Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits ...

6 downloads 77206 Views 247KB Size Report
ripe, the king fruit – Mango ripe of Bangladesh and exotic fruits – Apple and Grapes. The nutrient values ..... Income and Sustainable Development.

Food Chemistry xxx (2012) xxx–xxx

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Food Chemistry journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem

Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: Cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh Md. Tariqul Islam Shajib a,b,d,⇑, Mahbuba Kawser b, Md. Nuruddin Miah a, Parveen Begum b, Lalita Bhattacharjee c, A. Hossain b, Inge S. Fomsgaard d, Sheikh Nazrul Islam b a

Department of Biochemistry, Sher-E-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh FAO-National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme (NFPCSP), Bangladesh d Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, Slagelse 4200, Denmark b c

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history: Available online xxxx Keywords: Minor indigenous fruits Nutritional compositions Cheapest nutrient source Bangladesh

a b s t r a c t In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatures, book and United States Department of Agriculture-National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Ascorbic acid was highest in Wood apple and lowest in Roselle. Monkey jack contained the highest amount of carotenoids, zinc and copper. Content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorous were found highest in Antidesma velutinum. Potassium was the highest in Wood apple followed by in Moneky jack. It was noted that most of the minor fruits have much higher amount of ascorbic acid than the national fruit – Jack fruit ripe, the king fruit – Mango ripe of Bangladesh and exotic fruits – Apple and Grapes. The nutrient values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Food is essential component for human survival. Maintenance of good health needs a balanced diet comprising adequate macroand micro-nutrients. In order to have a balanced diet, nutrient composition of foods has to be made well-known and available to the mass population. It is used in research studies dealing with the effects of diets on health, reproduction and development. There is a significant relationship between diet and health and diseases. Lack of proper of dietary habits contributes to the development of many diseases. Diets lacking sufficient vitamins and minerals induce a number of nutritional deficiency diseases. Vitamins and minerals are involved in numerous biochemical processes and an adequate intake of micronutrients can prevent nutritional deficiency diseases (Leterme, Buldgen, Estrada, & Londono, 2006). It has been estimated in 2009 that over 925 million people in the world were malnourished (Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2010) and one third of the world population was affected by the iron deficiency disease – anemia (Kumari, Gupta, Lakshmi, ⇑ Corresponding author at: Department of Agroecology, Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, DK-4200 Slagelse, Denmark. Tel.: +45 32 47 51 38 (O), +45 71 57 32 92 (Personal). E-mail addresses: [email protected], [email protected] (Md. Tariqul Islam Shajib).

& Prakash, 2004). Like other developing countries, malnutrition is a severe health problem in Bangladesh and more than 80% of the people are suffering from malnutrition (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS)., 2006). Vitamin A deficiency in Bangladesh is of public health significance (Cohen, Jalil, Rahman, & Leemhuis, 1986). It is a major cause of preventable blindness in children; about 10 million children become completely/partially blind every year in Bangladesh (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), 2006). In order to overcome this situation, much attention has been centered on staple food as well as on the exploitation and utilization of unusual plant foods (Marfo, Oke, & Afolabi, 1988). Micronutrients are essential for good health and nutrition, advancing physical and intellectual development. Deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, and iodine are acute problems in Bangladesh. Low dietary intake of micronutrient rich foods as well low absorption and lower bioavailability are the leading cause of the micronutrient deficiencies. It is, thus, important to identify the micronutrient rich food sources that can provide adequate balanced diet for the maintenance of good health. In Bangladesh, there are varieties of local fruits with good nutritional values and these are grown in homesteads, forest areas and at roadsides and near railway without much care. These fruits are termed as minor/underutilised fruits because of less awareness of its nutrient value among the mass people. These minor fruits can be a good source of micronutrients and can be an alternative

0308-8146/$ - see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.035

Please cite this article in press as: Tariqul Islam Shajib, Md., et al. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: Cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh. Food Chemistry (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.035

