Apr 15, 2009 ... NFPA Life Safety Code 2006 ... construction and shall be removed from the site
prior to Owner occupancy .... similar to Kawneer 1600 (or equal) with
fluorocarbon coating and .... pattern 'B' with acoustical Baffle C by Fry Reglet .....
An energy recovery wheel section with associated exhaust fan will be ...
PROJECT MANUAL 100% SCHEMATIC DESIGN DOCUMENTS APRIL 15, 2009
DOVER “ANCHOR” PUBLIC LIBRARY DOVER, DELAWARE
Project Manual Dover “Anchor” Public Library Page 2 of 13
Table of Content: •
Subsurface Exploration and Geotechnical Evaluation Report
Structural System Narrative
Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing and Fire Protection System Narrative
Building Energy Analysis
Project Manual Dover “Anchor” Public Library Page 3 of 13
Architectural Criteria Building Location: •
The Dover Anchor Library is located on an existing parking lot at the north side of East Loockerman Street, west of the City Hall building and east of the Post Office building.
Building Size: •
The building will be two stories with a partial loft space at a total of 46,000GSF.
Project Phasing: •
The project will be in one phase.
Provide allowance of $ XXXXX for site lighting and site furnishing at the reading garden.
Provide F.F. & E. allowance of $ XXXXX for shelving and library furniture
Provide F.F. & E. allowance of $ XXXXX for coffee kiosk and warming kitchen equipment.
Provide allowance of $ XXXXX for security system.
Provide allowance of $ XXXXX for special lighting and performance Audio and Video system for the multipurpose room and conference rooms.
Provide allowance of $ XXXXX for PA system throughout the library.
Code Information: • • • • • •
Building Code Plumbing Mechanical Electrical Barrier-Free Fire
International Building Code 2006 International Plumbing Code 2006 International Mechanical Code 2006 NEC (to be confirmed) ICC ANSI A117.1-1998 International Fire Code 2006 & Delaware State Fire Prevention Regulations2003 NFPA Life Safety Code 2006
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Building Classifications: •
Occupancy Classification o A-2, Assembly – Coffee Kiosk o A-3, Assembly - Library, Multi-purpose room and Conference rooms o B, Business o M, Mercantile - Bookstore Construction Type –Type IIB Equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with IBC 903.3.1.1.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: •
Testing Laboratory Services (See Structural): o Performance requirements for testing laboratory to be retained by Construction Manager for services necessary to verify specified soil characteristics, concrete strength and composition and steel fabrication erection where required.
Mock-Ups and Product Options: o Two (2) exterior construction mock-ups approximately 8’ wide by 8’ tall by 4’ deep (plus temp. foundations) will be required. The mock-ups will incorporate all major exterior cladding and roof materials in the same configuration as they will occur in the finished building. The Exterior Construction Mock-up may not be incorporated into the finished construction and shall be removed from the site prior to Owner occupancy of the building. o Five interior finishes “in place” mock-ups approximately 4’ by 4’ by the height of the interior space will be required. Accepted interior finishes mock-ups may be incorporated into the finished construction.
Site Clearing: o Provide temporary erosion and sediment control. o Provide tree protection – erect and maintain temporary fencing around tree protection zones. o Topsoil stripping – strip and stockpile topsoil o Site improvements - remove above and below grade site improvements. o Disposal – remove surplus soil material, unsuitable material, obstructions, demolished materials and waste materials including trash and debris. o Utilities – locate, identify, disconnect, and seal or cap off utilities indicated to be removed. o Clearing and grubbing – remove obstructions trees, shrubs, grass and other vegetation to permit installation of new construction.
Earthwork: o Preparing subgrades for slabs-on-grade, walks, pavements, lawns, and plantings
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o o o o o o o
Excavating and backfilling for buildings and structures. Provide drainage course for slabs-on-grade. Provide subbase course for concrete walks and pavements. Provide base course for asphalt paving. Provide subsurface drainage backfill for walls and trenches. Excavating and backfilling trenches within building lines. Excavating and backfilling trenches for buried mechanical and electrical utilities and pits.
Termite Control: o Provide soil treatment with an EPA-registered termiticide complying with requirements of authorities having jurisdiction, in an aqueous solution formulated to prevent termite infestation.
Water Distribution outside the building for combined water service and fire service mains: o Install ductile iron water distribution piping, valves, fittings, fire hydrants, fire department connections, corporation valves, curb stops, and anchorages. o Provide utility furnished products including water meters that will be furnished to the site, ready for installation. o Includes applications, installation, materials, closing of abandoned systems, quality control, identification and cleaning
Sanitary Sewerage outside the building: o Install gravity flow , nonpressure sanitary sewerage including PVC piping and fittings o Provide precast concrete manholes. o Provide cleanout and manhole castings. o Includes applications, installation, materials, closing of abandoned systems, quality control, identification and cleaning
Storm o o o o o
Asphalt Paving: o Install Hot Mix asphalt paving including new paving, patching, overlays, and surface treatments. o Includes cold milling of existing hot-mix asphalt pavement, surface preparation, materials, placing, joints, compaction, tolerances, pavement marking, and disposal.
Cement Concrete Pavement: o Install exterior concrete pavement including curbs, sidewalks, and pads.
Drainage outside the building: Install nonpressure drainage piping (concrete, PVC, PE) and fittings. Provide precast concrete catch basins. Provide precast concrete manholes. Provide cleanout, catch basin, and manhole castings. Includes applications, installation, materials, closing of abandoned systems, quality control, identification and cleaning
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Includes preparation, concrete materials, formwork, reinforcement, mix design, placement procedures, finishes, quality control, repairs and protection.
Turf and Grasses: o Install seeding, hydroseeding, turf grass sod, turf renovation, erosion control materials, organic soil amendments, fertilizers, planting soils, mulches, and pesticides. o Includes preparation, maintenance, application, cleanup.
Plants: o Install plants, planting soils, tree stabilization, landscape edgings, inorganic and organic soil amendments, fertilizers, mulches, pesticides and miscellaneous products. o Provide plant material, preparation, excavation, planting, mulching, maintenance, warranty, cleanup.
Unit Pavers: o Provide stone pavers set in stone base and stone fine setting bed with stone fine swept joints o Provide stone fines for under seating area o Provide treads for steps o Provide brick pavers set in aggregate setting beds.
Tree Protection: o Provide labor, equipment, and materials necessary for the protection and trimming of existing trees that interfere with, or are affected by, execution of the work, whether temporary or permanent.
Pipe and Tube Railings: o Provide aluminum pipe and tube railing and steel pipe and tube railing fabrication and finishes.
Site Furnishings: o Provide seating (to include benches w/ or w/o backs and or intermediate arm rests), café tables and chairs, bicycle racks, game table, and trash receptacles.
Exterior Lighting: o Provide exterior luminaires and ballasts, luminaire-mounted photoelectric relays, poles and accessories, and luminaire lowering devices. o Provvide lighting to include bollards, tree uplighting, recessed path lights, uplights for entrance sign.
Site Equipment: o Provide corrugated metal wall systems enclosures for exterior transformers and generators
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PROPOSED BUILDING CONSTRUCTION: Exterior Wall and Roof Construction & Finishes:
Exterior wall cladding:
Brick: Brick veneer with 2” airspace, 2” of rigid insulation, air and vapor barrier, ½” thick exterior grade sheathing and 8” structural stud backup. • Brick Type 1: Assume 60% Molded Series 55 DD Modular by Glen-Gery Brick • Brick Type 2: Assume 25% 30 Rose Full Range Modular by Cushwa • Brick Type 3: Assume 15% 8”x8”x4”D Fluted by Glen-Gery • Interior brick wall construction does not require 2” rigid insulation and air and vapor barrier. See floor plans for location of interior brick walls. • Provide cast stone coping at brick piers • Flashing and required sheet metal trim to be stainless steel, two piece, fabricated to form counter flashings, closures and miscellaneous trim. • Brick ties, anchors, etc. to be galvanized.
Stone Masonry: Stone veneer with 2” airspace, 2” of rigid insulation, air and vapor barrier, ½” thick exterior grade sheathing and 8” structural stud backup. • Assume 60% 4” D and 20% 6” D Bucks County Brownstone (Ashlar) and 20% 6” D Midwestern Brownstone (sawn) by Delaware Quarries, Inc. • Provide 6” D Midwestern Brownstone (sawn) for window lintels by Delaware Quarries, Inc. (See drawing for locations). • Provide Midwestern Brownstone (sawn) for all window sills by Delaware Quarries, Inc. • Flashing and required sheet metal trim to be stainless steel, two piece, fabricated to form counter flashings, closures and miscellaneous trim. • Stone ties, anchors, etc. to be stainless steel.
Window/Glazing System: Thermally broken curtain wall clear anodized aluminum framing similar to Kawneer 1600 (or equal) with fluorocarbon coating and glazed with tinted low E insulating units typical at the exterior. Provide extruded horizontal mullion caps at curtainwall for shading. • System shall have signed and sealed drawings and calculations by Professional Engineer licensed in the State of Delaware.
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Thermally broken commercial clear anodized aluminum storefront, to match curtain wall system, glazed with tinted low E insulating units at the entry and interior window locations. Thermally broken commercial clear anodized aluminum double hung window system, glazed with tinted low E insulating units.
Exterior Glazing: Type 1: Insulated glazing Viracon 1” – VE 2-2M Low “E” #2 surface. (50% of exterior curtainwall glazing and 100% at all punched openings). Type 2: Insulated glazing Viracon 1” – VE 5-2M Low “E” #2 surface. (50% of exterior curtainwall glazing).
Shading Devices: o Provide horizontal projecting sun shading devices integral with curtainwall system.
Exterior Doors: o Entrance systems, to match curtain wall system, to be tinted low E insulating tempered glass and aluminum swing doors. Provide ADA required assisted operator at each building entry. o Other exterior doors to be galvanized steel insulated core full flush doors.
Thermal and Moisture Protection:
Below Grade Foundation Walls – 60 mil. waterproofing membrane.
Exterior Walls – 2” Rigid insulation at structural stud back-up walls.
Modified Bitumen Roofing: o Roofing system to be a multiple layer, SBS modified bitumen (polyester reinforced), granule surfaced Polyisocyanurate Board Roof Insulation (R=20): Rigid, sloped (1/4” per foot) and flat, cellular thermal insulation with polyisocyanurate closed cell foam core. Roof shall have internal roof drains which will drain to storm sewer.
Slate Roof: o Recycled Roofing Slate by Camara Slate Products or The Vintage Slate Company Composite Vented Polyisocyanurate Board Roof Insulation (R=20) with APA rated OSB Roof system to include appropriately sized gutter and downspout system. Color to be as selected by Architect from manufacturer’s availability of stock.
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Green Roof: o Extensive Garden Roof System by American Hydrotech, Inc., Carlisle, or approved equal.
Vapor barriers o Sprayed-on Air and Vapor Barrier to be provided at all exterior walls.
Interior Mechanical Rooms and walls at other similar areas requiring sound control – acoustical fiberglass or mineral fiber insulation.
