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Nov 1, 2016 - opined that winters year after year were getting colder. The perception of farmers about changes in temperature after 2005 is in conformity with ...

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 53, 2016, pp.-2646-2650. Available online at http://www.bioinfopublication.org/jouarchive.php?opt=&jouid=BPJ0000217

Research Article FISHERY BASED FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN COASTAL KARNATAKA, INDIA VINAYAKUMAR H. M.1*, SHIVAMURTHY M.2, BIRADAR G.S.3 AND GOVINDA GOWDA V.4 1Department of Extension

Education, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, 388110, India Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, 560065, India *Corresponding Author: [email protected] 2,3,4Department of

Received: August 19, 2016; Revised: September 20, 2016; Accepted: September 21, 2016; Published: November 01, 2016 Abstract- Fishery based Farmers in a coastal Karnataka, priorities climate variability as their primary agricultural and fishery productivity-reducing factor. This paper focuses the importance of considering local farmers’ perceptions of climate hazard, as this significantly persuade on-farm investments and decision-making. The study is evidence for farmers perceived climatic and weather patterns to have changed over the past decades; they perceived increasing trend of occurrence of drought (78.75%). Where decreasing trend of rainfall (74.17%), temperature (97.92%) and wind speed (87.08%) were valued as increasing . Discussants are familiar with long and short season rains based on the quantity of rainfall received and duration. According to their judgment, the long rains o ccur between July and August, while the short rains occur between October and December, leading to declined crop and fish productivity, increased drought and flood incidents and increased livestock and human morbidity and mortality. The majority of respondents had average to better perception on changing climate. The climatic data show evidence that corroborates the farmers’ perceptions. Keywords- Climate, Coastal, Farmer, Fishery, Perception Citation: VinayaKumar H.M., et al., (2016) Fishery Based Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change in Coastal Karnataka (India). International Journal of Agriculture Sciences, ISSN: 0975-3710 & E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 53, pp.-2646-2650. Copyright: Copyright©2016 VinayaKumar H.M., et al., This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Academic Editor / Reviewer: Dr Gangadhar P S Khanagoudar Introduction Climate change is a serious global environmental alarm. Increased Green House Gases (GHG) in the atmosphere primarily causes it. The increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the globe is mainly due to extensive use of fossil fuel and land use change, while a large-scale release of methane & nitrous-oxide is predominantly due to farming. Global-warming is a particular example of the broader expression ‘Climate Change’ and refers to the perceived increase in the average temperature of the air near earth’s surface and oceans in recent decades. The ill effect of climate change in developing countries is enormous as their capacity and resources to deal with the challenge are limited. Climate change has attracted much attention in recent decades, because of the minimal capacity of developing countries to cope with changing climate risks. Because of this low capacity, extreme weather variability, such as drought, flood, is frequently accompanied by ecological decline, increasing of human and livestock mortality, widespread food scarcity and mass migration. Climate change with expected long-term changes in rainfall patterns and increased temperature and CO2 are expected to have adverse effects on agriculture. This reliance makes the country particularly vulnerable to adverse impacts of climate change [1]. Kinds of the literature showed that frequency and magnitude of climatic changes and environmental degradation such as soil erosion and deforestation have been increasing from time to time in India [2]. Perception depends on his environment and its characteristics [3, 8] believes that the media from events taking place in distant areas have influenced most farmers’ familiarity and exposure to climate change indirectly. It also indicates that understanding is a major factor that shapes individuals’ perceptions, regarding seasonality, with preceding experiences of poor seasons bringing in recollections and being responsible for how farmers may tend to portray season different types. Knowledge has been described as referring to a range of beliefs, attitudes, and

