## Nonparametric regression estimation by Bernstein ...

In the paper a new nonparametric estimator (based on Bernstein-Durrmeyer ... Keywords: Nonparametric regression, Bernstein-Durrmeyer polynomials, space-.

Paper published in: Tatra Mountains Mathematical Publications. 1999 vol. 17, pp 227-239

Nonparametric regression estimation by Bernstein-Durrmeyer polynomials Ewaryst Rafajlowicz and Ewa Skubalska-Rafajlowicz Abstract In the paper a new nonparametric estimator (based on Bernstein-Durrmeyer polynomials) of a regression function is proposed. The estimator is able to attain the the best possible convergence rate in the MISE sense without any additional corrections of boundary eﬀects. The extension to the multivariate case (using space-filling curves) is also discussed. Simulations indicate that the estimator is not too sensitive to an incorrect choice of the polynomial degree, which is the smoothing parameter.

Classification Primary: 62G05 Keywords: Nonparametric regression, Bernstein-Durrmeyer polynomials, spacefilling curves 1. Introduction and problem statement Consider the problem of nonparametric estimation of a function f : X = [0, 1] → R in the fixed design case (see ,  for extensive bibliographies). Observations yi , i = 1, 2, . . . , n are of the form: yi = f (xi ) + ϵi , i = 1, 2, . . . , n,

(1)

where ϵi , i = 1, 2, . . . , n are zero mean, uncorrelated random variables with finite variances σi2 ≤ σ 2 < ∞, i = 1, 2, . . . , n. Observations are taken at prescribed design points xi , i = 1, 2, . . . , n, (xn = 1), which depend on n but we supress this in the notation. Only certain general requirements on f , e.g. continuity, are imposed. Consider the following estimator of f fˆn (x) =

n ∑

∫ yi ·

RN (x, y) dy,

def

def

(2)

Xi

i=1 def

where Xi = [κi−1 , κi ), κo = 0, κn = 1 are chosen in such a way that xi ∈ Xi and ∪ni=1 Xi = X, Xi ∩ Xj = ∅, i ̸= j, while RN is defined by RN (x, y) = (N + 1) ·

N ∑

(N )

Bk

(N )

(x)Bk

(y).

(3)

k=0

( ) (N ) In (3) Bk (x) = Nk xk (1 − x)N −k , k = 0, 1, . . . , N is k-th Bernstein polynomial. Estimator (2) is based on a modification of Bernstein polynomials proposed by Durrmeyer , and investigated in , , among others. 0 Institute of Engineering Cybernetics, Wroclaw University of Technology Wybrze˙ ze Wyspia´ nskiego 27 Wroclaw, Poland. e-mail: [email protected]

1

Remark 1 To motivate (2) and to explain the diﬀerence between the Bernstein and the Bernstein-Durrmeyer operators, consider the following operators acting on a function f ( ) N ∑ k (N ) f · Bk (x) (4) N +1 k=0

and

N ∫ ∑ k=0

1 0

∫ (N )

f (t)Bk

(N )

(t)dt · Bk

1

(x) =

f (t)RN (t, x)dt.

(5)

0

The first one is the classical Bernstein polynomial, which approximates a given function f , continuous in [0, 1]. The second one is the Bernstein-Durrmeyer operator, which is defined for f ∈ L2 [0, 1]. The diﬀerence between them is in the way of forming coeﬃcients of a Bernstein polynomial for a given function f . It is visible that (2) can be interpreted as an empirical form of (5), where the integration with unknown f is replaced by its piecewise constant approximation based on observations yi , i = 1, 2, . . . n. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 conditions for mean integrated square error (MISE) consistency of fˆn and its convergence rate are investigated. Then, we discuss the multivariate case. Finally, the results of simulations are briefly reported. Motivations behind adding one more nonparametric estimator of regression are the following 1) fˆn is intermediate between kernel smoothers and methods based on orthogonal expansions. 2) Shape preseving properties of Bernstein- Durrmeyer polynomials are visible when observations are corrupted by random noise (see Fig. 2). 3) fˆn is robust with respect to an imprecise choice of the smoothing parameter N (see Fig. 3), what allows to recommend this approach to nonexpert users. 4) The approach proposed here allows to construct other estimators with similar features, using, e.g., Szasz-Mirakyan operators. Remark 2 For f ∈ C[0, ∞) the Szasz-Mirakyan operator is defined by ∞ ∑