Spray-on fireproofing as required to provide 1 hour protection to structure. o 15 lb. density spray-on fireproofing equal to WR Grace MK-6 or equal by South West Vermiculite.
Interior Construction and Finishes: 1. Vestibules a) Floor: Walk-Off Mat Manufacturer: Construction Specialties, Product: Pedi Tred G4 with ¾” aluminum tread rails. b) Walls: Clear anodized aluminum curtainwall system and painted gypsum board. 2. Lobby, Bookstore, and Coffee Kiosk a) Floor: Slate Floor Tiles (in various colors and sizes) Manufacturer: Camara Slate Products b) Base: 4” H Slate Tile to match floor Manufacturer: Camara Slate Products c) Walls: Clear anodized aluminum curtainwall system, painted gypsum, Designtex custom digital recycled vinyl wallcovering or equal d) Coffee Kiosk Countertop and backsplash: 1 ¼” thick recycled glass and concrete by Icestone 3. Public Restrooms, Staff Restroom and Family Restroom a) Floor: Manufacturer: Stone Source, Product: 12”x12” EcoTech porcelain tile (epoxy grout typical floor) b) Base: 4” Ecotech porcelain tile base to match floor tile Stone Source Contact: Mitchell Kalmar 212- 979-6400 c) Walls: Manufacturer: Daltile, Product: 2”x8” ceramic tile on all walls at full height d) Partitions: Ceiling mounted stainless steel partitions
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e) Countertop and backsplash: 1 ¼” thick recycled glass and concrete by Icestone 4. Multipurpose Room a) Floor: Carpet tile, 100% solution dyed - $45.00/SY material allowance b) Base: 4” Stained wood base c) Walls: West wall: Acoustical fabric wrapped panels; North and South walls: Painted gypsum wall board; East wall: Assume 60% 4” D and 20% 6” D Bucks County Brownstone (Ashlar) and 20% 6” D Midwestern Brownstone (sawn) by Delaware Quarries, Inc. 5. Catering Kitchen a) Floor: Manufacturer: Stone Source, Product: 12”x12” EcoTech porcelain tile with textured finish (epoxy grout typical floor) b) Base: 4” Ecotech porcelain tile base to match floor tile c) Walls: Manufacturer: Stone Source, Product: 4”x4” EcoTech porcelain tile, all others painted gypsum d) Countertop and backsplash: solid surface with integral bowl, Ice Stone or equal e) Casework: Plastic laminate 6. Circulation Services, Tech Services, AV Room and Copy Room a) Floor: Carpet tile, 100% solution dyed - $35.00/SY material allowance b) Base: 4” Rubber base c) Walls: Painted gypsum board, Designtex custom digital recycled vinyl wallcovering or equal and clear anodized storefront system with ¼” clear tempered glazing 7. Offices, Conference Rooms, Tech Lab, Tech Support and Loft Reading Rooms a) Floor: Carpet tile, 100% solution dyed - $35.00/SY material allowance b) Base: 4” Rubber base c) Walls: Painted gypsum board 8. Fire Pump Room, Mechanical Room and Delivery and Distribution Room a) Floor: Sealed concrete b) Base: NA c) Walls: Painted concrete masonry unit 9. Storage Rooms and MDF Room a) Floor: Linoleum b) Base: 4” Rubber base c) Walls: Painted gypsum walls 10. Dover’s Den and Adult’s Collection a) Floor: Carpet tile, 100% solution dyed - $35.00/SY material allowance b) Base: 4” Rubber base c) Walls: Painted gypsum board, Designtex custom digital recycled vinyl wallcovering or equal and clear anodized storefront system with ¼” clear tempered glazing
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11. Loading & General Storage a) Floor: Sealed concrete b) Base: 4” Rubber base c) Walls: Painted gypsum 12. Mechanical Room, Fire Pump Room, Elec/Data Room, Boiler Room, Elevator Machine Room a) Floor: Sealed concrete b) Base: 4” Rubber base c) Walls: Painted CMU block 13. Story-Time Room a) Floor: Carpet tile, 100% solution dyed - $45.00/SY material allowance b) Base: 4” Rubber base and wood base c) Walls: Painted gypsum board and acoustical fabric wrapped panels 14. Youth Admin Workroom a) Floor: Carpet tile, 100% solution dyed - $35.00/SY material allowance b) Base: 4” Rubber base c) Walls: Painted gypsum board 15. Youth Collection a) Floor: Carpet tile, 100% solution dyed - $45.00/SY material allowance b) Base: 4” Wood base c) Walls: Painted gypsum board and acoustical fabric wrapped panels 16. Egress Stairs a) Floor: Raised rubber tile floor, risers and treads b) Base: 4” Rubber base c) Walls: Painted gypsum d) Railings: Painted metal pipe rail 17. Lobby Stairs a) Floor: Carpet risers and treads b) Railings: Perforated metal panels and pipe rail 18. Second Floor Reading Room a) Floor: Carpet tile, 100% solution dyed - $45.00/SY material allowance b) Piers: Brick Veneer c) Walls: Clear anodized curtainwall system 19. Teen Collection d) Floor: Carpet tile, 100% solution dyed - $35.00/SY material allowance e) Base: 4” Rubber base f) Walls: Painted gypsum board, Designtex custom digital recycled vinyl wallcovering or equal and clear anodized storefront system with ¼” clear tempered glazing
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Ceilings: See Reflected Ceiling Plans for locations Ceiling Type ‘A’ - Acoustic Ceilings: Typical spaces unless shown otherwise: 2’x2’ panels with square edge for painted 9/16” exposed tee grid. Ceiling Type ‘B’ – 5/8” thick gypsum wall board Ceiling Type ‘C’ – Perforated Metal Panel Ceilings: Suspended .032” thick x 48” wide clear anodized aluminum acoustical panel pattern ‘B’ with acoustical Baffle C by Fry Reglet Ceiling Type ‘E’ – Exposed Structural Steel Deck and Beams Painted with low VOC paint Ceiling Type ‘F’ – Suspended Wood Slat Ceiling Panel System Stained Panel Grille Ceiling system by Rulon Company Ceiling Type ‘G’ – Exposed Structural Wood Deck: Stained with low VOC stain Ceiling Type ‘W’ – Washable Lay-in Acoustical Ceiling Tile: Suspended 2’x2’ Fissured Ceramaguard #608 by Armstrong with square edge for high humidity ceilings installed in painted aluminum grid. Column Covers: Textured satin aluminum column covers “Fishnet” by Fry-Reglet. Thickness: .090” (See drawings for locations)
Builder’s Hardware: o Provide plated steel and brass butt hinges with ball bearings. Surface mounted closers; opening force to comply with disability standards. Schlage locksets with removable core. Flush bar exit devices and appropriate hardware units to receive UL label where required by opening classification. Finish shall be US26D (Satin Chrome).
Interior roll up grilles: o Overhead coiling grilles to be clear anodized aluminum finish
Interior glazing: o Interior glass shall be 1/4” tempered clear glass, unless otherwise noted. (see drawings for locations) o Fire rated glass shall be 1/4” wire glass. o Mirrors: 1/4” No. 1 quality.
Toilet Compartments: Ceiling mounted stainless steel partitions with overhead bracing. Colors to be selected by Architect from manufacturers complete product line.
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Toilet and Bath Accessories: Stainless steel with brushed finish, liquid soap dispensers, electric high-speed hand dryers, toilet paper dispenser, grab bars, sanitary napkin receptacle, coat hooks and shower curtain and rods. Operable Panel Partitions: Provide manual operated folding partitions by Hufcor, Modernfold, Inc. or approved equal in Multipurpose Room (See drawings for locations) Railing: Type A: Blumcraft of Pittsburgh RG-450 series glass rail Type B: Standard cable assembly by CableRail. 3/16” dia. Stainless Steel cables Type C: 1 ½” dia. stainless steel pipe rail. All railings in enclosed egress stairs to be painted metal railings with painted metal vertical pickets.
Identifying Devices: o Provide directional graphics, room names and number plates. o Provide one sign for each door. o Provide graphics at Entry, Coffee Kiosk, Bookstore and Main Circulation Desk. o Provide exterior signage with building name at each exterior building entrance
Fire Specialties: o Provide lockable fire extinguisher cabinets in open areas, brackets in service areas. Provide one unit for each 3,000 s.f. area.
Window treatment: o Provide manual Mechoshade Thermoveil shades at each exterior window in all Offices and Conference rooms. o Provide automatic Mechoshade Thermoveil shades with blackout shades at each exterior windows of Multi-purpose Room.
CONVEYING SYSTEMS Passenger / Service Elevators: • • • •
Provide single-acting, holeless hydraulic elevator, at location shown. Rated Load: 5,000lb capacity, Rated Speed: 125 fpm, Class C3 loading that allows loading with heavy considerations. Standard 12-month warranty, beginning when buildings turned over to owner. Stainless steel interior panels and luminous ceiling with stainless steel front panels and doors and stainless steel hoistway entrances.
End of Architectural Criteria.
City of Dover ANCHOR LIBRARY
STRUCTURAL NARRATIVE New construction will consist of concrete slab-on-grade at the 1st floor with a shallow spread foundation system. The building will be steel framed, with the second & loft floors framed using composite steel beams, 4” total thickness concrete slab and composite metal floor decking. A raised floor system will be utilized throughout for the MEP systems. Steel columns will continue up to the roof, while the roof will be framed utilizing glue laminated beams and girders. The lateral system will consist of steel moment frames, except at the oval, which will be braced frames. The exterior wall system will generally be 4” masonry veneer with 8” cold form steel stud back-up. Portions of the masonry, particularly at the gable ends, will be relieved by the steel frame.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 1 of 27 DIVISION 15 MECHANICAL Design Criteria Design Conditions Outdoor Design Conditions Winter design dry bulb Summer design dry bulb Coincident wet bulb
15°F 90°F 78°F
Indoor Design Conditions Room Collection & Reference Areas Multipurpose Room Administration Office Mechanical/Storage Spaces
70°F 70°F 70°F 65°F
74°F 74°F 74°F N.A.
Systems shall maintain a maximum of 60% humidity +/- 5% RH within the building during the summer months only.
Filtration Air handling units shall be provided with a MERV 7 Pre-Filter and a MERV 13 Final Filter.
Codes Comply with all current Federal, State, City and local codes, standards and ordinances including the International Mechanical Code, the International Building Code, the Delaware State Building Code including supplements, NFPA, utility company standards, insurance carrier requirements, and local authorities. The HVAC systems will be designed to comply with all state and local codes including the following code adopted by the authority having jurisdiction: State of Delaware Building Code including supplements International Building Code International Mechanical Code International Energy Code State of Delaware Fire Safety Code Applicable Sections of NFPA Section NFPA 90A and B, Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings. ASHRAE Standard 62, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 2 of 27 General Requirements All work shall be coordinated with project phasing schedule prior to installation. The work includes all labor, materials, equipment and services necessary to complete the work as shown on the drawings and specified herein.