2

Md. Tariqul Islam Shajib et al. / Food Chemistry xxx (2012) xxx–xxx

source to combat hidden hunger such as vitamins A and C deficiencies (Bioversity International, 2004). Micronutrient deficiency also impairs growth, lowers resistance to infections and even increases the risk of mortality. Currently, little attention has been given to increase use of minor fruits to overcome the malnutrition in Bangladesh (Rahim et al., 2008). Food composition database is of great importance in addressing health and nutrition issue. It is essential for planning food, nutrition and health related policy tools. As a result there is a worldwide call to develop a National Food Composition Database. Unfortunately Bangladesh does not have a food composition database of its own. It is in process of development and analysis of nutrient composition of indigenous and ethnic foods. In line of preparation of food composition database for Bangladesh, this study has attempted to analyse selected minor fruits for their ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral contents. The nutrient values of these minor indigenous fruits will generate awareness among the peoples of Bangladesh to eat these minor fruits more for healthy life. Updating the food composition database with these nutrient data will enrich it which is essential for health and food policy program planning.

a clean knife on a clean cutting surface. In case of carotenoid these operations were performed very fast to avoid any degradation.

2. Materials and methods

2.4. Analysis of ascorbic acid

2.1. Reagents

Ascorbic acid in fruit sample was estimated by spectrophotometric method (AOAC., 1998). The fresh fruit sample was homogenised in a mortar with pestle using metaphosphoric acid (5% metaphosphoric acid in 10% acetic acid solution in water), filtered, treated with 85% sulphuric acid solution and 2,4dintrophenylhydrazine and incubated at 60 °C for 60 min in water bath. It was read at 520 nm in spectrophotometer (UV-1601, UV– Visible, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan).

The analytical grade acetone, petroleum ether, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and metaphosphoric acid were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). b-Carotene, ascorbic acid and minerals standards, 2,4-di-nitrophenyl hydrazine were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA).

Table 1 The selected minor indigenous fruits of Bangladesh.

a b

Sl. no.

English name

Bengali name

Scientific name

Family

01 02

Dewa Lotkon

Artocarpus lakoocha Baccaurea ramiflora

Moraceae Phyllanthaceae

03 04 05

Monkey jack Burmese grape Orboroi Karanda Mangosteen

Orboroi Karamcha Kawfal

Euphorbiaceae Apocynaceae Clusiaceae

06 07 08

Wood apple Blackberry Flacourtia

09 10

Roselle NAa

Bael Kalojam Payla/ paniala Chokai Takitukib

Phyllunthus acidus Carisa carundus Garcinia mangostana Aegle mermelous Syzygium cumini Flacourtia jangomas Hibiscus sabdariffa Antidesma velutinum

Malvaceae Euphorbiaceae

Rutaceae Myrtaceae Flacourtiaceae

NA: English name is not available. Takituki is local Bengali name.

2.2. Sampling protocol 2.5. Analysis of carotenoid A multiregional sampling plan (Fig. 1) was employed to collect representative fruit samples. The fruit items were collected from four different wholesale markets located at entry points to Dhaka city, where fruit items come from all over the country, and two samples were collected from remote areas where some particular minor fruits are available. Every two samples was pooled together to make three analytes for analysis of every nutrient constituent in the fruit. 2.3. Collection and preparation of fruit sample Different minor/underutilised fruit samples (Table 1) for analysis were collected from February 2008 to May 2009. These fresh fruits were washed with distilled water and the surface water was removed using blotting paper. The cleaned air-dried samples were cut into small pieces (peeled where needed) by hand, using

All-trans-b-carotene (Sigma Chemical Co., USA) was used as the standard. Total carotenoid content in the fruit sample was determined by acetone–petroleum-ether extraction followed by spectrophotometric measurement (Rodrigues-Amaya & Kimura, 2004). Extraction of carotenoid was performed by grinding of processed food sample in mortar and pestle, filtration through sintered glass filter under vacuum and separation from acetone to petroleum ether. The petroleum eluent adjusted to specific volume was read at 450 nm in a spectrophotometer (UV-1601, UV–Visible, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan) for concentration of total carotenoids. 2.6. Analysis of minerals Mineral content in the fruit sample was analysed by Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (Petersen L, 2002). Dried

Market – I Kawran Bazar

Market – II Sam Bazar

Field- I Keranigonj

Market-III Jattrabari

Field- II Gazipur

Market – IV Mirpur

Sample A

Sample B

Sample C

Sample D

Sample E

Sample F

AC Analyte-I

BE Analyte-2

DF Analyte-3

Fig. 1. Multiregion sampling plan showing the representation of fruits of the whole of Bangladesh.