f (k/n)pk (nx),

pk (t) = e−t tk /k!, k = 0, 1, . . . def

(6)

k=0

while in its modified version the sum in (6) is truncated to N first ∫terms (see  for ∞ the definition and earlier references). Replacing in (6) f (k/n) by 0 f (t)pk (nt) one obtains an operator, which is structured analogously to the Bernstein-Durrmeyer operator, what allows to consider it as a candidate for constructing an estimator similar to (2).

2

1.2 data points 25-degree BP 75-degree BP

1 0.8 0.6 50

0.4 0.2

40

0 -0.2

30

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

20

Figure 2: BDE fited to 50 observations from f (x) + exp(−5 · x) + 0.1 + N (0, 0.1) noise.

Figure 1: RN (x, x) for N = 10 50, x ∈ (0, 1). 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

æ Bernstein polynomials are popular in computer graphics (see , ). They were also used in  for nonparametric density estimation. However, we can not apply his results directly in the fixed design regression estimation. In  a nonparametric estimator of a regression function has been proposed, which is based on the classical Bernstein polynomials. As we shall see, estimators based on the Bernstein-Durrmeyer polynomials have many remarkable features, which allow to prove the universal MISE consistency in L2 and to assure the best possible convergence rate for the Lipschitz class of functions. Furthermore, this property holds without additional corrections of boundary eﬀects, due to remarkable diﬀerent behaviour of RN (x, y) in comparison to kernel estimates. This fact is illustrated in Fig. 1. Notice large values of RN (x, x) near the end points, while classical kernel smoothers are constant along the diagonal. 2. Regression estimation by Bernstein-Durrmeyer polynomials Consider the equivalent form of (2) fˆn (x) = (N + 1) ·

N ∑

ˆbk · B (N ) (x), k

(7)

k=0

ˆbk =

n ∑ i=1

∫ (N )

yi Xi

Bk

(y) dy, k = 0, 1, . . . , N.

(8)

Estimator (2) (and (7), (8)) will be further called the Bernstein-Durrmeyer estimator (BDE). Above, N = N (n) is a sequence of nonnegative integers, which increases to infinity with the number of data points, in a way specified later. The form (2) of fˆn is similar to the estimate proposed by , while (7), (8) resembles the orthogonal series estimates discussed in , , and by Eubank . However, properties of fˆn are diﬀerent from the properties of estimators mentioned above due to lack of orthogonality of Berstein polynomials. Our investigations of fˆn are based on the following inequality ∫ √ RN (x, x) dx ≤ π · (N + 1)/2. (9) X

Although this inequality seems to be new, we present its proof in Appendix B), since it is rather technical.

3

def

Lemma 1 (Variance). Let ∆n = max1≤i≤n | κi − κi−1 |. Then, var(fˆn (x)) ≤ (N + 1)2 ·

N ∑

var(ˆbk ) · BkN (x)

(10)

√ π · (N + 1)/2

(11)

k=0

var(fˆn (x)) dx ≤ σ 2 · ∆n · X

Proof. Applying the Schwarz inequality we obtain from (7), (8): ∫ (N ) var(ˆbk ) ≤ σ 2 · ∆n · [Bk (x)]2 dx

(12)

X

[ var(fˆn (x)) = (N + 1)2 · E

N ∑

]2 cˆk ·

(N ) Bk (x)

,

(13)

k=0 def (N ) where cˆk = ˆbk −Eˆbk . For fixed x ∈ X, Bk (x) is a Bernouli probability distribution and the sum in the square brackets of (13) can be treated as the expectation with respect to this distribution. Furthermore, the quadratic function is convex, what allows to use the Jensen inequality to this expression. This implies (10). Now, (11) ∫ (N ) follows from (10) by integrating both of its sides and then using X Bk (x)dx = −1 (N + 1) , k = 0, 1, . . . , N together with (12) and (9). • n Theorem 1 Let fˆn be given by (2) and let N (n) −→ ∞ (as n → ∞ ). Then, for 2 every f ∈ L (X) the condition: √ n n ∆n · N (n) −→ 0, implies E ∥ fˆn −f ∥2 −→ 0. (14) def ∫ Here and below ∥ fˆn −f ∥2 = X (fˆn (x) − f (x))2 dx is the usual L2 norm, while the expectation is taken with respect to distributions of all the random variables, which are present in the definition of fˆn .