Coordination Coordinate with work of other trades and field conditions. Carefully check space requirements and utilities to insure all equipment can be installed in the spaces allotted thereto and coordinate all necessary utility service requirements. The installation of work may require a phased installation sequence. Coordinate, protect and schedule work with work of other trades in accordance with the required construction sequence. Install all work in accordance with equipment manufacturer's installation instructions.
Warranty The Contractor warrants that materials and equipment furnished under the Contract will be of good quality and new unless otherwise required or permitted, that the Work will be free from defects not inherent in the quality required or permitted, and that the work will conform with the project requirements. Work not conforming to these requirements, including substitutions not properly approved and authorized, may be considered defective. Contractor shall warranty all work for a period of one year from Owner acceptance unless specified otherwise in which case longer equipment warranties may apply. Special Warranty: Manufacturer's standard form in which manufacturer agrees to repair or replace the following components of furnaces that fail in materials or workmanship within specified warranty period: 1. 2. 3.
Warranty Period, Commencing on Date of Substantial Completion: Heat Pump Compressors: 10 years. Boilers: 10 years.
Submittals Contractor shall submit; shop drawings, product data, samples, record documents, (as-builts in auto cad format) operation and maintenance manuals in accordance with the Contract requirements, commissioning and particular specification section requirements. Commissioning This project will include commissioning of all HVAC systems by an approved Commissioning Authority. All sub-contractors shall provide necessary support for demonstration of start-up and operation including all required system adjustments. Personnel shall be available as indicated in the CA schedule.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 3 of 27 HVAC System Description With all options described below, air distribution shall be via an under floor air distribution system. Interior zones will consist of face adjustable constant volume turbulent floor twist outlets. A pressure controller will adjust the fan speed of the air handling unit via a variable frequency drive in order to maintain the desired absolute or relative pressure in the plenum. Control of the interior spaces will be based on the pressure in the plenum. Perimeter zones will consist of a fan powered terminal unit, one per zone, ducted to variable volume linear outlets along the building perimeter. Supplemental heat is provided by hot water coils on the fan powered terminal units. Special zones such as conference rooms, tech services and the multipurpose room which can experience wide load swings due to intermittent occupancy will utilize non-ducted variable volume round floor diffusers controlled from a space thermostat.
Heating & Cooling Plant - Base: The base heating and cooling plant shall consist of a closed loop geothermal heat exchanger. The heat exchanger shall consist of 60 bore holes, 400 feet in depth, 20 feet on center, with 1 ½” HDPE pipe filled with 20% glycol. The heat exchanger will manifold to an underground vault with isolation valves. Two end suction pumps in a lead/lag configuration shall circulate the ground loop to four water to water reverse cycle chiller heaters. Pumps shall be similar to Bell & Gossett Series 1510 capable of delivering approximately 300 GPM at 100 FTHD. The four water to water reverse cycle chiller heaters shall each be sized for 30 Tons cooling and 420,000 BTU/HR of heat output. Chiller heaters shall be similar to Florida Heat Pump Series WP-420. Two end suction pumps in a lead/lag configuration shall circulate chilled water to chilled water coils mounted in the air handling unit’s. Pumps shall be similar to Bell & Gossett Series 1510 capable of delivering approximately 300 GPM at 50 FTHD. Hot water shall be circulated to hot water coils located in the air handling unit, in fan powered terminal units, and cabinet unit heaters. Hot water pumps shall be similar to Bell & Gossett Series 1510 capable of delivering approximately 100 GPM at 50 FTHD. A gas fired condensing boiler sized for an output of 500,000 MBH shall inject heat into the hot water loop as required to maintain a leaving water temperature of 180°F. Boiler shall be similar to AERCO Model MLX. Heating & Cooling Plant – Alternate One: As an alternate to the base plant, a water cooled scroll chiller and condensing water heaters shall be provided. The water cooled scroll chiller shall have a nominal cooling capacity of 120 Tons and located in a mechanical room. Chiller shall be similar to York YCWL series connected to a closed circuit cooling tower located at grade. The cooling tower shall be similar to Baltimore Air Coil Model FXV sized to match the capacity of the chiller. Two end suction pumps in a lead/lag configuration shall circulate chilled water to chilled water coils mounted in the air handling unit’s. Pumps shall be similar to Bell & Gossett Series 1510 capable of delivering approximately 300 GPM at 50 FTHD. Condenser water shall be circulated via two end suction pumps in a lead/lag
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 4 of 27 configuration. Pumps shall be similar to Bell & Gossett Series 1510 capable of delivering approximately 360 GPM at 50 FTHD. A total of two gas fired condensing boilers each sized for an output of 800,000 MBH shall be provided. Boilers shall be similar to AERCO Model MLX. Hot water shall be circulated to hot water coils located in the air handling unit, in fan powered terminal units, and cabinet unit heaters. Hot water pumps shall be similar to Bell & Gossett Series 1510 capable of delivering approximately 100 GPM at 50 FTHD.
Alternate Two: With either the Base Heating/Cooling plant (geothermal) or the Alternate One plant (chiller/boiler); Alternate Two shall include thermal ice storage. A total of three Clamac Icebank thermal storage tanks Model 1190A with a net usable capacity of 162 Ton Hours each shall be provided. The thermal storage tanks shall be partially buried below grade.
Air Handling Systems: All new air handling units shall be modular, double wall construction. Air handling units shall consist of the following sections; mixing box, filter, hot water coil, access, cooling coil and supply fan. An energy recovery wheel section with associated exhaust fan will be provided for each air handling unit. System Tag
FIRST FLOOR AC-1A Tech Services, Multi-Media/Periodicals, New Books, Story Time Room AC-1B
FIRST FLOOR Circulation Services, Lobby, Multipurpose Room
SECOND FLOOR Tech Lab, Tech Support
SECOND FLOOR AC-2B Reference & Adult Collection, Adult Administration, Admin. Offices, Dover Room AC-3
THIRD FLOOR Teen Collection, Teen Administration, Lounge
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 5 of 27 Mechanical/Electrical Spaces Mechanical equipment rooms, electric and storage rooms will be provided with vertical hot water unit heaters and propeller fans for heating. Thermostatically controlled exhaust fans shall be provided for ventilation. Electrical heating will also be considered for electrical rooms.
Toilets Toilets, janitor closets, and other miscellaneous spaces will be exhausted through inline exhaust fans with discharges ducted to the exterior. Fans shall be controlled through the DDC system. Ductwork will be low-pressure rectangular duct. Heat will be provided by finned tube radiation or cabinet unit heaters.
Elevator Machine rooms The machine room shall be conditioned with a fan coil unit.
Stair Towers and Front Entries All stair towers as well as the front entries shall be heated using hot water cabinet unit heaters.
Tel/Data Room The Tel/Data Room shall be conditioned to maintain operational conditions utilizing a dedicated direct expansion split system. The unit shall be scheduled for 7/24 operation.
Building Control System The building control system will be a complete Direct Digital Control system including control panels, sensors, thermostats, temperature and pressure transmitters, gauges, valves, dampers, operators, relays, computer, printer and other equipment and appurtenances, including electrical wiring. Additional control points such to measure energy consumption, temperatures, flows shall be provided and interfaced with the building dashboard system as described in the Electrical section.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 6 of 27 Products Acceptable Products Acceptable Manufacturers: Provide the specified product or submit the equal product from the list of acceptable manufacturers for approval.
Acceptable Manufacturers: 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
Air Handling Units: Trane, York, McQuay. Air Filters: Farr, Airguard, American Air Filter. Temperature Controls: Alerton, Siemens, Johnson Controls Diffusers and Grilles: Tuttle & Bailey, Price, Titus. Hot Water Finned Tube Radiation : Vulcan, Sterling, Trane. Cabinet Unit Heaters: Airtherm, Trane, Vulcan. Fans - Centrifugal: Barry Blower, Greenheck, Chicago. Fans - Roof Exhaust: Penn, Loren Cook, Greenheck. Fans - Sidewall Propeller: Penn, Loren Cook, Greenheck. Fire and Smoke Dampers: Prefco, Ruskin. Flexible Ductwork: Flexmaster. Hot Water Unit Heaters: Airtherm, Trane, Vulcan. Hot Water Heating Coils - Duct Mounted: Heatcraft, York, Trane, Aerofin. Insulation: Owens-Corning, Certainteed, Knauf, Schuller, Pittsburgh-Corning. Sound Attenuators: Vibro-Acoustics, VAW, Industrial Acoustics. Variable Frequency Drives: ABB, Emerson, Graham, Toshiba. Vibration Isolation/Seismic Restraints: Mason Industries, Amber Booth, Vibration Mountings. Chillers: Trane, York, McQuay Closed Circuit Towers: Baltimore Air Coil, Marley, Evapco Boilers: Aerco, Buderus, Viesmann Pumps: Bell & Gossett, Taco, Armstrong Water to Water Heat Pumps: Florida Heat Pump, Climate Master, Water Furnace
Electric Components Electric motors shall be constant speed 1800 rpm, squirrel cage type and shall comply with NEMA standards high efficiency type IEEE standard 112, test method B. Enclosure type shall be open drip proof for indoor use, guarded drip proof where indoors and exposed to contact by personnel or weather protected type totally enclosed fan cooled for outdoor use. Fractional horsepower motors shall be capacitor start, induction run or split phase type, 1/3hp and less and shall be 120 volt, single phase, 60Hz, AC service factor 1.35. Motors 1/2 HP and larger shall be 208 or 480 volt, three phase 60Hz, AC and service factor 1.15. Two speed motors shall be dual winding type.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 7 of 27 Motor Controllers: Comply with NEC, NFPA 70 and UL. FVNR for motors 1/3hp and less, 120 volt, 1-phase, 60hz, AC with pilot light, toggle switch, thermal overload and lockout type disconnect switch. FVNR magnetic across-the-line combination type with fused disconnect switch for motors 1/2hp and greater, 208 or 480 volt, 3-phase, 60hz, AC with hand-off-auto switch, 120 volt control transformer and control circuit, pilot light, two sets of auxiliary contacts, 3-phase ambient temperature compensated thermal overload relays with manual reset push button. Provide reduced voltage auto transformer dual winding open delta type starters for motors 50 hp and larger. Enclosures shall be NEMA type 1A for indoor applications, NEMA type 3R for outdoor applications and NEMA type 4 for locations subject to water spray or high humidity. Motor Efficiency: To comply with local utility company requirements.
