. N. Olfactorii) (II. N. Opticus) III. N.Oculomotorius IV. N.Trochlearis V. N.Trigeminus VI. N. Abducens VII. N. Facialis VIII. N.Vestibulocochlearis IX. N. Glosso -pharyngeus X. N. Vagus XI. N. Accesorius XII. N. Hypoglossus

The Reticular Formation

Ascending part: Conciousness

Descending part: Motor functions

The Brainstem - Summary Cranial nerves: sensory and motor functions in the head incl eye movements, hearing, balance, inner organs Reticular Formation:

consciousness, motor functions

Dopamine systems:

motivation, reward, motor functions

Serotonin systems:

mood, emotions, hunger-satiety, motor functions

Other functions:

breathing, swalloving

Cerebellum

Cerebellum: connected to pons via the peduncles

Peduncle

Pons

Medulla oblongata

Peduncle

Fine-tuning of motor functions Motor learning Cognition

Cerebellum

The Spinal Cord

The Spinal Cord

Grey matter

cervical White matter thoracic

Dorsal horn - sensory lumbar sacral

Ventral horn - motor

The Spinal Cord

sensory nerves motor nerves

The meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain

The Meninges Dura mater

Arachnoidea mater

The Meninges

Dura mater

Pia mater

The Meninges

Scull bone

Dura mater Arachnoidea Subarachnoidal space (cerebrospinal fliud)

Hjärnan Pia mater

The Meninges

Subarachnoidal space (cerebrospinal fluid)

Ventricles

The Ventricular System right lateral ventricle

left lateral ventricle

Choroid plexus 3rd ventricle

4th ventricle

The Ventricular System The lateral ventricles - horisontal section

From CNS Visual Perspectives: www.3d-brain.ki.se

© Anna Josephsson

Circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid

Reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid into the blood Extensions (villi) of the arachnoidea extends into large veins

Blood Supply

Main arteries supplying oxygenated blood

A. vertebralis A. carotis interna

Aorta

A.carotis interna

Circulus Willisi

A.basilaris

A. vertebralis