Proof. It is clear that E(fˆn (x) − f (x))2 = var(fˆn (x)) + (f (x) − E fˆn (X))2 , and the integrated variance approaches zero by Lemma 1 (11) and (14). For the bias term we have (f (x) − E fˆn (x))2 ≤ 2 · (f (x) − fN (x))2 + 2 · (fN (x) − E fˆn (x))2 , where def def ∫ fN = RN f = X RN (x, y)f (y)dy. The first term approaches zero in L2 (X) norm by Theorem BP1) given in Appendix A). For the second term def

In (x) = | fN (x) − E fˆn (x) |≤

N ∫ ∑ k=0

X

(N ) (N ) | f (y) − f¯n (y) | ·Bk (y) dy · Bk (x), (15)

def

f¯n (x) = f (xi ) for x ∈ [κi−1 , κi ), i = 1, 2, . . . , n From (15) we obtain: ∫where 2 I (x) dx ≤ ∥ RN | f − f¯n | ∥2 ≤ ∥ RN ∥ · ∥ f − f¯n ∥2 and the last term X n approaches zero for every f ∈ L2 (X), since ∥ RN ∥≤ 1 (see BP 6 in Appendix A). • MISE consistency of BDE hold without any further assumption on f , other than the minimal requirement f ∈ L2 (X). This property is not shared by many others nonparametric regression estimates. Next, we discuss the convergence rate of fˆn . Let f ∈Lip(L, α), then √ π 2 2 2 ˆ σ ∆n (N + 1)1/2 + 2L2 ∆2α (16) E ∥ f − fn ∥ ≤ n + 2 ∥ f − RN f ∥ . 2 For two sequences αn and βn n = 1, 2, . . . we write αn ∼ βn , if there exists two constants c1 > 0 and c2 > 0 such that c1 ≤ αn /βn ≤ c2 for n suﬃciently large. 4

B-D

50

B-D

1

300

1

0.5

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

x 0.2

-0.5

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

x

-0.5

Figure 3: fˆn fitted to n = 50 data simulated from f (x) = sin(2πx) (dashed line) + -1 noise uniformly distributed in [−0.1, 0.1]. Plots-1for N = 50, 300 indicate that fˆn is robust with respect to the choice of smoothing parameter N . Corollary 1 Let N (n) ∼ nβ and ∆n ∼ n−1 . If f ∈Lip(L, α), 0 < α ≤ 1 then the best convergence rate(of the r.h.s. of (16) is attained for β = 2/(1 + 2 · α) and ) 2α E ∥ f − fˆn ∥2 = O n− 1+2α ,

Proof. Follows directly from (16), taking into account that for f ∈ Lip(L, α) we have ϵN (f ) = O(N −α ), (see Appendix A) and ). • It is known (see  and the bibliography there in) that the above convergence rate can not be excedeed by any other nonparametric estimator in the whole Lipschitz class. 3. Simulations The aim of simulations was to gather an experience on the behaviour of diﬀerent degrees BDE when fitted to data of a moderate size. Figures 2 and 3 present one sample behaviour (snap-shots) of BDE under various conditions. Remark 3 We add that in practice fˆn can be rescaled to any finite interval and applied to its subintervals. It is known (see ) that Bernstein polynomials defined in adjacent subintervals can be adjusted to ensure continuity of the resulting plot and its derivatives. Simulations seem to confirm that BDE is easy to apply and reliable in recovering qualitative features of the estimated regression. 4. Extension to the multivariate case using space-filling curves def Extending estimator (2) to the multivariate case (d = dim(x) > 1) by tensor products of the univariate Bernstein polynomials requires only elaboration of technical details in the proofs of convergence. We take another way of the generalization, def which is based on scanning d-dimensional hypercube Id = [0, 1]d by a space-filling curve. This approach provides almost immediate proof of the existence of a multivariate Bernstein-Durrmeyer esimator, which attains the best possible MISE convergence rate in a multivariate case. Furthermore, one can obtain a rough estimate realtively quickly and using a relatively small number of observations, since – in opposite to placing observations at grid points – one can place any desired number of points along a space-filling curve. def Let Φ : I1 → Id be a space-filling curve, i.e., a transformation of I1 = [0, 1] interval onto Id . Well known examples of space-filling curves include the Peano and the Hilbert curves (see  and the bibliography there in). Sierpi´ nski  elaborated a remarkable construction a closed two-dimensional curve. Multidimensional generalization of Sierpi´ nski’s curve was proposed by the second author in . Any space-filling curve, for which the conditions (C1 – C5) given below hold, is suitable for our purposes. C1) Φ is Lipschitz continuous, i.e., ∥Φ(t1 ) − Φ(t2 )∥ ≤ Ld |t1 − t2 |1/d , t1 , t2 ∈ I1 , where ∥.∥ denotes the norm in Id , Ld > 0 is certain constant. 5