Please cite this article in press as: Tariqul Islam Shajib, Md., et al. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: Cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh. Food Chemistry (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.035

3

Md. Tariqul Islam Shajib et al. / Food Chemistry xxx (2012) xxx–xxx

fruit sample (0.5 g) was subjected to wet digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid in an auto-digestor at 325 °C to release the minerals in the fruit. The digested sample after appropriate dilution was aspirated into the spectrophotometer where it was burnt the elements into atomic components, which were read at their respective wavelength. Amount of iron, copper, zinc, manganese, calcium and magnesium in the fruits were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Model-AA-7000S, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan). Potassium content was analysed by flame photometry and phosphorous content was measured with spectrophotometric method. A standard calibration curve was prepared for each of the mineral using the respective standard mineral purchased from Sigma Chemical Co., USA. 2.7. Data quality It was maintained by precision and accuracy by carrying out intra- and inter-laboratory analysis of selected nutrient for particular fruits in and between the laboratory at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka and Nutritional Biochemistry laboratory of ICDDR’B (International Centre for Diarrheal Disease and Research, Bangladesh) using internal standard (FAO-NFPCSP, 2010).

Table 2 Percent edible, ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents in the minor indigenous fruits of Bangladesh. English name

% Edible

% Nonedible

Ascorbic acid mg/100 g edibleA

Total carotenoid lg/100 g edibleA

Monkey jack Burmese grape Orboroi Karanda Mangosteem Wood apple Blackberry Flacourtia Roselle TakitukiB

70.6 ± 1.5 44.5 ± 0.3 92.5 ± 0.6 92.3 ± 0.8 37.5 ± 1.3 71.5 ± 1.5 81.3 ± 0.8 100 43.5 ± 1.0 100

29.4 ± 1.5 55.5 ± 0.3 7.5 ± 0.12 7.7 ± 0.4 62.5 ± 0.5 28.6 ± 0.75 18.7 ± 0.7 0 66.5 ± 1.0 0

14.0 ± 1.4c 12.1 ± 1.6c 20.8 ± 2.0b 9.5 ± 1.8c 14.4 ± 1.0c 65.6 ± 4.6a 25.7 ± 2.4b 25.6 ± 2.1b 3.7 ± 0.5dC 27.8 ± 1.6bC

4609 ± 924a 218 ± 77f 161 ± 55f 235 ± 47f 4230 ± 745b 149 ± 48f 434 ± 56e 1120 ± 202cd 1232 ± 119c 1074 ± 94d

Letters in superscript indicate about the statistical differences among the fruits. A Expressed in mean ± sd. B Local Bengali name. C Frozen.

3. Results and discussion

Agriculture-National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (USDA-NNDSR), 2011). The exotic fruits, mango, jackfruit are expensive in Bangladesh whereas the minor fruits, which are indiscriminately grown without much care at anywhere like at homesteads, forests, roadsides and near railway, are cheaper and can easily consumed by mass people with less cost and effort. The minimum daily requirement of ascorbic acid for preventing clinical symptoms of the specific deficiency-scurvy for adults is about 10 mg or little less (Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1998, Jukes, 1974). In the present study, except Karanda (9.5 mg/ 100 g) and Roselle (3.7 mg/100 g) all of the minor fruits contain more than 10 mg/100 g ascorbic acid. Therefore, daily intake of 100 g minor fruit can prevent scurvy in Bangladesh.