Judgments [6]. The farmers’ perceptions of climate change and variability are vital in adaptation as they determine decisions and adaptation in agricultural planning and management by the farmers. Farmers can be influenced by peers’ perceptions and values within their community, based on economic and social impact regarding changing climate and variability [7]. The aim of the paper was to know farmers’ perceptions of climate variability and how these perceptions are correlated with meteorological data in a coastal region of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods The investigation was mainly conducted in six taluks purposively selected from Dakshina Kannada (12.87°N 74.88°E), Udupi (13.3389°N 74.7451°E) and Uttara Kannada (14.6°N 74.7°E) districts of Coastal (Zone-10) Karnataka. The study region is characterized by high and erratic rainfall and increased temperature [Table-1], with low to average productivity in both Agriculture and fishery. The districts were purposively selected to represent coastal zone. Four villages were randomly chosen from each of the selected taluks and ten fishery based marginal, small and big farmers were selected from each of the villages by applying proportionate random sampling technique. Thus, totally 240 fishery based farmers from 24 villages have been chosen for the study. The survey followed Ex-postfacto research design Perception is operationalised in the study as the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information to represent and understand the climate change over a period based on their experience. Considering the importance of rainfall and temperature and other climatic factors on the climate change, the perception of farmers was assessed in the study. Based on the review of the literature and by a discussion with experts, statements of climate change were listed covering the precipitation and temperature, extreme events and causing factors. Each statement was edited carefully to avoid ambiguity and confusion in understanding the meaning intended. The respondents

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 53, 2016 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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Fishery Based Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change in Coastal Karnataka, India were asked to specify their responses for each of the statements on three point continuum namely Agree, somewhat agree and Disagree with a scoring pattern of

2, 1 and 0 respectively, for positive statements and 0, 1 and 2 respectively, for negative statements.

Table-1 Profile of coastal zone Districts Udupi Uttara Kannada Dakshina Kannada

Total geographical area(Sq. km)

Net sown area (ha)

Coastal taluks in the district.

3880

118084

Kundapura, Udupi, Karkala

10222

113277

Karwar, Ankola, Kumta, Honnavar, Batkala

4866

130400

Mangalore, Bantwala

Survey data Data were collected in January- February 2015 through farmer interviews using structured household questionnaires. The household interviews were held with the key decision-maker within the family, especially on field crops, fishery and other farm enterprises such as livestock rearing, as well as any other members of the families regarded as key informants. The structured questionnaire used both a qualitative and quantitative research approach to collect data on household level data on factors that may influence farmers’ perceptions on climate variability. Some of the specific aspects covered in the questionnaire included: (i) Demographic and socio-economic indicators; (ii) What weather-related changes have been noted over the years and explanations for such changes; (iii) Indicators of climate change; (iv) Sources of weather- and climate-related information; and (v) Farmers’ coping mechanisms or strategies such as decision making, adaptation and economic performance in face of climate variability. However, this paper only presents analyses of how farmers perceive changing climate and variability, comparing the perceptions to actual climatic data within the study sites. The collected data were entered and analysed in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and MS Excel. Statistics were mainly descriptive including means, frequencies and ‘t’ value where applicable. These were used to identify the differences in their perception. Climatology evidence To ascertain farmers’ perceptions of climate change and variability correspond to actual long-term climatic records. Climatic data for coastal districts were collected by the Meteorological Department, were analysed and compared to findings from the farmer survey. The metrological data revealed that increased temperature and decreased precipitation and number of rainy days.

Avg. temperature 34◦C Max 21◦C Min 37◦C Max 16◦C Min 36. 6◦C Max 26◦C Min

Avg. rainfall (mm)