For d ≥ 2 Φ is not diﬀerentiable. Φ is not invertible. We write Φ−1 (B) = {t ∈ I1 : Φ(t) ∈ B} for B ⊂ Id . Let µd be the Lebesque measure in Id . C2) Φ preserves the Lebesque measure. C3) Φ is a.e. one-to-one and there exists Ψ : Id → I1 , being a.e. inverse of Φ. Ψ is further called quasi-inverse of Φ. C4)( Ψ preserves the Lebesque measure,i.e., for every Borel set A ⊂ I1 µ1 (A ∩ Ψ(Id )) = ) µd Ψ−1 (A ∩ Ψ(Id )) . ∫ ∫ C5) For every measurable function g : Id → I1 Id g(x)dx = I1 g(Φ(t))dt. In  or in , the results are formulated for the Peano, Hilbert and 2D Sierpi´ nski curves, which imply that conditions C1) – C5) hold for them. Now, we interpret f in (1) as a multivariate function f : Id → R. For simplicity of exposition we assume that x′i s in (1) have the form xi = Φ(ti ), i = 1, 2, . . . n, where t′i s are equidistantly placed in I1 (see Fig. 4). Thus, yi = f (xi ) + ϵi = f (Φ(ti )) + ϵi , i = 1, 2, . . . , n. The idea of constructing estimator f˜n (x) of f (x), x ∈ Id is to use the correspondence between ti and xi , retaining the same observed value yi , i = 1, 2, . . . n. Then, univariate estimator fˆn is calculated from the sequence (ti , yi ), i = 1, 2 . . . , n. Finally, its value at t ∈ I1 is conveyed to point Id ∋ x = Φ(t). In other words, if x ∈ Id is the image of t ∈ I1 by Φ, then f˜n (x) is defined as fˆn (t), provided that fˆn is calculated from data (ti , yi ), i = 1, 2 . . . , n. In more details, ∫ n ∑ f˜n (x) = yi · RN (Ψ(x), τ ) dτ, (17) Ti

i=1

where

Ti′ s

are subintervals of I1 , which form its partition and ti ∈ Ti , i = 1, 2, . . . n.

and let N = N (n) → ∞ an n → ∞. Theorem 2 Let ∆n = max1≤i≤n √ µ1 (Ti ). n n 1) For every f ∈ L2 (Id ), ∆n · N (n) −→ 0, implies E ∥ f˜n −f ∥2 −→ 0. 2) Let f be Lipschitz continuous with the exponent 0 < α ≤ 1, i.e. |f (x′ ) − f (x′′ )| ≤∥ x′ − x′′ ∥α , x′ , x′′ ∈ Id .

(18)

2d Let ∆n ∼ n−1 and N (n) ∼ nβ with β = d+2·α . Then E ∥ f − f˜n ∥2 = ) ( 2α O n− d+2α and the exponent can not be improved.

