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Mycoremediation – removing pollutants from soil. ▻ Food source – directly ( mushrooms) and indirectly. (yeast fermentation). ▻ Medicine: Penicillin.

Kingdom Fungi ROCKS!

Characteristics of all Fungi  

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Heterotrophic Filamentous Bodies Fungal cells contain chitin Fungi exhibit nuclear mitosis Non-motile All are multicellular (except yeast)

RECAP: What were the common characteristics of all protists?

Heterotrophic & Decomposers  

Cannot make their own food Break down dead matter

Filamentous Bodies (hypha) 



Body and reproductive structures made up of long, slender filaments (hypha) Mycelium = many hypha

Cells Contain Chitin 

Chitin - hard outer cell wall of fungal cells



Chitin makes up the outer skeleton of grasshoppers, spiders, scorpions, crabs and other insects & arthropods!

Exhibit Nuclear Mitosis  

Other eukaryotes exhibit cellular mitosis What’s the difference? 

Usually, the nucleus “disappears” and reforms in mitosis. In nuclear mitosis the nucleus doesn’t go anywhere! It stays intact the entire time



This means that the spindle fibers don’t pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell (cellular mitosis) but to opposite sides of the nucleus (nuclear mitosis)

Classification of Fungi 

Classified on how they reproduce



Someone who studies and classifies fungi is a mycologist



Myco = fungi



RECAP 

What were protists classified by?

Four Phyla (that, yes, you have to know)

Phyla

Reproduction

Examples

Zygomycota

Spores formed in zygosporangia

Black bread mold

Ascomycota

Spores formed in asci

Cup fungi, truffles, morels

Exception – single-celled yeasts do binary fission like bacteria

Yeasts

Basidiomycota

Spores formed in basidia

Mushrooms, puffballs

Deuteromycetes

No sexual stage

Penicillin

Reproduction in Fungi 

Used to classify them



Every phyla (except Deuteromycota) can reproduce sexually or asexually



All release spores that are carried by the wind

Zygomycota  

Black bread mold Reproductive structure: zygosporangium

Ascomycota – multicellular morels, truffles  

Examples include “cup” fungi & yeasts spores are held in a "sac-like" structure called asci

Ascomycota – unicellular yeasts  

 

The only unicellular fungi Reproduce by budding Yeast is used to make beer, yogurt, icecream It also causes athlete’s foot

Basidiomycetes  



Stereotypical mushrooms spores are held in a “club” Reproductive structure - basidia

Basidia and basidiospores

Anatomy of a mushroom

Symbiotic Relationships – all mutualistic 1.

Lichen algae + fungus

2. Myccorhizae roots + fungus

Lichen and Miccorhizae 

Plants give fungus carbohydrates and sugars (which it is making via photosynthesis)



Fungus provides the plant with increased surface area for water and nutrient absorption



Lichens are important biological indicators because they are sensitive to pollution and acid rain

Which plant grew with fungus?

Importance of Fungi    

BAD

Athletes foot Molds can cause respiratory damage Some are poisonous Can cause disease  

Irish Potato famine – killed millions Trees

Mold growing in house after hurricane Katrina

Importance of Fungi  

   

GOOD

Decomposers Myccorhizae – need plants for oxygen! Mycoremediation – removing pollutants from soil Food source – directly (mushrooms) and indirectly (yeast fermentation) Medicine: Penicillin Biological indicators (lichen)

Penicillium inhibits Staphylococcus Fungus bacteria