Ductwork Submit sheet metal shop standards for review. Construct of galvanized steel ASTM A 527 with G90 coating, in accordance with SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible dated 1985. Seal all joints with approved sealer. Ductwork shall be sealed to SMACNA Class A standards. Leakage class shall be Class 6 for static pressure construction class of up to and including 6” wg and Class 3 for construction class greater than 6” wg Acoustic duct liner shall be installed on interior of ducts a minimum of 15 feet on inlet and discharge side of air handling equipment and downstream of VAV boxes. Air chambers and plenums shall be double wall 20 gauge galvanized steel with 4" thick 6 lb. density fiberglass insulation board. Fire dampers shall comply with UL 555 with minimum 1-1/2 hour rating. Smoke dampers shall comply with UL 555S with motorized damper - Ruskin or approved equal. Install volume dampers upstream of all supply air outlets and inlets. Exterior ductwork shall have a minimum of 18” clearance over roofing and protected with a weatherproof covering. All duct supports shall be epoxy coated hot dipped galvanized.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 8 of 27 Piping Comply with ASME standard 31.9 "Building Services Piping" ANSI standard B31.1 Standard for "Power Piping" and B16.5 for welding. Pipe and tubing materials, fittings and joints. Copper tubing: ASTM B-88, Type L with wrought copper fittings ANSI B16.22, solder joints ASTM B32 95-5 tin-antimony. Copper shall be used for pipe sizes 1 ½” and below. Steel piping: ASTM A-120 or ASTM A-53 grade B, schedule 40, seamless, black steel pipe with cast iron threaded fittings ANSI B16.4 class 125 or 250, malleable iron threaded fittings ANSI B16.3 class 150 or 300, steel welding fittings ASTM A234, flanged fittings ANSI B16.5, or flanged fittings. Steel pipe shall be used for piping 2” and above. Comply with MSS-90 requirements for support of piping and the State of Delaware Building Code for seismic requirements. Pipe hanger spacing and support loading shall be in accordance with Table 305.4 of the International Mechanical Code. Where concentrated loads of valves, fittings and components occur space hangers closer as necessary based on the weight to be supported and the maximum recommended loads for the hanger support system. Pipe hangers shall be of the clevis type, unless piping fluid is above 215°F where axial movement occurs use roller type hangers. Hydro statically test piping in accordance with ANSI B31.9 requirements at 1-1/2 times system working pressure. All pipe hangers shall be hot dipped galvanized components with galvanized threaded rod.
Insulation Insulation shall be provided on all ductwork and piping. Provide internal lining on the first ten feet of ductwork upstream and down stream of an air system or terminal box. Duct wrap insulation shall be provided with a vapor barrier and thickness in compliance with ASHRAE 90.1. All piping valves and fittings shall be insulated per the requirements set forth in ASHRAE 90.1. All pipe insulation shall be provided with a Vapor barrier.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 9 of 27 Execution Examination Inspect site conditions before starting preparatory work and verify that actual conditions are known and acceptable before starting work. Inspect areas where equipment will be installed and verify adequate space is available for access, service, and removal of equipment. Coordinate with the Work of other Sections.
Sheet Metal Work All sheet metal work shall be done in a neat and workmanlike manner with ductwork following building lines and in straight lines with smooth transitions and offsets as required to suit actual installation. Sheet metal work, which does not conform to Drawings and/or Specifications or is poorly done shall be repaired and/or replaced as directed by the Architect. Contractor shall install all duct-mounted smoke detectors, and other devices furnished by the Electrical Contractor for mounting in the ductwork or air handling equipment. All pre-fabricated duct sections shall be cleaned prior to storage on the site and be provided with protective covering on all openings to maintain the interior of the ductwork clean and free of dust and other materials prior to installation. Field-assembled duct sections shall be cleaned during assembly and similarly protected until installation and complete system installation & operation.
Air Duct Leakage Test Supply ductwork from the supply air fan to the terminals shall be subject to inspection and leakage testing by the Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing agency. The duct system testing shall be performed before the installation of duct insulation and ceilings. Testing shall be conducted at the design pressure of the ductwork being tested. Duct leakage test shall be coordinated with the various contractors through the HVAC Contractor. The HVAC Contractor shall prepare a schedule for testing indicating specific dates and procedures. The Owner and Architect shall be notified a minimum of two (2) weeks before testing is performed. Procedures for conducting the leakage test shall be in accordance with SMACNA Air Duct Leakage Test Manual. Leakage for non-duct components such as fire, smoke, and volume dampers and terminal boxes is an integral part of the overall system leakage, and these components shall be included in the duct leakage tests. The TAB contractor shall submit a report on the leakage test. The report shall include accurate description of the test procedure and results, including recommendations for any remedial action required to meet the specified leakage criteria.
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Copies of certified calibration data for the leakage test apparatus shall be provided as part of the test report.
Piping Systems Installation Install piping straight, plumb and form right angles on parallel lines with building walls. Locate groups of pipes parallel to each other. Provide sufficient spacing for insulation and valve access. Pipe shall be free from scale and dirt. Protect open ended pipe ends to prevent debris from entering. All piping shall be reamed free of burrs. Joining and bending of copper tubings shall be in accordance with the Copper Development Association Copper Tube Handbook. Piping shall be worked into place without springing or forcing. Water systems piping shall be pitched in direction of flow. Drain valves shall be located at all system low points. Provide manual air vents at all system high points. Locate valves for easy access and operation. Valve stems shall be above horizontal. Provide complete dielectric isolation between ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Piping connections to coils and equipment shall be made with offsets provided with unions of flanges arranged so that equipment can be serviced or removed without dismantling. Provide for expansion and contraction in all piping systems to prevent undue strains on piping or equipment. Provide double off-sets at risers to take up expansion. Run piping concealed above ceilings and within furred spaces. Piping in mechanical rooms shall be exposed. Support vertical piping at every floor independently of connected horizontal piping. Pipe hangers shall be placed within 12 inches of each horizontal elbow. Provide vibration isolation on pipe hangers within 50 feet of any rotating devices.
Insulation Application Requirements Install insulation, mastics, adhesives, coatings, covers, and weather-protection in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. Remove dirt, scale, oil, rust, and other foreign matter from surfaces to be insulated. All surfaces shall be clean and dry prior to installation of insulation.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 11 of 27 Insulation shall not be applied to piping systems and related equipment until the completion of pressure testing. Insulation shall not be applied to duct systems and related equipment until ductwork has been sealed in accordance with specifications. Piping and ductwork insulation shall be full thickness through all penetrations of nonfire-rated construction. Equipment nameplates, labels, and access doors shall be exposed with insulation edges finished. Valves shall be insulated to top of bonnets. Anchors, hangers, and other projections shall be insulated and vapor-sealed to prevent condensation. All openings and punctures shall be sealed with vapor barrier compound. Flexible blanket insulation shall be installed with ends tightly butted. Install so that insulation is not excessively compressed at duct corners. Seams shall be stapled 6 inches on-center with outwardly clinching staples. Seal with pressure-sensitive vapor barrier tape. Where rectangular ducts are 24 inches in width or greater, duct wrap insulation shall be secured to bottom of duct with mechanical fasteners such as pins and speed clip washers, spaced on 12-inch centers and not over 3 inches from edges of insulation joints. Fiberboard insulation shall be impaled on mechanical fasteners applied to duct surface 12 inches on center and not over 3 inches form edges of insulation joints. Secure insulation with speed washers or clips. Seal joints with pressure sensitive vapor barrier tape. Duct insulation liner shall be adhered to sheet metal with 90 percent coverage of adhesive and all exposed leading edges and transverse joints coated with adhesive. Duct liner shall be additionally secured with mechanical fasteners. Fasteners shall be impact driven or weld secured with mechanical fasteners. Fastener spacing shall be in accordance with manufacturer instructions. Refer to SMACNA HVAC DUCT CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS, Figure 2-22, Flexible Duct Liner Installation. Exterior ductwork insulation shall be clad in aluminum with stainless steel hardware and straps. The top of ductwork cladding shall be pitched for rain water runoff. All coil ends on VAV boxes shall be insulated.
Protection and Clean-up The Contractor shall be responsible for maintenance and protection of all materials and equipment furnished by him during the construction period from loss, damage or deterioration until final acceptance by the Owner. All materials and equipment on the job site shall be stored and protected from the weather. All piping and equipment openings shall be temporarily closed during construction to prevent obstruction and damage.
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All equipment with damaged finished surfaces shall be cleaned and repainted with the same paints as were factory applied. Clean-Up: Keep the job site free from the accumulation of waste materials and rubbish daily. At the completion of the work, remove all rubbish, construction equipment and surplus materials from the site and leave the premises in a clean condition.
Systems Identification All equipment furnished under this Section shall be marked for ease of identification. Comply with ANSI A 13.1 for lettering size, color field, colors, and viewing angles.
Test, Adjust and Balance Test, adjust and balance all air systems/equipment in accordance with NEBB requirements. Tab agency to be certified by NEBB. Submit typed report of final measurements and equipment operational performance data.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 13 of 27 DIVISION 15 PLUMBING General All materials and system components shall comply with the requirements of the State of Delaware Building Code. All work shall be coordinated with project phasing schedule prior to installation.
System description Water Service: Install a 4” metered domestic water service with connection to the existing site utility main. Provide and install a full size reduced pressure backflow preventer with drainage on the new water service. Domestic hot and cold water: Install hot and cold water distribution to new plumbing fixtures throughout. Provide freeze-proof exterior hydrants around the building perimeter such that all portions can be reached with a 100 ft. hose. Hot water shall be generated by electric point-of-use storage and electric instantaneous water heating equipment. Sanitary: Install sanitary, waste and vent piping serving plumbing fixtures and floor drains. Install gravity building drains (quantity to be determined) with a connection to the existing municipal sewer. Roof, terrace and areaway drainage will be piped independent of the sanitary sewer and discharge to the municipal storm sewer. Gas: provide and install a complete natural fuel gas system including service, meter and building distribution piping
Energy Conservation Energy conservation requirements as set forth in the State of Delaware Building Code will be included. Additional energy conserving methods will be considered to further affect higher energy savings. Provisions for the physically handicapped as required by the State of Delaware Building Code will be included. Potable water supply will be protected against backflow, back-siphonage, cross connection and other unsanitary conditions.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 14 of 27 Storm Drainage Scope: Roof drains (primary and secondary) serving roof areas piped to interior rain leaders and underground storm drain piping. All downspouts and rain leaders will drain to the site storm sewer system. Secondary or emergency roof drainage serving roof areas will be piped independently to the building’s exterior above grade. Sloped roof areas will be drained utilizing architectural gutters and exterior or interior leaders. Leaders will be piped to an underground network discharging independently to the municipal storm sewer. Design Criteria: State of Delaware Building Code. Disposal: Connect into site drainage system separate from sanitary sewer. Piping materials: Storm piping above ground within building: Hub-less cast iron pipe with no hub fittings and "Clamp-All 125" or 4-band "Husky" clamps. Storm piping below ground within building: service weight cast iron pipe and fittings with hub and spigot ends, ASTM A74. Seal: one-piece neoprene rubber gaskets matching the internal configuration of the hub.
Insulation Above ground horizontal runs covered with fibrous glass and fire retardant vapor barrier jacket. Interior Roof Drains: Cast iron body, cast iron dome strainer, sump pan, flashing and under deck clamps.
Sanitary Drainage Scope: Drainage of plumbing fixtures, sinks, drinking fountains, and floor drains piped to sanitary building drain. Venting of fixtures and drains to atmosphere. Design Criteria: State of Delaware Building Code. Disposal: Connect to the municipal sanitary sewer separate from storm sewer system. Piping Materials Sanitary, waste and vent piping above ground within building: Hub-less cast iron pipe with no hub fittings and "Clamp-All 125" or 4-band "Husky" clamps.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 15 of 27 Sanitary, waste and vent piping below ground within building: service weight cast iron pipe and fittings with hub and spigot ends, ASTM A74. Seal: one-piece neoprene rubber gaskets matching the internal configuration of the hub. Sump pump discharge piping above ground: Schedule 40 galvanized steel ASTM A l06. Fittings (sizes up to and including 2"): threaded cast iron fittings, l50 PSI, ANSI Bl6.4. Fittings (sizes 3" and larger): class 125 flanged fittings ANSI B16.1.