Proof. Form C5) we have ∫ ( ∫ ( )2 )2 ˜ fn (x) − f (x) dx = f˜n (Φ(t)) − f (Φ(t)) dt. Id

(19)

I1

From C2) it follows that t = Ψ(Φ(t)) a.e. in I1 . Thus, from (17) we have f˜n (Φ(t)) =

n ∑

∫ yi ·

RN (t, τ ) dτ,

(20)

Ti

i=1

Taking into account that xi = Φ(ti ), we conclude that f˜n (Φ(t)) coincides with fˆn defined by (2), if the estimated function is given by f (Φ(t)), t ∈ I1 . Note also that by C5) f (.) ∈ L2 (Id ) =⇒ f (Φ(.)) ∈ L2 (I1 ). This fact, together with (19) and Thm. 1 completes the proof of Part 1). To prove Part 2, note that if for f condition (18) holds, then f (Φ(t)) is Lipschitz continuous but with the exponent α/d. Now, Part 2) follows from (19) and Corollary 1. Optimality of the rate n−2α/(d+2α) comes from Stone’s result  (see also ). • Analysis of the above proof indicates that the ”curse of dimensionality” is hidden in the reduction of smoothness of of f (Φ(t)) in comparison to f itself. For this 6

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Figure 4: Points at which observations were taken, generated as 4 × 100 points along the Sierpinski curve. For each 100 points the Sierpinski curve was rescaled to fill one quarter of [0, 1] × [0, 1]. For the visualisation purposes the points in each quarter of the unit square were joined by the corresponding Sierpinski curve.

1.1 1

0.2

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0.8

1

0.8

1

0.75

0.6

0.9

0

0.5 0.25 0.25

0.5

0.8

0.75 0

1 Figure 5: Left panel – univariate fit to n = 100 data in one of four subintervals ˜ mentioned in the text. Right panel – fn ”glued” from four univariate fits (line) 0.7 and ”true” surface (shadowed). f˜n values were calculated at 2048 points along the Sierpinski curve. These points joined for the visualisation purposes only. Only a part of the curve estimating the surface is visible – the one above the ”true” surface.

7

reason in practical applications of this approach it is useful to divide I1 into several subintervals where f (Φ(t)) is estimated, then, to ensure continuity (see Remark 3) and to transform the values of the resulting estimate to Id . Results of applying f˜n to four subintervals of I1 are shown in Fig. 5, where function f (x(1) , x(2) ) = sin(π((x(1) )2 + (x(2) )2 )/3 + 1/2 was estimated from n = 100 in each subinterval. These points were then transformed to the unit square using the space-filling curve (see Fig. 4). The observations were corrupted by errors uniformly distributed in [−0.1, 0.1]. In each subinterval N = 50 degree estimator was fitted. Appendix A) The reader is referred to  for classical results on Bernstein polynomials (BP) and for historical account. We mention only the results necessary in this paper, which are taken from  , . BP 1 1) If f ∈ L2 (X) , then ∥ f − RN f ∥→ 0 as N → ∞. def

2) Let ϵN (f ) = inf{∥ f − wN ∥ , wN ∈ ΠN }, where ΠN is the class of all polynomials on X of order ≤ N . Then, for 0 < δ < 2 and N → ∞ ∥ f − RN f ∥ = O(N −δ/2 ) iﬀ ϵN (f ) = O(N −δ ). w BP 2 Kernel RN (x, y) is symmetric, degenerate and nonnegative definite, i.e., for every g ∈ L2 (X) < RN g, g > ≥ 0. BP 3 (see ) Eigenfunctions lk k = 0, 1, . . . , N of RN are the orthonormal Legendre polynomials and the following expansion holds: RN (x, y) =

N ∑

λkN · lk (x) · lk (y)

(21)

k=0

λ0N = 1

and

λkN =

k ∏

(N + 1 − j)/(N + 1 + j); k = 1, 2, . . . , N

(22)

j=1

BP 4 For k = 1, 2, . . . , N the inequalities hold: 1 > λ1N > λ2N > . . . > λN N > 0 and λk(N +1) > λkN BP 5 For every x, y ∈ X RN (x, y) ≤ N + 1. BP 6 The operator norm of RN in L2 (X) is bounded, i.e., ∥ RN ∥ = sup < f, RN f > ≤ 1 ; N = 1, 2, . . .