Soil type

4000

Laterite soil

3548

Laterite and alluvial soil

4071

Laterite and alluvial soil

2006 to 2014 (Data Source: Department of Meteorology, UAS, Bangalore, 2014) Results and Discussion Perception of farmers on climate change (Precipitation and Temperature) Perception of farmers about changes in the rainfall pattern Data on knowledge of farmers about changes in rainfall pattern is recorded twice and presented in two-time intervals viz. before and after 2005. A cursory look at [Table-2] reveals that 77.9 per cent of the farmers perceived that there was less number of long dry spells. Nearly Sixty-two percent of them says that there was no change in the onset timing of rainfall, 52.9 per cent felt they received more rain. Eighty-two percent believed that there was no change in rainfall pattern. About 59.60 per cent of farmers has perceived that the water yield from tube wells was more, the majority (80%) of farmers opined that there was no occurrence of drought, and 78.3 percent of them expressed that there was no early withdrawal of monsoon before 2005. Contrary to the perception of rainfall pattern, the majority (77%) of the farmers perceived that there were changes in the onset timing of precipitation, changes in the rainfall pattern during crop growth period and there were variations in the amount and number of rainy days after 2005 [Table-2]. The majority (76.3%) perceived long dry spells, 69 percent of them agreed that amount of rainfall was less, and 75.4 percent of them agreed that occurrence of drought was more and low water yield from tube wells. The perception of farmers about changes in rainfall pattern after 2005 is in conformity with meteorological data provided by the department of meteorology [Fig-1]. The paired ‘t’ (29.395**) test analysis was done to check the difference in farmers’ perception of rainfall pattern before and after 2005, and the result revealed that there was a significant difference in perception of climate change. These results are in conformity with the studies of [2,4, 5,8].

Fig-1 Actual rainfall pattern and number of rainy days of Coastal region of Karnataka from 2006 to 2014 (Data Source: Department of Meteorology, UAS, Bangalore, 2014)

Perception of farmers about changes in temperature Data on the perception of changes in temperature was recorded twice and is presented in two-time intervals viz. before and after 2005. The [Table-3] reveals that farmers’ knowledge of changes in temperature before 2005, the majority (76.70%) of the farmers expressed that they perceived no increase in temperature. Nearly 42 percent of respondents ‘somewhat agreed’ that temperature was extreme, and the majority of them opined that they did not experience scorching the sunshine (57.1%) followed by warmer winters and changes in the temperature (43.8%). Nearly 43 per cent of farmers somewhat agreed that summers were warmer and worked in the field was not a difficult before 2005.

Fig-2 Mean, min and max temperature of Coastal region of Karnataka from

The farmers perceived that there was an increase in the temperature, experienced more extreme heat and scorching sunshine after 2005, none of the respondents experienced less extreme temperature and felt there were changes in the temperature and summer was getting warmer. However, 89.20 per cent of farmers opined that winters year after year were getting colder. The perception of farmers about changes in temperature after 2005 is in conformity with meteorological data provided by the department of meteorology [Fig-2]. The paired ‘t’ (164.214**) test analysis was done to check the difference in farmers’ perception of temperature before and after 2005 and the result revealed that there was a significant difference in perception of climate change.

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 53, 2016 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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VinayaKumar H. M., Shivamurthy M., Biradar G. S. and Govinda Gowda V. Table-2 Perception of farmers about changes in the rainfall pattern (n=240) Responses Sl. No.

Statements

1

The number of rainy days (>2.5mm) were more

2

Amount of rainfall was more

3

There were variations in the onset timing of precipitation

4

Long dry spells

5

There were fluctuations in the rainfall during crop growth period (July October)

6

There was changes in the rainfall pattern

7

Uneven distribution of rain fall

8

Unpredictable rain fall

9

Early withdrawal of monsoon

10

Occurrence of drought was more

11

Drying more No. of tube wells

12

Digging more No. of tube wells

13

Decreased water yield from tube well

A 76 (31.3) 127 (52.9) 24 (10.0) 8 (3.3)

Before 2005 SA 129 (53.8) 36 (15.0) 68 (28.3) 45 (18.8)

DA 35 (14.6) 77 (32.1) 148 (61.7) 187 (77.9)

A 77 (32.1) 166 (69.2) 185 (77.1) 183 (76.3)

After 2005 SA 84 (35.0) 47 (19.6) 46 (19.2) 57 (23.8)

DA 79 (32.9) 27 (11.3) 9 (3.8) 0 (0.0)

12 (5.0) 8 (3.3) 7 (2.9) 15 (6.3) 4 (1.7) 5 (2.1) 7 (2.9) 25 (10.4) 37 (15.4)