Drains General: Provide all poured in place drains with 24" x 24" flashing. Floor drain mechanical rooms: Heavy duty floor drain with, cast iron body, bottom outlet, 9" diameter cast iron top, trap primer connection, seepage pan and combination membrane flashing clamp. Floor drain toilet rooms: Cast iron body, bottom outlet, 7" diameter nickel bronze top, trap primer connection, seepage pan and combination membrane flashing clamp. Roof drains: Heavy duty drain with, 15" diameter cast iron body, bottom outlet, 12" diameter cast iron dome, roof sump receiver, under-deck clamp, extension collar, and combination membrane flashing clamp/gravel guard.
Domestic Water Scope: Water piped to plumbing fixtures, drinking fountains and sinks. Hot water piped to plumbing fixtures and sinks. Provide water metering flow sensor on water main. Wire meter output to building dashboard. Design Criteria: Pipe sizing in accordance with the State of Delaware Building Code based upon friction loss charts with a maximum of 6 feet per second velocity. Source: New 4” municipal water service.
Water Heating Equipment General: Electric storage type water heaters shall conform to all applicable A.S.M.E. Standards and approved by the National Sanitation Foundation, and in compliance with ASHRAE 90 (latest edition). Water heater: Storage type water heater. Similar to AO Smith DEL series.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 16 of 27 Piping Materials Domestic hot water, cold water, condensate, and indirect waste piping above ground: Hard drawn seamless Type L copper tubing ASTM B88 with wrought copper solder fittings A.N.S.I. B16.22 and "Bridgit" or other no lead content solder joints ASTM B3283, alloy Grades SN96 or SB5. Solder flux lead content-zero percent. Gas piping shall be schedule 40 black iron. Insulation Pipe Insulation Piping within building insulated with 1” minimum thickness fibrous glass insulation and pre-formed fibrous glass fittings with fire retardant vapor barrier jacket. Include sound attenuation insulation and wrap.
Valves Three inch and smaller All bronze, full port, 400 psi WSP rated 2 piece valves. Reduced pressure backflow preventer: Similar to Watts 909 Series.
Domestic Booster Pump Domestic Pressure Booster Pump: Duplex, variable speed, packaged system, UL listed, factory assembled, piped, wired and tested on a common groutable painted steel base frame. Pump packaged equipped with all bronze pumps, copper manifold piping, pressure (pilot) regulating/check valves, control panel, and hydro-pneumatic tank. Manufacturer: Armstrong series
Piping Supports Scope: Support of piping from building structure including seismic restraint. Design Criteria: Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS) Standard Practice SP-69, SMACNA, State of Delaware Building Code.
Sleeves, Escutcheons, Fire Stopping Scope: Sleeves and fire stopping for piping passing through walls and partitions. Escutcheons for piping exposed to view. Design Criteria: Size sleeves for continuous pipe insulation.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 17 of 27 Pipe Markers and Valve Tags Scope: Vinyl plastic full wrap pipe markers and flow arrows, brass valve tags, valve charts and diagrams. Design Criteria: ANSI A13.1.
Cleanouts Scope: Accessible cleanouts to permit "snaking" of drainage piping, and other buried non-pressure piping.
Cleanout plates for buried piping Design Criteria: Cleanouts at base of vertical stacks and leaders, at ends of horizontal runs, at each change in direction greater than 45°F., approximately 50 feet apart on piping runs. Floor plates: Cast iron body, appropriate brass cover plate Wall plates: Stainless steel
Plumbing Fixtures Fixtures: New, complete with trimmings and fittings, including faucets, carriers, supplies, stops, traps, tailpieces, waste plugs, casings, hangers, plates, brackets, anchors, supports, hardware and fastening devices. ADA compliant in accordance with ICC ANSI 117.1, 1998 Stainless steel Type 302, 304, 316, or 317, as noted, sound deadened. Trimmings and fittings: Construct of forged, cast, rolled or extruded brass or bronze with monel and other suitable non-corrosive parts: designed with easily renewable parts that are subject to wear or deterioration. No die castings and stampings other than brass or stainless steel. Plumbing trim shall consist of: Exposed surfaces: Pipe: Pipe fittings: Supply stops: Waste tailpiece: Escutcheons:
chrome plated. copper type L. threaded bronze. chrome plated bronze, stuffing box, renewable seat washer. minimum #17 gage brass. One-piece chrome plated cast brass or stainless steel.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 18 of 27 Watercloset: Standard and ADA compliant, vitreous china, dual action flush valve, wall mounted with concealed carrier, 1.6 gpf low flow, elongated, siphon jet. Seat: heavy duty solid plastic elongated open front less cover. Color: as selected by architect. Fixture:
Kohler, Sloan or American Standard.
Urinal: Standard and ADA compliant, vitreous china, 1.0 gpf, low flow, washout, complete with Flush Valve. Include concealed carrier. Color: white. Fixture:
Kohler, Sloan or American Standard.
Lavatories: Wall hung, counter, under-counter mounted, standard and ADA compliant, vitreous china, concealed arm carrier, drilled for 4" O.C. faucet, 1-1/2" chrome plated cast brass P-trap with cleanout plug, chrome plated brass angle stops with loose key operator, grid drain and tailpiece. Faucet: Chrome plated single lever and metering in public spaces. Insulate trap and hot water piping below ADA lavatory with insulation kit. Color: white. Fixture:
Delta, Sloan or Toto.
Mop receptors: 24" x 24" or 36” x 12" deep, terrazzo basin drain fitting and strainer, edge guard. Faucet: Wall mounted with bucket hook, vacuum breaker and wall bracket and hose thread end. Hose and bracket and mop hanger. Fixture:
Chicago 897 series. T&S B-66655-BSTR series.
Single compartment sink: Single compartment, ADA compliant, 25" x 22"x 5” deep, 18 gauge, type 316 stainless steel, self-rimming sink with (2) hole rear deck, Duo-strainer drain assembly, 1-1/2" chrome plated offset cast brass P-trap, chrome plated brass angle stops with loose key operator. Chrome plated brass single lever faucet with goose neck spout. Insulate waste and water piping below sink w/insulation kit. Fixture:
Elkay LR series.
Delta HDF series.
TRUEBRO insulation kit.
Electric drinking water coolers (general) General: UL, labeled, lead free, Non-ferrous water ways automatically operated, permanently lubricated air cooled hermetically sealed cooling unit having freeze-up protection adjustable temperature control. Electrical rating 120V AC. Minimum cooling capacity: 8.1 GPH (80 degrees entering to 50 degrees drinking at 90 degrees ambient). Provide cast brass p-trap with cleanout; screwdriver supply stop, copper tubing. Equip unit when required for proper support with a galvanized steel mounting frame.
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Electric water cooler double Fully recessed with extended bowls. Manufacturer: Filtrine series.
Gas Scope: Install gas HVAC equipment and other points of use. Install gas distribution systems in accordance with the local Gas Company and NFPA 54. Provide gas metering sensor on each equipment connection. Wire meter output to building dashboard.
Testing Perform tests in accordance with building code requirements in the presence of the authorities having jurisdiction.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 20 of 27 DIVISION 13 FIRE PROTECTION General All materials and system components shall comply with the requirements of the State of Delaware Fire Safety Code, International Fire Code, NFPA Life Safety Code, NFPA 13, 14, 20, and 24, Delaware State Fire Prevention Regulations, all referenced standards and the Owner’s Insurance Company. All work shall be coordinated with project phasing schedule prior to installation. Painting: All sprinkler piping shall be painted red. Hangers: All pipe hangers shall be hot dipped galvanized components with galvanized threaded rod.
System description Fire protection systems shall consist of but not be limited to: The fire protection water service will be served from the existing municipal water main. The main will incorporate a double detector check valve or a reduced pressure backflow preventer in accordance with municipal regulations. The system will incorporate an diesel driven fire pump assembly with controller, ATS and associated devices in accordance with NFPA 20 and feed riser assemblies as follows: Alarm check valve assembly(s) wet pipe serving the Building as a combined sprinkler/standpipe riser and incorporate floor control valve assemblies on each level served. The riser will also serve Class I 2-1/2 inch fire department valves. Provide exposed upright sprinklers in any/all combustible concealed spaces. Sprinkler heads shall be concealed type in areas containing finished surfaces and ceilings and exposed with painted piping in areas without finishes or open structures. Class 1 fire standpipe hose stations throughout the facility in accordance with NFPA 14.
Design Criteria Owner’s Insurance Company, Local, State and NFPA Standards. Systems to be hydraulically calculated based upon the following information with area adjustments for dry and attic systems as required by NFPA 13 &14 Light Hazard: Offices, Hallways, Lobby, Library (Non-Stack areas) 0.10 gpm/sq.ft. over the most remote 1,500 sq.ft. area with 100 gpm added for hose streams. Sprinkler heads rated at 165° spaced at a maximum of 196 sq.ft. per head with protection of all combustible concealed spaces.
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Ordinary Hazard Group 1: Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Rooms 0.15 gpm/sq.ft. over the most remote 1,500 sq.ft. area with 250 gpm added for hose streams. Sprinkler heads rated at 165° spaced at a maximum of 130 sq.ft. per head. Ordinary Hazard Group 2: Storage Rooms, Library (Stack Rooms) 0.20 gpm/sq.ft. over the most remote 1,500 sq.ft. area with 250 gpm added for hose streams. Sprinkler heads rated at 165° spaced at a maximum of 130 sq.ft. per head. Piping Materials: Wet Pipe System Mains - Schedule 10 lightwall pipe and Victaulic fittings. For pipe diameters - 2-1/2 inches and above. Branches - Schedule 40 black steel pipe and threaded fittings for pipe diameter - 2 inches and below.
Sprinkler Equipment Sprinkler heads: UL listed/FM approved automatic type; upright, concealed pendent, pendent, or sidewall to meet conditions, and of proper temperature rating. Deflector to be marked to indicate position. Upright and sidewall heads: Bright chrome plated bronze, glass bulb. Pendent heads: concealed piping: bright chrome plated bronze, glass bulb, with two piece sprinkler cup escutcheon assembly. Concealed heads: Concealed piping, bronze, glass bulb with ceiling plate to match ceiling color. Head guards: Required for heads subject to mechanical injury. Spare heads: Not less than 12, total number based on one spare head of each type and rating per each 100 similar heads, or part thereof, installed. Spare head cabinet: Baked enameled steel cabinet, hinged cover, of adequate size to contain heads and wrench. Head wrench: Provide at least one, with suitable openings. 2 ½” fire department valves with 2 ½” x 1 ½” reducers with cap and chain within recessed cabinets
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Valve Supervisory Devices Valve supervisory devices: UL/FM approved tamperproof signaling initiating switch arranged to detect closed valve position. Electrical rating: 120VAC. Division (Zone) Valves: Spaced to isolate specific areas within buildings and hose supplies.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 23 of 27 DIVISION 16 ELECTRICAL General This narrative describes the schematic electrical scope of work and specifications; refer to architectural floor plans for additional information. All work shall be coordinated with project phasing schedule prior to installation.