(23)

∥f ∥ ≤1

To prove BP 6 it suﬃces to apply the Schwarz inequality to < f, RN f >= (N + 1)

N (∫ ∑ k=0

0

)2

1

(N )

f (x)Bk

(x)dx

,

( )2 (N ) (N ) (N ) then, to note that Bk (x) ≤ Bk (x) (since Bk (x) ≤ 1) and finally to invoke ∫ 1 (N ) the equality 0 Bk (x)dx = 1/(N + 1). BP 7 For every x ∈ [0, 1]

∫1 0

RN (x, y)dy = 1 8

Appendix B) Proof of inequality (9) page 3 Our aim is to prove inequality (9), but firstly we need to prove some additional properties of kernel RN (x, y). BP 8 For k = 0, 1, . . . , N and N ≥ 1 [ ] λkN ≤ exp −k(k + 1) · (N + 1)−1

(24)

Proof of BP 8. Using the inequality between the geometric and the arithmetic means we obtain from (22) ] 2j ≤ N +1+j j=1  k [ ]k k ∑ j k+1 1 − 2 ·  ≤ 1− k j=1 N + 1 + j N +1

λkN =

k [ ∏ 1−

(25)

Now, BP 8 follows from the elementary inequality 1−

t ≤ exp(−t/(N + 1)) valid for 0 ≤ t ≤ N + 1. • N +1

Finally, we are at the position to prove inequality (9), which is repeated here for convenience. ∫ √ RN (x, x) dx ≤ π · (N + 1)/2 (26) X

Proof of (26) By BP 3, the left hand side of (26) equals to ∑N k=0 λkN . Applying BP 8 to this sum we get: ∫ RN (x, x) dx ≤ X

N ∑

∫ exp[−k /(N + 1)] ≤ 2

∫ X

RN (x, x) dx =

exp[−y 2 /(N + 1)]dy,

(27)

0

k=0

which concludes the proof.

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 R. L. Eubank. Spline Smoothing and Nonparametric Regression. Marcell Dekker, Inc. New York, Basel, 1988.  W. H˝ardle. Applied Nonparametric Regression. Cambridge University Press, Boston, 1990.  G. G. Lorentz. Bernstein Polynomials. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1953.  Milne S.C., Peano Curves and Smoothness of Functions, Advances in Mathematics Vol.35 (1980), pp.129-157.  Th. Pavlidis. Algorithms for Graphics and Image Processing. Computer Science Press Inc. Maryland, 1982.  L. K. Platzman and J. J. Bartholdi, Spacefilling Curves and the Planar Traveling Salesman Problem, Journal of ACM, 36 (1989), pp. 719–737.  E. Rafajlowicz. Nonparametric orthogonal series estimators of regression: a class attaining the optimal convergence rate in L2 . Statist. and Probab. Letters, pages 219 – 224, 1987.  E. Rafajlowicz. Nonparametric least squares estimation of a regression function. Statistics, 19:349 – 358, 1988.  L. Rutkowski. On system identification by nonparametric function fitting. IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., AC 27:225 – 227, 1982.  Sagan H., Space-filling curves, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York (1994).  Sierpi´ nski W., Sur une nouvelle courbe continue qui remplit toute une aire plane. , Bulletin de l‘Acad. des Sciences de Cracovie A. 463–478 (1912).  Skubalska-Rafajlowicz E., The closed curve filling multidimensional cube, Technical rep. 46/94 ICT Technical University of Wroclaw (1994).  Stone C.J. Optimal global rate of convergence for nonparametric regression. Ann. Statist., 10:1040 – 1053, 1982.  G. Szego. Orthogonal Polynomials., volume XXIII. American Mathematical Society, New York, 1959.  A. Tenbusch Nonparametric curve estimation with Bernstein estimates. Metrika, 45:1 – 30, 1997.  S. Xiehua On the convergence of the modified Szasz-Mirakjan operator. Approx. Theory and Appl., 10:20 – 25, 1994. Acknowledgements: 1) The authors wish to express sincere thanks to the anonymous refree for useful comments resulting in more clear presentation of the paper. 20 This research was supported by Council for Scientific Research of Polish Government.

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