3.1. Edible portion

3.3. Total carotenoids

Edible portion is the part of the food which is eaten by the people. It is expressed in percentage, which is equivalent to portion of food eaten by people x 100/as purchased weight of the food. Table 1 describes the percentage edible portion of the 10 investigated minor indigenous fruits. Edible portion ranged between 37.5% and 100%. Flacourtia and Nunia (Antidesma velutinum) are 100% edible. It is because of the fact that it is difficult to separate the seed from the other parts (pericarp, mesocarp), hence the whole fruits are consumed with pericarp and small seeds. The lowest edible portion was 37.5% in the Mangosteen.

Amongst the minor fruits, the total carotenoid content was the highest (4609 ± 924 lg/100 g edible) in Monkey jack and relatively higher amount in Mangosteen (4230 ± 745 lg/100 g), Roselle (1232 ± 119 lg/100 g) and Flacourtia (1120 ± 202 lg/100 g) (Table 2). The lowest was in wood apple (149 ± 48 lg/100 g). The minor fruits – Monkey jack and Mangosteen contain higher amounts of carotenoid than Mango (2560 ± 260 lg/100 g) and Jack fruits (710 ± 130 lg/100 g) (FAO-NFPCSP, 2010). It indicates that these minor indigenous fruits could also be a rich source of pro-vitamin A to prevent the night blindness in the children.

3.2. Ascorbic acid

3.4. Micromineral

The average content of ascorbic acid was ranged from 3.7 ± 0.5 to 65.6 ± 4.6 mg/100 g edible portion (Table 2). It was the highest in wood apple (65.6 ± 4.6 mg/100 g) and relatively higher amount was present in Antidesma velutinum (27.8 ± 1.6 mg/100 g), Blackberry (25.7 ± 2.4 mg/100 g), Flacourtia (25.6 ± 2.1 mg/100 g) and Orboroi (20.8 ± 2.0 mg/100 g). Little comparison could be made for few of these fruits with Indian food composition tables (Gopalan, Sastri, & Balasubramanian, 2004). However, values of ascorbic acid of Orboroi, Blackberry, Karanda, and Burmese-grape were found very close to those values as reported by others (Haque, Saha, Karim, & Bhuiyan, 2009; Khan, Rahman, Islam, & Begum, 2006; Rai et al., 2011). It was also noted that most of the minor indigenous fruits contained much higher amount of ascorbic acid (12–65 mg/100 g) than the national fruit – Jack fruit ripe (11.08 mg/100 g), the king fruit – Mango ripe (10.88 mg/100 g) of Bangladesh (Food, 2010) and exotic fruits – Apple (4.6 mg/100 g) and Grapes (3.2 mg/100 g) (United States Department of

It is noted that fruits contain 10–30% dry matter and the rest is water (Ranganna, 1986). Range of dry matter in the 10 minor fruits was between 7.8% in Orboroi and 39.3% in Monkey jack (Table 3). It indicates that water content is highest in Orboroi and lowest in Monkey jack. Moisture content in fruits depends on some factors including rainfall, soil water and type of soil (Webster & Wilson, 1966). Table 3 presents the micromineral content in the minor fruits. Iron content was the highest (3301 ± 310 lg/100 g edible) in Roselle and the lowest (778 ± 80 lg/100 g edible) in Monkey jack. The iron content obtained in this study for Blackberry (1759 ± 212 lg/100 g edible) was nearly equivalent to the amount as reported by Rai et al. (2011). Of the 10 minor fruits, Roselle, Burmese grapes, Mangosteen, Wood apple and Blackberry contained higher amount of iron than Mango (var. local) (1312 lg/ 100 g edible) and Jackfruits (915 lg/100 g edible) (FAO-NFPCSP, 2010) and other exotic fruits – Apple, Orange, Grapes and

2.8. Data analysis SPSS software package (version 12.0 SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyse the nutrient data. Descriptive statistics were used for all of the variables. Values were expressed as mean and standard deviation.