Electrical Service Provide underground ductbank and manhole/hand hole system for primary electric service from the utility company’s electrical system to a new pad mounted transformer. Ductbank shall be PVC sch. 40 ducts, concrete encased. Primary ductbank shall be provided under this contract. Cables and pad-mounted transformer shall be provided by Utility Company. Provide underground concrete encased ductbank and manhole/hand hole system and secondary wiring from the pad mounted transformer to electric service equipment located in the building. Include a red dye marker within ductbank backfill.
Secondary Electrical Service and Distribution The main switch and distribution switchboard shall be rated for 800 AMP–480/277 volt, 3 phase, 4 wire. Provide with TVSS system rated for 240kA per phase. Provide a utility approved meter and separate customer electronic power monitoring multimeter. Lighting panels shall generally be rated 480/277V, 225 amp, 42 poles, and receptacle panels shall generally be 208/120V rated 225 amp, 42 poles. Provide 480/277V power panels and wiring for HVAC equipment. Equipment operated at 120V shall be fed from receptacle panels. Switchboard and panelboards shall have copper bus and bolt on circuit breakers, surface or flush mounting. Circuit breakers shall be lockable. All equipment and receptacles shall be labeled indicating panel and circuit breaker. Receptacles shall be installed with ground pin up. Transformers shall have copper windings and shall be rated for 115 C rise.
HVAC Wiring Provide all necessary disconnects, wiring/raceways for all exhaust fans, pumps, and air units including air conditioning. Motor controllers for HVAC equipment are by mechanical. Provide electrical service to all mechanical control transformers and control panels.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 24 of 27 Telephone and Data System Wiring Project scope includes raceways for the telephone, data and video distribution. Wiring shall be provided by others. Electronic equipment such as switches, computers, servers, TV monitors etc. shall be provided by others. Provide concrete encased PVC sch 40 conduits, (2)-4” size, for bringing telephone service to the building. Provide minimum of two (2) data/telephone drops in each office and workroom. Each drop shall consist of a 2-gang box with 1” conduit to cable tray in below floor area.
Fire Alarm System Provide an addressable type fire alarm system. The system shall consist of a control panel, battery cabinet, annunciator panel, printer and all necessary peripheral devices, including but not limited to pull-stations, area smoke detection in storage areas, electric and mechanical rooms, flow switches, tamper switches, speaker/strobes, duct smoke detectors and magnetic door release devices.
Security System Wiring Security systems indicated in this section shall consist of pathways, conduit and backboxes, cabletrays, etc. Wiring shall be provided by others.
Call for Aid Provide complete call for aid signaling system in all handicap bathrooms and stalls including pull cord and hall dome light.
Receptacle Devices Provide a minimum of four (4) duplex receptacles for each office. Provide no more than 6 receptacles per branch circuit. Provide exterior weatherproof GFI outlets on the building exterior.
Wire and Insulation Applications Service Entrance: Type RHW or THWN, in raceway. Feeders: Type THHN/THWN, in raceway. Branch Circuits: Type THHN/THWN, in raceway or MC cable.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 25 of 27 Metal clad cables are permitted only for lighting switching legs in dry walls and for whips not exceeding 6 feet in length from a junction box to light fixtures in ceiling. Branch circuits home runs shall not use MC cables, wiring in EMT conduit shall be provided. Fire Alarm Circuits: Type THHN/THWN, in raceway. Low voltage, 100V maximum, circuits for sound and security systems: Power-limited tray cable, in cable tray or raceways. Shielded Cables: Provide shielded cables where required by the manufacturers. Install in raceways or cable trays as specified. Plenum Spaces: Use plenum rated cables in plenum spaces. Class 1 Control Circuits: Type THHN/THWN, in raceway. Class 2 Control Circuits: Type THHN/THWN, in raceway. Conduit Application Outdoors: Use the following wiring methods: Exposed: Aluminum. Concealed: Aluminum. Underground: Rigid Non-metallic Conduit, schedule 40 PVC conduit. Connection to Vibrating Equipment (Including Transformers and Hydraulic, Pneumatic, Electric Solenoid, or Motor-Driven Equipment): LFMC. Boxes and Enclosures: NEMA 250, Type 3R or Type 4. Conduit installed below floor slabs shall be rigid steel, galvanized. Indoors: Use the following wiring methods: Exposed areas not subject to physical damage: EMT. Exposed areas subject to physical damage: RMC. Areas subject to physical damage include, but limited to, attic, mechanical rooms, boiler and chiller rooms, sprinkler room and like utility rooms. Concealed: EMT.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 26 of 27 Connection to Vibrating Equipment (Including Transformers and Hydraulic, Pneumatic, Electric Solenoid, or Motor-Driven Equipment): FMC; except in wet or damp locations, use LFMC. Metal clad cables are permitted only for lighting switching legs in dry walls and for whips not exceeding 6 feet in length from a junction box to light fixtures in ceiling. Damp or Wet Locations: Rigid steel conduit. Plenum Spaces: Wiring methods in plenum spaces shall conform to the requirements of NEC Section 300-22. All conduits shall be metal. Exposed cables, where used, shall be listed and approved for use in plenum. Boxes and Enclosures: NEMA 250, Type 1, except as follows: Damp or Wet Locations: NEMA 250, Type 4, stainless steel.
Lighting Scope of lighting work shall include lighting fixtures and controls for all areas, refer to architectural specifications for fixture description. Lighting Control: The project will incorporate daylighting controls for various spaces throughout the facility, refer to other sections. In addition to daylighting controls, provide occupancy sensors in non-daylight controlled spaces. Provide under cabinet task lighting wherever overhead storage cabinets exist. Provide two (2) wall switches and one (1) 2-pole ceiling occupancy sensor for lighting controls in each non-daylight controlled space.
Emergency Lighting Emergency lighting shall be provided by selected fluorescent fixtures connected to central inverters distribution system to provide a minimum of 1 F.C. in all paths of egress. Emergency lighting shall also be provided in all interior windowless rooms and spaces. Exit lights shall be LED type. Provide an exterior emergency light at each exit door. Public way exterior lighting shall be energized from lighting inverters with dedicated distribution panelboard to maintain HID arc during power outage.
MEP/FP System Narrative Dover Public Library 15 April 2009 Page 27 of 27 Grounding Provide a system ground and all necessary bonding as required by the NEC. Provide separate insulated ground wire with each branch circuit and feeder. Provide a grounding electrode system using three ground rods and #2/0 conductor at steel columns so that adjacent grounded columns are no more than 60-70 feet apart. The ground loop shall be buried 36” below grade and shall extend around the entire perimeter of the new construction.
Lightning Protection System Provide a lightning protection system and connect to the ground loop as required by the NEC. Provide a lightning arrester on the electric service and obtain a Masters Label, UL96A for the project.
Photovoltaic As an alternate, the project will incorporate a 6kW roof mounted fixed tilt photovoltaic array with grid connected net-metering. The system shall be complete with required panels, hardware, inverters, controls and wiring for a complete and operational system. The system shall be equipped and installed with a data processor, software and flat pan
Building Dashboard Provide a complete building energy dashboard system complete with 46 inch LCD flat panel monitor, processor, wiring, and data points. The dashboard shall monitor and display energy usage and data from HVAC systems, water usage, gas and electric usage, Photovoltaic and lighting energy. Manufacturer: Lucid.
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Sustainable Strategies April 14, 2009 Page 1 of 7
Sustainable strategies General: According to the United States Green Building Council, there will always be discussion over what constitutes a "sustainable building". Buildings are complex assemblies of products, materials, technologies, and systems, owned, designed, developed, built, and managed in different ways by different people for a whole range of users, and for a whole range of purposes. There is no particular element that makes a building sustainable. The challenge of making a building sustainable can be approached on various fronts. It is also important to further understand that a sustainable building is also economically viable, and potentially enhances the social responsibility to its community. The built environment has an impact on our natural environment, economy, health, and productivity. The benefits of Green Building fall into the following three major categories: Environmental benefits: • • • •
Enhance and protect ecosystems and biodiversity Improve air and water quality Reduce solid waste Conserve natural resources
Economic benefits: • • • •
Reduce operating costs Enhance asset value and profits Improve employee productivity and satisfaction Optimize life-cycle economic performance
Health and community benefits: • • • •
Improve air, thermal, and acoustic environments Enhance occupant comfort and health Minimize strain on local infrastructure Contribute to overall quality of life
Kohler Ronan, LLC Consulting Engineers
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Sustainable Strategies April 14, 2009 Page 2 of 7
“Passive” and “Active” Sustainable building strategies can further be classified as follows: Passive: This family of elements include strategies such as building orientation, enhanced envelope development, fenestration, natural ventilation, daylighting, and shading. These strategies are inherent with the building itself. A successful implementation of these elements is the first step and lays the foundation for the “Active” elements. Active: Active elements are systems within the building that utilize, create or process energy to supplement or create the building’s interior environmental conditions. Active elements under consideration for the Anchor Library include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Ground-coupled heat pump systems for heating and cooling. Demand control ventilation. Thermal ice storage. Photovoltaic generation. Demand control ventilation. Under floor air distribution. Day-lighting controls. Water conserving plumbing fixtures.
Ground-coupled heat pump systems for heating and cooling Ground-coupled heat pump (geothermal) heating and cooling systems are one of the most energyefficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning systems available. Ground coupled heat pump systems can reduce energy consumption, and associated emissions by over 40% when compared to air source heat pumps and by over 70% when compared to electric resistance heating. Combining this technology with other passive energy-efficiency measures such as enhanced envelope strategies can ensure further savings in energy and ultimately cost. Ground-coupled heat pump heating and cooling systems use the earth’s energy storage capability to heat and cool buildings. The earth absorbs approximately 47% of the sun’s energy in the form of clean, renewable energy. Ground-coupled heat pump systems take heat from the earth during the heating season at an efficiency approaching or exceeding 400% and returns it during the cooling season. Ground-coupled heat pump systems use the conventional vapor compression cycle with a reversing valve assembly to accomplish this.