39 (16.3) 36 (15.0) 45 (18.8) 46 (19.2) 48 (20.0) 43 (17.9) 37 (15.4) 114 (47.5) 60 (25.0)

189 (78.8) 196 (81.7) 188 (78.3) 179 (74.6) 188 (78.3) 192 (80.0) 196 (81.7) 101 (42.1) 143 (59.6)

186 (77.5) 192 (80.0) 161 (67.1) 190 (79.2) 180 (75.0) 181 (75.4) 177 (73.8) 200 (83.3) 138 (57.5)

54 (22.5) 38 (15.8) 79 (32,9) 50 (20.8) 60 (25.0) 59 (24.6) 63 (26.3) 40 (16.7) 102 (42.5)

0 (0.0) 10 (4.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)

(Figures in parentheses depicts percentage) A= Agree, SA= Somewhat Agree, DA= Disagree Note: Before 2005: mean=20.98, sd=2.22, After 2005: mean=21.72, sd=1.83. **Paired‘t’ value: 29.395 (Significant at 0.01 level, (0.01) = 2.462)

Table-3 Perception of farmers about changes in temperature (n=240) Responses Sl. No.

Before 2005

Statements Yes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5

There was increase in the temperature Experienced high temperature a. Experienced scorching sun shine b. Summer was getting more warmer a. Winter was getting more colder b. There was no changes in the temperature Do you feel it’s hard to work in the field due high temperature

56 (23.3) A 47 (19.6) 21 (8.8) 41 (17.1) 5 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 24 (10.0)

No 184 (76.7) SA 100 (41.7) 137 (57.1) 105 (43.8) 115 (47.9) 81 (33.8) 98 (40.8)

After 2005 Avg. ↑s temp oc 1.50 DA 93 (38.8) 82 (34.2) 94 (39.2) 120 (50.0) 159 (66.3) 118 (49.2)

Yes

No

210 (87.5) A 169 (70.4) 225 (93.8.) 229 (95.4.) 214 (89.2) 0 (0.0) 225 (93.8)

30 (12.5.) SA 71 (29.6) 15 (6.3.) 11 (4.6.) 26 (10.8) 2 (0.8) 15 (6.3.)

Avg. ↑s temp oc 2.99 DA 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 238 (99.2) 0(0.0)

(Figures in parentheses depicts percentage)A= Agree, SA= Somewhat Agree, DA= Disagree Note: Before 2005: mean=8.30, sd=1.39, After 2005: mean=11.48, sd=1.09. **Paired ‘t’ value: 164.214 (Significant at 0.01 level, (0.01) = 2.462)

Perception of farmers’ based on changes in season, variation in temperature and extreme events A cursory look at the [Fig-3] reveals that farmers perceived increase in the duration of the cold and hot seasons. Most farmers observed a change in the duration of the hot season but reduction/shift in the rainy season. Farmers’ responses show significant variations in both cold season and rainy season indicating consistency in fishery based farmers’ perceptions. It’s often pointed out that, the cold season was extending with increasing incidences of cold days or cold spells, while the rainy season had shortened. Considering the respondent’s perception and actual meteorological data, we can easily be concluded that there is a general increase in temperatures (increase in hotness, coldness, and reduction in rainy days) and also there is a shift in seasons. Perception of changes in the occurrence of droughts and floods (extreme events) were knowingly associated with adoption of conservation agriculture and fishery. Most of the respondents opined that droughts and floods were not new but what was new was an increasing in their frequency in the recent past. Farmers’ were more concerned about changes in rainfall distribution and intensity than total precipitation. They were experiencing increased variation in rainfall between places and experiencing

prolonged dry spells, while other areas were flooding for the period of the same season. Often farmers complained that rainfall had become more erratic than before.