Please cite this article in press as: Tariqul Islam Shajib, Md., et al. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: Cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh. Food Chemistry (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.035

4

Md. Tariqul Islam Shajib et al. / Food Chemistry xxx (2012) xxx–xxx

Table 3 Micromineral in the minor indigenous fruits of Bangladesh in lg% edible portion.A English name Monkey jack Burmese grape Orboroi Karanda Mangosteen Wood apple Blackberry Flacourtia Roselle TakitukiB

% Dry matter 39.3 ± 1.0 9.5 ± 0.02 7.8 ± 0.01 11.4 ± 0.04 17.3 ± 0.8 37.1 ± 1.0 13.7 ± 0.1 14.8 ± 0.02 8.3 ± 0.8 26.3 ± 0.03

Dry factor 2.5 ± 0.02 4.1 ± 0.01 13.2 ± 0.1 6.7 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.1 2.9 ± 0.1 8.5 ± 0.01 3.9 ± 0.03 8.4 ± 0.6 3.9 ± 0.02

Iron

Copper h

778 ± 8 1486 ± 268e 1168 ± 118f 952 ± 55g 1972 ± 170c 2231 ± 221b 1759 ± 212d 937 ± 111g 3301 ± 310a 782 ± 42h

Zinc a

7974 ± 331 248 ± 65f 100 ± 26i 256 ± 33f 483 ± 41c 2025 ± 152b 116 ± 13h 359 ± 13d 220 ± 165g 337 ± 27e

Manganese a

3981 ± 214 903 ± 90f 674 ± 61h 688 ± 61h 1504 ± 122b 432 ± 15i 1090 ± 161d 1043 ± 131e 1242 ± 121c 805 ± 13g

2025 ± 440c 1092 ± 164d 149 ± 23h 292 ± 23f 1018 ± 99e 203 ± 21g 147 ± 20h 3230 ± 130b 5837 ± 255a 2025 ± 421c

Letters in superscript indicate about the statistical differences among the fruits. A Expressed in mean ± sd. B Bengali name (English name not available).

Pomegranates (United States Department of Agriculture-National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (USDA-NNDSR), 2011). Copper, zinc and manganese content of the minor fruits varied from 100 ± 26 to 7974 ± 331 lg/100 g, 432 ± 15 to 3981 ± 214 lg/100 g and 147 ± 20 to 5837 ± 255 lg/100 g edible respectively (Table 3). Copper and zinc content were the highest 7974 ± 331 lg/100 g and 3981 ± 214 lg/100 g edible, respectively in Monkey jack. Roselle contained the highest amount of manganese 5837 ± 255 lg/100 g edible. Mango (var. local) contains 173 ± 2 lg/100 g of copper, 543 ± 2 lg/100 g of zinc and 577 ± 1 lg/100 g of manganese and Jackfruits contain 31 ± 1 lg/100 g of copper, 566 ± 3 lg/100 g of zinc and 261 ± 4 lg/100 g of manganese (FAO-NFPCSP, 2010), whereas most of the minor fruits contain higher amounts of copper, zinc and manganese. Compared to the USDA-NNDSR (2011) for some exotic fruits such as Apple, Orange, Grapes and Pomegranates, it was noted that some of the minor fruits contain higher amounts of copper, zinc and manganese. The daily micromineral requirements of an adult man are as follows: 10–15 mg iron/day, 12–15 mg zinc/day and 2–3 mg copper/day (Berdanier, 1998; Smolin & Grosvenor, 2000; Wildman & Medeiros, 2000). The minor fruits, to some extent, can meet the daily requirement of these minerals.