Kohler Ronan, LLC Consulting Engineers
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Sustainable Strategies April 14, 2009 Page 3 of 7
The Cop (Coefficient of Performance) for a heat pump in a heating or cooling application with steady state operation is as follows: COPheat =
Desired output = Required Input
Heating effect = Work input
Qh Wnet in
Desired output = Required Input
Cooling effect = Work input
QL Wnet in
As an example: a COPheating of 3.0 provides 3.0 units of heat for each unit of energy used (1kW consumed provides 3.0 kW of heat output). Ground coupled heat pumps typically see higher efficiencies than air-source heat pumps. This is because they draw heat from the ground which is at a relatively constant temperatures all year round. With the lower temperature difference, efficiencies are higher. Ground-source heat pumps typically have COPs of 3.5-4.0 in the heating season. The tradeoff for this improved performance is the cost of the installation of the well system. Well systems: There are essentially two types of well systems currently employed in ground coupled design, closed and open. Closed loop In a closed loop system, the loop is typically made of High-density polyethylene pipe and contains a mixture of water and anti-freeze (propylene glycol). After leaving the heat pump, water flows through the ground coupled loop outside the building to exchange heat with the ground before returning. The ground loop is placed below the frost line where the temperature is more stable. This system does not employ a physical exchange or ground water. A vertical closed loop field is composed of pipes that run Kohler Ronan, LLC Consulting Engineers
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Sustainable Strategies April 14, 2009 Page 4 of 7
vertically in the ground. Bores are typically 400 to 600 ft deep and historically in this region can accommodate up to 1 ton of load for every 200 ft of well depth. Pipe pairs in the hole are joined with a U-shaped cross connector at the bottom of the hole. The borehole is commonly filled with a bentonite grout surrounding the pipe to provide a good thermal connection to the surrounding soil or rock to maximize the heat transfer. Grout also protects the ground water from contamination, and prevents artesian wells from flooding the property. Vertical closed loop wells are generally the recommended well in this area due to unpredictable ground water yields. Data on this well type is also published by ASHRAE.
Closed Loop Well
Standing Column Well
Open loop The second type of well is an open loop system. In this system the loop pumps natural water from a well or body of water into a heat exchanger inside the building. The heat pump then transfers energy to/from the heat exchanger via an independent sub-loop. This de-coupling prevents raw ground water from fowling the heat pump equipment. Heat is either extracted or added by the primary refrigerant loop, and the water is returned to either the top section of a standing column, a separate injection well or body of water. The supply and return lines must be placed far enough apart to ensure thermal recharge of the source. Since the water chemistry is not controlled, the appliance must be protected from corrosion by using different metals in the heat exchanger and pump. Scale may foul the system over time and require periodic acid cleaning. If ground water levels are inconsistent, seasonally unpredictable or the water contains high levels of salt, minerals or hydrogen sulfide, a closed loop system is usually preferable.
Kohler Ronan, LLC Consulting Engineers
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Sustainable Strategies April 14, 2009 Page 5 of 7
Demand control ventilation Demand-controlled ventilation utilizes carbon dioxide CO2 sensing in conjunction with air handling equipment operation to reduce equipment operation and ultimately reduce overall energy usage. CO2 sensors continually monitor the air in a conditioned space. Given a predictable level of activity, people will produce CO2 at a level that is monitored and measured. CO2 production in the space will very closely track occupancy. Outdoor CO2 levels are typically at low concentrations of around 400 to 450 ppm. Given these two characteristics of CO2, an indoor CO2 measurement can be used to measure and control the amount of outside air that is delivered to a space to maintain conditions below a preset CO2 threshold at a low CO2 concentration that is being introduced to dilute the CO2 generated by building occupants. The result is that ventilation rates can be measured and controlled to the necessary cfm/person based on actual occupancy. This is in contrast to the traditional method of ventilating at a fixed rate regardless of occupancy. Building codes require that a minimum amount of fresh air be provided to ensure adequate air quality. To comply, ventilation systems often operate at a fixed rate based on an assumed occupancy (e.g., 15 cfm per person multiplied by the maximum design occupancy). Using this method results in much more outside air requiring conditioning (heating or cooling). In higher humidity conditions as in summer months, an excess of outside air can result in in increased energy usage due to conditioning or uncomfortable humidity making the indoor air quality (IAQ) poor. A lack of adequate fresh air, on the other hand, can make building occupants drowsy and uncomfortable. To avoid the problems of too much or too little fresh air, the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can use this energy saving measure to tailor the amount of ventilation air to the occupancy level.
CO2 Concentration vs. Time
Graph of Ventilation Air Requirements
Kohler Ronan, LLC Consulting Engineers
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Sustainable Strategies April 14, 2009 Page 6 of 7
Thermal ice storage and Off-Peak Cooling Off-peak cooling systems utilize a chiller to produce ice during the night and store it in modular thermal energy storage tanks. The stored ice provides cooling the following day to meet the building’s airconditioning requirement. This strategy is utilized for the following reasons: • • • • •
Air conditioning during summer daytime hours is the largest single contributor to a building’s energy cost. Off peak cooling will lower cooling costs up to 40% or more depending upon electric rates. Provides quantifiable return on investment (typically within one year). Conserves natural resources. Provides operational flexibility as energy rates change.
Typical Electrical Load Profile w/ Thermal Storage
Typical Electrical Load Profile w/ Thermal Storage
Photovoltaic generation Simply stated, Solar Electric or Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. Sunlight hitting the solar electric array generates direct current (DC). The panels in the solar array are wired in series and in parallel. The panels wired in series, called strings, are connected via junction boxes and conduits to the inverters. The inverter changes the direct current into alternating current (AC), matching the frequency and voltage supplied by your utility. When your electric usage exceeds the generation capacity of your PV power system, your utility company provides electricity as usual. On Kohler Ronan, LLC Consulting Engineers
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Sustainable Strategies April 14, 2009 Page 7 of 7
days when your solar power generation exceeds your usage, you can actually see your electric meter spin backwards as you gain credit from your utility company for the excess power that you produce. Solar PV’s produce no emissions and are considered a renewable energy source. Panel Position: To obtain optimum performance, PV panels must have a clear view of the sun for most or all of the day unobstructed by trees and other objects. A south facing exposure provides the best position for peak PV performance and electrical output. A sun study model will be constructed to evaluate the best position of the panels
Kohler Ronan, LLC Consulting Engineers
Schematic Design Energy Analysis Anchor Library Dover, Delaware
Kohler Ronan, LLC Consulting Engineers 1370 Broadway New York, NY 10018
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 2 of 16
Executive Summary The Anchor Library located in Dover Delaware will be designed with state-of-the-art sustainable features as part of the effort to achieve a LEED Silver rating. Focusing on project sustainability and energy performance goals this preliminary evaluation and analysis is the first step in an ongoing process that will further refine and test all the sustainable features. Total building sustainability reaches across all trades and professional disciplines for a fully integrated design. While other sustainable features will be included in the design and fully coordinated within the scope of energy savings, this analysis will focus on the following: Building orientation High performance insulation High performance insulated glass Ground coupled heat pump heating and cooling Daylighting and controls Thermal Storage – Ice Photovoltaic generation The schematic design model will evaluate energy saving measures against the minimum energy guidelines as published in ASHRAE 90.1, 2004. An annual energy savings of 33-35% better than an ASHRAE 90.1, 2004 baseline building can be realized when applying the recommended sustainable measures including the high performance envelope, geothermal heating and cooling, daylighting controls and thermal storage (ice). Applying a 6kw photovoltaic array to this project will provide reduce the utility energy dependence of this building by approximately 1%.
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 3 of 16
Analysis This section will summarize the results of the schematic design phase energy model. The model is based on conceptual design drawings prepared by Holzman Moss Architecture for a 46,000 square foot facility located in downtown Dover Delaware.
Analysis Results This analysis evaluates the effectiveness of the following Energy Measures: • • • • • •
Base-line: DX split cooling and gas fired boiler hot water heating with ASHRAE 90.1, 2004 minimum envelope requirements EM1 Base-line system with high performance envelope. EM2 Water cooled chiller / cooling tower with high performance envelope EM3 Ground coupled heat pump with high performance envelope EM4 Thermal Ice Storage EM5 Photovoltaic Electrical Generation
It is anticipated that the building will perform in the range of 33–35% better than the minimum ASHRAE 90.1 energy code requirements when the ground coupled heat pump and high performance envelope are incorporated. The following is a comparison of each energy efficient measure. Note: Energy analysis is simulated with a standard lighting energy contribution of 1.2 Watts per square foot. Daylighting controls will contribute to further energy savings and will be modeled separately. Individual Energy Measures Base-line system and envelope: The base line is established with minimum insulation values as indicated in ASHRAE 90.1, 2004. The base line HVAC system consist of DX split cooling and gas fired boiler hot water heating. EM1 Base-line system with high performance envelope: Modeled with R-35 insulation within the exterior wall cavity, R-40 roof and Low-E double pane insulated glass U-.40 with a shading coefficient of .2098. This system represents a 11% energy savings.
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 4 of 16
Energy Savings by System Comparison
Water Cooled Chilled Water Plant Lights (btu) Equipment (btu) High Performance Envelope
Gas (btu) Electric (btu) Energy Savings
ASHRAE 90.1 Baseline - Gas/DX
ASHRAE 90.1 Baseline - Gas/DX
High Performance Envelope
Water Cooled Chilled Water Plant
EM2 Water cooled chilled water plant / boiler hot water with high performance envelope: Chilled water will be generated by a water cooled chiller / cooling tower. Heating will be generated by a 90+% efficient condensing gas fired hot water boiler plant. Building distribution will be via a two pipe distribution to air handling equipment. Air handlers will be arranged to deliver conditioned air through an under-floor distribution network for increased individual comfort and air quality. Outside air will be introduced to each zone through centrally located outside air conditioning equipment utilizing enthalpy energy recovery to enhance efficiency. This Energy Measure represents an approximate 21% energy savings above the baseline.
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 5 of 16
EM3 Ground coupled heat pump heating and cooling with high performance envelope : The ground coupled water to water heat pump system utilizes a closed ground coupled loop design integrated with a water to water heat pump plant supplying chilled/hot water via a two pipe distribution to air handling equipment. Air handlers will be arranged to deliver conditioned air through an under-floor distribution network for increased individual comfort and air quality. Outside air will be introduced to each zone through centrally located outside air conditioning equipment utilizing enthalpy energy recovery to enhance efficiency. 90+% efficient condensing gas fired boiler will maintain loop temperatures in the heating season. The envelope will incorporate R-35 insulation within the exterior wall cavity, R-40 roof and Low-E double pane insulated glass U-.40 with a shading coefficient of .2098. This system represents a 35% energy savings above the base-line.
