Mycoremediation – removing pollutants from soil. ▻ Food source – directly (
mushrooms) and indirectly. (yeast fermentation). ▻ Medicine: Penicillin.
Kingdom Fungi ROCKS!
Characteristics of all Fungi
Heterotrophic Filamentous Bodies Fungal cells contain chitin Fungi exhibit nuclear mitosis Non-motile All are multicellular (except yeast)
RECAP: What were the common characteristics of all protists?
Heterotrophic & Decomposers
Cannot make their own food Break down dead matter
Filamentous Bodies (hypha)
Body and reproductive structures made up of long, slender filaments (hypha) Mycelium = many hypha
Cells Contain Chitin
Chitin - hard outer cell wall of fungal cells
Chitin makes up the outer skeleton of grasshoppers, spiders, scorpions, crabs and other insects & arthropods!
Exhibit Nuclear Mitosis
Other eukaryotes exhibit cellular mitosis What’s the difference?
Usually, the nucleus “disappears” and reforms in mitosis. In nuclear mitosis the nucleus doesn’t go anywhere! It stays intact the entire time
This means that the spindle fibers don’t pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell (cellular mitosis) but to opposite sides of the nucleus (nuclear mitosis)
Classification of Fungi
Classified on how they reproduce
Someone who studies and classifies fungi is a mycologist
Myco = fungi
What were protists classified by?
Four Phyla (that, yes, you have to know)
Spores formed in zygosporangia
Black bread mold
Spores formed in asci
Cup fungi, truffles, morels
Exception – single-celled yeasts do binary fission like bacteria
Spores formed in basidia
No sexual stage
Reproduction in Fungi
Used to classify them
Every phyla (except Deuteromycota) can reproduce sexually or asexually
All release spores that are carried by the wind
Black bread mold Reproductive structure: zygosporangium
Ascomycota – multicellular morels, truffles
Examples include “cup” fungi & yeasts spores are held in a "sac-like" structure called asci
Ascomycota – unicellular yeasts
The only unicellular fungi Reproduce by budding Yeast is used to make beer, yogurt, icecream It also causes athlete’s foot
Stereotypical mushrooms spores are held in a “club” Reproductive structure - basidia
Basidia and basidiospores
Anatomy of a mushroom
Symbiotic Relationships – all mutualistic 1.
Lichen algae + fungus
2. Myccorhizae roots + fungus
Lichen and Miccorhizae
Plants give fungus carbohydrates and sugars (which it is making via photosynthesis)
Fungus provides the plant with increased surface area for water and nutrient absorption
Lichens are important biological indicators because they are sensitive to pollution and acid rain
Which plant grew with fungus?
Importance of Fungi
Athletes foot Molds can cause respiratory damage Some are poisonous Can cause disease
Irish Potato famine – killed millions Trees
Mold growing in house after hurricane Katrina
Importance of Fungi
Decomposers Myccorhizae – need plants for oxygen! Mycoremediation – removing pollutants from soil Food source – directly (mushrooms) and indirectly (yeast fermentation) Medicine: Penicillin Biological indicators (lichen)
Penicillium inhibits Staphylococcus Fungus bacteria