3.5. Macromineral Table 4 describes the macromineral level in the minor indigenous fruits. Amount of calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in these fruits varied from 10.8 ± 1.1 to 85.9 ± 4.4 mg/100 g, 3.6 ± 0.8 to 29.4 ± 1.5 mg/100 g, 104.4 ± 3.9 to 427.8 ± 1.7 mg/100 g and 5.7 ± 0.7 to 26.9 ± 2.8 mg/100 g edible respectively. Among the analysed minor fruits, Antidesma velutinum contained the highest amount of calcium (85.9 ± 4.4 mg/100 g), magnesium (29.4 ± 1.5 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (26.9 ± 2.8 mg/100 g). Potassium was the highest (427.8 ± 1.7 mg/100 g) in Wood apple. Monkey jack contained the second highest amount of potassium (350 ± 8 mg/100 g), magnesium (23.6 ± 2.1 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (22.1 ± 2.3 mg/100 g). It is indicated that these minor fruits contain also a relatively higher amount of minerals than the exotic fruits (USDA-NNDSR, 2011). When compared to the Mango ripe (calcium-16.9 ± 2.0 mg/100 g, magnesium 6.7 ± 1.0 mg/100 g, potassium 98.5 ± 1.0 mg/100 g, phorphorous-7.7 ± 0.8 mg/100 g edible) and the national fruit of Bangladesh – Jack fruit ripe (calcium-12.6 ± 1.8 mg/100 g, magnesium 26.8 ± 0.9 mg/100 g, potassium 305.0 ± 1.0 mg/100 g, phorphorous 10.9 ± 0.9 mg/100 g edible) (FAO-NFPCSP, 2010), it was seen that most of the minor fruits contain higher amount of these minerals.

Table 4 Macromineral in minor indigenous fruits of Bangladesh in mg% edible portion.A English name

Calcium

Magnesium

Potassium

Phosphorous

Monkey jack Burmese grape Orboroi Karanda Mangosteen Wood apple Blackberry Flacourtia Roselle TakitukiB

66.6 ± 3.8c 52.2 ± 4.1f 10.8 ± 1.1j 26.3 ± 0.1d 60.3 ± 0.9e 70.3 ± 0.7b 26.8 ± 0.3h 61.5 ± 0.8d 48.4 ± 0.8g 85.9 ± 4.4a

23.6 ± 2.1b 11.3 ± 1.9ef 3.6 ± 0.8h 7.5 ± 0.2g 10.8 ± 0.8f 16.7 ± 0.2c 12.0 ± 0.4ef 12.5 ± 0.8e 14.3 ± 0.6d 29.4 ± 1.5a

350.0 ± 8.0b 198.1 ± 8.0c 104.4 ± 3.9f 207.3 ± 1.6c 133.4 ± 1.6e 427.8 ± 1.7a 106.9 ± 1.6f 212.2 ± 2.6c 157. 6 ± 1.3d 207.5 ± 10.0c

22.1 ± 2.3b 17.1 ± 3.8d 5.7 ± 0.7g 14.4 ± 0.7e 19.6 ± 1.2c 22.7 ± 0.3b 11. 9 ± 1.2f 12.4 ± 1.4ef 17.3 ± 1.7cd 26.9 ± 2.8a

Letters in superscript: indicate about the statistical differences among the fruits. A Expressed in mean ± sd. B Bengali name.

4. Conclusion The minor indigenous fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, carotenoids as well as macro and micro-mineral. Making awareness for mass use of these minor fruits would help to prevent suffering from many nutritional deficiency diseases. Increased use of these fruits would also help to grow imitativeness for cultivation of more minor fruit plants to protect them from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity. Moreover, the nutrient values contained in these fruits will enrich the food composition database for Bangladesh which is essential for health, nutrition and food policy program planning. Acknowledgement The authors are thankful to the FAO-NFPCSP (Food and Agriculture Organization-National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme) and the Ministry of Science, Information, Communication and Technology, Peoples Republic of Bangladesh for part financial support in carrying out this work. Thanks are also given to the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka and the Soil Resources Development Institute (SRDI), Dhaka, Bangladesh for their laboratory support. Authors are also grateful to EuroFIR for providing the bursary to attend and present the content of the paper to the 9th IFDC in United Kingdom in 2011. References AOAC (1998). Official methods of analysis. In S. Williams (Ed.), 16th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC. vol. 2, pp. 16–19. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) (2006). Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.