Energy Cost Analysis
Electric - $0.0915 / kWh Natural Gas - $1.65 per ccf -
Water Cooled Chilled Water Plant
Annual Electric Cost ($) High Performance Envelope
Annual Gas Cost ($) Annual Cost Savings
ASHRAE 90.1 Baseline - Gas/DX
ASHRAE 90.1 Baseline - Gas/DX
High Performance Envelope
Water Cooled Chilled Water Plant
Annual Electric Cost ($)
Annual Gas Cost ($)
Annual Cost Savings
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 6 of 16
Cost Analysis - Ground Coupled Heat Pump Capital Cost GCHP System Installed = $35 x 46,000 = Water cooled chiller system Installed = $29 x 46,000 = GCHP premium =
$1,610,000 $1,334,000 $276,000
GCHP Simple Pay-back = Capital Cost/ Annual Energy Cost Savings Pay-back = $276,000/$20,442 savings per year = 13.5 years EM4 Thermal storage (ice): For savings on peak and demand charges the project can incorporate a thermal ice storage system. A partial-storage system will reduce the geothermal chilled water plant by 40%. The stored energy works in parallel with the building chillers during on-peak daytime hours to manage the building’s cooling load. During off-peak nighttime hours, the chiller charges the thermal storage making ice using it for the next day’s cooling. Extending the chiller hours of operation results in the lowest possible average load. The following scenario can be employed for this project: •
During the off-peak charging cycle, water, containing 25 percent ethylene or propylene glycol is cooled by a chiller and then circulated through the heat exchanger inside the ice storage tank. The glycol solution leaving the chiller and arriving at the tank is 25°F, which freezes the water surrounding the heat exchanger inside the tank. This process extracts the heat from the water surrounding the ice storage tank heat exchanger until approximately 95 percent of the water inside the tank has been frozen solid. Ice-making has the effect of de-rating the nominal chiller capacity by approximately 30 to 35 percent. Compressor efficiency will vary only slightly because lower nighttime temperatures result in cooler condenser temperatures and help keep the unit operating efficiently. A full charging cycle of a thermal storage system requires approximately 6 to 12 hours, depending upon job criteria.
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 7 of 16
Load and cost saving profiles •
During the peak-load discharge cycle the following day, the glycol solution leaving the chiller is 52°F, where chiller operation is more efficient than a conventional chiller systems’ requirement of 44°F. The ice is downstream of the chiller will cool the glycol solution from 52°F to the coil requirement of 44°F. A temperature-modulating valve set at 44°F in a bypass loop around the tank permits a sufficient quantity of 52°F solution to bypass the tank, mix with 34°F solution, and achieve the desired 44°F temperature. The 44°F solution is distributed to the air-handler coil, where it cools the air from 75°F to 55°F. The solution leaving the air-handler coil is now 60°F as it re-enters the chiller and is cooled back to 52°F.
Night charging cycle
Daytime discharge cycle
With a partial storage configuration, 40% of the Library’s cooling load is shifted to off-peak hours. The chiller will run during off-peak nighttime hours in order to store ice for use the following day. During onpeak daytime hours, the building’s cooling is provided by both the stored ice and chiller operation. During daytime off-peak hours, a chiller can cool the facility directly or the system can operate as a partial-storage system, depending on operation and electric rates. While the City of Dover does not have peak and off-peak rates, the demand charge essentially makes daytime electrical usage drive the entire electrical cost higher. By shifting a portion of the electrical load away from the peak daytime period, savings will be realized.
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 8 of 16
Cost Analysis - Ice Storage Analysis with Water Cooled Chilled Water Plant • • •
Reduce size of plant by 40% Total plant size w/o Ice Storage = 150 tons Reduces plant size with Ice Storage = 90 tons Demand Charge * - Reduced peak kW for building with associated reduction in utility charges = 60 tons @ 0.8 kW/ton = 48 kW 48 kW x $15.70/kW = $754/month (peak monthly only) $754 x 12 months x 80% (month adjust) = $7238 / year *Demand Charge = $15.70/kW for 15 min. Minimum demand charge = 60% of max. Effective July 2008 – City of Dover Capital Cost: Reduce chiller by 60 Tons @ $600/ton = -$36,000 Add Ice Storage (3) 140 ton-hr cells @ $13,000 = $39,000 Installation and Integration (3) @ $7,000 = $21,000 Total = $24,000 Simple Pay-back = Capital Cost/ Annual Energy Cost Savings Pay-back = $24,000/$7238 savings per year = 3.3 years
Cost Analysis - Ice Storage Analysis with Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cooling Plant • • •
Reduce size of plant by 20% Total plant size w/o Ice Storage = 150 tons Reduces plant size with Ice Storage = 120 tons Cooling Demand Charge - Reduced peak kW for building reduction in demand charges = *60 tons @ 0.8 kW/ton = 48 kW 48 kW x $15.70/kW = $744/month (peak monthly only) $744 x 6 months x 80% (month adjust) = $3571 / year
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 9 of 16
Heating Demand Charge - Reduced peak kW for building reduction in demand charges = **30 tons @ 0.8 kW/ton = 24 kW 24 kW x $15.70/kW = $377/month (peak monthly only) $377 x 6 months x 80% (month adjust) = $1809 / year *(3) 30 ton heat pumps will operate for cooling-60 ton reduction **(4) 30 ton heat pumps will operate for heating Capital Cost Reduce chiller by 30 Tons @ $1,500/ton = -$45,000 Add Ice Storage (3) 140 ton-hr cells @ $13,000 = $39,000 Installation and Integration (3) @ $7,000 = $21,000 Total = $15,000 Simple Pay-back = Capital Cost/ Annual Energy Cost Savings Pay-back = $15,000/$5,380 savings per year = 2.8 years
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 10 of 16
Carbon The sustainable energy efficient features designed within this facility is an example of measures that will significantly reduce carbon emissions. Employing high performance passive envelope features with energy efficient geo-thermal heating/cooling infrastructure will significantly contribute to this commitment.
Carbon Analysis Ground-Coupled Heating/Cooling
Water Cooled Chilled Water Plant
Total Carbon (lbs.)
High Performance Envelope
Carbon Savings (lbs)
ASHRAE 90.1 Baseline - Gas/DX
ASHRAE 90.1 Baseline - Gas/DX
High Performance Envelope
Water Cooled Chilled Water Plant
Total Carbon (lbs.)
Carbon Savings (lbs)
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 11 of 16
Photovoltaic Incorporating a 6 kW photovoltaic array will further contribute to the Library’s energy savings as follows: DC Rating: The size of a photovoltaic (PV) system is its nameplate DC power rating. This is determined by adding the PV module power listed on the nameplates of the PV modules in watts and then dividing the sum by 1,000 to convert it to kilowatts (kW). PV module power ratings are for standard test conditions (STC) of 1,000 W/m2 solar irradiance and 25°C PV module temperature. DC-to-AC Derate Factor: The calculator multiplies the nameplate DC power rating by an overall DC-toAC derate factor to determine the AC power rating at STC. The overall DC-to-AC derate factor accounts for losses from the DC nameplate power rating and is the mathematical product of the derate factors for the components of the PV system. The default component derate factors used by the calculator and their ranges are listed in the table below. Derate Factors for AC Power Rating at STC Component Derate Factors
PV module nameplate DC rating
Inverter and transformer
Diodes and connections
Overall DC-to-AC derate factor
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 12 of 16
The overall DC-to-AC derate factor is calculated by multiplying the component derate factors. Overall DC to AC derate factor = 0.95 x 0.92 x 0.98 x 0.995 x 0.98 x 0.99 x 0.95 x 0.98 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 = 0.77
The value of 0.77 means that the AC power rating at STC is 77% of the nameplate DC power rating. In most cases, 0.77 will provide a reasonable estimate. Shading: The derate factor for shading accounts for situations in which PV modules are shaded by nearby buildings, objects, or other PV modules and arrays. The figure below shows the shading derate factor as a function of the type of PV array (fixed or tracking); the ground cover ratio (GCR), defined as the ratio of the PV array area to the total ground area; and the tilt angle for fixed PV arrays. As shown in the figure, spacing the rows further apart (smaller GCR) corresponds to a larger derate factor (smaller shading loss). For fixed PV arrays, if the tilt angle is decreased, the rows may be spaced closer together (larger GCR) to achieve the same shading derate factor. For the same value of shading derate factor, land area requirements are greatest for two-axis tracking, as indicated by its relatively low GCR values compared with those for fixed or one-axis tracking. If you know the GCR value for your PV array, the figure may be used to estimate the appropriate shading derate factor. Industry practice is to optimize the use of space by configuring the PV system for a GCR that corresponds to a shading derate factor of 0.975 (or 2.5% loss).
Shading derate factor for multiple-row PV arrays as a function of PV array type and ground cover ratio
Tilt Angle: For a fixed PV array, the tilt angle is the angle from horizontal of the inclination of the PV array (0° = horizontal, 90° = vertical). For a sun-tracking PV array with one axis of rotation, the tilt angle is the angle from horizontal of the inclination of the tracker axis. The tilt angle is not applicable for suntracking PV arrays with two axes of rotation. This project is utilizing a tilt angle equal to the station's latitude. This normally maximizes annual energy production. Increasing the tilt angle favors energy production in the winter, and decreasing the tilt angle favors energy production in the summer.
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 13 of 16
For roof-mounted PV arrays, the table below gives tilt angles for various roof pitches (in ratio of vertical rise to horizontal run). PV Array Tilt Angle by Roof Pitch Roof Pitch
Tilt Angle (°)
Azimuth Angle: For a fixed PV array, the azimuth angle is the angle clockwise from true north that the PV array faces. For a sun-tracking PV array with one axis of rotation, the azimuth angle is the angle clockwise from true north of the axis of rotation. The azimuth angle is not applicable for sun-tracking PV arrays with two axes of rotation. This project is utilizing an azimuth angle of 180° (south-facing). This is typical for locations in the northern hemisphere. This will maximize energy production. For the northern hemisphere, increasing the azimuth angle favors afternoon energy production, and decreasing the azimuth angle favors morning energy production. The opposite is true for the southern hemisphere.
Azimuth Angles by Heading Heading
Azimuth Angle (°)
0 or 360
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 14 of 16
Location: City: Wilmington State: Delaware Lat (deg N): 39.67 Long (deg W): 75.60 Elev (m): 24 PV System Specifications: DC Rating: 6.0 kW DC to AC Derate Factor: 0.770 AC Rating: 4.6 kW Array Type: Fixed Tilt Array Tilt: 39.7 Array Azimuth: 180.0 Energy Specifications: Cost of Electricity: $ 0.0915/kWh
Results: Month 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, Year
Solar Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) 3.48, 4.46, 4.78, 5.13, 5.34, 5.73, 5.57, 5.70, 5.02, 4.71, 3.50, 2.88, 4.69
AC Energy (kWh) 515, 591, 676, 680, 690, 710, 701, 728, 631, 638, 475, 404, 7440
Energy Value ($) 47.12 54.08 61.85 62.22 63.13 64.96 64.14 66.61 57.74 58.38 43.46 36.97 $680.76
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 15 of 16
Cost Analysis – Photovoltaic Capital Cost Construction cost = $8 per watt x 6,000W = State Rebate = 50% op to $30,000 max = Subtotal Federal tax reduction 30% on for renewable energy = Total cost =
$48,000 ($24,000) $24,000 $0.00 $24,000
Simple Pay-back = Capital Cost/ Annual Energy Cost Savings Pay-back = $24,000/$680 electric savings per year = 35.3 years
Anchor Library Dover Delaware Energy Analysis April 20, 2009 Page 16 of 16
Summary of Cost Analysis Cost savings by sustainable measure: Sustainable measure EM3 – Ground-coupled heat pump with high performance envelope: $20,442 savings per year; 13.5 year pay-back EM4 – Thermal (ice) storage with water cooled chiller: $7,238 savings per year; 3.3 year pay-back. Thermal (ice) storage with GSHP: $5,380 savings per year; 2.8 year pay-back. EM5 – Photovoltaic: $680 savings per year; 35.3 year pay-back