Fig-3 Perception of farmers on changes in duration of season, coldness, hotness, drought and flood

International Journal of Agriculture Sciences ISSN: 0975-3710&E-ISSN: 0975-9107, Volume 8, Issue 53, 2016 || Bioinfo Publications ||

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Fishery Based Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change in Coastal Karnataka (India) Farmers perception on causes of climate change The data presented in [Fig-4] reveals that, nearly three-fourth of the farmers (73.33%) perceived supernatural forces as a cause of climate change. Farmers were often arguing that disrespect of humankind to God’s principles and lack of respect to ancestral spirits and other customs affected climate change. The second most common set of causes was associated with environmental explanations like deforestation (50.83%), pollution (33.33%), modernization (37.08%) and global warming (87.50%) as causes of climate change. Some of the expressions of farmers pointing to modernization are: “global-warming” and “greatest of the land-living is being used for the buildings and roads”. Few (28.33%) respondents believed that climate change was a natural and standard process as redirected from farmers’ expressions such as: “Meteorological conditions keeps changing from time to time,” “climate is typical and people come into contact with variations in weather-pattern” and “weather conditions keeps fluctuating every ten years.” Perception of causes (supernatural forces, environmental factors and average). A test of proportions of the two most common observed causes, supernatural factors, and environmental factors, also showed a significant difference. It was a very standard feature across the study areas that elderly participants had an advantage of experience and had more information about climatic changes than young ones

reduced growth or stress on crop growth. Farmers’ overall perception of consequences of climate change Impact or effects of climate change considered are the frequency of drying of rivers, an incidence of crop diseases, animal diseases, the occurrence of hunger and human disease. The data in the [Table-4] clearly indicates that the frequency of increased drying of rivers (82.5%), high incidence of crop disease (77.08%), animal disease (83.75%), incidence of hunger (91.25%) and human disease (97.08%) consequently the farmers' were put lot of hardships. Increased droughts, temperatures, and erratic and unpredictable rainfalls and drying rivers. Farmers agreed that they had experienced severe droughts in several years, especially during the month of February and March. Loss of livestock, crops and decreased yield of fish productivity was translated as food shortage, hence their perception of increased hunger. Climate change and variability enhanced farmers’ vulnerability as they lose their natural assets (crops, livestock and fisheries) upon which their livelihoods depend on. Therefore, issues resulting from droughts and floods such as livestock, crop losses and the decrease in fish productivity need to be addressed to enhance adaptive capacities of the helpless farmers. Nonetheless, apart from climatic factors, other factors discourage adaptive capacity among farmers, such as economic unsteadiness, trade liberalization, conflicts, poor governance, diseases, restricted access to climate and agricultural information and inadequate institutional and legal frameworks which may require more comprehensive research on this area. Table-4 Farmers’ overall perception of climate change a. Farmers’ overall perception of climate indicators (n=240) Sl. No.

Fig-4 Perception of farmers on causes of climate change Farmers’ overall perception of Climate Change: overall perception includes climate indicators and consequences Farmers’ overall perception of climate indicators The overall perception of climate indicators, the farmers’ were classified, and the data is presented in [Table-4]. The farmers value the environment as either ‘good’, ‘constant’, ‘bad’ or ‘very bad’ and they were able to define climate subjectively as an indicator based on their experience. Farmers concurred that before 2005 rainfall were more regular and predictable. Rainfall seasons were distinct, but presently, rains have become more erratic. About 81.25 percent of them valued current climate as ‘bad’. Maybe due to declining agricultural production due to unpredictable rains, sometimes-incessant precipitation on the one hand, as well as low rainfall, tied with high temperatures on the contrary, and the occurrence of extreme climatic events increased droughts and flood. Also, the climate was right in previous years compared to the present. Hence, they concluded climate as bad; further, they perceived increasing trend of occurrence of drought (78.75%). Where decreasing tread of rainfall (74.17%), temperature (97.92%) and wind speed (87.08%) were valued as increasing. Discussants are familiar with long and short season rains based on the quantity of rainfall received and duration. According to their judgment, the long rains occur between July and August, while the short rains occur between October and December. Respondents explained that rainfalls have reduced in both quantities (amounts per rain), and quality (the capacity of the rain to sustain the crops for a reasonable stage to crops maturity) compare to the previous year. Changes in the quantity of rainfall and patterns affect soil erosion and soil moisture both are significant for crop yields. Besides, increasing intensity of sunshine has made it difficult for the crops to grow with little rains, while increased wind had enhanced the evaporation that resulted in reduced growth or stress on plant growth. The wind had increased the evaporation that led to

