1: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. 2: California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. 3: Italian Space Agency (ASI) ...
RECENT RAPID DISASTER RESPONSE PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM COSMO-SkyMed SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR DATA Sang-Ho Yun1*, Susan Owen1, Frank Webb1, Hook Hua1, Pietro Milillo1, Eric Fielding1, Mark Simons2, Piyush Agram1, Cunren Liang1, Angelyn Moore1, Patrizia, Sacco3, Eric Gurrola1, Gerald Manipon1, Paul Rosen1, Paul Lundgren1, Alessandro Coletta3 1: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 2: California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 3: Italian Space Agency (ASI), Rome, Italy The M7.8 April 25, 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake The April 25, 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake qualitatively validated through comparison caused more than 8,000 fatalities and with independent damage analyses by widespread building damage in central Nepal. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Four days after the earthquake, the Italian (NGA) and the UNITAR’s (United Nations Space Agency’s (ASI’s) COSMO-SkyMed Institute for Training and Research’s) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite Operational Satellite Applications Programme acquired data over Kathmandu area. Nine (UNOSAT), and based on our own visual days after the earthquake, the Japan inspection of DigitalGlobe’s WorldView Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA’s) optical pre- vs. post-event imagery. Our maps ALOS-2 SAR satellite covered larger area. were quickly released to responding agencies Using these radar observations, we rapidly and the public, and used for damage produced damage proxy maps derived from assessment, determining inspection/imaging temporal changes in Interferometric SAR priorities, and reconnaissance fieldwork. (InSAR) coherence. These maps were
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The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa, California, Earthquake A magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck southern the Napa County Airport, as well as bridge Napa county northeast of San Francisco, damage and damaged roads. ARIA’s response California, on Aug. 24, 2014, causing to this event highlighted the importance of significant damage in the city of Napa and timeliness for mapping surface deformation nearby areas. One day after the earthquake, features. ARIA’s rapid response products the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis were shared through Southern California (ARIA) team produced and released Earthquake Center’s response website and observations of coseismic ground the California Earthquake Clearinghouse. A displacement measured with continuous GPS damage proxy map derived from InSAR stations of the Plate Boundary Observatory coherence of CSK data was produced and (operated by UNAVCO for the National distributed on Aug. 27. Field crews from the Science Foundation) and the Bay Area Rapid CGS identified true and false positives, Deformation network (operated by Berkeley including mobile home damage, newly Seismological Laboratory). Three days after planted grape vines, and a cripple wall failure the earthquake (Aug. 27), the Italian Space of a house. Finite fault slip models Agency’s (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellite constrained from CSK interferograms and acquired their first post-event data. On the continuous GPS observations reveal a northsame day, the ARIA team, in collaboration propagating rupture with well-resolved slip with ASI and University of Basilicata, from 0-10.5 km depth. We also measured produced and released a coseismic along-track coseismic displacements of about interferogram that revealed ground -30 to 30 cm, along the main surface rupture, deformation and surface rupture. The using multiple aperture interferometry and depiction of the surface rupture – SAR pixel offset calculation. We also discontinuities of color fringes in the CSK processed the European Space Agency’s interferogram – helped guide field geologists Sentinel-1A data on Sep. 3 and compared the from the US Geological Survey and the result with the CSK interferogram, finding a California Geological Survey (CGS) to features general agreement between the two that may have otherwise gone undetected. observations of surface deformation. Small-scale cracks were found on a runway of
Super Typhoon Haiyan, 2013 When Super Typhoon Haiyan, one of the most powerful storms ever recorded on Earth, struck the Philippines Nov. 8, 2013, it tore a wide swath of destruction across large parts of the island nation. To assist in the disaster
response efforts, scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency, generated this image of the storm's hardesthit regions, depicting its destruction.
The 40-by-50 kilometer damage proxy map, which covers a region near Tacloban City, where the massive storm made landfall, was processed by the ARIA team using X-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar data from the Italian Space Agency's COSMOSkyMed satellite constellation. The technique uses a prototype algorithm to rapidly detect surface changes caused by natural or humanproduced damage. The assessment technique
is most sensitive to destruction of the built environment. When the radar images areas with little to no destruction, its image pixels are transparent. Increased opacity of the radar image pixels reflects damage, with areas in red reflecting the heaviest damage to cities and towns in the storm's path. The time span of the data for the change is Aug. 19-Nov. 11, 2013. Each pixel in the damage proxy map is about 30 meters across.