Please cite this article in press as: Tariqul Islam Shajib, Md., et al. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: Cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh. Food Chemistry (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.035

Md. Tariqul Islam Shajib et al. / Food Chemistry xxx (2012) xxx–xxx Berdanier, C. D. (1998). Advanced nutrition: Micronutrients. Boca Raton, Washington DC, USA: CRC Press LLC. Bioversity International (2004). Banana researchers gather in Malaysia, hoping to change lives. News Item Press Releases, News Archive for July 2004. . Cohen, C., Jalil, M. A., Rahman, H., Leemhuis, De Regt E., Sprague, J., & Mitra, M. (1986). Blinding malnutrition in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 32(73), 78. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1998). Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition: Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2010). The State of Food Insecurity in the World, FAO-corporate document repository. Communication division, Rome, Italy. Food and Agriculture Organization-National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme (FAO-NFPCSP) (2010). Preparation of food composition database with special reference with ethnic and indigenous foods: Report of a joint FAO/ USAID funded project. Ministry of Food and Disaster Management, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh (pp. 94–96). . Gopalan, G., Sastri, R., Balasubramanian, S.C., 2004. Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderbad 500 007, India. Haque, M. N., Saha, B. K., Karim, M. R., & Bhuiyan, M. N. H. (2009). Evaluation of nutritional and physico-chemical properties of several selected fruits in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 44(3), 353–358. Jukes, T. H. (1974). Are recommended daily allowances for vitamin C adequate? (ascorbic acid/diet). Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 71(5), 1949–1951. Khan, M. M. R., Rahman, M. M., Islam, M. S., & Begum, S. A. (2006). A UVspectrophotometric method for the determination of vitamin C content in various fruits and vegetables at Sylhet area in Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6(2), 388–392.

5

Kumari, M., Gupta, S., Lakshmi, A., & Prakash, J. (2004). Iron bioavailability in green leafy vegetables cooked in different utensils. Food Chemistry, 86(2004), 217–222. Leterme, P., Buldgen, A., Estrada, F., & Londono, A. M. (2006). Mineral content of tropical fruits and unconventional foods of the Andes and the rain forest of Colombia. Food Chemistry, 95, 644–652. Marfo, E. K., Oke, O. L., & Afolabi, A. (1988). Nutritional evaluation of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and flamboyant (Delonix regia) seed oils. Nutrition Reports International, 37(2), 303–310. Petersen, L. (2002). Analysis of Plant Materials In: Analytical Methods Soil, Water, Plant material, Fertilizer. Soil Resources management and Analytical Services. Soil Resource Development Institute, Danida, Camp Sax. Rahim, M.A., Kabir, M.A., Anwar, H.R.M.M., Islam, F., Sarker, B.C., Bari, M.S., et al. (2008). In ISHS Acta Horticulturae 806: International symposium on underutilized plants for food security, nutrition. Income and Sustainable Development. . Rai, D. P., Chadha, S., Maninder, P., Kaur, M. P., Jaiswal, P., & Patil, R. T. (2011). Biochemical, microbiological and physiological changes in Jamun (Syzyium cumini L.) kept for long term storage under modified atmosphere packaging. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(3), 357–365. Ranganna, S. (1986). Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., pp. 12–123. Rodrigues-Amaya, D. B., & Kimura, M. (2004). Harvest plus handbook for carotenoid analysis. Harvest Plus technical Monograp 2. Washington DC and California: IFRI and CIAT. Smolin, L., & Grosvenor, M. (2000). Nutrition: Science and applications (3rd ed.). Orlando, USA: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. United States Department of Agriculture-National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (USDA-NNDSR) (2011). http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/ search/ Accessed 28.11.11. Webster, C. C., & Wilson, P. N. (1966). Agriculture in the tropics (1st ed.). London: Longans Green and Co. Ltd.. Wildman, R., Medeiros, D. (2000). Advanced human nutrition. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton: Florida 33431, USA.

Please cite this article in press as: Tariqul Islam Shajib, Md., et al. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: Cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh. Food Chemistry (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.035

Suggest Documents