Climate indicators

1

Current perception of climate

2

Rainfall

3

Temperature

4

Wind speed

5

High sunshine or scorching sun

6

Frequency of droughts

Levels Good Bad Very bad Constant Increased Decreased Constant Increased Decreased Constant Increased Decreased Constant Increased Decreased Constant Increased Decreased Constant Unsure

Response No % 3 1.25 195 81.25 40 16.67 2 0.83 45 18.75 178 74.17 17 7.08 235 97.92 0 0.00 5 2.08 209 87.08 12 5.00 19 7.92 215 89.58 18 7.50 7 2.92 189 78.75 3 1.25 9 3.75 39 16.25

b. Farmers’ overall perception on consequences of climate change 1

Frequent drying of rivers

2

Incidence of crop diseases

3

Incidence of animal disease

4

Frequency of hunger

5

Incidence of human diseases

Increased Decreased Constant Unsure Increased Decreased Constant Unsure Increased Decreased Constant Unsure Increased Decreased Constant Increased Decreased Constant Unsure

198 2 19 21 185 4 1 50 201 0 0 39 219 0 21 233 0 0 7

82.50 0.83 7.92 8.75 77.08 1.67 0.42 20.83 83.75 0.00 0.00 16.25 91.25 0.00 8.75 97.08 0.00 0.00 2.92

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VinayaKumar H. M., Shivamurthy M., Biradar G.S. and Govinda Gowda V. Recommendation The general water stress in coastal districts of Karnataka due to climate changes is likely to become more challenging in days to come. Trends show a progressive decline in water availability due to decreased and shift in precipitation and increased temperature. The expected higher temperature regime would pose additional stress on land resources and accelerate the process of desertification. Field-based projects and programmes need to be implemented for conserving open ground and surface water resources, including the rehabilitation of watershed system and its management. Conclusion Climatic variability is the most significant phenomenon affecting nearly all economy segments of the region. Erraticism also postures problems for fishermen and farmers to adopt certain procedures as they may come to be impractical after one-cycle of changeability. Farmers perceived increase in the duration of the cold and hot season. Most of the farmers observed the change in the duration of the hot season but reduction/shift in the rainy season. Farmers’ responses show significant variations in both cold season and rainy season indicating consistency in fishery based farmers’ perceptions. There is an overall increase in temperature (increase in hotness, coldness, and reduction in rainy days) and also there is a shift in seasons. Perception of changes in frequent drought and flood (extreme events) were significantly associated with adoption of conservation agriculture. It is vital to assess in advance the tendency of forthcoming climatic variability based on previous familiarities. Acknowledgement Researcher is very much thankful to ICSSR for their financial assistance during the study. Conflict of Interest: None declared Ethical approval: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors References [1] Dejene K. Mengistu (2011) Agricultural sciences, 2(2), 138-145. [2] DFID (Department for International Development) (2004) Key sheets on climate change and poverty, 2, 21-153. [3] Heathcote R.L. (1969) Geographical Review, 59, 175-194. [4] Lautze S., Aklilu Y., Raven Roberts A., Young H., Kebede G. and Learning J. (2003) Risk and vulnerability in Ethiopia: Learning from the past, responding to the present, preparing for the future. Report prepared for the U.S. Agency for International Development. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. [5] Maddison D. (2006) The perception and adaptation to climate change in Africa. CEEPA. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: University of Pretoria. Discussion Paper No. 10. [6] Slegers M.F.W. (2008) J. of Arid Envi., 72, 2106-2123. [7] Vinaya Kumar H. M. and. Shivamurthy M. (2015) Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 49 (2), 413-417. [8] Weber E.U. (2010) Climate Change, 1(3), 32-342.

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